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Nonlinear vibration of beam

- Computers & Structures Volume 30 Issue 6 1988 [Doi 10.1016%2F0045-7949%2888%2990191-5] H.S. Gopalakrishna; Lowell F. Greimann -- Newton-raphson Procedure for the Sensitivity Analysis of Nonlinear Stru
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www.elsevier.com/locate/tws

curved beams with open cross section

Haijuan Duan

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Dongchuan Road 800, Shanghai 200240, PR China

Received 21 August 2007; received in revised form 14 January 2008; accepted 24 January 2008

Available online 7 March 2008

Abstract

A nite element formulation is present for the nonlinear free vibration of thin-walled curved beams with non-symmetric open across

section. The kinetic and potential energies are derived by the virtual principle. The energy functional includes the effect of

exuraltorsional coupling, the torsion warping and the shear center location. For nite element analysis, cubic polynomials are utilized

as the shape functions of the two nodal thin-walled curved elements. Each node possesses seven degrees freedom including the warping

degree of freedom. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem has been solved by the direct iteration technique. The results are compared with

those for straight beams as available in the literature. The results for nonlinear free vibration analysis of curved beams for various radii

and subtended angle are presented.

r 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibration; Thin-walled curved beam; Finite element method

1. Introduction

Thin-walled beams with open section made of high

strength materials are used extensively in aerospace

industry, civil engineering, ship construction, etc. Most

thin-walled structures are slender and have open section

shapes. Where the centroid and shear center do not

coincide when a transverse load is applied away from the

shear center it cause torque. Because of the open nature of

the sections, this torque induces warping in the beam.

Compared with straight beam, deformation behaviors of

curved beam are coupled. For these reasons, exact analysis

of thin-walled curved beams is usually very complex for

calculations.

Considerable researches [16] on static and dynamic of

curved beam have been performed. Culver [3] and Shore

and Chaudhuri [4] determined the free vibration frequencies of curved beams with respect to analytical solutions of

the equations of motion. Chaudhuri and Shore [5] and Yoo

0263-8231/$ - see front matter r 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.tws.2008.01.002

horizontally curved beams using nite element method.

Nonlinear vibration of straight beams was also investigated by other researcher. Bashyam and Pratap [7,8]

analyzed nonlinear vibrations of straight beam using by

Galerkin nite element method and Ritz nite element

approach, respectively. They presented Lagrangian-type

formulation of nonlinear vibrations of straight beam [9].

However, the investigation on the nonlinear free vibration

of thin-walled curved beam is hardly found.

In this paper, a numerical model for nonlinear vibration

of analyzing thin-walled curved spatial beams with open

cross section is presented. The proposed model is based on

the fundamentals of solid mechanics and the basic

principles of virtual work. Large deformations with small

strains are taken into formulation, while considering the

effecting of warping and curvature effects to simulate the

structure behaviors of thin-walled curved members more

exactly. As no existing result are available for nonlinear

vibration of curved beam, nonlinear vibration frequencies

obtained for curved beams having large radius and small

subtended angle are rst compared with straight beams for

varying parameters having different support conditions.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Duan / Thin-Walled Structures 46 (2008) 11071112

1108

beam.

Linear straindisplacement relation and nonlinear

straindisplacement are expressed as follows:

horizontally curved beams having varying included angles,

radii have evaluated.

2. Mathematical formulation

exx

qU W

,

qx

R

(2a)

exy

qV qU

,

qx

qy

(2b)

In this paper, the following assumptions are adopted:

(1) The thin-walled curved beam is linearly elastic and

prismatic.

(2) The cross section is rigid with respect to in-plane

deformation except for warping deformation.

(3) The effects of local buckling deformations are negligible.

(4) Shearing deformation of the middle surface of the

member is negligible.

(5) Strains are small but displacement and rotations can be

large.

qW U qU

,

qx

R

qz

"

2

#

1 qU W 2

qV

qW U 2

,

2

qx

R

qx

qx

R

exz

(2c)

Zxx

(2d)

1 qU qU W

qV qV qW qW U

,

2 qy qx

R

qy qx

qy qx

R

Zxy

(2e)

Zxz

1 qU qU W

qV qV qW qW U

.

2 qz qx

R

qx qz

qz

qx

R

(2f)

beam with open section. The right-hand orthogonal

coordinate system x, y, z has been chosen such that y

and z pass through the undeformed end cross-section

centroid. There are seven actions (Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz

and Mo) with corresponding displacement component

(u, v, w, yx, yy, yz and y0x ) that can be applied at each end

of thin-walled curved element.

