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Lecture 3:Microwave Network Analysis, Sparameters and impedance matching networks

When do you need to carry out microwave


network analysis?

Objective: move from the requirement to solve for all the fields and
waves of a structure to an equivalent circuit that is amenable to all
the tools of the circuit analysis.
Reasons to use network analysis over Maxwells equations:
a) A field analysis using Maxwells equations is normally difficult
and provide much more information than we need.
b) We are only interested in the signal flow and the voltage and
current at a set of terminals.
c) Many RF/Microwave components/devices have more than 1 port
and present cumbersome problems for complete field analysis
(multiple interfaces).
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Circuit dimensions << wavelength


Lumped passive and active components.
Negligible phase change throughout the circuit.
Circuit theory --- Kirchhoffs laws and Ohms law.
Circuit dimensions ~ wavelength
Distributed passive and active components.
Phase depends on position. Components are
characterized by their dimensions, propagation
constants and characteristics impedances.
Microwave network theory.
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Impedance Matrix

Impedance and Admittance Matrices

Two-terminal pair --> port


V and I ---> equivalent V and I.
Reference planes are defined to provide a phase reference for the
equivalent V and I phasors.
At the nth reference plane, the total voltage and current are

Vn = Vn+ + Vn

I n = I n+ I n

The impedance matrix that relates these voltages and


currents:
[V ] = [Z ][I ]
V
Z ij = i
Ij
I k = 0 for k j
Zii: input impedance
Zij: transfer impedance between ports i and j, (i j)

An arbitrary N-port network.


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ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

Some Characteristics of Impedance and


Admittance Matrices

The Scattering Matrix (S-parameter Matrix)

Reciprocal Networks (no active devices, ferrites, or plasmas -- no electrical or magnetic sources): defined as having identical
transmission characteristics from port one to port two or from
port two to port one --- circuit behavior independent of directions
of waves and currents.
Both Z and Y matrices are symmetric.
Yij = Y ji
Z ij = Z ji
Lossless Networks
All the Z and Y elements are imaginary.
* However, to determine Z and Y elements, both voltage and
current values need to be measured. This is difficult at microwave
frequencies. Furthermore, open and short circuits can easily result
in oscillations in circuits.
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ELEC518, Kevin Chen, HKUST

The exact value of voltage and current is difficult to define


for non-TEM lines.
Difficult to deal with voltage and current in high frequency
measurement.
It is more convenient to deal with the ratio of voltages or
currents reflected or transmitted.
The scattering matrix of N-port networks with the same
characteristic impedance at all ports is defined as
V1 S11 S12 L S1N V1+


M V2+
V2 = S 21

M M
M


S NN VN+
VN S N 1 L
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Generalized Scattering Matrix

Conversion of impedance to admittance (Z to Y)


Rule: simply rotating the vector of the impedance by 180 degree.

The scattering matrix of N-port networks with characteristic


impedance Z0n at nth port is defined as

b1 S11
b S
2 = 21
M M

bN S N 1

S12 L S1N a1
M a2

M

L
S NN a N

an =

Vn+
Z0n

Vn
bn =
Z0n
Z 0 n : Z 0 of the nth port

Sij is found by driving port j with V j+ , and measuring the reflected


wave amplitude,Vi , coming out of port i. The incident waves on all
ports except the jth port are set to zero, which means that all ports are
connected to matched loads.
The matched load has advantages in terms of its insensitivity to the
transmission line length.
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Frequency response of networks in Smith chart


Impedances tend to move
clockwise with frequency for
passive networks

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The Scattering Matrix (S-parameter Matrix)

Tank Circuit: loop

Why do we need this at all?

small loops indicating selfresonances of the inductor and


capacitor.

It is not practical to measure voltages and currents at the ports at


microwave frequencies.
It is natural to deal with power in incident and reflected waves for
microwave transmission lines.
Active devices may not be stable with short or open terminations
due to oscillation.
The Scattering matrix relates the voltage waves incident on the
ports to those reflected from the ports.
Most importantly, scattering matrix elements can be measured
without open or short in the load, just matching loads. There is
no reflected wave regardless of the length of the transmission lines
used --- practical to implement.

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Example 4.4 on page 198 of Pozar.


S parameters of the 3 dB attenuator circuit

S-parameters for Reciprocal Networks and


Lossless Networks

S11 S12 0 0.707


S21 S22 = 0.707 0

Reciprocal Networks
[S] is symmetric. For a 2x2 [S], S12=S21.
Lossless Networks
[S] is a unitary matrix.

[S ]t [S ]* = [U ]
N

ki

N
*
S ki S ki = 1
k =1
N
S ki S kj* = 0
k =1

S = ij
*
kj

k =1

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where [U] is the unit matrix.


for i=j
for i j

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Shift in Reference Plane

Features on S-parameters
The reflection coefficient looking into port n is not equal to Snn,
unless all other ports are connected to matched load.
The transmission coefficient from port m to port n is not equal to
Snm, unless all other ports are connected to matched load.
The S parameters are properties of the network itself, and are
defined under the condition that all ports are connected to
matched loads. Changing the terminations or excitations of a
network does not change its S parameters, but may change the
reflection and transmission coefficients.

