# Choco solver

http://choco.mines-nantes.fr/

Tutorials

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June 29, 2011

Copyright (C) 1999, 2011 F. Laburthe, N. Jussien.
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ”GNU

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CONTENTS

Contents
Preface

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3

Tutorials

1 Getting started: welcome to Choco
1.1 Before starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Download Choco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 First Example: Magic square
2.1 First, the model . . . . . . .
2.2 Then, the solver . . . . . .
2.3 The entire code . . . . . . .
2.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . .

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3 Exercises
3.1 I’m new to CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1 Exercise 1.1 (A soft start) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2 Exercise 1.2 (DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT) . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.3 Exercise 1.3 (A famous example. . . a sudoku grid) . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.4 Exercise 1.4 (The knapsack problem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.5 Exercise 1.5 (The n-queens problem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 I know CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Exercise 2.1 (Bin packing, cumulative and search strategies) . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Exercise 2.2 (Social golfer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3 Exercise 2.3 (Golomb rule) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 I know CP and Choco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Exercise 3.1 (Hamiltonian Cycle Problem Traveling Salesman Problem)
3.3.2 Exercise 3.2 (Shop scheduling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4 Solutions
4.1 I’m new to CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Solution of Exercise 1.1 (A soft start) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Solution of Exercise 1.2 (DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Solution of Exercise 1.3 (A famous example. . . a sudoku grid) . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Solution of Exercise 1.4 (The knapsack problem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.5 Solution of Exercise 1.5 (The n-queens problem) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 I know CP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Solution of Exercise 2.1 (Bin packing, cumulative and search strategies) . . . . . .
4.2.2 Solution of Exercise 2.2 (Social golfer) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Solution of Exercise 2.3 (Golomb rule) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 I know CP and Choco2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Solution of Exercise 3.1 (Hamiltonian Cycle Problem Traveling Salesman Problem)
4.3.2 Solution of Exercise 3.2 (Shop scheduling) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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29/6/2011

CONTENTS
5 Applications with global constraints
5.1 Placement and use of the Geost constraint . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 Example and way to implement it . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.2 Support for Greedy Assignment within the geost Kernel
5.2 Scheduling and use of the cumulative constraint . . . . . . . . .

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Bibliography

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1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . .
2. VERBATIM COPYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. COPYING IN QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. MODIFICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . .
7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS . .
8. TRANSLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. TERMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE . . . . . .
11. RELICENSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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CONTENTS

Preface
Choco is a java library for constraint satisfaction problems (CSP) and constraint programming (CP).
Choco is propagation-based constraint solver with a variable-centered propagation loop and backtrackable structures. Choco is an open-source software, distributed under a BSD licence and hosted by
sourceforge.net.
For any informations visit http://choco.mines-nantes.fr and read the documentation.
This document is organized as follows:
• Tutorials provides a fast how-to write a Choco program, a detailed example of a simple program,
and several exercises with their solutions, several guided examples and some examples of Applications.

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Part I Tutorials CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -3/50- 29/6/2011 .

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If you look for an easy step-by-step program in CHOCO. getting started is for you! It introduces to basic concepts of a CHOCO program (Model.).. This part also presents a collection of exercises with their solutions and guided examples. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -5/50- 29/6/2011 . It covers simple to advanced uses of CHOCO. variables and constraints.. Solver.

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such that the n numbers in all rows.1 First. is different from the others and columns. But we need n2 variables. the model To define our problem. n * n). import choco. we need to create a CPModel. At the begining.CPModel. all columns. no problem has been defined explicitly. our model is empty. we do). and both diagonals sum to the same constant. usually distinct integers.makeIntVar("cell" + j. We have the definition. As we want to solve our problem with constraint programming (of course. so the easiest way to define them is: IntegerVariable[][] cells = new IntegerVariable[n][n].model. diagonals and rows are equal to the same constant M (which is equal to n ∗ (n2 + 1)/2). we need to create a Model object. // Our model Model m = new CPModel().kernel. } } CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -9/50- 29/6/2011 . So we are going to solve a problem where unknows are cells value. So: IntegerVariable cell = Choco. Wikipedia tells us that : A magic square of order n is an arrangement of n2 numbers. A normal magic square contains the integers from 1 to n2 .Model. which means that aCell is an integer variable. We know that our unknowns are cells of the magic square. in a square. • Variables A variable is an object defined by a name. n*n). we need to agree on the definition of a magic square of order 3. 1. j++) { cells[i][j] = Choco. First of all. 1.makeIntVar("aCell". a type and a domain. i < n. 2. These objects require to import the following classes: import choco. let see how to add some Choco in it. i++) { for (int j = 0. for (int i = 0. and constraints link variables to each others.Chapter 2 First Example: Magic square A simple magic square of order 3 can be seen as the “Hello world!” program in Choco. j < n. int M = n * (n * n + 1) / 2.model. //constants of the problem: int n = 3.cp. and its domain is defined from 1 to n*n. A model is composed of variables and constraints. knowing that each cell can take its value between 1 and n2 .

