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September 2003

Process Industry Practices

Process Control

Procurement of Control Panels


In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and
will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn.
Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The

University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.

Not printed with State funds

September 2003

Process Industry Practices

Process Control

Procurement of Control Panels
Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................. 2
1.1 Purpose ............................................. 2
1.2 Scope................................................. 2

2. References ................................... 2
2.1 Process Industry Practices ................ 2
2.2 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 2

3. Definitions .................................... 3
4. Requirements ............................... 3

General .............................................. 3
Welding.............................................. 4
Surface Preparation and Painting...... 4
Fabrication ......................................... 5
Inspection and Tests........................ 15
Release for Shipment ...................... 17

Process Industry Practices

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Procurement of Control Panels


September 2003


This Practice provides requirements for fabricators of control panels.


This Practice describes the requirements for instrument control panels, control
cabinets, consoles, and marshalling cabinets. Distributed control system (DCS),
programmable logic controller (PLC), and rotating equipment protection control
cabinets shall also be in accordance with this Practice. Excluded from this Practice
are portions of cabinets and consoles containing supplier-proven pre-engineered
equipment and interconnecting system wiring between the suppliers field
termination panels and the suppliers system equipment.
This Practice does not intend to dictate the method of interconnecting and mounting
the suppliers standard, proven equipment. However, the wiring for system power,
lighting, convenience outlets, field terminal wiring, and input/output wiring between
intermediate terminal strips within these cabinets shall be in accordance with this


Applicable parts of the following Practices, industry codes and standards, and references
shall be considered an integral part of this Practice. The edition in effect on the date of
contract award shall be used, except as otherwise noted. Short titles will be used herein
where appropriate.

Process Industry Practices (PIP)

PCCEL001 - Instrumentation Electrical Requirements
PCSCP01D - Control Panel Data Sheet
PCSIP001 - Instrument Piping and Tubing Systems Specifications
PCSPS002 - Packaged Equipment Instrumentation Data Sheet and


Industry Codes and Standards

American Welding Society (AWS)
D1.1 - Structural Welding Code-Steel
American Society for Testing and Materials
ASTM B68 - Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube, Bright
ASTM B75 - Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Tube
ASTM D1693 - Standard Test Method for Environmental Stress-Cracking of
Ethylene Plastics

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September 2003

The Instrumentation, Systems, and Automation Society (ISA)

ISA 60.6 - Nameplates, Labels and Tags for Control Centers
ISA-RP60.8 - Electrical Guide for Control Centers
ISA-RP60.9 - Piping Guide for Control Centers
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
NFPA 496 - Standard for Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical
NFPA 70 - National Electrical Code (NEC)
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
NEMA ICS 6 - Industrial Control and Systems: Enclosures
NEMA 250 - Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum)


benchboard: A desktop or writing surface
control panel: Cabinet or surface with any combination of instruments; switches, indicators,
gages, controllers, recorders, etc., that are mounted for easy access and ease of operation
(i.e., panels in control rooms on which instruments are mounted and used in controlling a
owner: The party who owns the facility wherein the control panel will be used
purchaser: The party who awards the contract to the supplier. The purchase may be the
owner or the owners authorized agent.
rub rail: A metal trim piece on the outside edge of a benchboard to protect the edge of the
surface from damage.
subpanel: A board mounted inside a control panel that supports internally installed
supplier: The party responsible for building or assembling the control panel




The control panels shall be fabricated in accordance with PIP PCSPS002;

Control Panel Data Sheet, PIP PCSCP01D-D; and this Practice. Refer to
PIP PCSPS002 for package unit requirements.


The control boards shall be complete assemblies, ready for installation on

floors, walls, structural supports, or sills.


If the control boards must be shipped in sections, the size and makeup of the
shipping assemblies shall be approved by the purchaser.

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September 2003


Panels shall be drilled, cut, and provided with necessary mounting hardware.


Equipment and miscellaneous devices specified on purchasers drawings,

equipment lists, or specifications shall be mounted on or within the control


Drilling, cutouts, and connections shall be provided as required for any items
listed or specified for field mounting by others.


