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network analysis?

Objective: move from the requirement to solve for all the fields and

waves of a structure to an equivalent circuit that is amenable to all

the tools of the circuit analysis.

Reasons to use network analysis over Maxwells equations:

a) A field analysis using Maxwells equations is normally difficult

and provide much more information than we need.

b) We are only interested in the signal flow and the voltage and

current at a set of terminals.

c) Many RF/Microwave components/devices have more than 1 port

and present cumbersome problems for complete field analysis

(multiple interfaces).

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Lumped passive and active components.

Negligible phase change throughout the circuit.

Circuit theory --- Kirchhoffs laws and Ohms law.

Circuit dimensions ~ wavelength

Distributed passive and active components.

Phase depends on position. Components are

characterized by their dimensions, propagation

constants and characteristics impedances.

Microwave network theory.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Impedance Matrix

V and I ---> equivalent V and I.

Reference planes are defined to provide a phase reference for the

equivalent V and I phasors.

At the nth reference plane, the total voltage and current are

Vn = Vn+ + Vn

I n = I n+ I n

currents:

[V ] = [Z ][I ]

V

Z ij = i

Ij

I k = 0 for k j

Zii: input impedance

Zij: transfer impedance between ports i and j, (i j)

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Admittance Matrices

Reciprocal Networks (no active devices, ferrites, or plasmas -- no electrical or magnetic sources): defined as having identical

transmission characteristics from port one to port two or from

port two to port one --- circuit behavior independent of directions

of waves and currents.

Both Z and Y matrices are symmetric.

Yij = Y ji

Z ij = Z ji

Lossless Networks

All the Z and Y elements are imaginary.

* However, to determine Z and Y elements, both voltage and

current values need to be measured. This is difficult at microwave

frequencies. Furthermore, open and short circuits can easily result

in oscillations in circuits.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

for non-TEM lines.

Difficult to deal with voltage and current in high frequency

measurement.

It is more convenient to deal with the ratio of voltages or

currents reflected or transmitted.

The scattering matrix of N-port networks with the same

characteristic impedance at all ports is defined as

V1 S11 S12 L S1N V1+

M V2+

V2 = S 21

M M

M

S NN VN+

VN S N 1 L

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Rule: simply rotating the vector of the impedance by 180 degree.

impedance Z0n at nth port is defined as

b1 S11

b S

2 = 21

M M

bN S N 1

S12 L S1N a1

M a2

M

L

S NN a N

an =

Vn+

Z0n

Vn

bn =

Z0n

Z 0 n : Z 0 of the nth port

wave amplitude,Vi , coming out of port i. The incident waves on all

ports except the jth port are set to zero, which means that all ports are

connected to matched loads.

The matched load has advantages in terms of its insensitivity to the

transmission line length.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Impedances tend to move

clockwise with frequency for

passive networks

10

capacitor.

microwave frequencies.

It is natural to deal with power in incident and reflected waves for

microwave transmission lines.

Active devices may not be stable with short or open terminations

due to oscillation.

The Scattering matrix relates the voltage waves incident on the

ports to those reflected from the ports.

Most importantly, scattering matrix elements can be measured

without open or short in the load, just matching loads. There is

no reflected wave regardless of the length of the transmission lines

used --- practical to implement.

11

12

S parameters of the 3 dB attenuator circuit

Lossless Networks

S21 S22 = 0.707 0

Reciprocal Networks

[S] is symmetric. For a 2x2 [S], S12=S21.

Lossless Networks

[S] is a unitary matrix.

[S ]t [S ]* = [U ]

N

ki

N

*

S ki S ki = 1

k =1

N

S ki S kj* = 0

k =1

S = ij

*

kj

k =1

13

for i=j

for i j

14

Features on S-parameters

The reflection coefficient looking into port n is not equal to Snn,

unless all other ports are connected to matched load.

The transmission coefficient from port m to port n is not equal to

Snm, unless all other ports are connected to matched load.

The S parameters are properties of the network itself, and are

defined under the condition that all ports are connected to

matched loads. Changing the terminations or excitations of a

network does not change its S parameters, but may change the

reflection and transmission coefficients.

15

S11' = S11e j 21

'

S 21

= S 21e j (1 +2 )

16

Used for a cascade connection of two or more twoport connection.

Defined as

V1 A B V2

V1 = A V2 + B I2

I = C D I

I1 = C V2 + D I2

2

1

A two-port network:

have

V1 A1 B1 A2 B2 V3

I = C D C D I

1 1

1 2

2 3

ABCD Example: Quarter- and Half-Wave Transmission

I2

Lines

l

V1

Zo

ZL

A cascade connection:

17

A = cos l

B = j Zo sin l

C = j Yo sin l

D = cos l

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

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20

wavelength or odd multiple) the ABCD matrix becomes simply

A=0

C = j Yo

B = j Zo

D=0

Similarly, if sin l = 0 (that is, for l=, a half wavelength or

multiple) the ABCD matrix becomes simply

A = -1

C=0

B=0

D = -1

terminating impedance at end 2.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

19

various equivalent circuit formation.

T equivalent

equivalent

21

Impedance Matching

Why impedance matching?

Maximum power is delivered when the load is matched to the line.

Impedance matching sensitive receiver components (antenna, LNA,

etc.) improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the system.

Impedance matching in a power distribution network (such as

antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude and phase

errors.

Impedance matching uniquely removes the requirement for a

specific reference plane.

Provide reliable and predictable interconnections between

components in a system.

22

Quarter-wavelength transformers (single or multiple)

Lumped elements

Tapered transmission lines

Combination of the above

A lossless network matching an arbitrary load

impedance to a transmission line.