i < n. for (int i = 0. //Constraints // . i < n. over columns // first..kernel.Constraint. like in the previous step.Choco.java class. the way we have declare our variables matrix does not allow us to deal easily with it in the column case.constraints. i++) { for (int j = 0.IntegerVariable. j < n.. After the creation of the constraints. • Constraints over the rows The sum of ach rows is equal to a constant M . i++) { diags[0][i] = cells[i][i].sum(cells[i]).integer.sum(cellsDual[i]). So we create the transposed matrix (a 90o rotation of the matrix) of cells. for (int i = 0. But. over diagonals IntegerVariable[][] diags = new IntegerVariable[2][n]. The both are provides by the Choco. reordering the required cells variables. get the columns. import choco. diags[1][i] = cells[i][(n . M).kernel. M). } This part of code requires the following import: import choco. with a temporary array IntegerVariable[][] cellsDual = new IntegerVariable[n][n].model. i < n.. • Constraints over the diagonals Now. i < n. Now that our variables are defined.eq(Choco.. • Constraints over the columns Now.variables. } m. we can declare the constraints as before.addConstraints(rows). i++) { cols[i] = Choco. we get the two diagonals array diags. and add them to the model: Constraint[] cols = new Constraint[n]. we need to add them to the model: m.1) . we need to declare the equality between the sum of each column and M . We do not introduce new variables. for (int i = 0. We just reorder the matrix to see the column point of view.CHAPTER 2. So we need a sum operator and and equality constraint. //. j++) { cellsDual[i][j] = cells[j][i].addConstraints(cols). CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -10/50- 29/6/2011 .eq(Choco.model. } } Now. i++) { rows[i] = Choco. for (int i = 0...i]. FIRST EXAMPLE: MAGIC SQUARE This code requires to import the following classes: import choco. //. we have to define the constraints between variables. over rows Constraint[] rows = new Constraint[n].

introducing temporary array.Solver. //All cells are different from each other IntegerVariable[] allVars = new IntegerVariable[n * n]. we can focus on the way to solve it.solve(). i < n. i++) { for (int j = 0. //Our solver Solver s = new CPSolver(). for (int i = 0. i < n. to extract informations: //read the model s. j++) { System. stating that each cells variables takes a unique value. After that.CPSolver.out. } System.eq(Choco. } } m. j < n. the solver Our model is established. i++) { for (int j = 0.getVar(cells[i][j]).sum(diags[0]). m. } 2. THEN.getVal() + " ").3 The entire code The entire code looks like: CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -11/50- 29/6/2011 . we just need to solve it: //solve the problem s. import choco.solver. the model and the solver have to be linked. j++) { allVars[i * n + j] = cells[i][j].sum(diags[1]). we have to reorder the variables. m. we add the AllDifferent constraints.print(s. it does not require any other information.out. M)).addConstraint(Choco.addConstraint(Choco.2 Then.addConstraint(Choco. The first step is to create a Solver. One more time. M)).println(). 2. Once it is done.cp.2. And print the information //Print the values for (int i = 0. • Constraints of variables AllDifferent Finally.allDifferent(allVars)).read(m). THE SOLVER } And we add the constraints to the model (in one step this time).2. thus the solver read the model.eq(Choco. This part requires the following imports: import choco. j < n.kernel.solver.

print(s. int M = n * (n * n + 1) / 2. j++) { allVars[i * n + j] = cells[i][j]. for (int i = 0.out. i < n. i < n. j++) { System. 1. over diagonals IntegerVariable[][] diags = new IntegerVariable[2][n]. get the columns.println(). i < n. j < n. i++) { rows[i] = Choco. //read the model s.addConstraint(Choco. //All cells are different from each other IntegerVariable[] allVars = new IntegerVariable[n * n]. FIRST EXAMPLE: MAGIC SQUARE //constants of the problem: int n = 3. for (int i = 0. n * n).. diags[1][i] = cells[i][(n . j < n.eq(Choco. j < n. for (int i = 0. i++) { cols[i] = Choco.sum(cellsDual[i]). } m.out. //. over columns // first.addConstraints(rows). M).read(m).. //solve the problem s. //. i++) { for (int j = 0. M).getVal() + " ").solve()..sum(diags[1]).eq(Choco. } System.CHAPTER 2.1) .allDifferent(allVars)). i++) { diags[0][i] = cells[i][i].. with a temporary array IntegerVariable[][] cellsDual = new IntegerVariable[n][n]. } } //Constraints // . j < n. } CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -12/50- 29/6/2011 . } m. //Our solver Solver s = new CPSolver(). for (int i = 0. // Our model Model m = new CPModel().sum(cells[i]). j++) { cells[i][j] = Choco. m. } } m. i < n.addConstraint(Choco. M)). for (int i = 0.i]. IntegerVariable[][] cells = new IntegerVariable[n][n]. } } Constraint[] cols = new Constraint[n]. i < n.addConstraint(Choco. i < n. j++) { cellsDual[i][j] = cells[j][i].. for (int i = 0. //Print the values for (int i = 0.eq(Choco. i++) { for (int j = 0. M)).sum(diags[0]).eq(Choco.makeIntVar("cell" + j. i++) { for (int j = 0.getVar(cells[i][j]).addConstraints(cols). i < n. over rows Constraint[] rows = new Constraint[n]. } m.. i++) { for (int j = 0.

we will first introduce the modeling elements and then focus on the solving tools.4 Conclusion We saw.2. We think a main clue to efficiency is to strongly distinguish the modeling part from the resolution part. in a few steps.4. how to modelize and to solve a basic problem using constraint programming and Choco. from now on. CONCLUSION 2. That’s why. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -13/50- 29/6/2011 .

