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LANGUAGE

OF
MEDICINE

VOLUME I
2

INDEX
CONTENTS

PAGE NUMBER

1. BASIC WORD STRUCTURE

4 - 28

2. TERMS PERTAINING TO BODY AS WHOLE 29 - 63


3. SUFFIXES

64 - 92

4. PREFIXES

93 - 110

5. PHARMACOLOGY

111 - 133

6. GLOSSARY

134 - 162

CHAPTER 1 - Basic Word Structure


This chapter is divided into the following sections.
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.

Objectives in studying the Medical Language.


Word Analysis
Combining Forms, Suffixes and Prefixes
Exercises
Answers to Exercises
Pronunciation of Terms
Review Sheet

In this Chapter you will


Become familiar with basic objectives to keep in mind as you
Study the medical language.
Divide medical words into their component parts,
Find the meaning of basic combining forms, prefixes, and
Suffixes of the medical language; and
Use these combining forms, prefixes, and suffixes to build
Medical words.
Objectives in studying the Medical Language.
There are three objectives to keep in mind as you study medical terminology.
Analyze words by dividing them into component parts. Your goal is to
learn the tools of word analysis that will make the understanding of
complex terminology easier. Do not simply memorize terms; think about
dividing terms into component parts. This text will show you how to
separate both complicated and simple terms into understandable word
elements. Medical terms are very much like individual jigsaw puzzles.
They are constructed of small pieces that make each word unique, but the
pieces can be used in different combinations in other words as well. As
you become familiar with word parts and learn what each means, you will
be able to recognize those word parts in totally new combinations in other
terms.

Relate the medical terms to the structure and function of the human body.
Memorization of terms, although essential to retention of the language,
should not become the primary objective of your study. A major focus of
this text is to explain terms in the context of how the body works in health
and disease. Medical terms explained in their proper context will also be
easier to remember. Thus, the term hepatitis, meaning inflammation (-itis)
of the liver (hepat), is better understood when you know where the liver is
and how it functions. No previous knowledge of biology, anatomy, or
physiology is needed for this study.
Explanations in the text are straightforward and basic.
Be aware of spelling and pronunciation problems.
Some medical terms are pronounced alike but are spelled differently,
which accounts for their different meanings. For example, ilium and
ileum have identical pronunciations, but the first term, ilium, means a part
of the pelvis (hip bone), whereas the second term, ileum, means a part of
the small intestine. Even when terms are spelled correctly, terms can be
misunderstood because of incorrect pronunciation. For example, the
urethra (u-RE-thrah) is the tube leading from the urinary bladder to the
outside of the body, whereas a ureter (UR-e-ter) is one of two tubes each
leading from a single kidney and inserting into the urinary bladder . Fig 1-1
illustrates the difference between the urethra and the ureters.

fig 1-1 Urinary system

Word Analysis

Studying medical terminology is very similar to learning a new language.


The words at first sound strange and complicated, although them may stand
for commonly known English terms. The terms otalgia, meaning earache, and
ophthalmologist, meaning eye doctor, are examples.
Your first job in learning the language is to understand how to divide words
into their component parts. The medical language is logical in that most
terms, whether complex or simple, can be broken down into basic parts and
then understood. For example, consider the following term
HEMATOLOGY

H E M A T /O/ L O G Y
Root

suffix

Combining vowel
The root is the foundation of the word. All medical terms have one or more
roots. The root hemat means blood.
The suffix is the word ending. All medical terms have suffix. The suffix-logy
means study of.
The combining vowel (usually o) links the root to the suffix or the root to
another root. A combining vowel has no meaning of its own; it only joins one
word part to another.
It is useful to read the meaning of medical terms starting from the suffix back
to the beginning of the term. Thus, the term hematology means study of
blood.
Here is another familiar medical term:
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

ELECTR/O/CARDI/O/GRAM
Root

root

suffix

Combining
vowel
The root electr means electricity.
The root cardi means heart.
The suffix-gram means record.
The entire word means record of the electricity in the heart.
Notice that there are two combining vowels in this term. They link the two
roots (electr and cardi) as well as the root (cardi) and suffix (-gram).
Try another term:
6

GASTRITIS

GASTR/ITIS
Root

suffix

The root gastr means stomach.


The suffix-itis means inflammation.
The entire word, reading from the end of the term (suffix) to the beginning,
means inflammation of the stomach.
Note that the combining vowel, o, is missing in this term. This is because the
suffix, -itis, begins with a vowel. The combining vowel is dropped before a
suffix that begins with a vowel. It is retained, however, between two roots,
even if the second root begins with a vowel.
Consider the following term:
GASTROENTEROLOGY

GASTR/O/ENTER/O/LOGY
Root

root

suffix

Combining
vowel
`The root gastr means stomach.
The root enter means intestines.
The suffix -logy means study of.
The entire term means study of the stomach and intestines.
Notice that the combining vowel is used between gastr and enter, even
though the second root, enter, begins with a vowel. When a term contains two
or more roots related to parts of the body, often anatomical position
determines which root goes before the other. For example, the stomach
receives food first, before the small intestine, thus, gastroenteritis, not
enterogastritis.
In summary, remember three general rules:
1. Read the meaning of medical terms from the suffix back to the
beginning of the term and across
2. Drop the combining vowel (usually o) before a suffix beginning with a
vowel: gastritis not gastroitis.
3. Keep the combining vowel between two roots: gastroenterology not
gastrenterology.

In addition to the root, suffix, and combining vowel, there are two other word parts
commonly found in medical terms. These are the combining form and prefix. The
combining form is simply the root plus the combining vowel. For example, you are
already familiar with the following combining forms and their meanings:
HEMAT/O

means

blood

Root + combining vowel = COMBINING FORM


GASTR/O

means

stomach

Root + combining vowel = COMBINING FORM


CARDI/O

means

heart

Root + combining vowel = COMBINING FORM


Combining forms can be used with many different suffixes, so it is useful
to know the meaning of a combining form to decipher the meaning of a
term.
The prefix is a small part that is attached to the beginning of a term. Not
all medical terms contain prefixes, but the prefix can have an important
influence on meaning. Consider the following examples.
S U B / GAS T R / I C

means pertaining to under the stomach

Prefix / root / suffix


(under)(stomach) (pertaining to)
E PI / G AS T R / I C

means pertaining to above the stomach

Prefix root
suffix
(above) (stomach) (pertaining to)
In summary, the important elements of medical terms are:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Root: foundation of the term


Suffix: word ending
Prefix: word beginning
Combining vowel: vowel (usually o) that links the root to the suffix or the
root to another root.
5. Combining form: combination of the root and the combining vowel.

Combining Forms, Suffixes, and Prefixes


In previous examples you have been introduced to the combing forms gastr/o
(stomach), hemat/o (blood), and cardi/o (heart). The following list contains
new combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes with examples of medical words
using those word parts. Your job is to write the meaning of the medical term
in the space provided. As you do this, you may wish to divide the term into its
component parts by using slashes (for example: aden/oma).
To test your understanding of word parts and terminology in the chapter,
complete the exercises and check your answers. Then, as a final review, give
the meanings for the combining forms, suffixes, and prefixes on the Review
Sheet,
Write the meaning of the medical terms that follow in the spaces provided.
The notes in italics below the term will help you define it. Simple definitions
are best. The first one has been filled in as an example.
Combining Forms
Combining Form
Aden/o

Meaning

gland

Terminology

Meaning

adenoma gland tumor


The suffix-oma means tumor or mass.
Adenitis inflammation of the gland
The suffix-itis means inflammation.

Arthr/o

joint

arthritis inflammation in the joint

Bi/o

life

biology study of life


Biopsy process of viewing life
The suffix-opsy means process of viewing.
Living tissue is removed from the body and
viewed under a microscope.

Carcin/o

cancerous,caner

carcinoma_cancerous tumor_
A carcinoma is a cancerous tumor.
Carcinomas grow from epithelial (surface of
skin) cells that cover the outside of the body
and line organs, cavities, and tubes within
the body.

Cardi/o

heart

cardiology study of heart

Cephal/o

head

cephalic pertaining to head


9

(se-FAL-ik) The suffix-ic means pertaining


to
cerebr/o

Cis/o

cerebrum
(largest part of the brain)

to cut

Cerebral
The suffix-al means pertaining to.
A
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) occurs
when damage to blood vessels (vascul/o
means blood vessels) in the cerebrum causes
injury to nerve cells of the brain. This
condition is also called a stroke.
incision_cut into process
The prefix in-means into and the suffix-ion
means process.
Excision cut out process
The prefix ex- means out.

Crin/o

secrete
(to form and give off)

endocrine glands______________________
The prefix endo means within; endocrine
glands (for example: thyroid, pituitary, and
adrenal glands) secrete hormones directly
within (into) the bloodstream. Other glands,
called exocrine glands, secrete chemicals
(saliva, sweat, tears) through tubes (ducts) to
the outside of the body.

Cyst/o
urinary bladder: a
urinary blader
Sac or a cyst
(sac containing fluid)

cystoscopy prosess of visual examination of

Cyt/o

cell

cytology study of cells

Derm/o
Dermat/o

skin

dermatitis_inflamation of skin

(sis-TOS-ko-pe) The suffix-scopy means


process of visual examination.

Hypodermic pertaining to under skin


The prefix hypo means under, below
Electr/o
the heart

electricity

electrocardiogram

record of electricity of

The suffix -gram means record. Also called


an ECG or EKG.
Encephal/.o brain
electricity of the brain

electroencephalogram

10

record

of

the

Also called an EEG


Enter/o

intestines
enteritis_inflamation of intestine
(usually the small intestine) The small intestine is narrower and longer
than the large intestine (colon).

Erythr/o

red

erythrocyte red cells


The suffix -cyte means cell. Erythrocytes
carry oxygen in the blood.

Gastr/o

stomach

gastrectomy excision of stomach


The suffix -ectomy means excision or
removal.
Gastrotomy incision of stomach
The suffix -tomy means incision or cutting
into.

Gnos/o

knowledge

diagnosis state of complete knowledge


The prefix dia- means complete. The suffixsis means state of. A diagnosis is made after
sufficient information has been obtained
about the patients condition.
Prognosis_state of before knowledge _
The prefix pro- means before. Literally,
knowledge before, a prognosis is a
prediction about the outcome of an illness,
but it is always given after the diagnosis has
been determined.

Gynec/o
Hemat/o
Hem/o

woman, female
blood

gynecology study of women


hematology study of blood
hematoma___________________________
In this term oma means a mass or
collection of blood, rather than a growth of
cells (tumor). A hematoma occurs when
blood is lost from blood vessels and collects
as clotted blood in a cavity or organ or under
the skin.

Hepat/o

liver

hepatitis_inflamation of liver_

11

Iatr/o

treatment

iatrogenic pertaining to treatment


The suffix genic means pertaining to
producing, produced by, or produced in,
iatrogenic conditions are unexpected side
effects that result from treatment by a
physician.

Leuk/o

white

leukocyte__white blood cell __


This blood cell helps the body fight disease.

Nephr/o

kidney

nephritis___inflamation of kidney
Nephrology_study of kidney

Neur/o

nerve

neurology__study of nerve

Onc/o

tumor

oncology____study of tumor____
Oncologist____specializes in tumor___
The suffix ist means one who specializes in
a field of medicine.

Ophthalm/o

Oste/o

eye

bone

opthalmoscope_______________________
(of-THAL-mo-skop) The suffix scope
means an instrument for visual examination.
osteitis__inflamation of bone_
Osteoarthritis__inflamation

of

bone

joint___
Path/o

disease

pathology study of disease


Pathologist__________________________
A pathologist examines biopsy samples
microscopically and examines a dead body
to determine the cause of death.

Ped/o

child

pediatric___pretaining to joint of children__


An orthopedist (orth/o means straight) was
originally a doctor who straightened
childrens bones and corrected deformities.
Nowadays, an orthopedist specializes in
disorders of bones and muscles of people of
all ages.

12

Psych/o

mind

psychology_study of mind__
Psychiatrist__________________________

Radi/o

x-rays

radiology__study of x rays_

Ren/o

kidney

renal__description of kidney__
Ren/o (Latin) and nephr/o (Greek) both
mean kidney. Ren/o is used with al to
describe the kidney, whereas nephr/o is used
with other suffixes to describe abnormal
conditions and operative procedures.

Rhin/o

nose

rhinitis__inflamation of nose__

Sarc/o

flesh

sarcoma__flesh tumor__
This is a cancerous (malignant) tumor. A
sarcoma grows from cells of fleshy
connective tissue such as muscle, bone, and
fat, whereas a carcinoma (another type of
cancerous tumor) grows from epithelial cells
that line the outside of the body or the inside
of organs in the body.

Sect/o

to cut

resection_back to cut_
The prefix re-means back. A resection is a
cutting back in the sense of cutting out or
removal (excision). A gastric resection is a
gastrectomy, or excision of the stomach.

Thromb/o

clot, clotting

thrombocyte__cell clotting _
These cells help clot blood and are also
known as platelets. A thrombus is the actual
clot that forms, and thrombosis (-osis means
condition) is the condition of clot formation.

Ur/o

urinary tract,
Urine

urology_study of urinary tract______


A urologist is a surgeon who operates on the
organs of the urinary tract and the organs of
the male reproductive system.

13

Suffixes
Suffixes

Meaning

Terminology

Meaning

-ac

pertaining to

cardiac_pertaining to heart ____

-al

pertaining to

neural___pertaining to nerves___

-algia

pain

arthralgia__join pain ____


neuralgia___nerve pain ____

-cyte

cell

leukocyte___white cell ____


erythrocyte___red cell _______
thrombocyte___cell clotting_____

-ectomy

excision, removal

nephrectomy___excision of kidney

-emia

blood condition

leukemia___white blood condition____


Literally, this term means a blood condition
of white (blood cells). Actually, it is a large
increase in the number of cancerous,
abnormal white blood cells.

-genic

pertaining to
producing, produced
by, or produced in

carcinogenic_pertaining to cancer_____
Cigarette smoke is carcinogenic.
Pathogenic__pertaining to disease____
A virus or a bacterium is a pathogenic
organism.
Iatrogenic __produced by treatment__
In this term, -genic means produced by.

-gram
record
of the brain__

electroencephalogram_record of electricity

-ic, -ical

gastric___pertaining to stomach_____

pertaining to

neurological___pretaining to nerve____
-ion
_________

process

excision____removal

14

process

-ist

specialist

gynecologist__specialist for women____

-itis
inflammation
bladder_______

cystitis___inflammation

of

urinary

-logy

study of

endocrinology________________________

-oma

tumor, mass, swelling

hepatoma__liver tumor______

-opsy

process of viewing

biopsy process of viewing life

-osis

condition, usually
nephrosis abnormal condition of kidney
abnormal (slight
increase in numbers
when used with blood cells) leukocytosis condition of white blood cell
This condition, a slight increase in normal
white blood cells, occurs as white blood
cells multiply to fight an infection.

-pathy

disease condition

enteropathy__________________________
(en-te-ROP-a-the)
adenopathy__________________________
(a-de-NOP-a-the)

-scope

instrument to visually
examine
state of

endoscope___________________________
(en-DOS-ko-pe)
prognosis____________________________

-tomy

process of cutting,
incision

osteotomy___________________________
(os-te-OT-to-me)

-y

process, condition

gastroenterology______________________

-sis

15

Prefixes
Prefix

Meaning

Terminology

a-,an-

no, not, without

anemia______________________________

Meaning

Anemia means a decreased number of


erythrocytes or an abnormality of the
hemoglobin (a chemical) within the red
blood cell. The result is decreased delivery
of oxygen to cells of the body. Anemic
patients looked so pale that they were
thought to be without blood.
Auto-

self

autopsy_____________________________
Actually, an autopsy is the examination of a
dead body (with ones own eyes) to
determine the cause of death and nature of
disease.

Dia-

through, complete

diagnosis____________________________

Endo-

within

endocrinologist_______________________

Epi-

above, upon

epigastric____________________________
Epidermis___________________________
The outermost layer of skin, lying above the
middle layer of skin (called the dermis).

Ex-

out

excision_____________________________

Exo-

out

exocrine glands_______________________

Hyper-

excessive, above,
more Than normal

hyperglycemia__________________
Glyc/o means sugar.

Hypo-

deficient, below,
less Than normal

hypogastric____________________
When hypo- is used with a part of the body,
it means below

16

InPeri-

into, in
surrounding, around

Hypoglycemia________________________
In this term, hypo- means deficient.
incision_____________________________
pericardium__________________________
The suffix -um means a structure. The
pericardium is a membrane surrounding the
heart.

Pro-

before

prognosis____________________________

Re-

back, backward, again

resection____________________________
An operation in which an organ is cut
back or removed.

Retro-

behind

retrocardia___________________________

Sub-

below, under

subhepatic___________________________

Trans-

across, through

transhepatic__________________________

17

Exercises
The exercises that follow are designed to help you learn the terms that are presented in
the chapter. Writing terms over and over again is a good way to remember this new
language. Answers are presented in Section V so that they are easy to refer to as your
work. Check your answers carefully to gain additional information from the correct
answers. Each exercise is designed not as a test, but rather as an opportunity for you to
learn the material.
Complete the following sentences.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Word beginnings are called ________________________________________


Word endings are called __________________________________________
The foundation of a word is known as the____________________________
A letter linking a suffix and a root, or linking two roots, in a term is called the
______________________________________________________________
5. The combination of a root and combining vowel is known as
the____________________________________________________________
Give the meanings for the following combing forms.
1. Cardi/o_____________________ 7. carcin/o___________________________
2. aden/o______________________ 8. cyst/o_____________________________
3. bi/o________________________ 9. cyt/o______________________________
4.

cerebr/o_____________________10.
dernat/o____________

derm/o

or

5. cephal/o___________________

11. encephal/o________________________

6. arthr/o____________________

12. electr/o___________________________

Give the meanings of the following suffixes.