U, V and W denote the displacement of any point P(x, y,

z) of cross section in the x, y and z direction, respectively.

u

v0

0

0

0

U uvy w

z yx

o,

(1a)

R

R

resultants of following expression:

Z

sxx dA,

(3a)

Fx

A

Z

Fy

tyx dA,

(3b)

tzx dA,

(3c)

Z

Fz

A

Z

Mx

tzx

V v yx z z0 ,

qo

qo

y y0

tyx z z0

dA,

qz

qy

(1b)

W w yx y y0 ,

(3d)

Z

(1c)

My

centroid and yx is the rotation of the cross section around

the shear centers. y0 and z0 are the distance between

centroid and shear center in the direction of y and z,

sxx z dA,

(3e)

sxx y dA,

(3f)

Z

Mz

A

y

y

My

Fx

Mx

Fz

u

Mz

w

z

M

z0

Fy

x

'x

x

S

y0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Duan / Thin-Walled Structures 46 (2008) 11071112

Z

Mo

sxx o dA,

(3g)

sxx x x0 2 y y0 2 dA,

(3h)

u0

yx

v0 00

0

00

v w

My v

yx yx

v

R

R

R

u0

v0 0 u

M z w00

y y0x

w

R

R

R

)

Mo 0 u

v0

v0 2

0

0

2

w

yx

dx.

M p yx

R

R

R

R

0

Z

Mp

A

respectively; Mx is twisting moment with the x axis; My, Mz

are bending moments with respect to y and z axes,

respectively; Mo is the bimoment with the x axis; MP is a

stress resultant known as Wangner effect.

PE

(4)

Z Z

1

2

Z Z

PG

L

1

T

2

(5a)

(5b)

2

2

_ 2 dA dx,

rU_ V_ W

(5c)

PG

o2 dA;

I oy

yo dA;

I oz

zo dA,

y y0 2 z z0 2 dA;

A

Z

Z

Sz

y dA; So

o dA.

I0

Z

Sy

z dA,

A

Z L

0

u 2

2

F x v0 w0

y20 z20 yx2

R

0

u

u 00 yx

F y yx w0

F z v0 yx M x w0

v

R

R

R

1

2

w2

w 2

EA u0

EI y w00 2

R

R

0

2

00 2

yx

v

v0 2

00

0

00

EI z v

EI o yx 2 GJ yx

R

R

R

00

w

v

yx

2EI oy w00 2

y00x

2EI oz v00

R

R

R

00

v

yx

w

y00x

2EI yz v00

w00 2 dx.

R

R

R

(6a)

Z

Z

Io

Substituting the displacements expansion (1a)(1c) and

straindisplacement relations (2a)(2f) into Eqs. (5a)(5c),

noting the denition equation of stress resultants (3a)(3h),

and integrating over the cross section, Eqs. (5a)(5c) are

expressed as respectively:

1

PE

2

by following quantities:

Z

Z

Z

A

dA; I y

z2 dA; I z

y2 dA,

A

A

A

Z

I yz

yz dA,

Z Z

L

A

00

u_ 2

0

2

0

_

Au_ v_ w_ I 0 yx I y w_

I z v_ 2

R

0

2

v_0

v_0

u_

I o y_0 x

2I yz v_0 w_ 0

2I yo v_0 y_0 x

R

R

R

0

_

v

u_

_ v0

2I zo w_ 0

y_0 x

2Sz w_ y_0 x u_

R

R

v_0

u_ 2

0

0

_

_

0

_

2S y v_y x u_ w

2S o u_ y x

R

R

i

2z0 v_y_0 x 2y0 w_ y_0 x dx.

(6c)

1

T r

2

consists of the elastic strain energy PE, the potential energy

PG due to initial stresses and the kinetic energy T as

follows:

where

(6b)

P PE PG T,

1109

Fig. 1 shows the nodal displacement vector of thinwalled curved beam element including restrained warping

effect. To accurately express element deformation, pertinent shape functions are necessary. In this study, a linear

displacement eld is adopted for u, and a cubic displacement eld for other displacements. The displacements can

be expressed as

u f 1 ui

uj T ,

v f 2 vi

v0i

vj

v0j T ,

(7b)

w f 2 wi

w0i

wj

w0j T ,

(7c)

yx f 2 yxi

y0xi

(7a)

yxj

y0xj T ,

(7d)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Duan / Thin-Walled Structures 46 (2008) 11071112

1110

where

f 1 1 x

x ;

analysis are follows:

x

,

l

r 0:007913 kg=cm3 ;

f 2 2x3 3x2 1

x3 2x2 1l

2x3 3x2

I z 1470:85 cm4 ;

x3 x2 l.