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// Build a model Model m = new CPModel(). 3.1 (A soft start) Algorithm 1 (below) describes a problem which fits the minimum choco syntax requirements. 0. 5). Constraint C3 = Choco. m.neq(x1.makeIntVar("var1". x3).1. // Build enumerated domain variables IntegerVariable x1 = Choco. 5). CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -15/50- 29/6/2011 . x2). That is why you are strongly advised to write down your model before starting its implementation within Choco. 0. IntegerVariable x3 = Choco. m. 0. Warning.Chapter 3 Exercises 3. IntegerVariable x2 = Choco.makeIntVar("var3".addConstraint(C2).gt(x1.1 I’m new to CP The goal of this practical work is twofold : • problem modelling with the help of variables and constraints .1 Exercise 1. 5). Question 2 give the variable domains after constraint propagation. Question 1 describe the constraint network modelled in Algorithm 1. • mastering the syntax of Choco in order to tackle basic problems. Algorithm 1: Mysterious model.gt(x2. x3).makeIntVar("var2".addConstraint(C1). // Build a solver Solver s = new CPSolver(). constraint modelling should not be solver specific. // Add the constraints to the Choco model m.addConstraint(C3). // Build the constraints Constraint C1 = Choco. Constraint C2 = Choco.

read(m). a sudoku grid) A sudoku grid is a square composed of nine squares called blocks.getVar(x2).CHAPTER 3.getVal()). Implement your model with Choco. .println("var2 =" + s.getVar(x3).getVal()).println("var1 =" + s.2 (DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT) Associate a different digit to every letter so that the equation DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT is verified. Each block is itself composed of 3x3 cells (see figure 1).println("var3 =" + s.3 Exercise 1. What can be noticed ? What is the point in using global constraints ? Figure 3.2 Exercise 1. (Solution) 3. The purpose of the game is to fill the grid so that each block.solve(). Question 2 which global constraint can be used to model such a problem ? Modify your code accordingly. // Solve the problem s.3 (A famous example.1: An exemple of a Sudoku grid (Solution) CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -16/50- 29/6/2011 . .getVal()). (Solution) 3.out.out.1. EXERCISES // Read the model s. Question 3 Test.1.out. column and row contains all the numbers from 1 to 9 once and only once Question 1 propose a way to model the sudoku problem with difference constraints. System. for both models. System. the initial propagation step (use Choco propagate() method). // Print the variable domains System.getVar(x1).

Try to find a satisfying solution by modelling and implementing the problem within choco.1. Use simple difference constraints and confirm that 92 solutions are obtained for n = 8. Question 5 what changes are caused by the use of the global constraint alldifferent ? Figure 3.1. Again.4 (The knapsack problem) Let us organise a trek. Question 3 Propose a Value selector heuristic to improve the efficiency of the model. The problem is to find which food is to be put in the knapsack so that the energetic value is maximal.5 (The n-queens problem) The n-queens problem aims to place n queens on a chessboard of size n so that no queen can attack one another.5.4 Exercise 1. Continue to use simple difference constraints. (Solution) 3.1. Each hiker carries a knapsack of capacity 34 and can store 3 kinds of food which respectively supply energetic values (6.3. • Select the value j ∈ Li so that the associated column variable Cj has the smallest domain. 105.3). 95. Question 1 In the first place. Question 3 Compare the number of nodes created to find the solutions with both models. compare both approaches in term of number of nodes and solving time to find ONE solution for n = 75. The value of Li indicates the column where a queen is to be put. Question 2 Add a redundant model by considering variables on the columns (Ci ). we will not consider the idea of maximizing the energetic value. Question 1 propose and implement a model based on one Li variable for every row. Question 2 Find and use the choco method to maximise the energetic value of the knapsack. 90.5 Exercise 1.2) for a consumed capacity of (7. How can you explain such a difference ? Question 4 Add to the previously implemented model the following heuristics: • Select first the line variable LI which has the smallest domain .4. I’M NEW TO CP 3.2: A solution of the n-queens problem for n = 8 (Solution) CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -17/50- 29/6/2011 .