1. oma______________________ 5. scopy____________________________
2. al________________________ 6. ic_______________________________
3. itis______________________

7. gram____________________________

4. logy_____________________

8. opsy____________________________
18

Using slashes, divide the following terms into parts and give the meaning of
the entire term.
1. Cerebral________________________________________________________
2. biopsy _________________________________________________________
3. adenitis________________________________________________________
4. cephalic________________________________________________________
5. carcinoma______________________________________________________
6. cystoscopy______________________________________________________
7. electrocardiogram________________________________________________
8. cardiology______________________________________________________
9. electroencephalogram_____________________________________________
10. dermatitis_______________________________________________________
11. arthroscopy_____________________________________________________
12. cytology________________________________________________________
Give the meanings for the following combining forms.
1. erythr/o__________________________ 7. nephr/o_____________________
2. enter/o__________________________

8. leuk/o______________________

3. gastr/o__________________________

9. iatr/o_______________________

4. gnos/o__________________________

10. hepat/o_____________________

5. hemat/o________________________

11. neur/o______________________

6. cis/o___________________________

12. gynec/o_____________________

19

F. Complete the medical term from its meaning given below.


1. white blood cell:_________________________________cyte
2. inflammation of the stomach: gastr___________________________________
3. pertaining to produced by treatment:____________________________genic
4. study of kidneys:___________________________________logy
5. red blood cell:_____________________________________cyte
6. mass of blood:___________________________________oma
7. view of living tissue: bi ______________________________________
8. pain of nerves: neur_________________________________________
9. process of viewing the eye: __________________________________scopy
10. inflammation of the small intestine: ______________________________itis
G. Match the English term in column I with its combining form in
column II.
Column I

Column II

English Term

Combining Form

1. kidney ________________________

psych/o

2. disease_________________________

ophthalm/o

3. eye ____________________________

oste/o

4. to cut __________________________

path/o

5. nose ___________________________

ren/o

6. flesh ___________________________

rhin/o

20

7. mind ___________________________

radi/o

8. urinary tract _____________________

onc/o

9. bone ___________________________

sarc/o

10. x-rays _________________________

thromb/o

11. clotting ________________________

ur/o

12. tumor _________________________

sect/o

H. Underline the suffix in each term and give the meaning of the entire term.
1. ophthalmoscopy __________________________________________________
2. ophthalmoscope __________________________________________________
3. oncology ________________________________________________________
4. osteitis _________________________________________________________
5. psychosis _______________________________________________________
6. thrombocyte _____________________________________________________
7.renal __________________________________________________________
8. nephrectomy ___________________________________________________
9. osteotomy______________________________________________________
11. resection ______________________________________________________
12. sarcoma _______________________________________________________
I. Match the suffix in column I with its meaning in column II. Write the
meaning in the space provided.
Column I

Column II

Suffix

Meaning

1. algia _________________________

abnormal condition

21

2. ion___________________________

record

3. emia _________________________

pertaining to
produced in

4. gram _________________________

instrument to visually examine

5. scope ________________________

pain

6. osis ___________________________

blood condition

7. ectomy ________________________

removal, excision, resection

8. genic __________________________

process

9. pathy __________________________

inflammation

10. tomy _________________________

cell

11. itis __________________________

disease condition

12. cyte __________________________

incision, process of cutting into

produced

by

or

J. Select from the following terms to complete the sentences below.


leukocytosis

leukemia

endocrine glands

arthralgia

hematoma

exocrine glands

enteropathy

carcinogenic

iatrogenic

cystitis

neuralgia

hepatoma

1.
Cigarette
smoke
is
(an)________________________substance.

an

example

of

When there is an abnormal condition of slight increase in white blood cells due to
infection in the body, the condition is called______________________
A tumor of the liver is a (an)___________________________________
The medical term for pain from joints is ___________________________

22

Organs that secrete chemicals (hormones) directly into the blood are called
____________________________________________________________
Examples are the thyroid gland (in the neck), the pituitary gland (at the base
of the brain), and the adrenal glands (on top of the kidneys).
Organs that secrete chemicals out of the body through tubes (ducts) are
called___________________________________________Examples
are
sweat, tear, and salivary glands.
The medical term for pain from nerves is_______________________
8.

Ms. Walsh went to her doctor with complaints of pain when urinating. The
doctors diagnosis of her condition was inflammation of the urinary bladder,
are known as __________________________________________

9. A collection (mass) of blood (under the skin) is a (an)________________


10. Mr. Bells white blood cell count is 10 times higher than normal. Examination
of his blood shows cancerous white blood cells.
His diagnosis is
__________________
11. After receiving treatment for her urinary tract infection, Ms. Ball developed a
severe rash and fever from the medication prescribed by the doctor. Her condition
is said to be __________________________________
12.After coming back from his trip and eating strange foods, Mr. Cameron had a
disease (condition) of his intestines, called________________________
K. Give the meanings for the following prefixes.
_________________________________

3. auto-_______________________

_________________________________

4. a-, an- ______________________

5. hyper- _________________________

10. trans-______________________

6. hypo- _________________________

11. peri- ______________________

7. epi- __________________________

12. ex- _______________________

8. endo- ________________________

13. sub- _______________________

9.retro- _________________________

14. re- ________________________

23

L. Underline the prefix in the following terms and give the meaning of the entire
term.
1. diagnosis ___________________________________________________
2. prognosis ___________________________________________________
3. subhepatic __________________________________________________
4. pericardium _______________________________________________
5. hyperglycemia _____________________________________________
6. hypodermic _______________________________________________
7. epigastric __________________________________________________
8. resection ___________________________________________________
9. hypoglycemia _______________________________________________
10. anemia _____________________________________________________
M. Complete the following terms (describing areas of medicine) from their
meanings given below.
1. study of urinary tract: _______________________________logy
2. study of women and womens diseases: _______________________logy
3. study of blood: ____________________________________logy
4. study of tumors: ___________________________________ logy
5. study of the kidneys: _________________________________logy
6. study of nerves: _____________________________________logy
7. treatment of children:_________________________________ iatrics

24

8. study of x-rays: _____________________________________logy


9. study of the eyes: ___________________________________ logy
10. study of the stomach and intestines: _______________________logy
11. study of glands that secrete hormones: _____________________logy
12. treatment of the mind: ______________________________iatry
13. study of disease: ___________________________________ logy
14. study of the heart: __________________________________ logy
N. Give the meaning for the underlined word part and them define the term.
1. cerebrovascular accident ___________________________________________
2. encephalitis ______________________________________________________
3. cystoscope _______________________________________________________
4. anemia ___________________________________________________________
5. transhepatic _______________________________________________________
6. iatrogenic _________________________________________________________
7. hypogastric ________________________________________________________
8. endocrine glands ___________________________________________________
9. osteotomy _________________________________________________________
10. neurectomy ________________________________________________________
O. Select from the following terms to complete the sentences below.
anemia
biopsy
oncologist
pathogenic
prognosis
osteoarthritis

nephrologist
psychiatrist
urologist
thrombocyte
thrombosis

neuropathy
psychologist
oncogenic
leukemia
diagnosis

25

1. Seventy-two-year-old Ms. Crick suffers from a degenerative joint disease that is


caused by wearing away of tissue around her joints. This condition, which
literally means inflammation of bones and joints, is called ___________________
2. The __________________________ sample was removed during surgery and
sent to a pathologist to be examined under the microscope for a proper diagnosis.
3. A (an) __________________________performed surgery to remove Mr. Simons
cancerous kidney.
4. Ms. Rose has suffered from hyperglycemia for many years. This condition is also
known as diabetes and can lead to long-term complications such as disease of
nerves is called _____________________________________________________
5. A virus or a bacterium produces diseases and is therefore a (an)
________________________________________organism.
6. Mr. Jordan has a disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin in his erythrocytes. The
erythrocytes change shape, collapsing to form sickle-shaped cells that can become
clots and stop the flow of blood. He has a condition called sickle-cell
_________________________________________________________________
7. A (an) __________________________________ is a doctor who treats
carcinomas and sarcomas.
8. A cell that helps blood to clot is called a platelet or ________________________
9. Dr. Susan Parker told Mr. Jones that his condition would improve with treatment.
Her ___________________________ was for total recovery in 6 months.
10. A (an) __________________________ is a medical doctor who treats mentally ill
patients and can prescribe medications for them.
P. Select the correct term to complete each sentence.
1. Mrs. Brody had a cough and fever. Her doctor instructed her to go to the
(pathology, radiology, hematology) department for a chest x-ray.
2. Mrs. Leaf had problems holding her urine. She made an appointment with a
(gastroenterologist, neurologist, urologist).
3. The doctor told the patient she had lost much blood during delivery of her child.
She therefore had (anemia, leukocytosis, adenitis).
4. Mr. Preston was having chest pain during his morning walks. He made an
appointment to see a (nephrologist, neurologist, cardiologist).

26

5. After the skiing accident, Dr. Curtin suggested (cystoscopy, biopsy, arthroscopy)
to visually examine my swollen, painful knee.
VIII. Review Sheet
This review sheet and the others following each chapter are complete lists of the
word elements contained in that chapter. The review sheets are designed to pull
together the terminology and to reinforce your learning by giving you the opportunity
to write the meanings of each word part in the space provided and test yourself.
Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the Glossary (Medical
Terms English) at the end of the book.
Combining Forms
Combining Form

Meaning

Combining Form

Meaning

Aden/o

__________________

gnos/o

__________________

Arthr/o

__________________

gynec/o

__________________

Bi/o

__________________

hem/o

__________________

Carcin/o

__________________

hemat/o

__________________

Cardi/o

__________________

hepat/o

__________________

Cephal/o

__________________

iatr/o

__________________

Cerebr/o

__________________

leuk/o

__________________

Cis/o

__________________

log/o

__________________

Crin/o

__________________

nephr/o

__________________

Cyst/o

__________________

neur/o

__________________

Cyt/o

__________________

onc/o

__________________

Derm/o

__________________

ophthalm/o

__________________

Dermat/o

__________________

oste/o

__________________

Electr/o

__________________

path/o

__________________

27

Encephal/o
__________________
__________________

ped/o

Enter/o

__________________

psych/o

__________________

Erythr/o
Gastr/o

__________________
___________________

radi/o
ren/o

__________________
__________________

Glyc/o

___________________

rhin/o

__________________

Sarc/o

___________________

thromb/o

__________________

Sect/o

___________________

ur/o

__________________

Suffix

Meaning

Suffix

Meaning

-ac

___________________

-itis

__________________

-a;

___________________

-logy

__________________

-algia

___________________

-oma

__________________

-cyte

___________________

-opsy

__________________

-ectomy

___________________

-osis

__________________

-emia

___________________

-pathy

__________________

-genic

___________________

-scope

__________________

-gram

___________________

-scopy

__________________

-ic, -ical

___________________

-sis

__________________

-ion

___________________

-tomy

__________________

-ist

___________________

-y

__________________

Prefix

Meaning

Prefix

Meaning

a-, an-

___________________

hypo-

__________________

auto-

___________________

in-

__________________

dia-

___________________

peri-

__________________

28

endo-

___________________

pro-

__________________

epi-

___________________

re-

__________________

ex-

____________________

retro-

__________________

CHAPTER 2

Terms Pertaining to the Body As a Whole


This chapter is divided into the following sections .
I.

Structural Organization of the Body.

II.

Body Cavities

III.

Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants

IV.

Divisions of the Back (Spinal Column)

V.

Positional and Directional Terms

VI.

Planes of the Body

VII.

Combining Forms, Prefixes, and Suffixes

VIII.

Exercises

In this Chapter you will


Define terms that apply to the structural organization of the body:
Identify the body cavities and recognize the organs contained
Within those cavities;
Locate and identify the anatomical and clinical divisions of the
Abdomen;
Locate and name the anatomical divisions of the back;
Become acquainted with terms that describe positions,
Directions, and planes of the body; and
Find the meanings for new word elements and use them to
29

Understand new medical terms.

I.

Structural Organization of the Body Cells

The cell is the fundamental unit of every living thing (animal or plant). Cells
are everywhere in the human bodyevery tissue, every organ is made up of
these individual units.
Similarity in Cells. All cells are similar in that they contain a gelatinous
substance composed of water, protein, sugar, acids, fats and various minerals.
Several parts of a cell are described below and pictured in Fig.2-1 as they
might look when photographed with an electron microscope. Label the
structure on Figure 2-1.
(1) Cell membrane. This structure not only surrounds and protects the cell,
but also determines what passes into and out of the cell.
(2) Nucleus. The nucleus is the controlling structure of the cell. It directs
the reproduction of the cell and determines the structure and function of
the cell.
(3) Chromosomes. These are rod-like structures within the nucleus. All
human body cells (except for the sex cells, the egg and sperm) contain 23
pairs of chromosomes. The sperm and egg cells have only 23
chromosomes each. After the egg and sperm cells unite to form the
embryo, each cell of the embryo then has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)
(Fig.2-2).
Chromosomes contain regions called genes. There are several thousand
genes, in an orderly sequence, on each chromosome. Each gene is
composed of a chemical called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA
regulates the activities of the cell by its sequence (arrangement into genes)
on each chromosome. The DNA sequence is like a series of recipes in
code. When the code is carried out of the nucleus to the rest of the cell, it
directs the activities of the cell, such as cellular reproduction and the
manufacture of proteins.
Chromosomes within the nucleus can be analyzed to look at their size,
arrangement, and number by doing a karyotype. Karyotyping of
chromosomes is useful in determining whether chromosomes are normal

30

in number and structure. For example, obstetricians often recommend an


amniocentesis (puncture of the sac around the fetus for removal of fluid
and cells) of pregnant women to look at the karyotype of the baby.

fig 2-1 Major parts of a cell


If a baby is born with an abnormal number of chromosomes, serious problems can
result. In the Down syndrome (previously called mongolism because the patients
facial characteristics resembled those of the Mongolian race), the karyotype shows 47
chromosomes instead of the normal number, which is 46. There are three number 21
chromosomes instead of two (either the egg or sperm cell contributes an extra
chromosome). Thus, Down syndrome is also called trisomy-21 syndrome. Its
incidence is about once in every 750 live births. The baby is born with physical
malformations such as a small, flattened skull; a short, flat-bridged nose; wide-set,
slanted eyes; and short, broad hands and feet with a wide gap between the first and
31

the second toes. Reproductive organs are often underdeveloped, congenital heart
defects are not uncommon, and some degree of mental retardation is evident (Fig.22).

fig 2-2
Continue labeling Figure 2-1
(4) Cytoplasm. Cytoplasm (cyt/o = cell), plasm = formation) is all the
material outside the nucleus and enclosed by the cell membrane. It carries
on the work of the cell (in a muscle cell, it does the contracting; in a nerve
cell, it transmits impulses). The cytoplasm contains:
(a) Mitochondria small, sausage-shaped bodies that, like
miniature power plants, produce energy by burning food in the
presence of oxygen. This chemical process is called catabolism
(cata = down, bol = to cast, -ism = process). During catabolism,
complex foods (sugar and fat) are broken down into simpler
substances, and energy is released to do the work of the cell.
(b) Endoplasmic reticulum a network (reticulum) of canals
within the cell. These canals (containing small structures called
ribosomes) are like a cellular tunnel system in which proteins
are manufactures for use in the cell. This process of building up
complex materials, such as proteins, from simpler parts is called
anabolism (ana = up, bol = to, ism = process). During
anabolism, small pieces of protein are fitted together like links
in a chain to make larger proteins.
The two process, anabolism and catabolism, are known as
metabolism (meta change, bol = to cast, ism = process).
Metabolism includes both catabolism and anabolism and is the
total of the chemical processes occurring in a cell. If a person
has a fast metabolism then foods, such as sugar and fat, are used
up (burned) very quickly and energy is released. If metabolism
is slow, foods are burned slowly and fat accumulates in cells.
32

STUDY SECTION 1
Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.
Anabolism
Catabolism
Cell membrane
Chromosomes

Cytoplasm

Process of building up complex materials (proteins) from


simple materials.
Process of breaking down complex materials (foods) to
form simpler substances and release energy.
Structure surrounding and protecting the cell. It determines
what enters and leaves the cell.
Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions of
DNA called genes.
There are 23 pairs (46) of
chromosomes in every cell except for the egg and sperm
cells, which contain only 23 each.
All the material that is outside the nucleus and yet
contained within the cell membrane.

DNA

Chemical found within each chromosome. Arranged like a


sequence of recipes in code, it directs the activities of the
cell.

Endoplasmic
reticulum

Structure (canals) within the cytoplasm. Site in which large


proteins are made from smaller protein pieces.

Genes

Regions of DNA within each chromosome.

Karyotype

Picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell.


chromosomes are arranged in a numerical order.

33

The

Metabolism

The total of the chemical processes in a cell. This includes


both catabolism and anabolism.

Mitochondria

Structures in the cytoplasm in which foods are burned to


release energy.

Nucleus

Control center of the cell. It contains chromosomes and


directs the activities of the cell.

Differences in Cells. Cells are different, or specialized, throughout the body to carry
out their individual functions. For instance, a muscle cell is long and slender and
contains fibers that aid it in contracting and relaxing; and epithelial, or skin cell may
be square and flat to provide protection; a nerve cell may be quite long and have
various fibrous extensions that aid in its job of carrying impulses; a fat cell contains
large, empty spaces for fat storage. These are only a few of the many types of cells in
the body. Different types of cells are pictures in Figure 2-3. Label the nerve cell,
epithelial cell, fat cell, and muscle cell.

fig 2-3. Types of cells. Label a) muscle cell b) nerve cell c) epithelial cell d) fat cell.
A tissue is a group of similar cells working together to do a specific job. A histologist
(his/o=tissue) is a scientist who specializes in the study of tissues. Some types of
tissues are:
Epithelial Tissue. Epithelial tissue is located all over the body as lining for internal
organs, in exocrine and endocrine glands, and as the outer surface of skin covering the
body. The term epithelial was originally used to describe the tissue above (epi-) the
breast nipple (thel/o). Now, it describes tissue that lines the outside of the body and
the inner surface of internal organs.
Muscle Tissue. Voluntary muscle is found in arms and legs and parts of the body
where movement is voluntary, whereas involuntary muscle is found in the heart and
digestive system, as well as other places where movement is not under conscious
control. Cardiac muscle is a specialized type of muscle found only in the heart.
34

Connective Tissue. Examples are fat (adipose tissue), cartilage (elastic, fibrous tissue
attached to bones), bone, and blood.
Nerve Tissue. Nerve tissue conducts impulses all over the body.

Organs
These are structures composed of several kinds of tissue. For example, an organ like the
stomach is composed of muscle tissue, nerve tissue, and glandular epithelial tissue. The
medical term for internal organs is viscera (singular: viscus). Examples of abdominal
viscera (organs located in the abdomen) are the liver, stomach, intestines, pancreas,
spleen and gallbladder.

Systems
These are groups of organs working together to perform complex functions. For
example, the mount, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines are organs that
do the work of the digestive system to digest food and absorb it into the bloodstream.
Ten body systems are listed below with their organs. The organs in boldface are ones that
you should learn to spell and identify.
System

Organs

Digestive

mouth, pharynx (throat), esophagus, stomach, intestines


(small and large), liver, gallbladder, pancreas

Urinary or excretory

Kidneys, ureters (tubes from the kidneys to the urinary


bladder), urinary bladder, urethra (tube from the bladder to
the outside of the body).

Respiratory

nose, pharynx, larynx (voice box), trachea (windpipe),


bronchial tubes, lungs (where exchange of gases takes
place)
female: ovaries, uterine (fallopian) tubes, uterus (womb),
vagina, mammary glands; male; testes and associated tubes,
urethra, penis, prostate gland

Reproductive

Endocrine

thyroid gland (in the neck), pituitary gland (at the base of
the brain), sex glands (ovaries and testes), adrenal glands,
pancreas (islets of Langerhans), parathyroid glands, thymus
gland.

35

Nervous

brain, spinal cord, nerves, and collections of nerves.

Circulatory

heart, blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries),


lymphatic vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus gland.

Muscular

muscles

Skeletal

bones and joints

Skin and sense organs

skin, hair, nails sweat glands, and sebaceous (oil) glands;


the eye, the ear, the nose, and the tongue

STUDY SECTION 2
Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.
Adipose tissue

Collection of fat cells.

Cartilage

Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints,


surrounding the trachea, and forming part of the external
ear and nose.

Epithelial cell

Skin cell that lines the external body surface and the
internal surface of organs.

Histologist

Specialist in the study of tissues.

Larynx (LAR-inks)

Voice box; located at the upper part of the trachea.

Pharynx (FAR-inks)

Throat. The pharynx is the common passageway for food


(from the mouth going to the esophagus) and air (from the
nose to the trachea).

Pituitary gland

Endocrine gland at the base of the brain.