The purchaser shall provide equipment lists that show definitive descriptions
of all control board equipment items.


Purchaser approval is required for substitution of control board equipment



Equipment mounted on the rear of open panels or within control panels shall
be easily accessible.

4.1.10 Each item of equipment, whether front or rear mounted, shall be readily
removable without removal of other items.
4.1.11 Purchaser approval is required for mounting equipment on panel doors.



Welding procedures and welding procedure qualifications shall conform to

AWS D1.1 and shall be performed in accordance with suppliers written


The qualification of the welders and welding operations shall be in

accordance with AWS D1.1 and shall be subject to verification by the


Fabrication and verification inspections shall be in accordance with

Section 7.8 of AWS D1.1.

Surface Preparation and Painting


General All painting procedures shall conform to the recommendations of the
manufacturers of the materials. Surfaces shall be prepared for painting by grinding welds smoothly,
removing scale, filling imperfections, etc. All paint of any color shall be from one lot. If the finish is required to match an existing board, a color chip of
the proposed paint shall be submitted to the owner for approval. One quart of touch-up paint of each color used shall be furnished.
Comment: The amount of touch-up paint may be modified,
depending on the size or number of control boards. Particular care shall be used to ensure that all inside surfaces of the
boards and panels including welded seams and exposed surfaces of

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Procurement of Control Panels

September 2003

supporting and stiffening members, whether or not normally visible,

are properly cleaned, primed, and painted. Areas inaccessible to spray painting shall be brush-coated.

Primer Application Suitable corrosion-resistant filling and priming coats shall be applied
and sanded smooth. Primer shall be as recommended by paint Manufacturer.


Finish Coat Application After the priming coats are applied and sanded to a smooth finish,
the finish color shall be applied. A minimum of primer, undercoat, and finishing coat of enamel or
lacquer shall be applied.
Comment: Electrostatically applied powder paint coatings that
are then baked (such as polyester urethane) may be
used. Interior cabinet color shall be white (preferred) or of a light color
such as light gray, off-white, etc).



Panels and Supports


Prefabricated racks and consoles (such as NEMA standard

enclosures) used for mounting of instruments, lights, etc.,
are excepted from the following material requirements. Detailed panel and framing designs shall be provided. Panels, supporting structures, and panel-stiffening members shall be
steel. Connections

1. Welded construction shall be used, except that joints between

panels and between shipping sections shall be bolted.
2. No welding, bolts, or bolt holes shall show from the front of the
3. Rust-resisting bolts and hardware shall be used.
4. Bolts and hardware shall be furnished for field makeup of
joints between sections at shipping breaks. Framing

1. Angle iron framework shall be used as required to provide

rigid, freestanding boards that are square and plumb.
2. Structural members shall be provided at the bottom for bolting
or welding to owners floor or floor sills.

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September 2003

3. Stiffening members shall be used on the back of panels to

prevent panel distortion.
4. Lifting eyes attached to a structural member capable of bearing
the control panel load shall be furnished for all floor-mounted
(freestanding) panels.
5. Duplex boards shall be provided with suitable cross bracing
between front and rear panel frames.
6. If additional wall bracing is required for open, single,
freestanding panels, the purchaser shall furnish the bracing as
indicated on the suppliers drawings. Plate

1. Bench and vertical sections of main control boards shall be

constructed of cold-rolled steel plate a minimum of 3/16 inch
(5 mm) thick.
2. Minimum 1/8-inch (3-mm)-thick steel shall be used for other
large control, relay, and miscellaneous boards and for sides,
tops, doors, and other surfaces of main control boards.
3. Steel shall be selected for smoothness and shall be flat within a
tolerance of 1/8 inch (3 mm) within 8 ft (3 m) of length.
4. Small, wall-mounted boards (less than 1,000 inch2 [6,000 cm2]
front surface area) shall be of steel, 14 gauge or heavier.
5. Subpanels shall be 10 gauge or heavier if greater than 900 inch2
(6,000 cm2) surface area but 12 gauge or heavier if otherwise.
6. Corners shall be smoothly rounded; minimum radius of
curvature shall be 1/32 inch (0.8 mm).
7. Front panels shall be smooth, flat, and free from dents, cracks,
or other imperfections.
8. Care shall be used to ensure that cutting and fabrication do not
result in warping, buckling, or other distortion. Openings