n).println("-----------------------. 0. debut[i])). n)." + (obj. i < n.TRUE) { for (int j = 0.out. int[] instance = getRandomPackingPb(n.cumulative(debut. 0.makeEnumIntVar("nbBin ".setVarSelector(new StaticVarOrder(branchvars)).sort().makeEnumIntVar("duree " + i.getSolver().out. duree[i] = pb. j++) { System. //Sort objects in increasing order sort. 1).2. i++) { if (debut[i]. } IntDomainVar obj = pb.arraycopy(debut. EXERCISES 3. IntDomainVar[] fin = new IntDomainVar[n]. capaBin. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -18/50- 29/6/2011 . for (int i = 0. Question 4 Propose a model with integer variables based on the cumulative constraint (see choco user guide/API for details). IntDomainVar[] duree = new IntDomainVar[n].makeEnumIntVar("debut " + i. i++) { debut[i] = pb. } IntDomainVar[] branchvars = new IntDomainVar[n + 1].flushLogs(). Question 1 Propose a boolean model (0/1 variables). if (pb. capaBin)). duree. for (int i = 0. 1. pb.1 (Bin packing. Take a look at the following exercise in the old version of Choco and try to transpose it on new version of Choco. Problem pb = new Problem().getVal() + 1) + " bins"). nbBinMin.SOLUTION). Use your previously stated model but increase regularly the number of containers until a feasible solution is found. i < n. pb. Your model and heuristics will be checked by generating random instances for given n and C. capaBin).post(pb. IntDomainVar[] debut = new IntDomainVar[n]. Bonus question Compare different search strategies (variables/values selector) on this model for n between 10 and 15.print("Bin " + j + ": ").setVerbosity(Solver. Question 3 Implement a naive lower bound.post(pb.CHAPTER 3. cumulative and search strategies) Can n objects of a given size fit in m bins of capacity C ? The problem is here stated has a satisfaction problem for the sake of simplicity.makeEnumIntVar("fin " + i. branchvars. Define an objective function to minimize the number of used bins.geq(obj. // print solution System. Solver. instance.getVal(). int load = 0. 0. The random generation must be reproducible. int nbBinMin = computeLB(instance.1 I know CP Exercise 2. false).out. seed). n). 0.currentTimeMillis().minimize(obj.isInstantiatedTo(j)) { System. Question 2 Let us turn this satisfaction problem into an optimization one.isFeasible() == Boolean. j <= obj. fin[i] = pb. branchvars[n] = obj. i++) { pb. pb. QuickSort sort = new QuickSort(instance).print(i + " "). System. //long tps = System. n). Solver. fin. This can be done by considering the occupied size globally. for (int i = 0. i < n.2 3.

i < w. // golfmat[i][j][k] : is golfer k playing week j in group i ? IntDomainVar[][][] golfmat = new IntDomainVar[g][w][numplayers]. 8). } } System. every golfer plays in one group for (int i = 0. g) set to: {(11. 3).out. int numplayers = g * s. 2). k < g. 8. 7. s.3. j < numplayers. getOneMatrix(g)).println("tps " + tps + " node " // + ((NodeLimit) pb. k++) golfmat[i][j][k] = pb. 2). for (int k = 0. (9. (4. i < g.2 (Social golfer) A group of golfers play once a week and are splitted into k groups of size s (there are therefore ks golfers in the club).limits. i++) { for (int j = 0. Question 2 Identify some symmetries of the problem by using every similar elements of the problem.2. The point is only that once they have played together.eq(pb. 4). 8. (9. a golfer can be put in the first available group of each week before considering the next golfer.get(1)). j++) for (int k = 0. Use an heuristic that consists in scheduling a golfer on every week before scheduling a new one. 0. Problem pb = new Problem(). } CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -19/50- 29/6/2011 . j++) { IntDomainVar[] vars = new IntDomainVar[g]. Try to improve your model by breaking those symmetries.post(pb.getSearchSolver(). However.2 Exercise 2.out. 1). } pb. (3. week 1 week 1 week 1 group 1 123 147 159 group 2 456 10 2 5 10 2 6 group 3 789 8 11 3 7 11 3 group 4 10 11 12 6 9 12 4 8 12 Table 3. for (int i = 0. } //System.1: A valid configuration with 4 groups of 3 golfers on 3 weeks.2.makeEnumIntVar("("+i+"_"+j+"_"+k+")". 4)}.println(" . it may happen that two golfers will never play together. they cannot play together anymore. Question 1 Propose a boolean model for this problem.scalar(vars. } //every week. 1)). (13. The objective is to build a game scheduling on w weeks so that no golfer play in the same group than another one more than once (hence the name of the problem: social golfers). More precisely.getNbTot()). k < numplayers. j < w. 7. 6. } (Solution) 3. You can test your model with the parameters (w. 6. k++) { vars[k] = golfmat[k][i][j].load " + load).getSolver(). i++) { for (int j = 0. I KNOW CP load += instance[i].

l < g. } } //break symetries among weeks //enforce a lexicographic ordering between every pairs of week for (int i = 0. j < numplayers. int cpt = 0. for (int k = 0.post(new ScalarAtMostv1(vars.scalar(vars. 1)). l < g. } } pb. } } //every pair of players only meets once // Efficient way : use of a ScalarAtMost for (int i = 0.arraycopy(golfmat[j][i]. j < w. System. for (int k = 0. j++) { IntDomainVar[] vars = new IntDomainVar[w * g * 2].post(pb. k++) { for (int l = 0. k < w. 0. k < w.post(pb. i++) { for (int j = 0.post(pb. cpt++. } } pb. IntDomainVar[] vars2 = new IntDomainVar[numplayers * g]. } } pb. i < w. for (int k = 0. vars2[cpt] = golfmat[l][j][k]. vars2)). int cpt = 0. int cpt = 0. getOneMatrix(numplayers)). } CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -20/50- 29/6/2011 . 0.lex(vars1. k < numplayers. k++) { for (int l = 0. j++) { IntDomainVar[] vars1 = new IntDomainVar[numplayers * g].CHAPTER 3. cpt++. l++) { vars1[cpt] = golfmat[l][k][i].eq(pb. j++) { IntDomainVar[] vars1 = new IntDomainVar[w * g]. numplayers). l++) { vars1[cpt] = golfmat[l][i][k]. vars. j < g. k++) { for (int l = 0. l++) { vars[cpt] = golfmat[l][k][i]. j++) { IntDomainVar[] vars = new IntDomainVar[numplayers]. vars2)). } } //break symetries among groups for (int i = 0. cpt++. pb. w * g. vars[cpt + w * g] = golfmat[l][k][j]. i < numplayers. j < numplayers. i++) { for (int j = i + 1. i < numplayers. IntDomainVar[] vars2 = new IntDomainVar[w * g]. s)). EXERCISES } //every group is of size s for (int i = 0. vars2[cpt] = golfmat[l][k][j]. i < w.lex(vars1. i++) { for (int j = i + 1. l < g. i++) { for (int j = i + 1.