Z0

Load

Matching

network

One-port

matching

ZL

Multiple solutions

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

23

Complexity --- Simplest design that satisfies the required

specification is generally the most preferable. Cheaper, more

reliable, less lossy.

Bandwidth --- Normally, it is desirable to match a load over a

band of frequencies. Increased bandwidth usually comes with

increased complexity, e.g. using multistage matching.

Frequency --- Matching networks are usually optimized for a

particular frequency.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

24

and capacitor), which results in eight different

configurations.

networks, either tuning stub or transmission line.

Adjustability --- This maybe required for applications

where a variable load impedance occurs.

Matching with Lumped Elements (L Networks)

1+jx circle (smith chart).

1+jx circle (smith chart).

25

and

For a match looking into the matching network, we have

Z 0 = jX +

Z

1 X L Z0

+

0

B

RL

BRL

single frequency. But one solution may be preferable over

the other one when other performance, e.g. bandwidth, is

considered.

1

jB + 1 /( RL + jX L )

Solving for X and B from the two equations for real and

imaginary parts,

Solutions are:

X RL / Z 0 RL2 + X L2 Z 0 RL

B= L

RL2 + X L2

X = RL ( Z 0 RL ) X L

B=

*Note: B is always real (RL>Z0) and has two solutions. One solution

is capacitive (positive) and the other one is inductive (negative).

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

X=

26

27

( Z 0 RL ) / RL

Z0

intuition.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

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C to a complex load in the Smith Chart

(either capacitor or inductor) to a complex load

zL

impedance results in motion along a constant-resistance circle

in the combined Smith Chart.

A shunt connection produces motion along a constantconductance circle.

A general rule of thumb for rotation in the Smith Chart

When an inductor is involved, we rotate in the direction that

moves the impedance into the upper half of the Smith Chart.

In contrast, a capacitance results in the move toward the

lower half.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

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30

Solution:

Example:

impedances. Since no characteristic impedance Z0 is given,

we arbitrarily select Z0 = 75 for simplicity.

We have

zT = ZT /Z0 = 2 + j 1

zA = ZA /Z0 = 1 + j 0.2

capacitor) connected to the transmitter.

Move down on the circle of the constant conductance.

Step 3: Taking into account the next element (the series

inductor) connected to the transmitter.

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

31

32

impedance in the Smith Chart for maximum power

transfer. This should be the output impedance of the

matching network.

Design of the

matching network

using ZY Smith

Chart

zM = zA* = 1 - j 0.2

Step 5: Find the normalized impedance of the intersection

of two circles. zTC = 1 - j 1.22 and the corresponding

admittance of yTC = 0.4 + j 0.49.

There is

another path

connecting zM

and zT.

jbC = yTC - yT = j 0.69

C = bC /(Z 0 ) = 0.73 pF

mean?

jxL = zA - zTC = j 1.02

L = ( xL Z 0 ) / = 6.09nH

33

using Smith Chart

34

2 In the Smith Chart, plot ircuits of constant resistance and

conductance that pass through the point denoting the source

impedance.

3 Plot circles of constant resistance and conductance that pass

through the point of the complex conjugate of the load

impedance.

4 Identify the intersection points between the circles in steps 2

and 3. The number of intersection points determins the

number of possible L-section matching networks. (cont)

35

of the inductors and capacitors by tracing a path along the

circles from the source impedance to the intersection point

and then to the complect conjugate of the load impedance.

--- there are usually multiple paths (multiple solutions).

6 Determine the actual values of inductors and capacitors for a

given frequency.

36

Example 5.1 on Page 254 of Pozar

Design an L section matching network to match a series RC load

with an impedance ZL = 200 - j 100 , to a 100 line, at a

frequency of 500 MHz.

impedance.

Step

Solution:

Step

analytic solution). Then for a frequency at f = 500 MHz,

we have

C=

b

= 0.92 pF

2fZ 0

L=

xZ 0

= 38.8nH

2f

37

ep

St

(done in admittance Smith Chart) -- add j 0.3 in susceptance

ep

St

SWR circle through the load, and a straight line from the load

through the center of the Smith Chart.

Step 4: Move to the center

of the Smith Chart by

adding an series inductor

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

38

case, there is no substantial difference in bandwidth

between the two solutions.

39

40

A microstrip line can be used

as a series transmission line, as

an open-circuited stub, or as a

short-circuited stub.

Single-stub tuning

together with a short- or opencircuited shunt stub can

transform a 50- resistor into

any value of impedance.

Shunt stub

Tuning Procedures:

Find the proper d so that Y = Y0 + jB

Choose the stub susceptance (decided by l) to be -jB

Example 5.2 on Page 259 of Pozar

reactance or susceptance

Series stub

impedance ZL = 15 + j 10 to a 50 line.

41

42

Solution:

y2

zL

Working with the

Smith Chart!

yL

d2

y1

Solution 1 has a

significantly better

bandwidth than

solution 2.

d1

wider bandwidth.

43

44

Microstrip Discontinuities

90O bend or corner:

Fields exist partly in air

and partly in dielectric.

Propagation velocity is

between the velocity in air

c and the velocity in the

dielectric c .

v PCB =

re

re =

r +1 r 1

2

corners --- particularly around the outer point of the bend where

electric fields concentrate.

(2) inductances arise because of current flow interruption.

(3) the impedances of these additional components can be comparable

to the line characteristic impedance at microwave frequencies.

1

1 + 12d / W

45

Using curved and mitered bends to reduce the effect of the additional

capacitance --- mitered bends are as good as, or better than curved

bends at frequencies up to 10 GHz.

(impedance steps)

T-junctions

section is lengthened.

1 b / 2 w = 0 .6

46

needed.

Mitering fraction 1 b / 2 w

b = 0.57 w

47

48

49

50

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