1. Cutouts for instruments must be within the tolerances specified

by the instrument manufacturers. Torch-burned cutouts are not
acceptable unless done on a special underwater jig to prevent
2. If indicated on the purchasers drawings, enclosed boards shall
be provided with removable panels, hinged panels, end
closures, and doors for access to the interior.
3. Doors shall be 36 inches (900 mm) wide maximum.
4. Hinged panels and doors shall have suitable three-point latches
and shall have framing and stiffening members as required to
ensure rigidity and freedom from distortion.

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September 2003

Comment: Two-point latches are acceptable for small panels

less than 1,000 inch2 (6,000 cm2) front surface area.
5. Doors or hinged panels shall be of the flush-gasketed type.
6. Screened or louvered openings shall be provided for ventilation
of enclosed boards as indicated on the purchasers drawings.
7. Removable top panels for cable entry, as shown on the
purchasers drawings, shall be gasketed.
8. Doors or hinged panels shall be equipped with mechanical
locks. Keys shall be removable in both the locked and unlocked
positions. Each board shall be keyed differently. Multiple doors
on any one control panel assembly shall be keyed the same. Joints

1. Individual open panels shall be constructed and joined such that

any panel may be removed and replaced without removal of, or
interference with, adjacent panels.
2. If matching and lineup with existing equipment is required,
purchaser shall furnish details for the joints and for the match. Control panels with benchboards shall have a stainless steel rub rail
along the front edge as indicated on the purchasers drawings. If cooling fans inside the panel are required to meet equipment
temperature requirements, their use shall be specified on the Control
Panel Data Sheet, PIP PCSCP01D-D. The electrical cabling
requirements shall be the same as those for the lighting and
convenience outlets.

Electrical Systems Assembly All wiring and devices shall comply with PIP PCCEL001 and shall
comply with the NEC for the classifications shown on the drawings
and with the electrical code of the locality in which the panels are to
be installed. All electrical materials (such as conduit, fittings, wireways, etc.)
shall be approved by Underwriters Laboratory (UL) or Factory
Mutual (FM) (or owner-approved certification organization) or shall
meet UL testing specifications where approval has not been
obtained, unless written permission is received from the owner for
the use of nonapproved devices. The control boards shall be furnished completely wired. Wireways,
terminal blocks with marking strips, and all necessary wire
management devices shall be furnished. Control panels shall be designed to meet the environmental
conditions of the location in which they will be mounted and
operated. Where cooling or heating is required, the purchaser shall
specify the type of system required on lines 74 and 75 of the data

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September 2003

sheet. The purchaser shall specify the specific NEMA rating

required in accordance with NEMA ICS 6 and NEMA 250. Single conductor panel wire used for AC controls and DC signals
shall have the following characteristics:
a. 18-AWG (American Wire Gage) minimum size
b. Seven-strand copper construction
c. 194F (90C) insulation suitable for DC circuits in accordance
with paragraph 310-13 of the NFPA-70, NEC. The 120-volt AC instrument power connections from circuit breaker
(disconnect) to instrument shall be 600-volt-rated, THWN (see
NFPA-70, NEC, Table 310-13, for definition of wire types),
14-AWG minimum, stranded copper wire. Wiring that is installed across control board-hinged panels shall be
stranded flexible type, secured on each side of hinge, and formed
with sufficient slack to minimize strand fatigue and breaking. Wire Tagging

1. Each wire or cable within the control board shall be

permanently tagged and identified at both ends.
2 Wire markers, tubular heat shrink, or other permanently affixed
markers shall be used to ensure permanence of the marking.
3. Wrap-around or self-adhesive markers are not acceptable.
4. Machine printing is preferred for clarity.
5. Wire tag shall be fully visible and shall not extend into the
plastic wire duct. Additional spacing shall be furnished
between wire duct and terminals where required to allow wire
tags to be fully visible.
6. Each end of each wire within the board limits shall be
identified by an individual sleeve-type marker, and wire
numbers shall match those on the wiring diagrams.
7. Markers shall be flame resistant, a minimum of 1inch (25 mm)
long, and shall be lettered lengthwise with the wire
identification. Control Board Wiring