Solver. Notice the duplication distinguishes the source from the sink while there is only one warehouse. } pb.. Finally.3. j++) { for (int k = 0. } } } //gather branching variables IntDomainVar[] staticvars = new IntDomainVar[g * w * numplayers].1 I know CP and Choco Exercise 3. k < g.3.setTimeLimit(120000). cpt++.. Solver.getSolver(). pb. j < g. k++) { vars1[cpt] = golfmat[j][i][k].getSolver().lex(vars1. k < numplayers. int cpt = 0. cpt++.setVarSelector(new StaticVarOrder(staticvars)).1 (Hamiltonian Cycle Problem Traveling Salesman Problem) Given a graph G = (V. (Solution) 3. I KNOW CP AND CHOCO } //break symetries among players for (int i = 0.flushLogs().setVerbosity(Solver. n + 1} the set of nodes to cover by a tour. Let V = {2. i++) { for (int j = 0. int cpt = 0. p < g.3. i < numplayers. let us denote by Vd = V ∪ {1.. an Hamiltonian cycle is a cycle that goes through every nodes of G once and only once. A second part tackles with the well known Traveling Salesman Problem.2. for (int i = 0. for (int k = 0.3 Exercise 2. p++) { IntDomainVar[] vars1 = new IntDomainVar[numplayers]. i < w. .solve(). j++) { for (int p = j + 1. } } } pb. E). n} be a set of cities index to cover.3 (Golomb rule) under development (Solution) 3. k++) { staticvars[cpt] = golfmat[k][j][i]. vars2)). j < w. IntDomainVar[] vars2 = new IntDomainVar[numplayers]. the two following problems are defined: • find an Hamiltonian path covering all the cities of V • find an Hamiltonian cycle of minimum cost that covers all the cities of V .post(pb. Thus. pb.3 3.SOLUTION). CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -21/50- 29/6/2011 . This exercise first intorduces a naive model to solve the Hamiltonian Cycle Problem. and let d be a single warehouse duplicated into two indices 1 and n + 1. vars2[cpt] = golfmat[p][i][k]. i++) { for (int j = 0.

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x2 > x3 }: the set of constraints.1 4. 29/6/2011 .makeIntVar("e". 5] and x2 = [1.1 (A soft start) (Problem) Question 1: describe the constraint network related to code The model is defined as : • V = {x1 .2 Solution of Exercise 1. 5]. IntegerVariable a = Choco.V_ENUM). 5] and x1 > x2 .V_ENUM). -25/50- 9. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 0. Options. • D = {[0.V_ENUM).makeIntVar("g". • From x1 = [0. x3 : [0.V_ENUM). Options. IntegerVariable n = Choco.1 I’m new to CP Solution of Exercise 1. Options. 5]}: the set of domain • C = {x1 > x2 . Options. 3]. 4]. Options.V_ENUM). x1 6= x3 . 9. 0. 5]. 9.1. IntegerVariable r = Choco.1. 0. [0.makeIntVar("r".makeIntVar("d".Chapter 4 Solutions 4. IntegerVariable o = Choco. 4]. 9. Options. we can deduce that : the domain of x2 can be reduce to [1. 5].2 (DONALD + GERALD = ROBERT) (Problem) // Build model Model model = new CPModel(). 0. Options. 0. so we have reached a fix point. 0.V_ENUM). 9. 4. and here is the domain of each variables: x1 : [2. 5] and the domain of x2 can be reduce to [0. 9. 4] and x1 > x2 . Options. IntegerVariable l = Choco. • Then. We cannot deduce anything else. Question 2: give the variable domains after constraint propagation.makeIntVar("n".V_ENUM). from x1 = [1. 4] and the domain of x3 can be reduce to [0. 9. x3 }: the set of variables. from x2 = [0. we can deduce tha : the domain of x1 can be reduce to [1. 5] and x2 = [0.V_ENUM). 3].makeIntVar("l". // Declare every letter as a variable IntegerVariable d = Choco. 4] and x3 = [0. • Then. 0.makeIntVar("o". IntegerVariable e = Choco. IntegerVariable g = Choco. 5]. 5] and x2 > x3 . x2 . [0.makeIntVar("a". we can deduce that : the domain of x1 can be reduce to [2. 9. x2 : [1. 0.