Thyroid gland

Endocrine gland that surrounds the trachea in the neck.

Trachea

Windpipe (tube leading from the throat to the bronchial


tubes).

36

Ureter

One of two tubes, each leading from a single kidney to the


urinary bladder. Spelling clue: ureter has two es and there
are two of them.

Urethra

Tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body.


Spelling clue: urethra has one e and there is only one
urethra.

Uterus

The womb. The organ that holds the embryo and fetus as it
develops.

Viscera

Internal organs.

II.

BODY CAVITIES.
A body cavity is a space within the body that contains internal organs (viscera). Label Figure 2-4 as you learn the names of the
body cavities. Some of the important viscera contained within those cavities are listed as well.

Cavity
(1) Cranial

Organs
Brain, pituitary gland.

(2) Thoracic Lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchial tubes, thymus gland.
Aorta (large artery).
The thoracic cavity can be divided into two smaller cavities (Fig.2-5);
a). Pleural cavity space between the membranes that surround each lung.
Each pleural cavity is lined with a double-folded membrane called pleura. If
the pleura becomes inflamed (as in pleuritis or pleurisy), the pleural cavity can
fill with fluid.
b) Mediastinum the area between the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta,
trachea, esophagus, thymus gland, and bronchial tubes.
(3) Abdominal

Stomach, small and large intestines, spleen, liver,


gallbladder, pancreas.
The peritoneum is the double-folded membrane
surrounding the abdominal cavity (Fig.2-6). The kidneys
are two bean-shaped organs situated at the back
(retroperitoneal area) of the abdominal cavity on either side
of the backbone

37

(4) Pelvic
(5) Spinal

Urinary bladder, urethra, ureters: uterus and vagina in the


female.
Nerves of the spinal cord.

fig 2-4 Body cavities,

38

fig 2-5 Divisions of thoracic cavity.

fig 2-6 Abdominal cavity and peritoneum.


The cranial and spinal cavities are considered dorsal body cavities because of their
location on the back (posterior) portion of the body. The thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic
cavities are considered ventral body cavities because they are on the front (anterior)
portion of the body.
39

The thoracic and abdominal cavities are separated by a muscular wall called the
diaphragm. The abdominal and pelvic cavities are not separated by a muscular wall and
together they are frequently called the abdominopelvic cavity.
STUDY SECTION - 3
Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.
Abdominal cavity

Space below the chest containing organs such as the liver,


stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the
abdomen.

Cranial cavity

Space in the head containing the brain and surrounded by


the skull. Cranial means pertaining to the skull.

Diaphragm

Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities.

Dorsal

Pertaining to the back; posterior.

Mediastinum

Space between the lungs.

Pelvic cavity
Peritoneum

Space below the abdomen containing the urinary bladder


and reproductive organs. Pelvic means pertaining to the
hip bone, which surrounds the pelvic cavity.
Membrane surrounding the organs in the abdomen.

Pleura

A double-layered membrane surrounding each lung.

Pleural cavity

Space between the pleural membranes and surrounding


each lung.

Spinal cavity

Space within the spinal column (backbones) and containing


the spinal cord. Also called the spinal canal.

Thoracic cavity

Space in the chest containing the heart, lungs, bronchial


tubes, trachea, esophagus, and other organs.
Pertaining to the front; anterior.

Ventral

III. Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants


REGIONS
Figure 2-7(a) shows the division of the abdominal and pelvic cavities (abdominopelvic
cavity) into nine regions, used by doctors to describe the regions in which internal organs
are found. These regions are:

40

Hypochondriac Regions: two upper right and left regions; below the cartilage (chondr/o)
of the ribs that extend over the abdomen.
Epigastric region: region above the stomach.
Lumbar regions: two middle right and left regions near the waist.
Umbilical region: region of the navel or umbilicus.
Inguinal regions: two lower right and left regions; near the groin (inguin/o=groin), which
is the area where the legs join the trunk of the body. These regions are also known as
iliac regions because they are near the ilium, which is the upper portion of the hip bone
on each side of the body.
Hypogastric region: lower middle region below the umbilical region.

fig 2-7(a) Abodominopelvic region. Fig 2-7(b)Abodominopelvic Quadrants


QUADRANTS
The abdominopelvic area can be divided into four quadrants by drawing two imaginary
lines one horizontally and one vertically through the body. Fig.2-7(b) shows these
quadrants. You add the proper abbreviation on the line under each label on the diagram.
41

Right upper quadrant, RUQ: contains the liver (right lobe), gallbladder, part of the
pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.
Left upper quadrant, LUQ: contains the liver (left lobe), stomach, spleen, part of the
pancreas, parts of the small and large intestines.
Right lower quadrant, RLQ: contains parts of the small and large intestines, right ovary,
right uterine (fallopian) tube, appendix, right ureter.
Left lower quadrant, LLQ: contains parts of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left
uterine tube, left ureter.

IV. Divisions of the Back (Spinal Column)


The back is separated into divisions corresponding to regions of the spinal column. The
spinal column is composed of a series of bones extending from the neck downward to the
tailbone. Each bone is called a vertebra (plural: vertebrae).
Label the divisions of the back on Figure 2-8 as you study the following.
Division
Of the Back

Abbreviation

(1)Cervical

(2)Thoracic

Location

Neck region. There are 7 cervical vertebrae


(C1-C7)

T or D
(D=dorsal)

Chest region.
There are 12 thoracic
vertebrae (T1-T12), Each bone is joined to a
rib.

(3) Lumbar

Loin (waist) or flank region (between the


ribs and the hip bone). There are 5 lumbar
vertebrae (L1-L5).

(4) Sacral

Five bones (S1-S5) are fused to form one


of the bone of the sacrum.

(5) Coccygeal

The coccyx (tailbone) is a small bone


composed of 4 fused pieces.

42

An important distinction should be made between the spinal column (back bones or
vertebrae) and the spinal cord (nerves surrounded by the column). The column is bone
tissue, whereas the cord is composed of nerve tissue.
The spaces between the vertebrae (intervertebral spaces) are identified according to the
two vertebrae between which they lie; for example, L5-S1 lies between the 5 th lumbar and
the 1st sacral vertebrae. Within the space and between vertebrae there is a small pad of
cartilage called a disk or disc. The disk acts as a shock absorber. Occasionally, it moves
out of place (ruptures) and puts pressure on a nerve. This is called a slipped disk, and it
can be very painful.

fig 2-8 Anatomical division of back.

43

STUDY SECTION 4
Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.
ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS
Hypochondriac

Upper right and left regions beneath the ribs.

Epigastric

Upper middle region above the stomach.

Lumbar

Middle right and left regions near the waist.

Umbilical

Central region near the navel.

Inguinal

Lower right and left regions near the groin. Also called
iliac regions.
ABDOMINOPELIVIC QUADRANTS.
RUQ

Right upper quadrant

LUQ

Left upper quadrant

RLQ

Right lower quadrant

LLQ

Left lower quadrant

DIVISIONS OF THE BACK.


Cervical

Neck region (C1-C7)

Thoracic

Chest region (T1-T12)

Lumbar

Loin (waist) region (L1-L5)

Sacral

Region of the sacrum (S1-S5)

Coccygeal

Region of the coccyx (tailbone)

RELATED TERMS
Vertebra

A backbone.

Vertebrae

Backbones.

Spinal column

Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity.

44

Spinal cord

Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity.

Disk (disc)

A pad of cartilage between vertebrae.

IV.Positional and Directional Terms


The following terms are used to describe the location of organs in relationship to one
another throughout the body.
Anterior (ventral)

Front side of the body. Example: The abdomen is anterior


to the spinal cord. Ventral and anterior are the same
position in a human; but in an animal (on four legs), ventral
refers to the belly side and anterior to the front near the
head.

Posterior (dorsal)

Backbone side of the body. Example: The spinal cord is


posterior or dorsal to the stomach.

Deep

Away from the surface. Example: The stab wound


penetrated deep into the abdomen.

Superficial

One the surface. Example: Superficial veins can be viewed


through the skin.

Proximal

Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the


beginning of a structure. Examples: The proximal end of
the upper arm bone (humerus) joins with the shoulder bone.
The proximal end of the stomach is at the esophagus.

Distal

Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the
beginning of a structure. Examples: at its distal end, the
humerus joins with the lower arm bones at the elbow. The
distal end of the stomach is at the small intestine.

45

Inferior

Below another structure. Example: The large intestine


(colon) lies inferior to the stomach and the liver. The term
caudal (pertaining to the tail) means inferior in humans.

Superior

Above another structure. Example: The uterus is located


superior to the vagina. The term cephalic (pertaining to
the head) is also used to mean superior.

Medial

Pertaining to the middle or nearer the medial plane of the


body. Example: In the anatomical position the palms of the
hand are faced outward and the fifth finger lies medial to
the other fingers.

Lateral

Pertaining to the side. Example: The little toes are lateral


to the big toes.

Supine

Lying on the back. Example: The patient is supine during


an examination of the abdomen. The face is up in the
supine position.

Prone

Lying on the belly. Example: The backbones can be


examined with the patient in a prone position. The patient
is lying on his face in the prone position.

V. Planes of the Body


A plane is an imaginary flat surface. Label Figure 2-9 as you study the terms for the
planes of the body:
Plane

Location

(1) Frontal (coronal)

Vertical plane that divides the body or structure into


anterior and posterior portions. Also called a
coronal plane. An AP (anterior-posterior) chest xrays is taken in the frontal plane.

(2) Sagittal (lateral)

Lengthwise vertical plane that divides the body or


structure into right and left sides. The midsagittal
plane divides the body into right and left halves. A
lateral chest x-rays is taken in the sagittal plane.

46

(3) Transverse (cross-sectional)

Plane running across the body parallel to the ground


(horizontal). It divides the body or structure into
upper and lower portions and is also called a crosssectional plane. A CT (computed tomography: also
known as computerized axial tomography or CAT)
scan is a series of x-ray pictures taken in the
transverse plane.

47

fig 2-9 Planes of the body.

48

STUDY SECTION - 5
Practice spelling each term and know its meaning.
Anterior (ventral)

Pertaining to the front (belly side) of the body. (A fishs


ventral fin is on its belly side.)

Deep

Away from the surface.

Distal

Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the
beginning of a structure.

Frontal (coronal) plane

Vertical plane dividing the body into an anterior and a


posterior portion.

Inferior (caudal)

Below another structure.

Lateral

Pertaining to the side.

Medial
body.

Pertaining to the middle or near the medial plane of the

Posterior (dorsal)
is on its back side.)

Pertaining to the back of the body, (The dorsal fin of a fish

Prone

Lying on the belly (face down, palm down).

Proximal

Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the


beginning of a structure.

Sagittal plane

Vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides.
From the Latin sagitta meaning arrow. As an arrow is shot
from a bow it enters the body in the sagittal plane, dividing
right from left.

Superficial

On the surface

Superior (cephalic)

Above another structure.

Supine

Lying on the back (face up palm up).

Transverse plane

Horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower


portions (cross section).

49

VI.

Combining Forms, Prefixes, and Suffixes

Write the meaning of the medical terms that follow in the space provide
Combining Form
Meaning
Terminology
Meaning

Abdomin/o

abdomen

abdominal_________________________________
The abdomen is the region below the chest
containing internal organs (liver, intestines,
stomach, gallbladder, etc).

Adip/o

fat

adipose___________________________________
The suffix ose means pertaining to or full of.

Anter/o

front

anterior___________________________________
The suffix ior means pertaining to.

Bol/o

to cast
(throw)

anabolism___________________________
The prefix ana means up. The suffix ism means
process. In this cellular process, proteins are built
up (protein synthesis).

Cervic/o

neck (of the body


Or of the uterus)

cervical_____________________________
The cervix is the neck of the uterus. The
term cervical can mean pertaining to the
neck of the body or the neck (lower part) of
the uterus.

Chondr/o

cartilage (type
Of connective
Tissue)

Chondroma ________________________
This is a benign tumor.
Chondrosarcoma_____________________
This is a malignant tumor. The term sarcindicates that the malignant tumor is a type
of flesh or connective tissue.

50

Chrom/o

color

Chromosomes________________________
These nuclear structures absorb the color of
dyes used to stain the cell. The suffix
-somes means bodies. Literally, this term
means bodies of color, which is how they
first appeared to doctors who saw them
under the microscope.

Coccyg/o

coccyx (tailbone)

coccygeal____________________________

Crani/o

skull
craniotomy__________________________

Cyt/o

cell

cytoplasm___________________________
The suffix plasm means formation.

Dist/o

far, distant

distal_______________________________

Dors/o

back portion of
The body

dorsal_______________________________

Hist/o

tissue

histology____________________________

ilium (part of the


Pelvic bone)

iliac ________________________________

Inguin/o

groin

inguinal_____________________________

Kary/o

nucleus

karyotype ___________________________

Ili/o

The suffix -type means classification or


picture.
Later/o

side

lateral ______________________________

Lumb/o

lower back (side


And back between
The ribs and the
Pelvis)

lumbosacral__________________________

Medi/o

middle

medial______________________________

Nucle/o

nucleus

nucleic _____________________________

Pelv/o

hip, pelvic cavity

pelvic ______________________________

51

Poster/o

back, behind

posterior ____________________________

Proxim/o

near

proximal ____________________________

Sacr/o

sacrum

sacral ______________________________

Sarc/o

flesh

sarcoma ____________________________

Spin/o

spine, backbone

spinal ______________________________

Thel/o

nipple

epithelial cell_________________________
This cell, originally identified as covering
nipples, is found covering the body surfaces,
externally (outside the body) and internally
(lining cavities and organs).

Thorac/o

chest

thoracic _____________________________
thoracotomy ________________________

Trache/o

trachea, windpipe

tracheal ____________________________

Umbilic/o

navel, umbilicus

umbilical ___________________________

Ventr/o

belly side of the


body

ventral _____________________________

Vertebr/o

vertebrae, backbones vertebral ____________________________

Viscer/o

internal organs

visceral _____________________________

Prefixes
Prefix

Meaning

Terminology

Ana-

up

anabolic __________________________________

Cata-

down

catabolism _______________________________

Meaning

The cellular process of breaking down foods to


release energy.

52

EpiHypo-

above
below

epigastric _________________________________
hypochondriac regions _______________________
The Greeks blamed organs (liver and spleen) in the
hypochondriac region of the abdomen as the origin
of imaginary illnesses.
Hence, the term
hypochondriac, a person with unusual anxiety about
his or her health and with symptoms not attributable
to any disease process.

Inter-

between

intervertebral ______________________________
A disk (disc) is an intervertebral structure.

Meta-

change

metabolism ________________________________
Literally, to cast (bol/o) a change (meta-), meaning
the chemical changes (processes) that occur in a
cell.

Suffixes
The following are some new suffixes introduced in this chapter

Suffix

Meaning

Suffix

Meaning

-eal

pertaining to

-ior

pertaining to

-iac

pertaining to

-ism

process

-ose

pertaining to, full of

-somes

bodies

-plasm

formation

-type

picture, classification

53

VII. Exercises
A. The following terms are parts of a cell. Match each term with its meaning below.
Cell membrane

chromosomes

genes

Nucleus

cytoplasm

DNA

Mitochondria

endoplasmic reticulum

1. The material of the cell that is outside the nucleus and yet enclosed by the cell
membrane _______________________________________________________
2. Regions of DNA within each chromosome_______________________________
3. Small, sausage-shaped structures; the place where food is burned to release
energy ______________________
4. Canal-like structure in the cytoplasm; the place where proteins are made
______________________
5. The structure that surrounds and protects the cell _________________________
6. The control center of the cell, containing chromosomes _____________________
7. A chemical found within each chromosome_______________________________
8. Rod-shaped structures in the nucleus that contain regions called genes
________________________________
B. Use medical terms or numbers to complete the following sentences.
1. A picture of chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell is called a (an)
_______________________
2. The number of chromosomes
__________________

in

normal

males

muscle

cell

is

3. The number of chromosomes in a females egg cell is ____________________


4. The process of building
__________________________

up

54

proteins

in

cell

is

called

5. The process of chemically burning or breaking down foods to release energy in


cells is known as__________________________________
6. The total of the chemical process in a cell is known as ______________________
7. A scientist who studies tissues is called a (an) ____________________________
8. The medical term for internal organs is _________________________________
C. Match the part of the body listed with its description below.
ureter

larynx

urethra

thyroid gland

cartilage

epithelial tissue

pharynx

trachea

adipose tissue

pituitary gland

uterus

pleura

1. The voice box ___________________________________________________


2. Membrane surrounding the lungs ___________________________________
3. The throat ______________________________________________________
4. Tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder___________________________
5. Collection of fat cells _____________________________________________
6. An endocrine organ located
________________________

at

the

base

of

the

brain

7. Windpipe _________________________________
8. Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints ___________________
9. Surface cells lining the outside of the body and internal organs
_______________
10. An endocrine gland surrounding the windpipe in the neck ________________
11. The womb ____________________________________________________
12. A tube leading from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body
_____________

55

D. Name the five cavities of the body.


1. The cavity surrounded by the skull __________________________________
2. The cavity in the chest surrounded by the ribs _________________________
3. The cavity below the chest containing the stomach, liver, and gallbladder
__________________
4. The cavity surrounded by the hip bone________________________________
5. The cavity surrounded by the bones of the back ________________________
E. Select from the following definitions to complete the sentences below
(1-11).
Space surrounding each lung
Space between the lungs
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
Area below the umbilicus (as well as below the stomach)
Area above the stomach
Area of the navel
Areas near the groin
Nervous tissue within the spinal cavity
Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
A pad of cartilage between each vertebra
1. The hypogastric region is the_______________________________________
2. The mediastinum is the ___________________________________________
3. The spinal cord is ________________________________________________
4. The diaphragm is a (an) ___________________________________________

56

5. An intervertebral disk is ___________________________________________


6. The pleural cavity is ______________________________________________
7. The spinal column is _____________________________________________
8. Inguinal areas are the ____________________________________________
9. The peritoneum is the ____________________________________________
10. The umbilical region is the ________________________________________
11. The epigastric region is the ________________________________________
F. Name the five divisions of the back.
1. Region of the neck _______________________________________________
2. Region of the chest _______________________________________________
3. Region of the waist ______________________________________________
4. Region of the sacrum _____________________________________________
5. Region of the tailbone ____________________________________________
G. Give the meanings for the following abbreviations.
1. LLQ _________________________________________________________
2. L5-S1 ________________________________________________________
3. RUQ _________________________________________________________
4. C3-C4 ________________________________________________________
5. RLQ __________________________________________________________
H. Give the opposites of the following terms.
1. deep ___________________________

4. medial ______________________

2. proximal ________________________ 5. dorsal ______________________


3. supine __________________________ 6. superior ____________________

57

I. Select from the following medical terms to complete the sentences below.
vertebra

proximal

frontal

lateral

superior

inferior (caudal)

vertebrae

transverse

distal

sagittal

1. The left lung lies ________________________to the heart.


2. The _______________________________ end of the thigh bone joins with
the knee cap (patella).
3. The ____________________________ plane is a vertical plane that divides
the body into an anterior and a posterior portion.
4. A back bone is called a (an) ______________________________________
5. Several back bones are called _____________________________________
6. The diaphragm lies__________________________ to the organs in the
thoracic cavity.
7. The __________________________ plane is a vertical plane that divides the
body into right and left portions.
8. The _________________________ end of the upper arm bone is at the
shoulder.
9. The _________________________ plane is a horizontal plane that divides the
body into upper and lower portions, like a cross section.
10. The liver lies _______________________ to the intestines.
J. Give the meanings for the following medical terms.
1. craniotomy __________________________________________________
2. cervical _____________________________________________________
3. chondroma ___________________________________________________
4. chondrosarcoma ______________________________________________

58

5. nucleic _____________________________________________________
6. epigastric ____________________________________________________
7. intervertebral ________________________________________________
8. pelvic ______________________________________________________
9. posterior ____________________________________________________
10. umbilical ___________________________________________________
K. Give the medical term for the following definitions. Pay attention to
spelling;
1. Space below the chest containing the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and
intestines: ______________________________________________________
2. Flexible connective tissue attached to bones at joints: ___________________
3. Rod-shaped structures in the cell nucleus, containing regions of DNA:
______________________
4. Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities ___________________
5. The voice box: __________________________________________________
6. Vertical plane dividing
____________________

the

body

into

right

and

left

sides

7. Pertaining to the neck: ____________________________________________


8. Tumor (benign) of cartilage: _______________________________________
9. Control center of the cell; directs the activities _____________________
10. Pertaining to the windpipe: ________________________________________
L. Complete each term from its meaning given below.
1. Pertaining to internal organs: ________________________________ al
2. Tumor of flesh tissue (malignant): _____________________________oma
3. Pertaining to the chest: ___________________________________ ic

59

4. Picture of the chromosomes in the cell nucleus: ________type


5. Sausage-shaped cellular structures in which catabolism takes place;
mito________________
6. Space between the lungs: media ________________________________
7. Endocrine gland at the base of the brain: _______________________ary
gland.
8. Pertaining to skin (surface) cells: epi_____________________________
M. Select the correct term to complete each sentence.
1. Dr. Curnen said the (inguinal, superior, superficial) wound barely scratched
the surface.
2. The liver and spleen are on opposite sides of the body. The liver is in the
(RUQ, LUQ, LLQ) of the abdominopelvic cavity and the spleen is in the
(RUQ, LUQ, RLQ).
3. When a gynecologist examines a patients pelvis, the patient lies on her back
in the (ventral, dorsal, medial) lithotomy position, (Lithotomy = incision to
remove a stone the position also used for removal of ureteral or kidney
stones).
4. Sallys pain was around her navel. The doctor described it as (periumbilical,
epigastric, hypogastric).
5. Mrs. Jones was told she was carrying a fetus with trisomy-21. The diagnosis
was made by analysis of an abnormal (urine sample, thoracotomy, karyotype).
6. The (spinal, sagittal, abdominal) cavity contains digestive organs.