1. All control board wiring shall have sufficient ampacity,

mechanical strength, thermal rating, and insulation
characteristics to meet the circuit and installation requirements.
In selecting conductor size, consideration shall be given to
derating factors used for grouped conductors without
maintained spacing.
2. The minimum control board wire sizes and insulation
requirements are as follows:

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September 2003

a. Low-level signals - #18 AWG/300 V

b. Less than 50 V DC and 100 mA control - #14 AWG/600 V
(AC and DC)
c. High-current circuits - #10 AWG/600 V
d. Convenience outlets - #12 AWG/600 V
e. Interior lighting - #14 AWG/600 V
3. All AC power wiring shall be color coded as defined in
ISA RP60.8. External Wiring

1. External wiring shall enter the side of a control panel (rather

than the top) as shown on the Purchasers drawings, and shall
consist of single and multiple conductor cables.
2. All incoming and outgoing cables (except thermocouple
extension cables and special cables) shall connect to terminal
blocks (TBs).
3. The Purchaser shall furnish the number, physical sizes,
descriptions, and designations of all external cables for
connection to TBs.
4. The owner shall specify special cables not connecting to TBs.
5. Ample space shall be provided for the entrance of external
cables into the boards and for routing to their terminating
points within the boards. Thermocouple Cables

1. Thermocouple extension cables shall be number 16 AWG,

solid, insulated, ANSI color coded, polarized, and of the same
material as the thermocouple.
2. Thermocouple cables from field locations shall terminate
directly to individual temperature instruments.
3. Separate wireways or conduit shall be provided for all
thermocouple cables routed within boards and shall be spaced
properly from other wiring ducts.
4. Capacity of conduit or duct shall be sufficient for all spare
receiver points or 15 percent, whichever is larger.
5. The Purchaser shall supply and install all field-run
thermocouple wiring at the jobsite.
6. Unless otherwise indicated on the purchasers drawings,
supplier shall install only board-mounted conduit.

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September 2003 Special Cables

1. Special cables or cable harnesses shall generally be furnished

by others, as indicated on the drawings, for low-level
instrument and signal circuits. Special cables shall typically
connect directly to board-mounted instruments and devices by
means of plug-in connectors or methods, without connection to
TB at the entrance to the boards, and shall be installed by
others in the field.
2. The fabricator of the control panel shall mount the devices to
which the special cables will connect and shall provide
adequate space and means of support for the cables.
3. The routing for special cables within the boards shall be
separate from other cables or shall be as indicated on the
4. Routing of special cables within boards shall be such that none
of the outer sheaths or jacketing can be removed from the
cables entering the panels except those near the terminal
location. Terminal Blocks

1. For all terminations, TB numbers and point identifications shall

be indelibly marked by marking strips on terminal strips.
Identification shall be the TB numbers and point numbers
shown on the wiring diagrams.
2. A sufficient number of spare TBs shall be installed to provide a
total of at least 20 percent unused terminal points (of each kind)
evenly distributed throughout for field use.
3 Connections to board-mounted equipment shall be made on one
side of the TBs, and no more than two wires shall be connected
under a single terminal.
4. For rows having as many as 48 terminals, adjacent rows of TBs
shall have a minimum of clear unused space between blocks of
no less than 6 inches (150 mm).
5. For rows having more than 48 terminals, a proportionally
greater space shall be provided.
6. TBs for transformer circuits and for 120 VAC and 125 VDC
power supply circuits shall be separate from each other and
from TBs for control wiring. They shall be of a type similar to
control wiring TBs but shall be capable of accepting a number
6 AWG maximum wire size.
7. Current transformer TBs shall be the shorting type.