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Open occurs in practical measurement setup.

S11' = S11e j 21

'
S 21
= S 21e j (1 +2 )

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The Transmission (ABCD) Matrix


Used for a cascade connection of two or more twoport connection.
Defined as
V1 A B V2
V1 = A V2 + B I2
I = C D I
I1 = C V2 + D I2
2
1
A two-port network:

For the cascade connection of two-port networks, we


have
V1 A1 B1 A2 B2 V3
I = C D C D I
1 1
1 2
2 3
ABCD Example: Quarter- and Half-Wave Transmission
I2
Lines
l

V1

Zo

ZL

The ABCD matrix of a length of transmission line l of Zo and is

A cascade connection:

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A = cos l

B = j Zo sin l

C = j Yo sin l

D = cos l
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Note that, for cos l = 0 (that is, for l=/2, a quarter


wavelength or odd multiple) the ABCD matrix becomes simply
A=0
C = j Yo

B = j Zo
D=0

which implies that I2 = V1/j Zo independent of V2 or I1.


Similarly, if sin l = 0 (that is, for l=, a half wavelength or
multiple) the ABCD matrix becomes simply
A = -1
C=0

B=0
D = -1

which implies that V2 = -V1 and I2 = -I1 independent of the


terminating impedance at end 2.
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Two-port network with certain network parameters can lead to


various equivalent circuit formation.

T equivalent

equivalent

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Impedance Matching
Why impedance matching?
Maximum power is delivered when the load is matched to the line.
Impedance matching sensitive receiver components (antenna, LNA,
etc.) improves the signal-to-noise ratio of the system.
Impedance matching in a power distribution network (such as
antenna array feed network) will reduce amplitude and phase
errors.
Impedance matching uniquely removes the requirement for a
specific reference plane.
Provide reliable and predictable interconnections between
components in a system.

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Methods of Impedance Matching

Matching stubs (shunts or series, single or multiple)


Quarter-wavelength transformers (single or multiple)
Lumped elements
Tapered transmission lines
Combination of the above
A lossless network matching an arbitrary load
impedance to a transmission line.
Z0

Load

Matching
network

Two-port matching network

One-port
matching

ZL

Multiple solutions
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Design issues of the matching networks


Complexity --- Simplest design that satisfies the required
specification is generally the most preferable. Cheaper, more
reliable, less lossy.
Bandwidth --- Normally, it is desirable to match a load over a
band of frequencies. Increased bandwidth usually comes with
increased complexity, e.g. using multistage matching.
Frequency --- Matching networks are usually optimized for a
particular frequency.
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L networks consist of two reactive components (inductor


and capacitor), which results in eight different
configurations.

Implementation --- Choose the right type of matching


networks, either tuning stub or transmission line.
Adjustability --- This maybe required for applications
where a variable load impedance occurs.
Matching with Lumped Elements (L Networks)

Network for zL inside the


1+jx circle (smith chart).

Network for zL outside the


1+jx circle (smith chart).

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Analytic solution for the matching network elements

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and

Case 1: load impedance inside the 1+jx circle ---> RL>Z0


For a match looking into the matching network, we have

Z 0 = jX +

Z
1 X L Z0
+
0
B
RL
BRL

Both solutions are applicable for impedance matching at a


single frequency. But one solution may be preferable over
the other one when other performance, e.g. bandwidth, is
considered.

1
jB + 1 /( RL + jX L )

Solving for X and B from the two equations for real and
imaginary parts,

Case 2: load impedance outside the 1+jx circle ---> RL<Z0


Solutions are:

X RL / Z 0 RL2 + X L2 Z 0 RL
B= L
RL2 + X L2

X = RL ( Z 0 RL ) X L
B=

*Note: B is always real (RL>Z0) and has two solutions. One solution
is capacitive (positive) and the other one is inductive (negative).
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X=

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( Z 0 RL ) / RL
Z0

*Analytic solution is computing intensive and lack of


intuition.
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Smith Chart Solutions of Matching Networks

Impedance effect of series and shunt connections of L and


C to a complex load in the Smith Chart

The effect of connecting a single reactive component


(either capacitor or inductor) to a complex load

zL

The addition of a reactance connected in series with a complex


impedance results in motion along a constant-resistance circle
in the combined Smith Chart.
A shunt connection produces motion along a constantconductance circle.
A general rule of thumb for rotation in the Smith Chart
When an inductor is involved, we rotate in the direction that
moves the impedance into the upper half of the Smith Chart.
In contrast, a capacitance results in the move toward the
lower half.
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Solution:

Example:

Step 1: Compute normalized transmitter and antenna


impedances. Since no characteristic impedance Z0 is given,
we arbitrarily select Z0 = 75 for simplicity.