L 512:25 cm:

of the nite element formulation in the linear range.

integration along the element length, the total potential

energy is obtained as

Z

i

T

1 h _ eT e

_ e Me U

_ e dt,

Pt

U KE KeG Ue U

(8)

2 t

where

Ue ui vi wi yxi v0i w0i y0xi uj vj wj yxj v0j w0j y0xj .

(9)

elastic, geometric stiffness matrices and element consistent

mass matrices for the thin-walled curved beam element in

local coordinate, respectively; Ue is the nodal displacement

vector.

The variation of Eq. (8) and assemblage of element

stiffness matrices for the entire structure using the

coordinate transformation lead to the global equilibrium

matrix equation for nonlinear free vibration analysis of

thin-walled curved beam with open across section as

follows:

0,

KE KG U MU

I y 3871 cm4 ,

(10)

matrices and consistent mass matrices, respectively.

Eq. (10) contains a set of nonlinear algebraic homogeneous equations. They are solved by the approach of

Varadan and associates [10]. In this approach, the direct

iteration technique has been used. At rst, the solution is

obtained by solving linear equations by ignoring the KG

terms in Eq. (10). The linear mode shapes are the starting

vector for the nonlinear analysis. By the direct interaction

procedure the nonlinear characteristic frequencies and

mode shapes are calculated.

Since that no investigation has been carried out on

nonlinear free vibration of curved beams. As such the same

formulation has been applied to straight beams, for

comparison, by taking a large radius of curvature

(R 20000 cm) and small subtended angle (0.005 rad).

Three different boundary conditions have been assumed.

They are (a) hingedhinged beams, (b) clampedclamped

beams and (c) hingedclamped beams. Table 2 shows the

Table 1

Result of simply supported curved beam linear frequencies

Subtended

angle (1)

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Radius of

curvature

(cm)

Ref. [3]

Ref. [4]

Present

(10 elements)

2935.0

1476.6

978.4

733.8

587.0

489.2

419.3

366.8

326.1

204.7

190.2

165.8

141.7

121.3

103.9

89.6

76.8

64.0

203.3

186.3

164.7

142.8

122.8

105.2

90.0

76.8

65.2

202.4

184.2

162.0

139.9

121.2

103.7

88.7

75.9

64.5

Table 2

Nonlinear frequency ratios (o/o0)2 of straight beam

Present

Ref. [7]

Hingedhinged

Hingedclamped

Clampedclamped

1.2511

1.2500

1.1310

1.1323

1.0600

1.0598

4. Numerical examples

4.1. Linear frequencies of simply supported curved beam

In this example for the purpose to compare the result of

linear vibration by the proposed method with those [3,4].

The data and results are presented in Table 1. The radius of

curvature and the included angle have been varied in such a

way that the single span curved beam length is the same

for all.

Table 3

Nonlinear frequency ratios (o/o0)2 of curved beam

Subtended

angle (1)

Radius

(cm)

30

45

60

978.40

652.21

489.20

1.1174

1.0935

1.0852

1.0487

1.0365

1.0221

1.0193

1.0111

1.0073

ARTICLE IN PRESS

H. Duan / Thin-Walled Structures 46 (2008) 11071112

by Ref. [7].

Material and geometrical data used for linear vibration

analysis are follows:

E 2:0 108 N=m2 ;

I z 1470:85 cm4 ;

4.2. In Table 3 are indicated the values of the nonlinear

frequencies ratios (o/o0)2 of curved beams for clamped

clamped, clampedhinged and hingedhinged conditions.

The length of the beam has been kept as 521.25 cm in all

cases by varying the radius of the circular curve. The results

show that the frequency ratios decrease with the increase of

curvature for all types of boundary conditions. The

frequency ratios are lowest for clampedclamped beams,

next highest for clampedhinged cases and highest for

hingedhinged cases; that is hingedhinged cases exhibit

the most pronounced nonlinearities.

r 0:007913 kg=cm3 ;

1111

I y 3871 cm4 ,

L 512:25 cm.