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September 2003 Internal Board Wiring

1. Internal board wiring shall be installed in a neat and orderly

2. All DC, AC, and thermocouple wiring shall be routed in
separate wireways to prevent signal interference.
3. If wire trough or gutter cannot be used, any two or more wires
routed together shall be clamped or tied in straight lay bundles
and fastened to the board at no more than 15-inch (400-mm)
4. Wire ties or clamps shall be nonmetallic.
5. Wiring shall be arranged so as to be readily accessible for
inspection and maintenance
6. The wiring arrangement shall not impede access to boardmounted devices or spaces for future equipment.
7. Internal wiring shall be arranged so as to permit all
corresponding external cables to terminate on the same vertical
or horizontal row of TBs, and, where possible, the conductors
in each cable shall be terminated consecutively on the blocks.
8. Purchasers cables containing two or more conductors with the
same wire number may be terminated on the same point,
subject to the limitation of no more than two wires per terminal.
9. Wiring to control switches shall be provided with sufficient
slack to permit physical removal of the switches for
maintenance purposes without disconnecting any wiring. For circuit breaker and/or fused control circuits, reasonable care
shall be exercised in routing control wires to avoid locating positive,
or line, wires and negative, or neutral, wires on adjacent points on a
TB. Board-mounted devices and all control circuits shall be protected by
the appropriately sized fuse or circuit breaker. Shipping Preparations

1. Wiring between shipping sections shall be arranged to require a

minimum of field wiring.
2. TBs shall be provided on one side of a shipping break, and precut coiled wires, properly tagged, shall be provided on the other
side to facilitate field reconnection.
3. If any board-mounted item is not available for installation to
meet the scheduled shipment of the board, wiring from the TB
to the item shall be completed, wire ends shall be formed
exactly to the configurations required, and identifying sleeves
shall be applied, ready for connection.

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September 2003

4. Written approval shall be obtained from the owner before

shipment of any board or panel having shortages of equipment. Plug-in Strips

1. Polarized 120-VAC plug-in strips shall be provided where

required for instrument lighting and chart drive power supplies.
2. Power cords with polarized plugs and flame-resistant insulation
or jacket shall be supplied for connection of instruments and
devices to the plug-in strips.
3. The plug-in strips shall be located immediately adjacent to the
equipment served. A nameplate showing the incoming power and rating of the cabinet
shall be affixed to the inside of the cabinet door. Internal Lighting and Convenience Outlets

1. Internal lighting shall be provided for enclosed panels.

2. Incandescent lighting fixtures shall be no more than 5 ft (1.5 m)
apart along the panels.
3. Lamp fixtures shall be protected against accidental contact with
4. A switch shall be installed at each end of boards that are 5 ft
(1.5 m) long or greater; otherwise a switch shall be installed at
one end.
5. Fluorescent lighting fixtures may be substituted for
incandescent lights.
6. Any difficulties resulting from electrical noise generated by the
fluorescent lamps shall be corrected.
7. Duplex 120-VAC convenience outlets fed from GFCI breakers
shall be spaced approximately 5 ft (1.5 m) apart in the rear,
near the bottom of vertical boards, and under any benchboard
8. Power wiring to lighting and convenience outlets shall be
routed and terminated on terminal blocks for the receipt of
owners 120-VAC power source.

Pneumatic Systems Assembly Instruments, piping, and tubing shall be provided as indicated on the
purchasers drawings of instruments connecting to bulkhead fittings
or to other terminations. The design of the pneumatic system shall be in accordance with
ISA RP60.9, unless otherwise specified.

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September 2003 Air Supply

1. Where the control board supports pneumatic control

instrumentation, the air supply header shall be installed
complete with dual air filters and reducing regulators.
2. The reducing regulators are to be installed in parallel, without
bypasses but with block valves.
3. Each reducing regulator shall be sized so that either can supply
the complete panel while the other is serviced.
4. The downstream pressure shall be 20 psig (1.4 bar[g]), and the
upstream pressure shall be considered to be 40 to 100 psig
(2.75 to 7 bar[g]) for sizing purposes.
5. The air header downstream from the reducing station shall be
brass or other pipe as specified on the data sheet. It shall be
sized, using a sizing factor of 1.5, but shall be a minimum
diameter of 1 inch (25 mm).
6. The reducing station shall contain inlet and outlet pressure
7. The air header shall slope away from the regulators at a
minimum of 1/2 inch per 10 ft (10 mm per 3 m) of length, and a
drain valve shall be installed at the low point.
8. Each instrument shall have an individual air supply line with a
block valve off the top or side of the air header. Each block
valve shall be identified by the instrument number.
9. Ten percent, but a minimum of two, spare valved supply points
per panel section shall be provided.
10. The air header shall be equipped with a relief valve set at
25 psig (1.7 bar[g]) and shall be of sufficient size to handle the
full capacity of both reducing regulators. Where panel is shipped in sections, the interconnections shall be
flanged joints. Alignment pins shall be provided. All lines teeing off transmitter lines to pressure switches or relays
shall have block valves and plugged test tees between the block
valve and the end device. Plastic Tubing