It improves the efficient of the model and make it more “readable”. int n = 9. rows[k ][l])). ci += 3) { for (int cj = 0. i < n. i++) { m. j++) for (int k = ci.neq(rows[i][j]. The allDifferent constraint can be used to remplace every disequality constraint on the first Sudoku model.allDifferent(rows[i])). i < n. l < cj + 3. i++) for (int k = 0. n.allDifferent(cols[i])). i++) { CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -27/50- 29/6/2011 . } } } // Add alldifferent on sub regions for (int i = 0. // print the grid Question 2: which global constraint can be used to model such a problem ? Modify your code to use this constraint. 1.addConstraint(Choco. i++) { for (int j = 0.4. l++) if (k != i || l != j) m. i < n. } // Not equal constraint between each case of a sub region for (int ci = 0. j++) { for (int k = 0. j < 3.1. k++) for (int l = cj. carres[j + k * 3][i + 3] = rows[1 + k * 3][i + j * 3]. k++) { carres[j + k * 3][i] = rows[0 + k * 3][i + j * 3].V_ENUM).neq(rows[i][j]. } // Call solver Solver s = new CPSolver(). IntegerVariable[][] cols = new IntegerVariable[n][n]. // Declare variables IntegerVariable[][] rows = Choco. Options. } // Define sub regions IntegerVariable[][] carres = new IntegerVariable[n][n]. ci < n.makeIntVarArray("rows".addConstraint(Choco. k < ci + 3. i++) { for (int j = 0. k < n. i < 3. i++) for (int j = cj. rows[k][j])). m. s. for (int i = 0. k++) if (k != i) m. carres[j + k * 3][i + 6] = rows[2 + k * 3][i + j * 3]. j < n. // Build model Model m = new CPModel().read(m). cj < n. i < n. n. j < cj + 3. s. // Channeling between rows and columns for (int i = 0.toSolution().addConstraint(Choco. } // Add alldifferent constraint for (int i = 0. I’M NEW TO CP for (int i = 0. n. i < ci + 3. j++) cols[i][j] = rows[j][i]. cj += 3) // Extraction of disequality of a sub region for (int i = ci.solve().addConstraint(Choco. k < 3. ChocoLogging.

leq(Choco.4 (The knapsack problem) (Problem) Question 1 : In the first place. Choco doesn’t allow the optimization of integer expression. Question 2 : Find and use the choco method to maximize the energetic value of the knapsack.addConstraint(c). FIXME explanation.V_ENUM). 4. 10. Options.1. obj3}) . ChocoLogging.addConstraint(Choco. The global constraint provides a more efficient filter algorithm. 4. Model m = new CPModel().CHAPTER 4. s.V_ENUM). Solver s = new CPSolver(). Replace the common s. c = Choco. one can bypass this restriction.allDifferent(carres[i]). obj3 = Choco.makeIntVar("cost". obj2 = Choco. int capacity = 34. IntegerVariable IntegerVariable IntegerVariable IntegerVariable obj1 = Choco.scalar(volumes.scalar(energy. 5.getVar(c).makeIntVar("obj1". 0.4 Solution of Exercise 1. It iterates over decreasing values of every domain variables: s. What can be noticed ? What is the point in using global constraints ? The sudoku problem can be solved just with the propagation..read(m).read(m).V_BOUND). due to more complex deduction. false). } // Call solver Solver s = new CPSolver(). int[] energy = new int[]{6.addConstraint(Choco. we will not consider the idea of maximizing the energetic value. 0.solve() with: s.maximize(s. 2}. Options. new IntegerVariable[]{obj1.setValIntIterator(new DecreasingDomain()).1.makeIntVar("obj2". 0. capacity)). m.toSolution(). obj3}).solve(). obj2. m. It can be improved using the following value selector strategy. m. 7. Options. c)). By adding an equality constraint between the expression and a integer variable.5 Solution of Exercise 1.eq(Choco.V_ENUM). 1. s. 5. new IntegerVariable[]{obj1. the second indicates if the search must restart from the root node after finding each solution. s. The first argument defines the objective variable to optimize.makeIntVar("obj3". SOLUTIONS Constraint c = Choco. int[] volumes = new int[]{7. 4.5 (The n-queens problem) (Problem) Question 1 : propose and implement a model based on one Li variable for every row. 3}. 1000000.. Options. // print grid Question 3: Test for both model the initial propagation step (use choco propagate() method). Question 3 : Propose a Value selector heuristic to improve the efficiency of the model. obj2. Try to find a satisfying solution by modelling and implementing the problem within choco. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -28/50- 29/6/2011 .

1]. The value selector strategy has to be created as follow: class NQueenValueSelector implements ValSelector<IntDomainVar> { // Column variable protected IntDomainVar[] dualVar. new NQueenValueSelector(s. Model m = new CPModel(). It iterates over variables given and returns the variable ordering by creasing domain size. for (int i = intDomainVar. • Select first the line variable (Li ) which has the smallest domain . Again. 90.getInf(). SOLUTIONS ChocoLogging. The variable selector strategy (MinDomain) already exists in Choco.CHAPTER 4. 105. IntegerVariable[] queens = new IntegerVariable[n]. } } Question 5 : what changes are caused by the use of the global constraint alldifferent ? int n = 12.getVar(queens)). 95. i <= UB..toSolution().. FIXME Question 4 : Add to the previous implemented model the following heuristics. Question 3 : Compare the number of nodes created to find the solutions with both models. v0 = i. s.getSup(). • Select the value j ∈ Li so that the associated column variable Cj has the smallest domain. int UB = intDomainVar.addGoal(new AssignOrForbidIntVarVal(new MinDomain(s. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -30/50- 29/6/2011 .addGoal(new AssignOrForbidIntVarVal(new MinDomain(s.getVar(queensdual)))).solve().dualVar = cols. if (val < minValue) { minValue = val. s.getVar(queens)). // Constructor of the value selector.getDomainSize(). } } return v0. } // Returns the "best val" that is the smallest column domain size OR -1 // (-1 is not in the domain of the variables) public int getBestVal(IntDomainVar intDomainVar) { int minValue = Integer. public NQueenValueSelector(IntDomainVar[] cols) { this.getNextDomainValue(i)) { int val = dualVar[i .MAX_VALUE. int v0 = -1. Replace the following lines in your program : s. i = intDomainVar. new MinVal())). How can you explain such a difference ? The channeling permit to reduce more nodes from the tree search. compare both approaches in term of nodes number and solving time to find ONE solution for n = 75. IntegerVariable[] queensdual = new IntegerVariable[n]. s. with s.