20 mm

The nonlinear free vibration analysis of non-symmetric

curved beams is performed for the various subtended

angles with clampedclamped boundary conditions. Fig. 2

shows the non-symmetric cross section.

Material and geometrical data used for linear vibration

analysis are follows:

80 mm

0.5 mm

r 0:00785 kg=cm3 ;

L 200 cm.

nonlinear natural frequencies of the present method with

Shell FEA(ABAQUS).

40 mm

Fig. 2. Non-symmetric cross section of thin-walled curved beam.

Table 4

Convergence of nonlinear natural frequencies and comparison with Shell FEA(ABAQUS)

Subtended angle (1)

Radius (cm)

Vibration mode

1

90

127.389

4 elements

8 elements

12 elements

Shell FEA

4 elements

8 elements

12 elements

Shell FEA

0.774

0.761

0.756

0.755

4.031

4.020

4.015

4.011

Table 5

Nonlinear natural frequencies of non-symmetric clamped curved beam o2

Subtended angle (1)

10

30

60

90

120

150

180

Radius (cm)

1146.49

382.165

191.082

127.389

95.541

76.433

63.694

Vibration mode

1

10

0.988

0.864

0.785

0.756

0.664

0.562

0.456

4.612

5.573

4.892

4.015

3.712

3.336

3.021

6.626

11.211

15.896

14.321

13.251

12.365

11.452

18.732

19.125

25.041

32.156

32.032

29.125

26.546

19.278

23.054

28.515

36.145

34.361

33.733

31.258

23.195

32.156

40.256

42.058

64.529

63.680

59.254

52.634

46.253

61.524

74.158

69.859

91.236

94.658

62.534

68.589

85.123

84.021

87.546

97.568

114.65

100.77

93.456

104.35

139.25

131.25

123.25

135.31

123.54

124.65

131.25

150.02

166.25

194.35

201.36

ARTICLE IN PRESS

1112

cantilever for subtend angles varying from 101 to 1801 with

keeping the length of the constant.

5. Conclusions

Nonlinear free vibrations of thin-walled curved beams

with open cross section have been studied by the nite

element method. The formulation has been presented for a

two nodal horizontally curved beam element having 7

degrees of freedom per node. The formulation and the

computer program have been validated by analyzing

curved beams with a large radius of curvature and small

included angle and results have been compared with those

of straight beams: the correlation between these is

excellent. Nonlinear frequencies of curved beams for

varying radii and included angles have been determined.

The highest nonlinear frequencies have been obtained for

the hingedhinged case and the lowest of the clamped

clamped case. Increase of curvature has resulted in a decrease

of nonlinear frequencies of non-symmetric clamped curved

beam at the lowest two frequencies. However, the nonlinear

natural frequencies tend increase as the curvature increases

above three frequencies.

correctness of the formulation of the nonlinear vibration

analysis. The element has also been found to possess

excellent convergence characteristics.

References

[1] Yang YB, Kuo SR, Chherng YD. Curved beam elements for

nonlinear analysis. J Eng Mech, ASCE 1989;115(4):84055.

[2] Pi YL, Bradford MA, Trahair NS. Inelastic analysis and behavior of

steel I-beams curved in plan. J Struct Eng, ASCE 2000;126(7):7729.

[3] Culver CG. Natural frequencies of horizontally curved beams.

J Struct Eng, ASCE 1967;93(2):189203.

[4] Shore S, Chaudhuri S. Free vibration of horizontally curved beams.

J Struct Eng, ASCE 1972;98(3):7936.

[5] Chaudhuri SK, Shore S. Dynamic analysis of horizontally curved I

girder bridges. J Struct Eng, ASCE 1977;103(8):1589604.

[6] Yoo CH, Fehrenbach JP. Natural frequencies of curved girders.

J Eng Mech, ASCE 1981;107(2):33954.

[7] Bashyam GR, Pratap G. Galerkin nite element method for

nonlinear beam vibrations. J Sound Vibrat 1980;72:191203.

[8] Bashyam GR, Pratap G. Ritz nite element approach to nonlinear

vibrations of beams. Int J Numer Methods Eng 1984;20:35367.

[9] Bashyam GR, Pratap G. Lagrangian-type formulation for nite

element analysis of nonlinear beam vibrations. J Sound Vibrat

1986;83:6170.

[10] Pratap G, Varadan TK. The large amplitude vibration of hinged

beams. Comput Struct 1978;7:21522.

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