If plastic tubing is shown on the Control Panel Data Sheet,

PIP PCSCP01D-D, use the following paragraph.
a. Tubing within the panel shall be 1/4-inch (6-mm) OD,
0.040-inch (1-mm) wall polyethylene, in accordance with
ASTM D1693.
b. Plastic tubing routed within the panel shall be contained in
slotted plastic ducting.

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September 2003

c. Tubing shall be connected to instruments, valves, and other

pneumatic equipment by using double ferrule-type tube fittings.
Barbed-type fittings are not allowed. Copper Tubing

If copper tubing is shown on the Control Panel Data Sheet,

PIP PCSCP01D-D, the following shall apply:
a. Tubing within the panel shall be 1/4-inch (6-mm) OD,
0.035-inch (1-mm) wall seamless copper in accordance with
ASTM B68 or ASTM B75.
b. All tubing, fittings, and valves shall be in accordance with
c. All incoming and outgoing air signals shall terminate in
bulkhead fittings through the panel section. Tubing runs shall be identified by terminal markings, as are wires.
Marking strips may be attached with adhesive cement. Stainless steel
circular tags may be utilized for identification of bulkhead unions.
4.4.4. Ground Bus If specified on the Control Panel Data Sheet, PIP PCSCP01D-D, a
copper ground bus (minimum size of 1/4 inch (6 mm) by 1 inch
(25 mm) shall be installed at the bottom and across the full width of
each board or panel. The ground bus shall be drilled at each end for
extension and shall have a suitable indent/compression-type lug
bolted to it near each end for the purchasers AWG 2 ground cable.
A flexible strap or bar link, equivalent to 1/4-inch (6-mm) by 1-inch
(25-mm) bar, shall be provided at each shipping split. This ground
bus shall be connected to all the board steel. If specified on the Control Panel Data Sheet, PIP PCSCP01D-D, a
second similar ground bus shall be installed above the bus specified
in paragraph and shall be insulated from all the board steel. If
instrument loop diagrams require signal points or cable shields to be
grounded, or if elementary diagrams require special grounding, this
isolated bus shall be used. All other grounds shall be connected to
the uninsulated ground bus.

Nameplates Engraved nameplates of white-black-white laminated plastic shall be
provided on panels where indicated on the arrangement drawings. Nameplate sizes and the size and style of lettering shall be per
ISA 60.6 subject to the owners approval. Nameplates shall be engraved to expose the black center layer. A complete list of designations for engraving shall be provided by
the purchaser.

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Comment: Double-face tape shall not be used for affixing

nameplates to panel

Space for Future Expansion If future equipment is indicated on the purchasers sketches or
drawings, cutouts shall not be made unless specifically authorized. If cutouts are specified for future instruments, they shall be covered
by 1/8-inch (3-mm)-steel removable plates, finished and painted with
the same paint as on the front panel. Future equipment areas shall be kept clear of panel stiffening
members, rear-mounted equipment, wiring, and all other
interferences. If capability for future expansion is specified on the data sheet,
boards shall be capable of extension at either end, and if end
closures are used, they shall be suitable for future removal and


Purging and Pressurization Requirements If board is located in a hazardous area and requires purging,
pressurization, ventilation, or dilution, the control panel shall be
designed for pressurization or type (X, Y, or Z) of purging in
accordance with NFPA 496. The purging/pressurization system shall include warning nameplates,
instrumentation, and alarms.