60

IX. Review Sheet


Write the meaning of each combining form in the space provided and test
yourself. Check your answers with the information in the chapter or in the
Glossary (Medical Terms English) at the end of the book.
Combining Forms
Combining Form

Meaning

Combining Form

Meaning

abdomin/o

____________________

lumb/o

__________________

adip/o

____________________

medi/o

__________________

anter/o

____________________

nucle/o

__________________

bol/o

____________________

pelv/o

__________________

cervic/o

____________________

poster/o

__________________

chondr/o

____________________

proxim/o

__________________

chrom/o

____________________

sacr/o

__________________

coccyg/o

____________________

sarc/o

__________________

crani/o

____________________

spin/o

__________________

cyt/o

____________________

thel/o

__________________

dist/o

____________________

thorac/o

__________________

dors/o

____________________

trache/o

__________________

hist/o

____________________

umbilic/o

__________________

inguin/o

____________________

ventr/o

__________________

ili/o

____________________

vertebr

__________________

kary/o

____________________

viscer/o

__________________

later/o

____________________

61

Prefixes
Prefix

Meaning

Prefix

Meaning

ana-

____________________

hypo-

__________________

cata-

____________________

inter-

__________________

epi-

____________________

meta-

__________________

Suffix

Meaning

Suffix

Meaning

-eal

____________________

-ose

__________________

-ectomy

____________________

-plasm

__________________

-iac

____________________

-somes

__________________

-ior

____________________

-tomy

__________________

-ism

____________________

-type

__________________

-oma

____________________

Suffixes

Name the divisions of the spinal column.


Neck region (C1-C7) _______________________________________________
Chest region (T1-T12) _____________________________________________
Lower back (loin) region (L1-L5)_____________________________________
Region of the sacrum (S1-S5) _______________________________________
Tailbone region ____________________________________________________

62

Name the planes of the body


Vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
___________
Horizontal plane that divides the body into upper and lower portions
_____________
Vertical plane that divides the body
____________________________________

into

right

and

left

portions

Front of the body___________________________________________________


Back of the body___________________________________________________
Away from the surface_______________________________________________
On the surface______________________________________________________
Far from the point of attachment to the trunk or far from the beginning of a
structure ______________
Near the point of attachment to the trunk or near the beginning of a structure
________________
Below another structure_____________________________________________
Above another structure ______________________________________________
Pertaining to the middle _____________________________________________
Lying on the belly__________________________________________________
Lying on the back __________________________________________________
Give the meanings of the following terms that pertain to the cell.
Chromosomes _____________________________________________________
Mitochondria ____________________________________________________
Nucleus ________________________________________________________
DNA __________________________________________________________

63

Endoplasmic reticulum_____________________________________________
Cell membrane ___________________________________________________
Catabolism _______________________________________________________
Anabolism ________________________________________________________
Metabolism _______________________________________________________

Give the term


Membrane surrounding the lungs ______________________________________
Membrane surrounding the abdominal viscera ____________________________
Muscular wall separating
__________________
Space between the
__________________

lungs,

the

thoracic

containing

the

and

abdominal

heart,

windpipe,

cavities
aorta

A backbone ______________________________________________________
A pad of cartilage between each backbone and the next ____________________

64

CHAPTER 3
SUFFIXES
This chapter is divided into the following sections
I.

Introduction

II.

Combining Forms

III.

Suffixes and Terminology

IV.

Appendices

V.

Exercises

Define new suffixes and review those presented in previous


Chapters;
Gain practice in word analysis by using these suffixes with
Combining forms to build and understand terms; and
Name and know the functions of the different types of blood
Cells in the body.
1. Introduction : Suffixes are word endings.
This chapter has three purposes. The first is to teach many of the most common
suffixes in the medical language. As you work through the entire book, the
suffixes mastered in this chapter will appear often.
The second purpose is to teach new combining forms and use them to make words
with suffixes. Your analysis of the terminology in Section III of this chapter will
increase your medical language vocabulary.
The third purpose is to expand your understanding of terminology beyond basic
word analysis. In particular, emphasis is placed on learning the names and
functions of different types of blood cells. These terms are basic to the
vocabulary of a person working in the allied health field.

65

Combining Forms
Read this list and underline those combining forms that are unfamiliar.
Combining Form

Meaning

Abdomin/o

abdomen

Acr/o

extremities, tip, extreme point

Acu/o

sharp, severe, sudden

Aden/o

gland

Agor/a

marketplace

Amni/o

amnion (sac surrounding the embryo in the uterus)

Angi/o

vessel

Arteri/o

artery

Arthr/o

joint

Axill/o

armpit

Blephar/o

eyelid

Bronch/o

bronchial tubes (two tubes, one right and one left,


that branch from the trachea to enter the lungs)

Carcin/o

cancer

Chem./o

drug, chemical

Chondr/o

cartilage

Chron/o

time

Col/o

colon (large intestine)

Cyst/o

urinary bladder

Encephal

brain

66

Hydr/o
Inguin

water, fluid
groin

Isch/o

to hold back

Lapar/o

abdomen, abdominal wall

Laryng/o

larynx (voice box)

Lymph/o

lymph
Lymph is clear fluid that bathes tissue spaces and is
contained in special lymph vessels and nodes throughout
the body.

Mamm/o
Mast/o

breast
breast

Morph/o

shape, form

Muc/o

mucus

Myel/o

spinal cord, bone marrow


Context of usage indicates which meaning is intended.

My/o

muscle

Necr/o

death (of cells or whole body)

Nephr/o

kidney

Neur/o

nerve

Ophthalm/o

eye

Oste/o

bone

Ot/o

ear

Path/o

disease

Peritone/o

peritoneum

Phag/o

to eat, swallow

Plas/o

formation, development

67

Pleur/o
Pneumon/o

pleura (membranes surrounding lungs and adjacent to


chest wall muscles)
lungs

Pulmon/o

lungs

Rect/o

rectum

Ren/o

kidney

Sarc/o

flesh

Spleen/o

spleen

Staphyl/o

clusters

Strept/o

twisted chains

Thorac/o

chest

Thromb/o

clot

Tonsil/o

tonsils

Trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

Ven/o

vein.

The following is a list of the most common noun suffixes. A medical term is
given to illustrate the use of the suffix. The basic rule for building a medical word
is that the combining vowel, such as o, is used to connect the root to the suffix,
with the exception that the combining vowel is not used before suffixes that begin
with a vowel. For example: gastr/it is. Not gastr/o/it is.
Numbers above certain terms direct you to an Appendix that follows this list. The
Appendix contains additional information that will help you understand the
terminology.
Suffix

Meaning

Terminology

Meaning

-algia

pain

arthralgia____________________________
otalgia______________________________
neuralgia____________________________
myalgia ____________________________

68

-cele

hernia

rectocele____________________________
cystocele ___________________________

-centesis

surgical puncture to
remove fluid

thoracocentesis_______________________
This term may be shortened to thoracentesis.

Amniocentesis________________________
Abdominocentesis_____________________
This procedure is also known as a paracentesis.

-coccus
berry-shaped
(plural:-cocci) bacterium (plural:
bacteria)

streptococcus_________________________

-cyte

erythrocyte __________________________

cell

staphylococci_________________________

leukocyte____________________________
thrombocyte_________________________
-dynia

pain

pleurodynia__________________________
Pain in the chest wall muscles that is
aggravated by breathing.

-ectomy

excision, removal,
resection

laryngectomy_________________________
mastectomy__________________________

-emia

blood condition

anemia _____________________________
ischemia____________________________

-genesis

condition of
producing, forming

carcinogenesis________________________
pathogenesis_________________________
angiogenesis_________________________

-genic pertaining to
producting, produced
by, or in

carcinogenic _________________________

69

osteogenic___________________________
An ostegenic sarcoma is a tumor produced by
bone tissue.

-gram

record

electroencephalogram__________________
myelogram __________________________
myel/o means spinal cord in this term. This is
an x-ray record taken after contrast material is
injected into membranes around the spinal cord.

Mammogram________________________
-graph

instrument for
recording

electroencephalograph_________________

-graphy

process of recording electroencephalography________________


angiography__________________________

-itis

inflammation

bronchitis____________________________
tonsillitis____________________________
blepharitis___________________________

-logy

study of

ophthalmology_______________________
morphology__________________________

-lysis

-malacia

breakdown,
destruction,
separation

hemolysis___________________________

softening

osteomalacia_________________________

Breakdown of red blood cells with release of


hemoglobin.

chondromalacia_______________________
-megaly

enlargement

acromegaly__________________________
splenomegaly________________________

-oma

tumor, mass
collection of fluid

myoma _____________________________

70

This is a benign tumor.

Myosarcoma_________________________
This is a malignant tumor. Muscle is a type of
flesh (sarc/o) tissue.

Multiple myeloma_____________________
Myel/o means bone marrow in this term. This is
a malignant tumor that occurs in bone marrow
throughout the body.

Hematoma___________________________
-opsy

to view

biopsy______________________________
necropsy____________________________
Autopsy or post mortem examination.

-osis

condition, usually
abnormal

necrosis_____________________________
hydronephrosis_______________________
leukocytosis_________________________
lymphocytosis________________________

-pathy

disease condition

cardiomyopathy_______________________

-penia

deficiency

erythropenia_________________________
leukopenia___________________________
thrombocytopenia_____________________

-phobia

fear

acrophobia___________________________
Fear of heights.

Agoraphobia_________________________
An anxiety disorder marked by fear of venturing
out into a crowded place.

-plasia

development,
formation, growth

achondroplasia_______________________

-plasty

surgical repair

angioplasty__________________________
A narrowed bleed vessel is opened using a
balloon that is inflated after it is inserted into
the blood vessel.

71

-ptosis

drooping, sagging,
prolapse

blepharoptosis________________________

-sclerosis

hardening

arteriosclerosis_______________________
Atherosclerosis is a form of arteriosclerosis in
which the artery becomes clogged with deposits
of fat (ather/o means fatty material).

-scope

instrument for
visual examination

laparoscope__________________________

-scopy

process of visual
examination

laparoscopy__________________________

-stasis

stopping,

metastasis___________________________
Meta- means beyond. A metastasis is the
spreading of a malignant tumor beyond its
original site to a secondary organ or location.

Hemostasis __________________________
Blood flow is stopped naturally by clotting or
artificially by compression.

-stomy

opening to form a
mouth (stoma)

colostomy___________________________
tracheostomy_________________________

-therapy

treatment

hydrotherapy_________________________
chemotherapy________________________
radiotherapy_________________________

-tomy

incision, to cut into

laparotomy__________________________
This is called exploratory surgery.

-trophy

nourishment,
development

hypertrophy_________________________
Cells increase in size, not number. Muscles
of weigh lifters often hypertrophy.
Atrophy_____________________________
Cells decrease in size. Muscles atrophy when
they are immobilized in a cast and not in use.

72

The following are shorter noun suffixes that are usually attached to roots in words.
Suffix

Meaning

Terminology

Meaning

-er

one who

radiographer_______________________________
A technologist who assists in the making of diagnostic xray pictures.

-ia

condition

leukemia__________________________________
pneumonia_________________________________

-ist

one who specializes


in

nephrologist__________________________

-ole

little, small

arteriole___________________________________

-ule

little, small

venule____________________________________

-um, -ium

structure, tissue,
thing

pericardium________________________________
The pericardium is a membrane around the heart.

-y

condition, process

nephropathy_____________________________

Adjective Suffixes.
The following are adjective suffixes. There is no simple rule indicating which suffix
meaning pertaining to is used with a specific combining form. Your job is to recognize
the types of adjectival suffixes in each term.
Suffix

Meaning

Terminology

Meaning

-ac, iac

pertaining to

cardiac___________________________________

-al

pertaining to

peritoneal__________________________________
inguinal___________________________________
pleural____________________________________

-ar

pertaining to

tonsillar___________________________________

-ary

pertaining to

pulmonary_________________________________
axillary___________________________________

73

-eal
-ic, -ical

pertaining to
pertaining to

laryngeal__________________________________
chronic____________________________________
Acute is the opposite of chronic. It describes a disease
that is of rapid onset, severe symptoms, and brief
duration.

Pathological________________________________
-oid

resembling

adenoids__________________________________
epidermoid________________________________
An epidermoid carcinoma is composed of cells that
resemble epidermis (outer skin) tissue.

-ose

pertaining to, full of adipose___________________________________

-ous

pertaining to

mucous___________________________________
Mucus (a noun) is the sticky secretion produced by
mucous membranes.

-tic

I.

pertaining to

necrotic___________________________________

Appendices

Appendix A: Hernia
A hernia is a bulging forth, or protrusion, of an organ or the muscular wall of
an organ through the cavity that normally contains it. Some examples of hernias are
hiatal hernia (the stomach protrudes upward into the mediastinum through the esophageal
opening in the diaphragm; Fig 3-2 and an inguinal hernia (part of the intestine protrudes
downward into the groin region and commonly into the scrotal sac in the male; see Fig.32.) A rectocele is a protrusion of the rectum toward the vagina, and cystocele is a
protrusion of the urinary bladder toward the vagina (Fig. 3-1). These hernias often occur
in women after many vaginal births. Symptoms appear in older women in the
postmenopausal years when estrogen loss weakens tissue supports.

74

fig-3-1

fig-3-2

Appendix B: Amniocentesis
The amnion is the sac (membrane) that surrounds the embryo (called the fetus after the
8th week) in the uterus. Fluid accumulates within the sac and can be withdrawn
(amniocentesis) for analysis after the 13th week of pregnancy. Cells of the fetus are in
the fluid and are grown (cultured) for microscopic analysis. A karyotype is made to
analyze chromosomes, and the fluid is examined for high levels of certain chemicals that
indicate defects in the developing spinal cord and spinal column of the fetus (Fig.3-3).

75

fig-3-3

Appendix C: Plurals
Words ending in us commonly form their plural by dropping the us and adding i.
Thus, nucleus becomes nuclei and coccus becomes cocci (KOK-si). A guide to formation
of plurals is found in Appendix A at the end of the book.
Appendix D: Streptococcus and staphylococcus
A streptococcus is a berry-shaped bacterium that grows in twisted chains. One group of
streptococci are responsible for such conditions as strep throat, tonsillitis, rheumatic
fever, and certain kidney ailments, whereas another group cause infections in teeth, in the
sinuses (cavities) of nose and face, and sometimes in the valves of the heart.
A staphylococcus is a bacterium that grows in small clusters, like grapes. Staphylococcal
lesions may be external (skin abscesses, boils, styes) or internal (abscesses in bone and
kidney). (An abscess is a collection of pus, white blood cells, and protein that is present
at the site of infection.) Fig.3-4 illustrates the pattern of growth of streptococci and
staphylococci.
Other bacteria that are coccal in shape include pneumococci (pneum/o=lungs), which are
the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in adults, and gonococci (gon/o=seed),
which invade the reproductive organs and cause gonorrhea.

76

fig-3-4

Appendix E: Blood Cells


Study Figure 3-5 as you read the following to note the differences among the three
different types of cells in the blood.
Erythrocytes (red blood cells). These cells are made in the bone marrow (soft tissue in
the center of certain bones) and are necessary to carry oxygen from the lungs through the
blood to all body cells. The oxygen is then used up by body cells in the process of
converting food to energy (catabolism). Hemoglobin (globin=protein) is an important
protein in erythrocytes that carries the oxygen through the bloodstream.
Leukocytes (white blood cells). There are several types of leukocytes:
Granulocytes (cells with dark-staining granules in their cytoplasm) are formed in bone
marrow. There are three types of granulocytes.
1. Eosinophils (granules stain red (eosin/o = rosy) with acid stain) are thought to
be active and elevated in allergic conditions such as asthma. About 3 per cent
of leukocytes are eosinophils.
2. Basophils (granules stain blue with basic (bas/o = basic) stain). The function
of basophils is not clear, but they play a role in inflammation. Less than 1 per
cent of leukocytes are basophils.