We have

zT = ZT /Z0 = 2 + j 1
zA = ZA /Z0 = 1 + j 0.2

Step 2: Taking into account the first element (the shunt


capacitor) connected to the transmitter.
Move down on the circle of the constant conductance.
Step 3: Taking into account the next element (the series
inductor) connected to the transmitter.

Figure 1: Transmitter to antenna matching circuit design.


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Move up on the circle of the constant resistance.


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Step 4: Draws the complex conjugate of the antenna


impedance in the Smith Chart for maximum power
transfer. This should be the output impedance of the
matching network.

Design of the
matching network
using ZY Smith
Chart

zM = zA* = 1 - j 0.2
Step 5: Find the normalized impedance of the intersection
of two circles. zTC = 1 - j 1.22 and the corresponding
admittance of yTC = 0.4 + j 0.49.

There is
another path
connecting zM
and zT.

The normalized susceptance of the shunt capacitor is


jbC = yTC - yT = j 0.69

C = bC /(Z 0 ) = 0.73 pF

What does this


mean?

and the normalized reactance of the inductor is


jxL = zA - zTC = j 1.02

L = ( xL Z 0 ) / = 6.09nH

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Procedures of designing impedance matching networks


using Smith Chart

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Design procedures cont

1 Find the normalized source and load impedances.


2 In the Smith Chart, plot ircuits of constant resistance and
conductance that pass through the point denoting the source
impedance.
3 Plot circles of constant resistance and conductance that pass
through the point of the complex conjugate of the load
impedance.
4 Identify the intersection points between the circles in steps 2
and 3. The number of intersection points determins the
number of possible L-section matching networks. (cont)

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5 Find the values of the normalized reactances and susptances


of the inductors and capacitors by tracing a path along the
circles from the source impedance to the intersection point
and then to the complect conjugate of the load impedance.
--- there are usually multiple paths (multiple solutions).
6 Determine the actual values of inductors and capacitors for a
given frequency.

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Smith Chart Solution 2 (not using combined ZY Smith Chart)


Example 5.1 on Page 254 of Pozar
Design an L section matching network to match a series RC load
with an impedance ZL = 200 - j 100 , to a 100 line, at a
frequency of 500 MHz.

Step 3: Convert back to


impedance.
Step

Solution:

Step

Therefore we have b = 0.3, x = 1.2 (check this result with the


analytic solution). Then for a frequency at f = 500 MHz,
we have

C=

b
= 0.92 pF
2fZ 0

L=

xZ 0
= 38.8nH
2f

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ep
St

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Step 2: Move the load impedance to the impedance circle of 1+ jx


(done in admittance Smith Chart) -- add j 0.3 in susceptance

ep
St

Step 1: Convert the load impedance to admittance by drawing the


SWR circle through the load, and a straight line from the load
through the center of the Smith Chart.
Step 4: Move to the center
of the Smith Chart by
adding an series inductor
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There are two solutions for the matching networks. In this


case, there is no substantial difference in bandwidth
between the two solutions.

Is there another solution?

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Impedance Matching Using a Single Shunt Stub

Microstrip Matching Networks


A microstrip line can be used
as a series transmission line, as
an open-circuited stub, or as a
short-circuited stub.

Single-stub tuning

A series microstrip line


together with a short- or opencircuited shunt stub can
transform a 50- resistor into
any value of impedance.

Shunt stub

Tuning Procedures:
Find the proper d so that Y = Y0 + jB
Choose the stub susceptance (decided by l) to be -jB
Example 5.2 on Page 259 of Pozar

Tuning parameters: d and stub


reactance or susceptance

Series stub

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Design a single-stub shunt tuning network to match a load


impedance ZL = 15 + j 10 to a 50 line.

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Solution:

y2
zL
Working with the
Smith Chart!

yL
d2

y1

Solution 1 has a
significantly better
bandwidth than
solution 2.

d1

Shorter stub produces


wider bandwidth.

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Microstrip Discontinuities
90O bend or corner:

Microstrip lines and Propagation Velocity


Fields exist partly in air
and partly in dielectric.

Propagation velocity is
between the velocity in air
c and the velocity in the
dielectric c .

< v PCB < c

Define an effective dielectric constant re

v PCB =

re

re =

r +1 r 1
2

(1) capacitance arises through additional charge accumulation at the


corners --- particularly around the outer point of the bend where
electric fields concentrate.
(2) inductances arise because of current flow interruption.
(3) the impedances of these additional components can be comparable
to the line characteristic impedance at microwave frequencies.

1
1 + 12d / W

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Matched microstrip bends: compensation techniques


Using curved and mitered bends to reduce the effect of the additional
capacitance --- mitered bends are as good as, or better than curved
bends at frequencies up to 10 GHz.

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Step changes in width


(impedance steps)

T-junctions

Effect: the length of the w2


section is lengthened.

Typical value for the mitering fraction is

1 b / 2 w = 0 .6

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Effect: length correction is


needed.

Mitering fraction 1 b / 2 w

b = 0.57 w

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