Inspection and Tests


In-Production Control Tests

Fabricators standard in-production test procedures, which progressively
check the assembly and wiring systems, shall be used with purchasers


Tests after Assembly The tests described in this section shall be performed after the
complete assembly of each board. All test procedures shall be submitted to the purchaser for approval. The test procedures shall contain the acceptance criteria for each test
performed. Wiring Check

1. Perform a point-to-point check with wiring diagrams.

2. Check for correct wire and terminal block markings.
3. Verify that all connections are correct and tight.
4. Verify that all wiring terminations are connected to the device
terminals as shown on the approved diagrams.

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5. Make an electrical continuity test on each conductor.

6. Correct nonconformances. Resistance Tests

1 120-VAC circuits shall be insulation-tested with a megger to

2. Low-voltage wiring shall be continuity tested with an
ohmmeter to ensure that no unintended grounds exist. Pneumatic Piping Leak Tests

1. Piping, tubing, valves, and fittings shall be tested with 100 psig
(7 bar[g]) nitrogen or with clean, dry air.
2. The final connection at the instrument shall be disconnected
and plugged during testing.
3. Each joint shall be carefully inspected and checked for leaks
with a bubble fluid or soap solution.
4. All lines shall be blown free of foreign matter before testing.
5. After testing, lines shall be sealed against dirt and dust until
final installation. Functional Tests

1. Unless specified otherwise, a functional test shall be performed

to ensure fabrication quality. The following requirements shall
be satisfied:
a. Instruments are functioning individually within design
b. Instrument loops are functioning within design parameters.
c. Loop alarm or control output signals are within design
d. The functional tests shall be as complete as possible.
e. If all components of a loop are not available for testing, their
functions shall be simulated so that as realistic a test as
possible is performed.
2. All devices shall be protected from exposure to overvoltage or
other hazards during testing.
3. As soon as individual defects are discovered, the purchaser
shall be notified of any defective equipment supplied by other

The following are mandatory hold points for which prior purchaser
notification is required:

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Procurement of Control Panels

September 2003

1. Unless purchaser waives the witness of these tests, wiring tests or piping
leak test and functional tests
2. Packaging/preparation for shipping

Release for Shipment


Component Identification
All devices and components mounted in the rear or interior of the boards and
the back of all front-mounted equipment shall be permanently marked with
1/4-inch (6-mm)-high lettering, as follows:
a. Marking shall be conspicuously placed to minimize the possibility of
incorrect identification.
b. Markings shall not be placed on removable covers or on parts that could
be interchanged during inspection, testing, or maintenance procedures.
c. Instructions for identifying designations shall be provided by the


Preparation for Shipment The finish of boards shall be protected in the best practical manner
against abrasion or other damage during preparation for shipment
and while in transit.

Sprayed-on coatings are not acceptable for this

purpose. Sheet plastic may be used for protection
of paint and against entrance of moisture. Do not
use tight-fitting polyethylene unless internal
moisture protection is provided. Matching ends of shipping splits shall be plainly identified on the

equipment and on the drawings. Tag piping, tubing, and electrical
connections at shipping splits for field identification. Moving parts shall be firmly blocked on relays and instruments. Glass or plastic doors and faces shall be adequately padded to
prevent damage during shipment. Where components for an instrument are shipped unassembled, each
separate component shall be subject to the tagging requirements
stated in paragraph 4.6.1. Instrument doors and hinged covers shall be held closed with
pressure-sensitive tape. Tape shall not be applied directly to plastic windows. Doors shall be
locked, and arrangements for key shipment shall be confirmed with
owner. Test fluids shall be purged from piping systems. Open ends of piping and tubing shall be capped.

Process Industry Practices

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Procurement of Control Panels

September 2003 Pipe manifold free ends shall be tied down or braced. Documents, tags, or instructions necessary for proper unpacking and
protection after unpacking shall be enclosed. The location of these
documents shall be marked on outer covering of crate. Subject to the purchaser's approval, instruments or devices believed
incapable of safely withstanding handling and shipment while panel
mounted shall be removed and shipped separately in their original
shipping containers.

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Process Industry Practices