77

fig-3-5

3. Neutrophils (granules stain blue and red (purple) with neutral stain) are
important disease-fighting cells. They are called phagocytes (phag/o = eating,
swallowing) because they engulf and digest bacteria like tiny pac men. They
are the most numerous disease-fighting soldiers and are often called
polymorphonuclear leukocytes because of their nucleus, which is multilobed
(poly = many, morph/o = shape). Almost 60 per cent of leukocytes are
neutrophils.
Agranulocytes (cells without dark-staining granules in cytoplasm) are produced
by lymph nodes and spleen. There are two types of agranulocytes.
4. Lymphocytes (lymph cells) fight disease by producing antibodies and thus
destroying foreign cells. They may also attach directly to foreign cells and
destroy them. Two types of lymphocytes are T cells and B cells. About 32
per cent of leukocytes are lymphocytes.
5. Monocytes (cells with one (mon/o = one) very large nucleus) engulf and
destroy cellular debris after neutrophils have attacked foreign cells.
Monocytes leave the bloodstream and enter tissues (such as lung and liver) to
become macrophages, which are large phagocytes. Monocytes make up about
4 percent of all leukocytes.
Thrombocytes or Platelets (clotting cells). These tiny fragments of blood cells
are formed in the bone marrow and are necessary for blood clotting.
78

Appendix F: Pronunciation Clue


Pronunciation clue: The letters g and c are soft (as in ginger and cent) when
followed by an I or e, and are hard (as in good and can) when followed by an o or
a.
For example:
laryngitis (lar-in-JI-tis)
Laryngotomy (la-rin-GOT-o-me)
Appendix G: Anemia
Anemia literally means no blood. In medical language and usage, anemia refers
to a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of erythrocytes
or amount of hemoglobin in the circulating blood. There are many different kinds
of anemias, classified on the basis of the many different problems that can arise
with red blood cells, their circulation, and content. Aplastic (a = no,
plas/o=formation) anemia is a severe type in which the bone marrow fails to
produce not only erythrocytes but leukocytes and thrombocytes as well.
Appendix H. Ischemia
Ischemia literally means to hold back (isch/o) blood (-emia) from a part of the
body. Tissue that becomes ischemic loses its normal flow of blood and becomes
deprived of oxygen. The ischemia can be caused by mechanical injury to a blood
vessel, by blood clots lodging in a vessel, or by the gradual closing off (occlusion)
of a vessel owing to collection of fatty material.
Appendix I. Tonsillitis
Tonsils (notice the spelling with one letter I, whereas the combining form has a
double letter I) are lymphatic tissue in the throat. The contain white blood cells
(lymphocytes) and function to filter and fight bacteria, but they can also become
infected and inflamed. Streptococcal infection of the throat can cause tonsillitis,
which may lead to tonsillectomy.
Appendix J. Acromegaly
Acromegaly is an example of an endocrine disorder. The pituitary gland attached
to the base of the brain produces an excessive amount of growth hormone after
the completion of puberty. Hence, a person with acromegaly is of normal height,
because the long bones have stopped growth after puberty, but has an abnormally
large growth of bones and tissue in the hands, feet and face. High levels of
growth hormone before completion of puberty produce excessive growth of long
bones (gigantism) as well as acromegaly.

79

Appendix K: Splenomegaly
The spleen is an organ in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen (below the
diaphragm and to the side of the stomach). It is composed of lymph tissue and
blood vessels. Its job is to dispose of dying red blood cells and manufacture white
blood cells (lymphocytes) to fight disease. If the spleen must be removed
(splenectomy), other organs carry out these functions.
Appendix L. Leukocytosis
When osis is used as a suffix with blood cells, it means an abnormal condition in
which there is a slight increase in number of normal circulating blood cells. Thus,
in leukocytosis a slight elevation in numbers of normal white blood cells occurs
in response to the presence of infection in the body. When emia is used as a
suffix with blood cells (-cyte is usually dropped, as ain leukemia), the condition is
an abnormally high or excessive increase in number of abnormal or cancerous
blood cells.
Appendix M. Achondroplasia
Achondroplasia is an inherited disorder in
which the bones of the arms and legs fail to
grow to normal size owing to a defect in
both cartilage and bone. It results in a type
of dwarfism characterized by short limbs, a
normal-sized head and body, and normal
intelligence. (fig 3-6)

fig-3-6

Appendix N. ptosis
The suffix ptosis is pronounced TO-sis.
The rule is that when two consonants begin
a word, the first is silent. If the two
consonants are found in the middle of a
word, both are pronounced. For example
blephroptosis (ble-far-op-TO-sis). The term
ptosis is used alone to mean the drooping of
or inability to use the upper eyelid. (fig 3-7)
fig-3-7

80

Appendix O. Laparoscopy
Laparoscopy (also known as peritoneoscopy) is a visual examination of the
peritoneal cavity (abdomen) with the use of a laparoscope. The laparoscope is
inserted through an incision in the abdomen near the navel, and gas is infused into
the peritoneal cavity. This procedure is used to examine the organs in the
abdomen for evidence of disease or to perform surgical procedures such as
biopsies and tying off of the uterine (fallopian) tubes (Fig. 3-8). Removal of the
gallbladder and appendix can also be performed laparoscopically. As a highly
accurate diagnostic tool, laparoscopy is used to avoid surgical intervention
(laparotomy) and is termed minimally invasive surgery.

fig-3-8

Appendix P. Arteiole
The relationship between an artery, arterioles, capillaries (tiniest of blood
vessels), a venule, and a vein is illustrated in Figure.3-9.

fig-3-9

81

Appendix Q. Adenoids
The adenoids (the literal meaning is resembling glands, since they are neither
endocrine nor exocrine glands) are lymphatic tissue in the part of the throat near
the nose and nasal passages. Enlargement of this tissue may cause blockage of
the airway from the nose to the throat, and adenoidectomy may be advised. The
tonsils are also lymphatic tissue and their location as well as that of the adenoids
is indicated in Figure 3-10.

fig-3-10

82

II. Exercises
A.

Give the meanings for the following suffixes.

1. cele________________________

7. etomy______________________

2. emia_______________________

8. centesis____________________

3. coccus_____________________

9. genesis_____________________

4. gram______________________

10. graph_____________________

5. cyte_______________________

11. itis_______________________

6. algia_______________________

12. graphy____________________

B.

Using the following combining forms and your knowledge of suffixes,


build the following medical terms.
strept/o
amni/o
laryng/o
carcin/o
staphyl/o
rect/o
isch/o
myel/o
mast/o
cyst/o
ot/o
bronch/o
thorac/o
angi/o
arthr/o
my/o
1. Hernia of the urinary bladder_______________________________________
2. Pain of muscle___________________________________________________
3. Process of producing caner_________________________________________
4. Record of the spinal cord __________________________________________
5. Berry-shaped bacteria in twisted chairs_______________________________
6. Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest________________________
7. Removal of the breast_____________________________________________
8. Inflammation of the tubes leading from the windpipe to the lungs _________
9. To hold back blood from cells______________________________________
10. Process of recording (x-ray) blood vessels ____________________________
11. Record (x-ray) of joints____________________________________________

83

12. Berry-shaped bacterial in clusters____________________________________


13. Resection of the voice box_________________________________________
14. Surgical procedure to remove fluid from the sac around the fetus __________
C. Match the following terms that describe blood cells with their meanings
below.
eosinophil
thrombocyte
basophil

monocyte
neutrophil

erythrocyte
lymphocyte

1.

A granulocytic white blood cell that destroys foreign cells by engulfing


and digesting them; also called polymorphonuclear leukocyte
_______________________

2.

An agranular white blood cell that destroys foreign cells by making


antibodies _______________

3.

A clotting cell: also called a platelet ______________________________

4.

A leukocyte whose granules turn red with stain and whole numbers are
elevated in allergic reactions__________________________________

5.

A red blood cell___________________________

6.

An agranular white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris and
contains one large nucleus__________________________________

7.

A white blood cell containing granules in its cytoplasm and prominent in


causing an inflammatory reaction______________________________

D.

Give the meanings for the following suffixes.

1. logy____________________________ 8. megaly ____________________


2, -lysis ___________________________

9. oma _______________________

3. pathy __________________________

10. opsy _____________________

4. penia __________________________

11. plasia_____________________

5. malacia ________________________

12. plasty_____________________

6. osis ___________________________

13. sclerosis___________________

84

E.

7. phobia _________________________ 14. stasis_____________________


Using the following combining forms and your knowledge of suffixes, build
the following medical terms.
hydr/o
blephar/o
my/o
nephr/o
chondr/o
sarc/o

spleen/o
hem/o
myel/o
bi/o
morph/o

cardi/o
acr/o
rhin/o
arteri/o
agor/o

1. Fear of the marketplace (crowds)____________________________________


2. Enlargement of the spleen__________________________________________
3. Study of the shape (of cells)________________________________________
4. Softening of cartilage_____________________________________________
5. Abnormal condition of water (fluid) in the kidney_______________________
6. Disease condition of heart muscle___________________________________
7. Hardening of arteries______________________________________________
8. Tumor (benign) of muscle_________________________________________
9. Flesh tumor (malignant) of muscle___________________________________
10. Surgical repair of the nose_________________________________________
11. Tumor of bone marrow____________________________________________
12. Fear of heights__________________________________________________
13. View of living tissue under the microscope____________________________
14. Stoppage of the flow of blood (by mechanical or natural means)
________________________________
15. Inflammation of the eyelid_______________________

85

F.

Match the following terms with their meanings below.


acromegaly
achondroplasia
laparoscopy
metastasis
osteomalacia
laparoscope
necrosis
colostomy

chemotherapy
hydrotherapy
hypertrophy
atrophy

1. Treatment using drugs_____________________________________________


2. Condition of death (of cells)________________________________________
3. Softening of bone_________________________________________________
4. Opening of the large intestine to the outside of the body __________________
5. No development; shrinkage of cells___________________________________
6. Beyond control; spread of a cancerous tumor to another organ ____________
7. Instrument to visually examine the abdomen___________________________
8. Enlargement of extremities; an endocrine disorder that causes excess growth
hormone to be produced from the pituitary gland after puberty ____________
9. Condition of improper formation of cartilage in the embryo that leads to short
bones and dwarf-like deformities_______________________________________
10. Process of viewing the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity ____________________
11. Treatment using water_____________________________________________
12. Excessive development of cells (increase in size of individual cells)
_________________________
G.

Give the meanings for the following suffixes.

1. ia_________________________ 7. um______________________________
2. trophy_____________________ 8. ule______________________________
3. stasis______________________ 9. y________________________________
4. stomy_____________________ 10. oid_____________________________
5. tomy_____________________ 11. genic___________________________

86

6. ole_______________________ 12. ptosis___________________________


H.

Using the following combining forms and suffixes, build the following
medical terms.

Combining Forms
Pneumon/o
Nephr/o
Arteri/o
Ven/o

pleur/o
mamm/o
lapar/o
radi/o

Suffixes
-gram
-tomy
-scopy
-therapy

-ia
-ule
-dynia
-ole

-pathy
-plasty
-ectomy

1. Incision of the abdomen____________________________________________


2. Process of visual examination of the abdomen__________________________
3. A small artery____________________________________________________
4. Condition of the lungs_____________________________________________
5. Treatment using x-rays____________________________________________
6. Record (x-ray) of the breast_________________________________________
7. Pain of the chest wall and the membranes surrounding the lungs ____________
8. A small vein____________________________________________________
9. Disease condition of the kidney_____________________________________
10. Surgical repair of the breast________________________________________
I.

Underline the suffix in the following terms and give the meaning of the entire
term.
1.laryngeal________________________________________________________
2. inguinal_________________________________________________________
3. chronic_________________________________________________________
4. pulmonary______________________________________________________
5. adipose_________________________________________________________
6. peritoneal ______________________________________________________

87

7. axillary ________________________________________________________
8. necrotic _________________________________________________________
9. epidermoid _____________________________________________________
10. mucous _______________________________________________________
J.

Select from the following terms relating to blood and blood vessels to
complete the sentences below.
ischemia
anemia
genistasis
thrombocytopenia

leukemia
multiple myeloma
leukocytosis
angioplasty

hematoma
arterioles
venules
hemolysis

1. Billy was diagnosed as having excessively high number of cancerous white


blood cells, a disease known as _______________________________ChemoTherapy was prescribed by his doctor, and his prognosis is excellent.
2. Mr. Prestons angiogram showed that he had serious artherosclerosis of one
Of the arteries supplying blood to his heart. His doctor recommended that
______________________________would be helpful to open up his clogged
artery by threading a catheter (tube) through his artery and opening a balloon
at the end of the catheter to widen the artery.
3. Mrs. Jacksons blood count showed a greatly reduced number of red blood
cells, a condition called ___________________________. The cause of this
condition was destruction of her (red) blood cells, known as ______________
4. Doctors were unable to operate on Joe Hite because his platelet count was so
low. His condition is called ________________________________
5. Blockage of an artery leading to Mr. Steins brain led to holding back of blood
flow to nerve tissue in his brain.
This condition, called
_______________________could lead to necrosis of tissue and a
cerebrovascular accident.
6. Small arteries, called_________________________, were broken under Ms.
Beins scalp when she was struck on the head with a rock. She soon
developed a mass of blood, called a (an) _______________________, under
the skin in that region of her head.

88

7. Sarah Jones had a staphylococcal infection that caused her white blood cell
count to be elevated. This slight elevation of white blood cells is called
________________________
8. The factory for making blood cells is the bone marrow (soft inner tissue
within bones). Mr. Brill developed cancerous bone marrow cells in the
marrow of his hip, upper arm, and thigh bones, a condition diagnosed as
____________________________
9. During surgery, it is important to maintain__________________________by
using clamps to close off blood vessels.
10. Small vessels that carry blood back toward the heart from the capillaries and
tissues of the body are known as_____________________________________
K.

Complete the medical term for the following definitions.


Definition.

Medical Term

1. The membrane surrounding the heart

peri__________________________

2. Hardening of arteries

arterio________________________

3. Enlargement of the liver

hepato________________________

4. New opening of the windpipe to the


outside of the body

tracheo________________________

5. Inflammation of the tonsils

_________________________itis

6. Surgical puncture to remove fluid from


The abdomen
abdomino ____________________
7. Muscle pain

my __________________________

8. Pertaining to the membranes surrounding


The lungs
_________________________al
9. Study of the eye

__________________________logy

10. Berry-shaped bacteria in clusters

_________________________cocci

11. Beyond control (spread of a cancerous tumor) meta ___________________


12. Pertaining to the voice Box

________________________eal

89

L.

Select the correct term to complete the following sentences.


1. Ms. Daley has nine children and presents to her doctor complaining of
problems urinating. After examining her, the doctor finds her bladder
protruding into her vagina and tells her she has a (rectocele, cystocele, hiatal
hernia).
2. Suzy coughed constantly for a week. Her doctor told her that her chest x-ray
showed pneumonia. Her sputum (material coughed up from her chest)
demonstrated (ischemic, pleuritic, pneumoccal) bacteria.
3. Mr. Manion went to the doctor complaining that he could not keep his left
upper eyelid from sagging. His doctor told him that he had a neurological
problem called Horners syndrome, characterized by (necrosis,
hydronephrosis, ptosis) of his eyelid.
4. After 6 weeks in a cast to set her broken arm, Jills arm muscles were smaller
and weaker. They had (atrophied, hypertrophied, metastasized) and she was
advised to have physical therapy to strengthen them.
5. Ms. Brody was diagnosed with breast cancer. The first phase of her treatment
included a (nephrectomy, mastectomy, pulmonary resection) to remove her
breast and the tumor. Following the surgery her doctors recommended
(chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hydrotherapy) using drugs such as methotrexate
and 5-fluorouracil.
6. As she grew older, Mrs. Brandweins facial features became coarser, her
hands and tongue became bigger, and doctors told her she had a slowly
progressive endocrine condition called (thyromegaly, splenomegaly,
acromegaly).

90

a. Review Sheet
Write the meanings of each word part in the space provided and test yourself. Check
your answers with the information in the chapter or in the glossary at the end of the book.
Noun Suffixes
Meaning
-algia
____________________

Suffix
-ole

Meaning
__________________

-cele

____________________

-oma

__________________

-centesis

____________________

-opsy

__________________

-coccus

____________________

-osis

__________________

-cyte

____________________

-pathy

__________________

-dynia

____________________

-penia

__________________

-ectomy

____________________

-phobia

__________________

-emia

____________________

-plasia

__________________

-er

____________________

-plasty

__________________

-genesis

____________________

-ptosis

__________________

-genic

____________________

-sclerosis

__________________

-gram

____________________

-scope

__________________

-graph

____________________

scopy

__________________

-graphy

____________________

-stasis

__________________

-ia

_____________________

-stomy

__________________

-ist

_____________________

-therapy

__________________

-it is

_____________________

-tomy

__________________

-logy

_____________________

-trophy

__________________

-lysis

_____________________

-ule

__________________

91

-malacia

_____________________

-megaly
_____________________
Adjective Suffixes

-um, -ium

__________________

-y

__________________

Suffix

Meaning

Suffix

Meaning

-ac

________________

-oid

________________________

-al

________________

-ose

________________________

-ary

________________

-ous

________________________

-eal

________________

-tic

________________________

-ic, -ical

________________

Combining Forms
Combing Form

Meaning

Combining Form

Meaning

Abdomin/o

________________

chem./o

__________________

Acr/o

________________

chondr/o

__________________

Aden/o

________________

chron/o

__________________

Adip/o

________________

col/o

__________________

Agor/a

________________

cyst/o

__________________

Amni/o

________________

encephal/o

__________________

Angi/o

________________

erythr/o

__________________

Arteri/o

________________

hem/o

__________________

Arthr/o

________________

hepat/o

__________________

Axill/o

________________

hydr/o

__________________

Bi/o

________________

inguin/o

__________________

Blephar/o

________________

lapar/o

__________________

92

Bronch/o

________________

laryng/o

__________________

Carcin/o

________________

leuk/o

__________________

Cardi/o

________________

lymph/o

__________________
Mamm/o

________________

pleur/o

__________________

Mast/o

________________

pneumon/o

__________________

Morph/o

_______________

pulmon/o

__________________

Muc/o

________________

radi/o

__________________

My/o

_______________

rect/o

__________________

Myel/o

_______________

rhin/o

__________________

Necr/o

_______________

sarc/o

__________________

Nephr/o

_______________

splen/o

__________________

Neur/o

_______________

staphyl/o

__________________

Nucle/o
_______________
__________________

strept/o

Ophthalm/o

_______________

thorac/o

_________________

Oste/o

_______________

thromb/o

_________________

Ot/o

_______________

tonsil/o

_________________

Peritone/o

_______________

ven/o

_________________

Plas/o

_______________

Do you remember the following combining forms from previous chapters?


Combining Form

Meaning

Combination Form

Anter/o

_________________ later/o

__________________

Cephal/o

_________________ Cervic/o

________________

93

Meaning

poster/o

_________________ Crani/o

________________

ren/o

_________________ Dist/o

________________

trache/o

________________

________________

viscer/o

CHAPTER - 4
PREFIXES
This Chapter is divided into the following sections.
I.

Introduction

II.

Combining Forms and Suffixes

III.

Prefixes and Terminology

IV.

Appendices

V.

Exercises

VI.

Review Sheet

In this Chapter you will


Define basic prefixes used in the medical language;
Analyze medical terms that combine prefixes and other word elements; and
Learn about the Rh condition as an example of an antigenantibody reaction.
I.

Introduction.

This chapter on prefixes, like the preceding chapter on suffixes, is designed to


give you practice in word analysis and provide a foundation for the study of the
terminology of body systems that follows.
The list of combining forms, suffixes, and their meanings in Section II will help
you analyze the terminology in the rest of the chapter. The appendices (Section
IV) are included to give more complete understanding of the terms and to explain
the words with reference to the anatomy, physiology, and diseases of the body.

