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Business Intelligence (BI)

o The use of information systems to gather and analyze data and information from
internal and external sources in order to make better business decisions.

Information Realization (dashboards)


o

Relational Database / Database Management Software


o A software application used to create, store, organize and retrieve data form a single
database or several databases.

Major Database Objects (Tables, Queries, Forms and Reports)


o Table: A collection of related records in a database where each row is a record and
each column is an attribute.
o Queries: A method used to retrieve information from a database
o Forms: A business document that contains some predefined data and may include
some areas where additional data is to be filled in, typically for modifying data
related to a single record.
o Reports: A compilation of data from a database that is organized and produced in
printed format.

Database components (Records, Attributes, Entities, etc.)


o Record: A collection of related attributes about a single entity
o Attribute: Each column of a table
o Entity: Something data are collected about, such as people or classes

Primary Key versus Foreign Key


o Primary: A field included in a database tablet hat contains a unique value for each
instance of an entity to ensure that it is stored or retrieved accurately.
o Foreign: An attribute that appears as a non-primary key attribute in one entity and as
a primary key attribute in another entity.

Advantages of Databases
o Program-data independence
o Minimal data redundancy

o Improved data consistency


o Improved data sharing
o Increased production of application development
o Enforcement of standards
o Increased security
o Improved data quality
o Improved data accessibility
o Reduced program maintenance

Supply Chain / Supply Chain Management (SCM)


o Information systems focusing on improving upstream information flows with two
main objectives-to accelerate product development and to reduce costs associated with
procuring raw materials, components, and services from suppliers.

Benefits of Effectively Managing Supply Chains


o Reducing inventory costs and enhancing revenue through improved customer service

Bullwhip Effect
o Large fluctuations in suppliers forecasts caused by small fluctuations in demand for
the end product and the need to create safety buffers.

Key Technologies for Enhancing SCM


o Extensible Markup Language (XML)
o Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

Customer Relationship Management


o A corporate-level strategy designed to create and maintain lasting relationships with
customers by concentrating on the downstream information flows through the
introduction of reliable systems, processes, and procedures.
o Widen: Attract new customers
o Lengthen: Keep current customers satisfied
o Deepen: Transform minor customers into profitable customers.

Vendor-Managed Inventory (VMI)

o A business model in which the suppliers to a manufacturer (or retailer) manage the
manufacturers (or retailers) inventory levels based on pre-established service levels.

Sales Force Automation


o CRM systems to support the day-to-day sales activities of an organization.

Building and Presenting Business Cases (based upon faith, fear, facts)
o Faith: Arguments based on beliefs about organizational strategy, competitive
advantage, industry forces, customer perceptions, market share, etc.
o Fear: Arguments based on the notion that if the system is not implemented, the
firm will lose out to the competition or worse, go out of business.
o Fact: Arguments based on data, quantitative analysis, and/or indisputable factors.

Productivity Paradox
o The observation that productivity increases at a rate that is lower than expected
when new technologies are introduced.

Tips on Presenting Business Cases


o Know the audience
o Convert benefits to monetary terms
o Devise proxy variables
o Measure what is important to management

Systems Development Lifecycle (SDLC)


o A model describing the life of an information system from conception to
retirement.

Role of the Systems Analyst


o The primary person responsible for performing system analysis and design
activities.

Gathering System Requirements


o Garbage in, garbage out
o The process of gathering and organizing information from users, managers,
customers, business processes, and documents to understand how a proposed
information system should function.

JAD Session
o (Joint application design) A special type of a group meeting in which all (or
most) users meet with a systems analyst to jointly define and agree on system
requirements or designs.

Reasons Why Companies Choose Not to Build Systems In-House (Outsourcing)


o Cost and quality concerns
o Problems in IS performance
o Supplier pressures
o Simplifying, downsizing, and reengineering
o Financial factors
o Organizational Culture
o Internal Irritants

Customized vs Off-the-Shelf Software


o Customization: Modifying software so that it better suits user needs.
o Off the shelf: Software designed and used to support general business processes
that does not require any specific tailoring to meet an organizations needs.

Types of System Conversion/Installation


o Parallel: Old and new systems are used at the same time.
o Direct: Old system is discontinued on one day, and the new is used on the next.
o Phased: Parts of the new system are implemented over time.
o Pilot: Entire system is used in one location.

Types of System Maintenance


o Corrective maintenance: Making changes to an information system to repair
flaws in the design, coding, or implementation.
o Adaptive maintenance: Making changes to an information system to evolve its
functionality, to accommodate changing business needs, or to migrate it to a
different operating environment.
o Preventive maintenance: Making changes to a system to reduce the change of

future system failure.


o Perfective maintenance: Making enhancements to improve processing
performance or interface usability, or adding desire but not necessarily required
system features.

Access Formulas and Functions (i.e. Custom Fields, Calculations, Order of Operations,
Tables, Queries, Forms, Reports, Totals, GroupBy)
o

What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)?


o An information system that integrates business activities across departmental
boundaries, including planning, manufacturing, sales, marketing, and so on.

SAP Distribution Game Key Participant Roles and System Transactions


o

Threats to IT/IS Security


o Natural Disasters: Power outages, hurricanes, floods, etc.
o Accidents: Inexperienced or careless computer operators
o Employees and Consultants: People within an organization who have access to
electronic files.
o Links to Outside Business Contacts: Electronic information can be at risk when it
travels between or among business affiliates as part of doing business.
o Outsiders: Hackers and crackers who penetrate networks and computer systems
to snoop or to cause damage.

Difference(s) between Hackers and Crackers


o Hacker: An individual who gains unauthorized access to computer systems.
o Cracker: An individual who breaks into computer systems with the intention of
doing damage or committing a crime.

Types of Computer Criminals


o Current or former employees who are in a position to steal or otherwise do
damage to employers
o People with technical knowledge who commit business or information sabotage
for personal gain.

o Career criminals who use computers to assist in crimes.


o Outside crackers simply snooping or hoping to find information of value.

Types of Computer Viruses, Malware and Attacks


o Virus: A destructive program that disrupts the normal functioning of computer
systems. They can reproduce themselves.

Managing Risk (Reduction, Acceptance, Transference)


o Risk Reduction: Taking active countermeasures to protect your systems, such as
installing firewalls.
o Risk Acceptance: Implementing no countermeasures and simply absorbing any
damages that occur.
o Risk Transference: Having someone else absorb the risk, such as by investing in
insurance, by outsourcing certain functions to another organization with specific
expertise, or using cloud computer service providers for critical infrastructure
needs.

Types of Technology Safeguards (Physical access controls, firewalls, encryption, etc.)


o Physical access controls: Authentication, ID, Security Codes, etc.
o Firewall: Part of a computer system designed to detect intrusion and prevent
unauthorized access to or from a private network.
o Encryption: The process of encoding messages using an encryption key before
they enter the network or airwaves, then decoding them using a matching key at
the receiving end of the transfer so that the intended recipients can read or hear
them.
o Virus Prevention
o Audit-Control software