SOLUTIONS 4.2 (Shop scheduling) (Problem) under development CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -32/50- 29/6/2011 .2 Solution of Exercise 3.3.CHAPTER 4.

0 ≤ d < k. x[0]. 0 ≤ d < k. Given that the placement of the objects should be totally inside B this means that the domain of the origins of objects are as follows (we start from 0 this means that the placement space is from 0 to 2 on x and from 0 to 3 on y: • o0 : x in 0. y in 0. This sometimes allows a drastic reduction in the number of shifted boxes needed to describe a shape. Each shape from S is defined as a finite set of shifted boxes. Build a CP model. end correspond to domain variables.1. y in 0.duration> 0.id (an integer). start.. a duration o. O.1 Placement and use of the Geost constraint The global constraint geost(k.1. an shift offset s. • o1 : x in 0.start.sid.l[d] > 0.1 Example and way to implement it We will explain how to use geost although a 2D example. We describe now how to solve this problem by using Choco.x[d]. start. 0 ≤ d < k. duration.l[]) is an entity defined by a shape id sid. • A list of identifiers of the objects to which the constraint applies. The first object o0 has two potential shapes while o1 and o2 have one shape..Chapter 5 Applications with global constraints 5. duration. Note that the shifted boxes associated with a given shape may or may not overlap. where each shifted box is described by a box in a k-dimensional space at the given offset with the given sizes. Typical constraints from the list of constraints C are for instance the fact that a given subset of objects from O do not pairwise overlap. and a finishingxs time o. a shape id o.t[d].... More precisely a shifted box s= shape(sid. an origin o. Consider we have 3 objects o0 .x[]. a starting time o. o1 .1. sid. 5. each of which taking a shape among a set of shapes S during a given time interval and at a given position in space.1. All attributes of a shifted box are integer values.1.3. or attributes of the objects of O the constraint considers. o2 to place them inside a box B (3x4) such that they don’t overlap (see Figure bellow). • o2 : x in 0. To begin the implementation we build a CP model: CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -33/50- 29/6/2011 .t[].. S..x[1]... a shape from S is a collection of shifted boxes sharing all the same shape id. and a size s. Constraints of the list of constraints C have always two first arguments Ai and Oi (followed by possibly some additional arguments) which respectively specify: • A list of dimensions (integers between 0 and k-1). Then.1..end) from O is an entity defined by a unique object id o. C) handles in a generic way a variety of geometrical constraints C in space and time between polymorphic k ∈ N dimensional objects O. y in 0.end.x[k-1]. All attributes sid. Each object o= object( id.

IntegerVariable start = Choco. 1). end)). We need to specify 3 more Integer Domain Variables representing the temporal attributes (start. first we create a list called sb for example List<ShiftedBox> sb = new ArrayList<ShiftedBox> (). // coordinates of the origin coords[0] = Choco.makeIntVar("sid". coords[1] = Choco. Now we create the first object o0 by creating all its attributes. objectId. 1). 1).makeIntVar("start". coords. which for the current implementation of geost are not working. 0. APPLICATIONS WITH GLOBAL CONSTRAINTS Figure 5. To create the shifted boxes for the shape 0 (that corresponds to o0 ). To create the shapes and their shifted boxes we create the shifted boxes and associate them with the corresponding shapeId. Then we first need to specify the dimension k we are working in.makeIntVar("end". This is done as follows. Create the Objects. Now we do the same for the other object o1 and o2 and add them to our objects . 1. 1.add(new GeostObject(dim.makeIntVar("x".makeIntVar("y". 0.makeIntVar("duration". Finally we are ready to add the object 0 to our objects list: objects.CHAPTER 5. duration and end). IntegerVariable end = Choco. // shape id (2 possible values) IntegerVariable coords[] = new IntegerVariable[dim]. we start by the first shifted box by creating the sid and 2 arrays one to specify the offset of the box in each dimension and one for the size CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -34/50- 29/6/2011 . IntegerVariable duration = Choco. This is done by assigning the dimension to a local variable that we will use later: int dim = 2. Then we start by creating the objects and store them in a list as such: List<GeostObject> objects = new ArrayList<GeostObject>(). 1). however we need to give them dummy values. Create the Shifted Boxes. start. duration. 0. 0.1: Geost objects and shapes Model m = new CPModel(). 0). // object id IntegerVariable shapeId = Choco. 1). int objectId = 0. Set the Dimension. shapeId.