94

Combining Forms
Combining Form

Meaning

Carp/o

wrist bones

Cib/o

meals

Cis/o

to cut

Cost/o

rib

Cutane/o

skin

Dactyl/o

fingers, toes

Duct/o

to lead, carry

Flex/o

to bend

Furc/o

forking, branching

Gloss/o

tongue

Glyc/o

sugar

Immune/o

protection

Morph/o

shape, form

Mort/o

death

Nat//I

birth

Nect/o

to bind, tie, connect

Norm/o

rule, order

Ox/o

oxygen

95

Seps/o

infection

Somn/o

sleep

Son/o

sound

The/o

to put, place

Thel/o

nipple

Thyr/o

shield; the shape of the thyroid gland


resembled (-oid) a shield to those who
named it.

Top/o

place, position, location

Tox/o

poison

Trache/o

windpipe, trachea

Urethr/o

urethra

Suffixes
Suffix

Meaning

-blast

embryonic, immature

-cyesis

pregnancy

-drome

to run

-fusion

to pour

-gen

producing, forming

-lapse

to slide, fall, sag

-lysis
-meter

breakdown, separation, loosening


to measure

-mission

to send

-or

one who

96

-partum

birth, labor

-phoria

to bear, carry; feeling (mental state)

-physis

to grow

-plasia
-plasm

development, formation
development, formation

-pnea

breathing

-ptosis

droop, sag, prolapse

-rrhea

flow, discharge

-stasis

to stop, control

-trophy

nourishment, development
II.

Prefixes and Terminology

Write the meaning of the medical term in the space provided.


________________________________________________________________________
Prefix
Meaning
Terminology
Meaning
a-, an-

no, not, without

apnea ____________________________________
anoxia ___________________________________

ab-

away from

abnormal _________________________________
abductor___________________________________
A muscle that draws a limb away from the body.

Ad-

toward

adductor___________________________________
Adrenal glands_____________________________

Ana-

up, apart

anabolism_________________________________
Analysis__________________________________
Psychoanalysis is a psychiatric therapy that explores
the mind.
Urinalysis (urin/o + (analysis) is
laboratory examination of urine to aid in diagnosis.

97

Ante-

before, forward

ante cibum_________________________________
a.c. is a notation on prescription orders. It means
prior to (before) meals.
Anteflexion_______________________________

Anti-

against

Ante partum ______________________________


antisepsis _________________________________
An antiseptic (-sis change to tic to form an
adjective) substance is used against infections.
Anti- is pronounced an-tuh.
Antibiotic_________________________________
Antigen___________________________________
In this word, anti-stands for antibody.
Antitoxin_________________________________

Auto-

self, own

autoimmune_______________________________

Bi-

two

bifurcation_________________________________
Bilateral___________________________________

Brady-

slow

bradycardia________________________________

Cata-

down

catabolism_________________________________

Con-

with, together

congenital anomaly__________________________
Connective________________________________

Contra-

against, opposite

contraindication_____________________________
Contra means against in this term.
Contralateral_______________________________
Contra means opposite in this term.

De-

down, lack of

dehydration_______________________________

Dia-

through,
complete

diameter__________________________________
Diarrhea__________________________________
Dialysis__________________________________

98

Dys-

bad, painful,
Difficult,
Abnormal

dyspnea__________________________________

Ec-, ecto-

out, outside

ectopic pregnancy__________________________

En-, endo-

in, within

endotracheal_______________________________

dysplasia_________________________________

Endoscope_________________________________
Endocardium_______________________________
Epi-

upon, on, above

epithelium_________________________________

Eu-

good, normal

euthyroid__________________________________
Normal thyroid function.
Euphoria__________________________________
Exaggerated feeling of well-being.

Ex-

out, away from

exophthalmia______________________________
Protrusion of the eyeball associated with
enlargement and overactivity of the thyroid gland.

Hemi-

half

hemiglossectomy____________________________

Hyper-

excessive, above

hyperplasia________________________________
Increase in cell numbers.
Hypertrophy_______________________________
Increase in size of individual cells.
Hyperglycemia_____________________________

Hypo-

deficient, under

hypodermic________________________________
Hypoglycemia______________________________

In-

not

insomniac_________________________________

In-

into

incision___________________________________

Infra-

beneath

infracostal_________________________________

Inter-

between

intercostal________________________________

99

Intra-

into, within

intravenous_______________________________

Macro-

large

macrocephalic_____________________________

Mal-

bad

malignant________________________________
From the Latin ignis meaning fire. Benign (bengood) tumors are non-cancerous, whereas malignant
tumors are cancerous.
Malaise__________________________________
From the French malaise meaning a vague feeling
of bodily discomfort.

Meta-

change, beyond

metamorphosis_____________________________
Meta-means change in this term.
Metastasis________________________________
Meta-means beyond in this term.
Metacarpal bones___________________________
These are five hand bones. They lie beyond the
wrist bones, but before the finger bones
(phalanges).

Micro-

small

microscope_______________________________

Neo-

new

neoplasm________________________________
Neonatal________________________________

Pan-

all

pancytopenia_____________________________
Deficiency of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and
thrombocytes.

Para-

near, beside,
Abnormal

parathyroid glands___________________________
Paralysis__________________________________
Abnormal disruption of the connection between
nerve and muscle. Originally from the Greek
paralysis meaning to separate, loosen on one side,
describing the loss of movement on one side of the
body (occurring with stroke patients).

100

Per-

through

percutaneous_______________________________

Peri-

surrounding

pericardium________________________________
periosteum_________________________________

Poly-

many, much

polymorphonuclear__________________________
polyneuritis________________________________

Post-

after, behind

post mortem_______________________________
Postnatal__________________________________

Pre-

before, in front of

precancerous_______________________________
prenatal___________________________________

Pro-

before, forward

prodrome__________________________________
prodromal symptoms (rash, fever) appear before the
actual illness and signal its onset.
Prolapse___________________________________

Pseudo-

false

pseudocyesis_______________________________
Development of signs of pregnancy but without the
presence of an embryo.

Re-

back, again

relapse____________________________________
A disease or its symptoms return after an apparent
recovery.
remission_________________________________
Symptoms lessen and the patient feels better.
recombinant DNA__________________________

Retro-

behind, backward

retroperitoneal______________________________
retroflexion_______________________________

Sub-

under

subcutaneous______________________________

Supra-

above, upper

suprathoracic_______________________________

101

suprarenal glands___________________________
Syn-, sym-

together, with

syndactyly_________________________________
synthesis__________________________________
syndrome_________________________________
Before the letters b, p, and m, syn becomes sym.
symbiosis_________________________________
symmetry_________________________________
What is asymmetry?
symphysis_________________________________

Tachy-

fast

tachypnea_________________________________

Trans-

across, through

transfusion_________________________________
transurethral_______________________________

Ultra-

beyond, excess

ultrasonography_____________________________

Uni-

one

unilateral__________________________________

III.

Appendices

Appendix A: Adrenal Glands.

fig 4-1

102

The adrenal glands (also called suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands located
above each kidney. They secrete chemical called hormones that effect the
functioning of the body.
One of these hormones is called adrenaline
(epinephrine). It causes the bronchial tubes to widen, the heart to beat more
rapidly, and blood pressure to rise (Fig.4-1).
Appendix B. Antibiotic
An antibiotic is a chemical that destroys or inhibits the growth of microorganisms
(small living things) such as bacteria. The fist antibiotic, penicillin, was produced
from immature plants called molds or fungi.
Appendix C. Antigens and Antibodies: The Rh Condition.
An antigen is a substance. Usually foreign to the body (such as a poison, virus, or
bacterium), that stimulates the production of antibodies. Antibodies are protein
substances made by white blood cells in response to the presence of foreign
antigens. For example, the flu virus (antigen) enters the body, causing the
production of antibodies in the bloodstream. These antibodies will then attack to
and destroy the antigens (viruses) that produced them. The reaction between and
antigen and an antibody is called an immune reaction (immune/o means
protection).
Another example of an antigen-antibody in the Rh condition. A person who is Rh
has a protein coating (antigen) on his or her red blood cells (RBCs). This antigen
factor is something that the person is born with and is normal for his or her. A
person who is Rh has normal RBCs as well, but they do not carry the Rh factor
antigen.
If an Rh woman and an Rh man conceive an embryo, the embryo may be Rh or
Rh-. A dangerous condition arises only when the embryo is Rh+. During
delivery of the first Rh+ baby, some of the babys blood cells containing antigens
may escape into the mothers bloodstream. The sensitizes the mother so that she
produces a low level of antibodies to the Rh+ antigen. Because this occurs at
delivery, the first baby is generally not affected and is normal at birth.
Sensitization can also occur after a miscarriage or an abortion.

103

fig 4-2

Difficulties arise with the second Rh+ pregnancy. If the embryo is Rh+ again,
during pregnancy the mothers acquired antibodies will enter the infants
bloodstream and attack the infants RBCs (Rh+). The infants RBCs are
destroyed, and the infant attempts to compensate for this loss of cells by making
many new immature RBCs (erythroblasts). The infant is born with a condition
known as erythroblastosis fetalis, or hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN).
One of the clinical symptoms of erythroblastosis fetalis is jaundice, or yellow skin
pigmentation. The jaundice results from the excessive destruction of RBCs,
which causes a substance called bilirubin (chemical pigment produced when
hemoglobin from dying RBCs is broken down) to accumulate in the blood
To prevent HDN, Rh immune globulin is given to the mother at 28 weeks of
pregnancy and within 72 hours after each Rh+ delivery or after every abortion and
miscarriage if the father is Rh+. The globulin binds to Rh+ cells that have
escaped into the mothers circulation, and thus prevents the mother from making
Rh+ antibodies. This ensures that future babies will not develop HDN. Fig. 4-2
reviews the antigen-antibody reaction in the Rh condition in diagrammatic
fashion.
Appendix D: Autoimmune
Part of the normal immune reaction (protecting the body against foreign invaders)
involves making antibodies to fight against viruses and bacteria. However, in an
autoimmune reaction, the body makes antibodies against its own good cells and
tissues, causing inflammation and injury. Examples of autoimmune disorders are
rheumatoid arthritis (joints are affected), systemic lupus erythematosus
(connective tissues, skin, and internal organs are affected), and Graves disease
(hyperthyroidism the thyroid gland is affected).

104

Appendix E: Congenital Anomaly


An anomaly is an irregularity in a structure of organ. Examples of congenital
anomalies (those that an infant is born with) are webbed fingers or toes (syndactyly)
and heart defects. Some congenital anomalies are recognized as hereditary (passed to
the infant through chromosomes from the father or mother, or both), whereas others
are produced by factors during pregnancy (for example, cocaine addiction in the
mother produces addiction and brain damage in the infant at birth.)
Appendix F: Contralateral
The effect of a stroke (celebral ischemia or necrosis) on the limbs of the body is
contralateral. This means that if the brain damage is located on the right side of
the brain, the patient will have paralysis on the left side of the body. The muscles
on one side of the body are controlled by nerves from the opposite side
(contralateral) of the brain. Ipsilateral (ipsi-means same) refers to the same side.
Appendix G: Dialysis
Dialysis literally means complete separation. A dialysis machine (artificial
kidney) can completely separate out from the blood the harmful waste products of
the body that are normally removed by the urine.
Appendix H: Ectopic Pregnancy
In a normal pregnancy, the embryo develops within the uterus. In an ectopic
pregnancy. The embryo is implanted outside the uterus most often it is found in
the uterine (fallopian) tubes, and sometimes in the ovary or abdominal cavity
(Fig.4-3).

105

fig 4-3

Appendix I: Parathyroid Glands


There are four parathyroid glands located on the dorsal side of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroids are endocrine glands that produce a hormone and function
entirely separately from the thyroid gland. The parathyroid hormone increases
blood calcium and maintains it at a normal level.
Appendix K: Recombinant DNA
This is the process of taking a gene (region of DNA) from one organism and
inserting it (recombining it) into the DNA of another organism. An example is the
recombinant DNA technique used to manufacture insulin outside the body. The
gene that codes for insulin (i.e., contains the recipe for making insulin) is cut out
of a human chromosome (using special enzymes) and transferred into a
bacterium, such as Escherichia coli. The bacterium then contains the gene for
making human insulin and, because it divides very rapidly, can produce insulin in
large quantities. The insulin is given to diabetic patients who are unable to make
their own insulin. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a new method of
producing multiple copies of a single gene, and is an important tool for making
recombinant DNA.

fig 4-4

Appendix. J: Prolapse
-Lapse means to slide, sag, or fall. If an organ or tissue prolapses, it slides
forward or downward. Prolapse of the uterus is a common example. If the
muscles that hold the uterus in place become weak, the uterus may slide
downward toward the vagina (Fig.4-4).
Appendix. K: Ptosis

106

Ptosis (To-sis) is another term that has the same meaning as prolapse. Ptosis of
the eyelid occurs when the eyelid muscles are weak and a person has difficulty
voluntarily lifting the eyelid to keep the eye open. Proptosis (forward prolapse)
also is used to refer to the eye and means a bulging or forward protusion of the
eyeball, as in exophthalmia.
Appendix L. Syndrome
A syndrome is a group or symptoms that commonly occur together and indicate a
particular disease or abnormal condition. An example of a syndrome is Reye
syndrome, characterized by vomiting, swelling of the brain, increased intracranial
pressure, hypoglycemia, and dysfunction of the liver. It can occur in children
following a viral infection that has been treated with aspirin.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a group of symptoms (pre and postnatal growth
deficiency, mental retardation, microcephaly, heart defects) in an infant, caused by
the mothers intake of alcohol during pregnancy.
Appendix M: Symbiosis
Symbiosis refers to the living together in close association of two organism, either
for mutual benefit or not. The bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract of
humans are an example of symbiosis. Parasitism is an example of symbiosis in
which one organism benefits and the other does not.
In psychiatry, symbiosis is a relationship between two persons who are
emotionally dependent on each other
Appendix N: Symphysis
A symphysis is a type of joint in which the bony surfaces are firmly united by a
plate of cartilage. Examples are the pubic symphysis where the pubic bones of the
pelvis have grown together and the symphysis of the two halves of the lower jaw
bone (mandible) that unite before birth.
Appendix O: transurethral

A transuretheral resection of the prostate gland (TURP) is a removal of a portion


of the prostate gland by means of an instrument that is passed through (trans-)
urethra. The procedure is necessary when the prostatic tissue enlarges
(hypertrophies) and interferes with urination.
Appendix P: Ultrasonography

107

Ultrasonography is a diagnostic technique using ultrasound waves (inaudible


sound waves) to produce an image of photograph or an organ or tissue. The
ultrasonic echoes are recorded as they pass through different types of tissues.

EXERCISES:
A. GIVE THE MEANINGS FOR THE FOLLOWING PREFIXES
1. ante ________________________

7. auto- ________________________

2. ab- ________________________

8. cata- ________________________

3. ana- ________________________

9. brady- ________________________

4. anti- ________________________

10. contra- ________________________

5. a-, an- ________________________

11. bi- ________________________


108

6. ad- ________________________

12. con- ________________________

B. MATCH THE FOLLOWING TERMS WITH THEIR MEANING BELOW.


bilateral
adductor
bradycardia
cogenital anomaly
antisepsis
apnea
contralateral
analysis
anoxia
antepartum
anteflexion
adrenal
1. Bending forward ___________________________________________________
2. A muscle that carries the limb toward the body ___________________________
3. Before birth _______________________________________________________
4. Slow heartbeat _____________________________________________________
5. A gland located near (above) each kidney ________________________________
6. Not breathing ______________________________________________________
7. Pertaining to the opposite side _________________________________________
8. Against infection ___________________________________________________
9. To separate apart ___________________________________________________
10. Pertaining to two (both) sides _________________________________________
11. Condition of no oxygen in tissues ______________________________________
12. An irregularity that is present at birth ___________________________________

C. SELECT FROM THE FOLLOWING TERMS TO COMPLETE THE


SENTENCES BELOW.
autoimmune
antitoxin
antigen

antibody
antibiotic
anabolism

catabolism
contraindication

1. A chemical substance, such as erythromycin (-mycin = mold), that is made from


molds and used against bacterial life is a (an) _____________________________

109

2. The process of burning food (breaking it down) and releasing the energy stored in
the food is _________________________________________________________
3. A reason that a doctor would advise against taking a specific medication would be
a (an) ____________________________________________________________
4. A disorder in which the bodys own leukocytes make antibodies that damage its
own good tissue is a (an) _____________________________ disorder.
5. A protein made by lymphocytes in response to the presence in the blood of a
specific antigen is a (an) _____________________________________________
6. A foreign agent (virus or bacterium) is known as a (an) _____________________
because it causes the production of antibodies by white blood cells.
7. A type of antibody that acts against poisons that enter the body is a (an)
________________________
8. The process of building up proteins in cells by putting together small pieces of
proteins called amino acids is called ____________________________________

D. GIVE THE MEANINGS FOR THE FOLLOWING


PREFIXES
1. ec- _________________________

9. en- _________________________

2. dys- ________________________

10. eu-_________________________

3. de- _________________________

11. in- _________________________

4. dia- ________________________

12. inter- _______________________

5. hemi- _______________________

13. intra- _______________________

6. hypo- _______________________

14. infra- _______________________

7. epi- _________________________

15. macro- ______________________

8. hyper- _______________________
E. COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING TERMS FROM THEIR MEANINGS
GIVEN BELOW
1. Normal thyroid function: _________________________ thyroid

110

2. Painful breathing: _________________________ pnea


3. Pregnancy that is out of place _________________________ topic
4. Instrument to visually examine within the body: endo ______________________
5. Removal of half of the tongue: _________________________ glossectomy
6. Good feeling (of well-being): _________________________ phoria
7. Pertaining to within the windpipe: endo _________________________
8. A blood condition of less than normal sugar: _________________________
glycemia.
9. Pertaining to (having) a large head: _________________________ cephalic
10. Pertaining to between the ribs: _________________________ costal.
11. Pertaining to within a vein: intra _________________________
12. Condition of bad (abnormal) formation (of cells): dys ______________________
13. Condition
of
excessive
formation
_________________________ plasia

(number

of

cells):

14. The structure (membrane) that forms the inner lining of the heart:
endo_________________________
15. Pertaining to below the ribs: infra _________________________
16. A blood condition of excessive amount of sugar: hyper _____________________

111

CHAPTER 5 - PHARMACOLOGY
SAHARA

In this chapter you will

I.

Learn the various subspecialty areas of pharmacology;

Identify the various routes of drug administration;

Differentiate between the different classes of drugs and their


actions

Define medical terms using combining forms, prefixes and


suffixes that relate to pharmacology.

Apply your new knowledge to understanding medical terms


in their proper contexts, such as medical reports and
records.

Introduction

Drugs are chemical or biological substances used in the prevention or


treatment of disease, or to alter bodily functions in a beneficial way.
Drugs can come from many different sources. Some drugs are obtained
from parts of plants, such as the roots, leaves, and fruit. Examples of
such drugs are digitalis (from the foxglove plant) and antibiotics such as
penicillin and streptomycin (from lower plants called molds). Drugs can
also be obtained from animals; for example, hormones are secretions
from the glands of animals. Drugs can be made as chemical substances
that synthesized in the laboratory.
Anticancer drugs, such as
112

methotrexate and prednisone, are examples of laboratory-synthesized


drugs. Some drugs are contained in food substances; these drugs are
called vitamins.
Drugs are dispensed by a pharmacist, whose shop or store is called a
pharmacy on written orders from a physician or dentist. As a health care
professional, a pharmacist cooperates with the consults with, and
sometimes advises licensed practitioners concerning drugs. In addition,
the pharmacist answers patients questions concerning their prescription
needs.
The field of medicine that studies drugs, their nature, origin, and effect
on the body ---- is called pharmacology.
Pharmacology is a broad medical specialty and contains many
subdivisions
of
study,
including
medicinal
chemistry,
pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, molecular pharmacology,
chemotherapy, and toxicology.
Medicinal chemistry is the study of new drug synthesis and the
relationship between chemical structure and biological effects.
Pharmacodynamics involves the study of drug effects in the body.
Scientists may also study the processes of drug absorption (how drugs
pass into the bloodstream), metabolism (changes drugs undergo within
the body), and excretion (removal of the drug from the body). The
mathematical description of drug disposition (appearance and
disappearance) in the body over time is called pharmacokinetics.
Molecular pharmacology concerns the study of the interaction of drugs
and subcellular entities, such as DNA, RNA, and enzymes. These studies
provide important information about the mechanism of action of the
drug.
Chemotherapy is the study of drugs that destroy microorganisms,
parasites, or malignant cells within the body. Chemotherapy includes
treatment of infectious diseases and cancer.
Toxicology is the study of harmful chemicals and their effects on the
body. Toxicological studies in animals are required by law before new

113

drugs can be tested in humans. A toxicologist is also interested in


finding proper antidotes to any harmful effects of drugs. Antidotes are
substances given to neutralize unwanted effects of drugs.

Drug Names, Standards, and References


Names

A drug can have three different names. The chemical name is the
chemical formula for the drug. This name, often long and complicated, is
useful for the chemist because it shows the structure of the drug.
The generic or official name is a shorter, less complicated name that is
recognized as identifying the drug for legal and scientific purposes. The
generic name becomes public property after 17 years of use by the
original manufacturer, and any drug manufacturer may use it thereafter.
There is only one generic name for each drug.
The brand (trade or proprietary) name is the private property of the
individual drug manufacturer, and no competitor may use it. Brand
names often have the superscript R after or before the name, indicating
that this a registered trade name. Most drugs have several brand names
because each manufacturer producing the drug gives it a different name.
When a specific brand name is ordered on a prescription by a physician,.
It is usual practice to capitalize the first letter of a brand name.
The following lists give the chemical, generic, and brand names of the
antibiotic drug ampicillin; note that the drug can have several brand
names but only one generic, or official, name:

Chemical Name

Generic Name

Brand Name

derivative of
6-aminopenicillanic
acid

ampicillin

Amcill capsules
Omnipen
Polycillin

114

Principen

Standards
Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has the legal
responsibility for deciding whether a drug may be distributed and sold,
there are definite standards for drugs set by an independent committee
of physicians, pharmacologists, pharmacists, and manufacturers. This
committee is called the United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.). Two
important standards of the U.S.P. are that the drug must be clinically
useful (useful for patients) and available in pure form (made by good
manufacturing methods). If a drug has U.S.P. after its name, it has met
with the standards of the Pharmacopeia.

References
Libraries and hospitals have two large reference listings of drugs. The
most complete and up-to-date is the Hospital Formulary, which gives
information about the characteristics of drugs and their clinical
(application to patient care).
The Physicians Desk Reference (PDR) is published by a private firm,
and drug manufacturers pay to have their products listed. The PDR is a
useful reference with several different indices to identify drugs along with
precautions, warnings about side effects, and information about
recommended dosage and administration for each drug.

II.

Administration of Drugs
The route of administration of a drug (how it is introduced
into the body) is very important in determining the rate and
completeness of its absorption into the bloodstream and the
speed and duration of the drugs action in the body.
The various methods of administering drugs are described
here:
115

Oral Administration: Drugs are given by mouth and are


slowly absorbed into the bloodstream through the stomach
or intestinal wall. This method, although convenient for the
patient, has several disadvantages. If the drug is destroyed
in the digestive tract by digestive juices, or if the drug is
unable to pass through the intestinal mucosa, it will be
ineffective. Oral administration is also disadvantageous if
time is a factor in therapy.
Sublingual Administration: Drugs are not swallowed but
are placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve in the
saliva.
For some agents absorption may be rapid.
Nitroglycerin tablets are taken in this way to treat attacks of
angina pectoris.
Rectal Administration: Suppositories (cone-shaped objects
containing drugs) and aqueous solutions are inserted into
the rectum. At times, drugs are given by rectum when oral
administration presents difficulties, such as when the
patient is nauseated and vomiting.
Parenteral Administration: This type of administration is
accomplished by injection of the drug from a syringe (tube)
through a hallow needle placed under the skin, into a
muscle, into a vein, or into a body cavity. There are several
types of parenteral injections.
1. Subcutaneous injection (SC). This is also called a
hypodermic injection, and it is given just under the
skin. The outer surface of the arm is a usual
location for this injection.
2. Intradermal injection. This shallow injection is
made into the upper layers of the skin and is used
chiefly in skin testing for allergic reactions.
3. Intramuscular injection (IM).
The buttock or
upper arm is usually the site for this injection into
muscle. When drugs are irritating to the skin or

116

when a large volume of a long-acting drug is


needed, IM injections are advisable.
4. Intravenous injection (IV). This injection is given
directly into the veins.
It is given when an
immediate effect from the drug is desired or when
the drug cannot be safely given into other tissues.
Good technical skill is needed for a administering
this injection, because leakage of drugs into
surrounding tissues may result in irritation and
inflammation.
5. Intrathecal injection. This injection is made into
the space underlying the membrane (meninges)
that surround the spinal cord and brain.
Methotrexate (a cancer chemotherapeutic drug) is
injected intrathecally fro treatment of leukemia.
6. Intracavitary injection. This injection is made into
a body cavity, such as the peritoneal cavity. For
example, nitrogen mustard is injected into the
pleural cavity in people who have pleural effusions
due to malignant disease. The drug causes the
pleural to adhere, thus obliterating the pleural
space and preventing the accumulation of fluid.
Inhalation. Vapors or gases are taken into the nose or mouth and are
absorbed into the bloodstream through the thin walls of the air sacs in
the lungs. Aerosols (particles of drug suspended in air) are administered
by inhalation, as are many anesthetics. Examples of aerosols are
pentamidine, use to treat a form of pneumonia associated with acquired
immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and various aerosolized medicines
used to treat asthma (spasm of lung airways).
Topical Application. Drugs are locally applied on the skin or mucous
membranes of the body. Antiseptics (against infection) and antipruritics
(against itching) are commonly used as ointments, creams, and lotions.
Transdermal patches are used to deliver drugs (such as estrogen, pain
medications, and nicotine) continuously through the skin.

117

ROUTES OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION


Oral
Tablets

Sublingual
Tablets

Rectal
Suppositories

Parenteral

Inhalation

Injections
Aerosols
Subcutaneous
Intradermal
Intramuscular
Intravenous
Intrathecal
Intracavitary

Topical
Lotions
Creams
Ointments
Transdermal
Patches

Terminology of Drug Action


When a drug enters the body, the target substance with which the drug
interacts to produce its effects is called a receptor. A drug may cross the
cell membrane to reach its intracellular receptor or may react with a
receptor in the cells surface.
The following terms describe the action and interaction of drugs in the
body after they have been absorbed into the bloodstream:
Additive Action. The combination of two similar drugs is equal to the
sum of the effects of each. For example, if drug A gives 10 percent tumor
kill as a chemotherapeutic agent and drug B gives 20 percent tumor kill,
using A and B together would give 30 percent tumor kill.
Idiosyncrasy. This is any unexpected effect that may appear in the
patient following administration of a drug. Idiosyncratic reactions (due to
genetic deficiencies in enzymes) are produced in very few patients but
may be life-threatening in those few instances. For example, in some
individuals penicillin is known to cause an idiosyncratic reaction such
anaphylaxis (acute type of hypersensitivity, including asthma and shock)
Synergism (potentiation). A combination of two drugs can sometimes
causes an effect that is greater than the sum of the individual effects of
each drug given along. For example, penicillin and streptomycin, two
antibiotic drugs, are given together in the treatment of bacterial
endocarditis because of their synergistic effect.

118

Tolerance. The effects of a given dose diminish as treatment goes on,


and increasing amounts are needed to produce the same effect.
Tolerance is a feature of addiction to drugs such as morphine and
meperidine hydrochloride (Demerol). Addiction is the physical and
psychological dependence on and craving for a drug and the presence of
clear effects when that drug or other agent is withdrawn.

Drug Toxicity
Drug toxicity is the poisonous and potentially dangerous effects of some
drugs. Idiosyncrasy is an example of an unpredictable type of drug
toxicity.
Other types of drug toxicity are more predictable and are based on the
dosage of the drug given. Physicians are trained to be aware of the
potential toxic effects of all drugs that they prescribe. Iatrogenic
(produced by treatment) disorders can occur however, as a result of
mistakes in drug use or of individual sensitivity to a given agent.
Side effects are toxic effects that routinely result from the use of a drug.
They often occur with usual therapeutic dosage of a drug and are
generally tolerable. For example, nausea, vomiting, and alopecia are
common side effects of the chemotherapeutic drugs used to treat cancer.
Contraindications are factors in a patients condition that make the use
of drug dangerous and ill advised. For example, in the presence of renal
failure, it is unwise to administer a drug that is normally eliminated by
the kidneys because excess drug will accumulate in the body and cause
side effects.
Classes of Drugs
The following are major classes of drugs and explanations of their used
in the body. The names of specific drugs are included in tables for your
reference (trade or brand names are capitalized; generic names begin
with a small letter).

119

Analgesics
An analgesic (alges/o means sensitivity to pain) is a drug that relieves
pain. Mild analgesics are used for mild to moderate pain, such as that
caused by myalgias, headaches, and toothaches. More potent analgesics
are narcotics or opioids, so called because they contain or are derived
from opium. They induce stupor (a condition of near unconsciousness
and reduced mental and physical activity). They are sued only to relieve
sever pain because they may produce dependence (habit formation) and
tolerance. Morphine is an example of a narcotic analgesic.
Some non-narcotic analgesics reduce fever, pain, and inflammation and
are used in rheumatic (joint) disorders. These agents are not steroid
hormones (such as cortisone) and are known as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs act on tissues to inhibit
prostagtlandins (hormone-like substances that sensitize peripheral pain
receptors).

Anesthetics
An anesthetic is an agent that reduces or eliminates sensation. This can
affect the whole body (general anesthetic) or a particular region (local
anesthetic). General anesthetics are used for surgical procedures; they
depress the activity of the central nervous system, producing loss
consciousness. Local anesthetics inhibit the conduction of impulses in
sensory nerves in the region in which they are injected or applied.
ANALGESICS AND ANESTHETICS

Analgesics

Anesthetics

MILD

GENERAL

acetaminophen (Tylenol)
aspirin

ether
halothane (Fluothane)

nitrous oxide

120

NARCOTIC (opioid)
codeine
hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
meperidine (Demerol)
morphine
oxycodone (Percodan)
propoxyphene (Darvon)

thiopental (Pentothal)
LOCAL
hydrocortisone acetate (Orabase)
lidocaine (Xylocaine)
procaine (Novocaine)

NONSTEROIDAL
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG
(NSAID)
diclofenac (Voltaren)
ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil)
indomethacin (Indocin)
naproxen (Naprosyn, Aleve)

Antibiotics and Antivirals


An antibiotic is a chemical substance produced by a microorganism
(bacterium, yeast, or mold) that inhibits (bacteriostatic) or kills
(bactericidal) bacteria, fungi, and parasites. The use of antibiotics
(penicillin was first in general use in 1945) has largely controlled many
diseases such as pneumonia, rheumatic fever, and mastoiditis. Caution
about the use of antibiotics is warranted because they are powerful
agents. With indiscriminate use, pathogenic organisms ca develop
resistance to the antibiotic and thus destroy the antibiotics diseasefighting capability.
Antiviral drugs are used against viruses, such as herpes virus.
Epstein-Barr
virus,
cytomegalovirus
(CMV),
and
human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Antibiotics and Antivirals


ANTIFUNGALS
amphotericin B (Fungizone)
fluconazole (Diflucan)
miconazole (Monistat)
nystatin (Nilstat)

PENICILLINS: BACTERICIDAL
amoxicillin (Amoxil, Trimox)
amoxicillin with clavulanate (Augmentin)
QUINOLONES: BACTERICIDAL AND
WIDE SPECTRUM

ANTITUBERCULARS
isoniazid or INH (Nydrazid)
rifampin (Rifadin)

ciprofloxacin (Cipro)
ofloxacin (Floxin)

121

ANTIVIRALS
acyclovir (Zovirax)
indinavir (Crixivan)
lamivudine (Epivir)
zidovudine or AZT (Retrovir)
CEPHALOSPORINS: BACTERICIDAL
AND SIMILAR TO PENICILLINS

SULFONAMIDES OR SULFA DRUGS:


BACTERICIDAL
sulfamethoxazole with trimethoprim
(Bactrim, Sulfatrim)
sykfusixazole (Gantrisin)
TETRACYCLINES: BACTERIOSTATIC
doxycycline
tetracycline

cefprozil (Cefzil)
cefuroxime axetil (Ceftin)
ERYTHROMYCINS: BACTERIOSTATIC
azithromycin (Zithromax)
clarithromycin (Biaxin)
Anti-HIV (protease inhibitor)
Anti-HIV (reverse transcriptase inhibitor)
Note: Brand names are in parentheses.

Anticoagulants and Antiplatelet Drugs.


Anticoagulants prevent the clotting (coagulation) of blood. They prevent
the formation of clots or break up clots in blood vessels in conditions
such as thrombosis and embolism. They are also used to prevent
coagulation in preserved blood used for transfusions. Heparin is a
natural anticoagulant produced by liver cells and some white blood cells.
Other anticoagulants, including warfarin (Coumadin), are manufactured.
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) dissolves clots and is used to
open vessels after myocardial infarction.
Antiplatelet drugs reduce the tendency of platelets to stick together,
Aspirin is an example of an antiplatelet drug; it is recommended for
patients with coronary artery disease and for those who have had heart
attacks.

Anticonvulsants

122

An anticonvulsant prevents or reduces the frequency of convulsions in


various types of epilepsy. Ideally, anticonvulsants depress abnormal
spontaneous activity of the brain arising from areas of scar or tumor,
without affecting normal brain function.

Antidepressants
These drugs treat symptoms of depression. They can elevat3e mood,
increase physical activity and mental alertness, and improve appetite and
sleep patterns. Many antidepressants are also mild sedatives and treat
mild forms of depression associated with anxiety.
The largest class of antidepressants increases the action of
neurotransmitters by blocking their removal (reuptake) from eh synapses
(spaces between nerve cells). These drugs include tricyclics (TCAs) and
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Other antidepressants
are monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which increase the length
of time neurotransmitters work by blocking monoamine oxidase, an
enzyme that normally inactivates neurotransmitters.
Lithium is a drug that is used to stabilize the mood swings and
unpredictable behavior of people with bipolar depressive illness
(maniac-depressive illness).

Antidiabetics
These drugs are used to treat diabetes mellitus (a condition in which the
hormone insulin is either not produced by the pancreas or is not effective
in the body). Patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes must
receive daily injections of insulin. In the past, most insulin was obtained
from animals (port or beef insulin). Now, much purer human insulin is
produced by recombinant DNA research (biosynthesis), and it has
replaced animal-derived insulin in the management of diabetes.
Patients with type 2 (non-insulin dependent) diabetes are given oral
antidiabetic drugs. These include sulfonylureas (lower the levels of
glucose in the blood by stimulating the production of insulin),
biguanides (increase the bodys sensitivity to insulin and reduce the

123

production of glucose by the liver), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors


(temporarily block enzymes that digest sugars), thiazolidinediones
(enhance glucose uptake into tissues), and meglitinides (stimulate the
beta cells in the pancreas to produce insulin).
An insulin pump is a device strapped to the patients waist that
periodically delivers (via needle) the desired amount of insulin.

Anticoagulants, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressants, Antidiabetics, and


Antihistamines.
ANTICOAGULANTS AND
ANTIPLATELET DRUGS
aspirn
dicumarol
heparin
tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)
warfarin (Coumadin)

ANTICONVULSANTS
carbamazepine (Tegretol)
phenobarbital
phenytoin (Dilantin)

ANTIDIABETICS
Insulins
rDNA human insulin N (Humulin N)
rDNA human insulin lispro (Humalog)
Oral drugs
acarbose (Precose): alphaglucosidase
inhibitor
glipizide (Glucotrol XL): sulfonylurea
glyburide: sulfonylurea
metformin (Glucophage): biguanide
ANTIHISTAMINES
cetrizine (Zyrtec)
chlorpheniramine maleate (Chlor-Trimeton)
diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

ANTIDEPRESSANTS
amitriptyline (Elavil)
fluoxetin (Prozac)
sertraline (Zoloft)
nortriptyline (Pamelor)

Note: Brand names are in parentheses

Antihistamines
These drugs block the action of histamines, which is normally released in
the body in allergic reactions. Histamine causes allergic symptoms such
as hives, bronchial asthma, hay fever, and in severe cases anaphylactic
shock
(dyspnea,
hypotension,
and
loss
of
consciousness).

124

Antihistamines cannot cure the allergic reaction, but they can relieve its
symptoms. Many antihistamines have strong antiemetic (prevention of
nausea) activity and are used to prevent motion sickness. The most
common side effects of antihistamines are drowsiness, blurred vision,
tremors, digestive upset, and lack of motor coordination.

Cardiovascular Drugs
Cardiovascular drugs act on the heart or the blood vessels to treat
hypertension, angina (pain due to decreased oxygen delivery to heart
muscle), heart attack, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmias. Often,
before other drugs are used, daily aspirin therapy (to prevent clots in
blood vessels) and sublingual nitroglycerin (to dilate coronary blood
vessels) are prescribed.
Digoxin (Lanoxin), comes from a plant of the foxglove family. It slows the
heart rate (to control arrhythmias) and helps the heart to pump more
forcefully (to treat congestive heart failure). Other cardiovascular drugs
are:
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors. These drugs keep
blood vessels dilated to lower blood pressure, improve the performance of
the heart, and reduce its workload. They prevent the conversion of
angiotensin I into angiotensin II, which is a powerful vasopressor
(vasoconstrictor). ACE inhibitors are used in treating hypertension,
congestive heart failure, and heart attack (myocardial infarction),
especially if patient show evidence of a weakened heart.
Beta-Blockers. These drugs decrease the muscular tone in blood vessels
(vasodilation), decrease the output of heart, and reduce blood pressure
by blocking the action of epinephrine at receptor sites in the heart
muscles and in blood vessels. They are used to treat angina,
hypertension, and arrhythmias and to treat patient after heart attacks.
Calcium Antagonists or Calcium Channel Blockers. As with betablockers, they dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure; they are
used to treat angina and arrhythmias. They inhibit the entry of calcium
(necessary for blood vessel contraction) into the muscles of the heart and
blood vessels.
Cardiovascular Drugs
]
125

ANGIOTENSI-CONVERTING ENZYME

CHOLESTEROL-LOWERING

(ACE) INHIBITORS
enalapril (Vasotec)
lisinopril (Zestril)

atorvastatin (Lipitor)
cholestyramine (Questran)
lovastatin (Mevacor)
pravastatin (Pravachol)

BETA-BLOCKERS
atenolol (Tenormin)

simvastatin (Zocor)

metoprolol (Lopressor)
propranolol (Inderal)

DIURETICS
furosemide (Lasix)
spironolactone (Aldactone)

CALCIUM ANTIGONISTS
amlodipine (Norvasc)
diltiazem (Cardizem)
nifedipine (Cardizem)
Note: Brand names are in parentheses

Cholesterol-Lowering Drugs. They reduce hypercholesterolemia (high


levels of cholesterol in the blood), which is a major factor in the
development of heart disease. Cholestyramine (Questran) lowers
cholesterol by promoting its excretion in feces. Other drugs, called
statins or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, lower cholesterol by reducing
its production in the liver.
Diuretics. These are drugs that reduce the volume of blood in the body
by promoting the kidney to remove water and salt through urine. They
are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and congestive heart
failure.