sid should be set to its minimum possible value if v [0]< 0.max(1). v2 .. The meaning is that the corresponding variable should be fixed to its minimum (respectively maximum value) in the order I. .x[max(2). m.. we provide a way to specify a preferred order on how to fix all the objects in one single propagation step. s. Note that the use of the greedy mode assumes that no other constraint is present in the problem. The greedy algorithm for fixing an object o is controlled by a list v of length k+1 such that: • The shape variable o. Implementation. We can in fact give a list of lists v1 . In the example associated with Part (I) we successively fix objects o1 . o6 by alternatively using strategies (1) object(_. s.x[min(2). also specified by the user. • When considering one object.. . fix the y-coordinate of an object to its its minimum value (i. vp in order to specify how to fix objects o(1+pa) .e.addConstraint(geost). Solver s = new CPSolver().e.CHAPTER 5. since for instance.max(3)). fix the x-coordinate of an object to its its maximum value (i.1.e. . fix the y-coordinate of an object to its its maximum value (i..e. the geost kernel offers a mode where he tries to fix all objects during one single propagation step. sb. for performance reasons. by using min(3)) and • fix the shape variable of an object to its maximum value (i. – A value to assign that can either be the smallest or the largest value. 5.2 Support for Greedy Assignment within the geost Kernel Motivation and functionality description.. o(p+pa) . APPLICATIONS WITH GLOBAL CONSTRAINTS Create the geost constraint and add it to the model. fixing its shape variable as well as its coordinates: – According to an order on these variables that can be explicitly specified. o4 . Part(I ) specifies that we alternatively: • fix the shape variable of an object to its maximum value (i..read(m). by using max(1)). by using max(2)). o5 . objects.geost(dim. o2 . This is illustrated by Figure bellow: for instance. CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -36/50- 29/6/2011 . and to its maximum possible value otherwise.. by using max(1) ). This is encoded by a term that has exactly the same structure as the term associated to an object of geost. we know that it is always fixed ). . The only difference consists of the fact that a variable is replaced by an expression (The character denotes the fact that the corresponding attribute is irrelevant. ectr). max(I)).. by using min(2)). o(2+pa) . .solve().max(1). Since. where I is a strictly positive integer. fix the x-coordinate of an object to its its minimum value (i.. by using max(3)). This is achieved by: • Fixing the objects according to the order they were passed to the geost kernel. o3 .min(3)]) and (2) object(_. min(I) (respectively.e. Solve the problem.e. Constraint geost = Choco.

1.2: Greedy placement CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -37/50- 29/6/2011 . PLACEMENT AND USE OF THE GEOST CONSTRAINT Figure 5.5.

o2 . The placement obtained using the preceding strategies is displayed in the following figure (right side). CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -38/50- 29/6/2011 .[min(2) . In fact we just need to create the list of controlling lists before creating the geost constraint. Each controlling list is an array: List <int[]> ctrlVs = new ArrayList<int[]>(). • abs(v [2])-2 is the next most significant dimension. y ∈ [0.ctrlVs). ctrlVs.max(3)]) for objects o1 . 3}. APPLICATIONS WITH GLOBAL CONSTRAINTS • abs(v [1])-2 is the most significant dimension (the one that varies the slowest) during the sweep.CHAPTER 5. We comment only the additional step w. Given that the placement of the objects should be totally inside B this means that the domain of the origins of objects are as follows x ∈ [0. 5]. objects. int[] v1 = {1. suppose that we want use two strategies when greedy algorithm is called: the term object(_. and in descending order otherwise. 2. m.max(2)]) is encoded as the list [−1. o8 . For example. the preceding example.add(v1). o11 . and then create the geost constraint. Second example. int[] v0 = {-1. 2.r. . −3] and [1. 3]. ectr.add(v0). o5 . 4]. o6 . ctrlVs.max(1). −2. −3].3: A second Geost instance. by adding the list of controlling vectots as an another argument.geost(dim. o10 . Consider we have 12 identical objects o0 . a term object(_. as follows: Constraint geost = Choco. The values are tried in ascending order if v [1]< 0.min(4). These strategies are encoded respectively as [−1. 2. sb. o9 . Moreover. .min(1). o11 having 4 potential shapes and we want to place them in a box B (7x6) (see Figure bellow).t. -2. and its sign indicates the value order. o4 . Figure 5. We will explain although a 2D example how to take into account of greedy mode. and so on. .[max(3). .min(1).[max(2). 4. o1 . o7 . and the term object(_.min(3)]) for objects o0 . -3}.addConstraint(geost). o3 .

2 Scheduling and use of the cumulative constraint We present a simple example of a scheduling problem solved using the cumulative global constraint. The following picture summarizes the instance that we will use as example. the set of tasks to be scheduled. SCHEDULING AND USE OF THE CUMULATIVE CONSTRAINT Figure 5. It shows the resource profile on the left and on the right. Figure 5.5: A cumulative scheduling problem instance This tutorial might help you to deal with : • The profile of the resource that varies in time whereas the API of the cumulative only accepts a constant capacity CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -39/50- 29/6/2011 . Each task is represented here as a rectangle whose height is the resource consumption of the task and whose length is the duration of the task.4: A solution placement 5.2. The problem is to maximize the number of tasks that can be scheduled on a single resource within a given time horizon. Notice that the profile is not a straight line but varies in time.5.

CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -42/50- 29/6/2011 . APPLICATIONS WITH GLOBAL CONSTRAINTS Figure 5.6: Cumulative profile of a solution.CHAPTER 5.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bibliography CHOCO Tutorials GNU Free Documentation License 2011 -43/50- 29/6/2011 .

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