Endocrine Drugs
These drugs act in much the dame manner as the naturally occurring (endogenous)
hormones. Androgens are hormones made by the testes and adrenal glands. They are used
for male hormone replacement and to treat endometriosis and breast cancer in women. An
androgen antagonist (antiandrogen) is flutamide, which is used to treat prostate cancer.
Estrogens are female hormones, normally produced by the ovaries, that are used for
symptoms associated with menopause (estrogen replacement therapy) and to prevent
postmenopausal osteoporosis. They are also used as chemotherapy for some types of
cancer (for example, prostate cancer). An important antiestrogen drug is tamoxifen
(Nolvadex), ehich is used to prevent recurrence of breast cancer.
A SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulator) is a drug that has
estrogen-like effects on bone (increase in bone mineral density) and on
lipid (decrease in cholesterol levels) metabolism. However, it seems to lack

126

estrogenic effects on uterus and breast tissue. Progestins are prescribed


for abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance and together
with estrogen, in hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives.
Levonorgestrel (Norplant) is a contraceptive drug that is imbedded
under the skin.
Thyroid hormone is administered where there is a low output of hormone
from the thyroid gland. Glucocorticoids (adrenal corticosteroids) are
prescribed for reduction of inflammation and a wide range of other
disorders, including arthritis, sever skin and allergic conditions,
respiratory and blood disorders, gastrointestinal ailments, and malignant
conditions.
Endocrine Drugs
ANDROGEN

PROGESTIN

fluoxymesterone (Halotestin)
methyltestosterone (Virilon)
ANTIANDROGEN
flutamide (Eulexin)

medroxyprogestrone (Provera)
megestrol (Megace)
SERM
raloxifene (Evista)

ESTROGEN
estrogen (Premarin, Estradiol)
ANTIESTROGEN
tamoxifen (Novadex)

THROID HORMONE
levothyroxine (Synthroid)
liothyronine (cytomel)
liotrix (Euthroid)

GLUCOCORTICOID
dexamethasone (Decadron)
prednisone (Deltasone)

Gastrointestinal Drugs
These drugs are often used to relieve uncomfortable and potentially
dangerous symptoms, rather than as cures for specific diseases.
Antacids neutralize the hydrochloric acid in the stomach to relieve
symptoms of peptic ulcer, esophagitis, and epigastric discomfort.
Antiulcer drugs block secretion of acid by c3ells in the ligning of the
stomach and area prescribed for patients with gastric and duodenal
ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Histamine H2
receptor antagonists such ranitidine (Zantac) and cimetidine
(Tagamet) turn off the system (histamine) that produces stomach acid.
Another drug, omeprazole (Prilosec) works by stopping acid production
by a different method (proton-pump inhibition).

127

Antidiarrheal drugs relieve diarrhea and decrease the rapid movement


of the walls of the colon. Cathartics relieve constipation and promote
defecation for diagnostic and operative procedures and are used in the
treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Some cathartics
increase the intestinal salt content to cause fluid to fill the intestines;
others increase the bulk of the feces to promote peristalsis (movement of
the intestinal wall). Another type of cathartic lubricates the intestinal
tract to produce soft stools. Laxatives are mild cathartics, and
purgatives are strong cathartics.
Antinauseants (antiemetics) relieve nausea and vomiting and also
overcome vertigo, dizziness, motion sickness, and labyrinthitis
(inflammation of the inner ear).

Gastrointestinal Drugs
ANTACID
alumum and magnesium antacid (Gaviscon)
magnesium antacid (milk of magnesia)
aluminum antacid (Rolaids)

ANTINAUSEANT (ANTIEMETIC)
metoclopramide (Reglan)
ondansetron (Zofran)
prochlorperazine maleate(Compazine)

ANTIDIARRHEAL
diphenoxylate and atropine (Lomotil)
loperamide (Imodium)
paregoric

ANTIULCER
cimetidine (Tagamet)
ranitidine (Zantac)
omeprazole (Prilosec)

CATHARTIC
casanthranol and docusate sodium
(Peri-Colace)

Note: Brand names are in parentheses

Respiratory Drugs
These drugs are prescribed for the treatment of emphysema, asthma,
and respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
Bronchodilators are used to open the air passages (bronchial tubes) and
can be administered by injection or aerosol inhalers.

Respiratory Drugs
128

BRONCHODILATORS
albuterol (Proventil)
epinephrine
salmeterol (Serevent)
theophylline (Theo-Dur)

STEROIDS
beclomethasone (Vanceril)
flunisolide (AeroBid)
triamcinolone (Azmacort)

Note: Brand names are in parentheses

Sedatives and Hypnotics


Sedatives and hypnotics are medications that depress the central
nervous system and promote drowsiness and sleep. They are prescribed
for insomnia and sleep disorders. These products have a very high abuse
potential and should be used only for short periods of time and under
close supervision.
Low doses of benzodiazepines (that influence the part of the brain
responsible for emotions) may act as sedatives and in higher doses, as
hypnotics (that promote sleep).

Stimulants
These drugs act on the brain and are used to speed up vital processes
(heart and respiration) in cases of shock and collapse. They also increase
alertness and inhibit hyperactive behavior in children. High doses can
produce restlessness, insomnia, and hypertension. Examples of
stimulants are amphetamine used to prevent narcolepsy (seizures of
sleep), to suppress appetite, and to calm hyperkinetic children. Caffeine
is also a cerebral stimulant. It is used in drugs to relieve certain types of
headache by constricting cerebral blood vessels.

Tranquilizers
These drugs are useful for controlling anxiety. Minor tranquilizers
(benzodiazepines) control minor symptoms of anxiety. Major
tranquilizers (phenothiazines) control more severe disturbances of
behavior.

129

Sedatives/Hypnotics, Stimulants, Tranqiulizers


SEDATIVES/HYPNOTICS
butabarbital (Butisol)
phenobarbital
temazepam (Restoril)
triazolam (Halcion)
zolpidem (Ambien)

TRANQUILIZERS
MINOR
alprazolm (Xanax)
buspirone (BuSpar)
diazepam (Valium)
iorazrepam (Atvian)

STIMULANTS
caffeine
dextroamphetamine sulfate (Dexedrine)
methylphenidate (Ritalin)

MAJOR
chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
thioridazine (Mellaril)
trifluoperazine (Stelazine)

Note: Brand names are in parentheses

Combining Forms, Prefixes, and Terminology


Combining Form

Meaning

Terminology

Meaning

Aer/o

air

Aerosol ___________________
-sol means solution.

Alges/o

sensitivity to
pain

analgesic __________________

bronch/o

bronchial tube

bronchodilator _____________
theophylline is a smooth
muscle relaxant used to treat
asthma, emphysema, and
chronic bronchitis.

Chem/o

drug

chemotherapy _______________

130

Cras/o

mixture

idiosyncrasy _________________
Idi/o means individual,
peculiar; syn- means together.
An idiosyncrasy is an
abnormal unexpected effect of
a drug that is peculiar to an
individual.

Cutane/o

skin

subcutaneous _______________

Derm/o

skin

hypodermic _________________

Erg/o

work

synergism ___________________

Esthes/o

feeling,
Sensation

anesthesia __________________

Hist/o

tissue

antihistamine _______________

-amine indicates a nitrogen-containing compound.


Histamine is a substance found in all body
tissues (it causes capillary dilation and gastric
acid secretion and constricts bronchial tube
smooth muscle); excess of
histamine is released when the body comes in
contact with substances to which it is sensitive.
Hypn/o

sleep

hypnotic ____________________

Iatr/o

treatment

iatrogenic ___________________

Lingu/o

tongue

sublingual ___________________

Myc/o

mold, fungus

erythromycin ________________

Narc/o

stupor

narcotic _____________________

Pharmacy/o

drug

pharmacology _______________
131

Prurit/o

itching

antipruritic _________________

Pyret/o

fever

antipyretic __________________

Thec/o

sheath (of
brain and
spinal cord)

intrathecal __________________

ABBREVIATIONS
a.c.
ad lib
b.i.d.
c
caps
cc
FDA
g
gt. tt
h
IM
IV
mg
NPO
NSAID
os
oz.
p.c.

before meals
freely as desired
two times a day
with
capsule
cubic centimeter
Food and Drug Administration
gram
drops
hour
intramuscular
intravenous
milligram
nothing by mouth
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
mouth
ounce
after meals

132

PDR
p.o.
p.r.n.
Q (q)
q.a.m.
q.d.
q.h.
q.h.s.
q.i.d.

q.n.s.
q.o.d.
q.p.m.
subq
sig.
s.o.s
tab
t.i.d.

physicans desk reference


by mouth
when requested; pro re nata (required)
every
every morning
every day
every hour
at bedtime

four times a day


quantity not sufficient
every other day
every evening
without
subcutaneous injection
Let it be labeled
if necessary (si opus sit)
tablet
three times a day

Top 20 Prescription Drugs.


Drug (Trade Name)
1. Premarin

Generic Name

Type

estrogen

133

Hormone

2. Zantac
3. Amoxil
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Synthroid
Procardia
Lanoxin
Xanax
Trimox

9. Vasotec
10. Cardizem
11. Ceclor
12. Augmentin
13. Proventil
14. Naprosyn
15. Provera
16. Prozac
17. Mevacor
18. Seldane
19. Ortho-Novum
20. Capoten

ranitidine
amoxicillin

Antiulcer
Antibiotic
(penicillin-type)
levothyroxine
Hormone (thyroid)
nifedipine
Calcium channel blocker
digoxin
Cardiotonic
alprazolam
Tranquilizer
amoxicillin
Antibiotic
(penicillin-type)
enalapril
Antihypertensive
diltiazem HCI
Calcium channel blocker
cephalosporin
Antibiotic
amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Antibiotic
albuterol
Bronchodilator
naproxen
NSAID (analgesic)
medroxyprogesterone Hormone
fluoxetine HCI
Antidepressant
lovastatin
Cholesterol-lowering drug
terfenadine
Antihistamine
estrogen and progestrone
Oral contraceptive
captopril
Antihypertensive (ACE inhibitor)

Exercises:
A. Match the pharmacological specialty with its description
below.
1. Use of drugs in the treatment of disease ____________________
2. Study of new drug synthesis _______________________________
3. Study
of how
drugs
interact
with subcellular parts
__________________________.
4. Study of the harmful effects of drugs _______________________
5. Study of drug effects in the body ___________________________
6. Measurement of drug concentrations in tissues and in blood over a
period of time ______________________________________
B. Name the route of drug administration from its description
below.
1. Drug is administered via suppository or fluid into the anus.
_______________________________________________________________
2. Drug is administered via vapor or gas into the nose or mouth.
_______________________________________________________________

134

3.
4.
5.
6.

Drug
is
administered
under
the
tongue.
_______________________________________________________________
Drug is applied locally on skin or mucous membrane.
_______________________________________________________________
Drug is injected via syringe under the skin, into a vein, muscle,
or body cavity. ________________________________________________
Drug is given by mouth and absorbed through the stomach or
intestinal wall. _______________________________________________

C. Give the meanings for the following terms.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

intravenous __________________________________________________
intrathecal ___________________________________________________
antiseptic ____________________________________________________
antipruritic ___________________________________________________
aerosol _______________________________________________________
intramuscular ________________________________________________
.subcutaneous _______________________________________________
intracavitary _________________________________________________

D. Match the routes of drug administration in column I with the medications or


procedures in column II. Write the letter of the answer in the space provided.
Column I
Column II
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

intravenous __________________
rectal ________________________
oral __________________________
topical _______________________
inhalation ____________________

6. intrathecal ___________________
7. intramuscular ________________
8. intradermal ___________________

A. lotions, creams, ointments


B. tablets and capsules
C. skin testing for allergy
D. lumbar puncture
E. deep injection, usually in
buttock
F. suppositories
G. blood transfusions
H. aerosol medications

E. The following are descriptions of drug actions. Supply the proper name that
fits the descriptions.
1.

The combination of two drugs that causes an effect that is


greater than the sum of the individual effects of each drug given
alone _______________________________________________________.

135

2.

The combination of two drugs that is equal to the sum of the


effects of each _______________________________________________
3. The effects of a given drug dose become less as treatment
continues, and larger and larger doses must be given to achieve
the desired effect _____________________________________________
4. Any unexpected effect that may appear in a patient following
administration of a drug ______________________________________
F. Give the meanings for the following terms that describe classes of drugs.
1. antibiotic _____________________________________________________
2. antidepressant _______________________________________________
3. antihistamine ________________________________________________
4. analgesic _____________________________________________________
5. anticoagulant ________________________________________________

G. Match the term in column I with an associated term in column II. Write the
letter of the answer in the space provided.
Column I
Column II
1. antihistamine ________________
A. caffeine or amphetamines
2. analgesic _____________________
B. penicillin or erythromycin
3. antidiabetic ___________________
C. insulin
4. anticoagulant _________________
D. barbiturate
5. antibiotic _____________________
E. heparin
6. stimulant _____________________
F. nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.
7. sedative _______________________
G. phenothiazine
8. tranquilizer ___________________
H. anaphylactic shock
H. Select from the following terms to complete the definitions below that relate
to cardiovascular drugs.
Antianginal
Cardiotonic
1.

vasoconstrictor
cholesterol-lowering drug

diuretic

Drug that prevents chest pain due to ischemia ________________

136

2.
3.
4.
5.

Drug that narrows blood vessels ______________________________


Drug that promotes excretion of urine and lowers blood pressure
_______________________
Drug that strengthens force and efficiency of the heartbeat
_______________________________.
Drug that reduces lipids in the blood __________________________.

I. Match the type of drug in column I with the condition it treats in column II.
Write the letter of the answer in the space provided.
Column I
Column II
1. anticonvulsant ________________

2. anticoagulant _________________
3. antacid _______________________
4. progestins ____________________
5. antibiotic _____________________
6. cardiotonic ____________________
7. antihypertensive _______________
8. antihistamine _________________
9. tranquilizer ____________________
10 analgesic _____________________

A. abnormal uterine bleeding


due
to
hormonal
imbalance.
B. severe behavior
disturbances and anxiety
C. epilepsy
D. congestive heart failure
E. epigastric discomfort
F. myalgia
G. anaphylactic shock
H. thrombosis and embolism
I. Bacterial pneumonia
J. high blood pressure

J. Complete the following terms from their definitions.


1. An agent that reduces fever; anti _______________________
2. A habit-forming analgesic: __________________________tic.
3. An antibiotic derived from a red mold: ___________________
mycin
4. Factor in a patients condition that prevents use of a particular
drug: contra ______________________
5. Drug that produces no sensation or feeling; an_________________
K. Give the meanings for the following abbreviations.

137

1. NSAID __________________________________________________________
2. q.i.d. ____________________________________________________________
3. ad lib ___________________________________________________________
4. t.i.d. ____________________________________________________________
5. NPO _____________________________________________________________
6. b.i.d. ____________________________________________________________

L. Circle the term that best completes the meaning of the sentence.
1. After his heart attack, Bernie was supposed to take many
drugs including diuretics and a (an) (progestin, laxative,
anticoagulant) to prevent blood clots.
2. Estelle was always anxious and had a hard time sleeping.
Dr. Max felt that a mild (antacid, anticonvulsant,
tranquilizer) would help her relax and concentrate on her
work.
3. During chemotherapy Helen was very nauseated. Dr.
Cohen prescribed an (antihypertensive, antiemetic,
antianginal) to relieve her symptoms of queasy stomach.
4. The two antibiotics worked together and were therefore
(idiosyncratic, generic, synergistic) in killing the
bacteria in Susans bloodstream.
5. The label warned that the drug might impair fine motor
skills.
It
listed
the
(side
effects,
antidote,
pharmacodynamics) to taking the sedative.

138

GLOSSARY
Medical Word Parts ------ English
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
a-,anababdomin/o
-ac
acanth/o
acetabul/o
acous/o

no;not;without
away from
abdomen
pertaining to
spiny;thorny
acetabulum(hip socket)
hearing

acr/o

extermities; top;extreme point

Meaning

Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
albimin/o
alges/o
- algesia
- algia
all/o
alvel/o
ambly/o
-amni

actin/o
acu/o
-acusis
adaden/o

acromion(extion of shoulder
bone)
light
sharp;severe; sudden
hearing
toward
gland

adenoid/o

adenoids

aneurysm/o

adip/o
adren/o
adernal/o
aer/o
afagglutin/o
-agon
agora
-agra
-al
alb/o

fat
adernal gland
adrenal gland
air
toward
clumping; sticking together
to assemble, gather
marketplace
excessive pain
pertaining to
white

angi/o
anis/o
ankylo/o
anteanter/o
anthrac/o
antianxi/o
aort/o
-apheresis
aphth/o

acromi/o

139

amni/o
amyl/o
an/o
-an
anaandr/o

albumin(p
sensitivity
sensitivity
pain
other
other
dim;dull

nitrogen co

amnion(sa
embryo)
starch
anus
pertaining
up; apart;
male
aneurysm(
vessel)
vessel(bloo
unequal
crooked; b
before; forw
front
coal
against
uneasy; an
aorta(large
removal
ulcer

albin/o
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
aponeur/o
append/o
appendic/o
aque/o
-ar
-arche
arter/o
arteri/o
arteriol/o
arthr/o
-arthria
articul/o
-ary
asbest/o
-ase
-asthenia
atel/o
ather/o
-ation

whtie

apoCombining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
bunion
burs/o
byssin/o

off, away

cac/o
calc/o
calcane/o
calci/o
cali/o
calci/o
capillar/o
capn/o
-capnia
carcin/o
cardi/o
carp/o
catacaud/o

bad
calcium
calcaneus(
calcium
calyx
calyx
capillary(ti
carbon dio
carbon dio
cancerous
heart
wrist bone
down
tail;lower p

atri/o

atrium (upper heart chamber)

caus/o

burn;burn

audi/o
audit/o
aur/o
auricul/o

hearing
hearing
ear
ear

cauter/o
cec/o
-cele
celi/o

auto-

self;own

axill/o

armpit

cephal/o

azot/o

urea; nitrogen

cerebell/o

heat;burn
cecum(fris
hernia
belly;abdom
surgical pu
fluid
head
cerebellum
the brain)
cerebum(la
brain)
cerumen
neck; cerv

Meaning
aponeurosis(type of tendon)
appendix
appendix
water
pertaining to
beginning
artery
artery
arteriole(small artery)
joint
articulate(speak distinctly)
joint
pertaining to
asbestos
enzyme
lack of strength
incomplete
plaque(fatty substance)
process;condition

-centesis

cerebr/o
bacill/o

bacilli (bacteria)

140

cerumin/o
cervic/o

bunion
bersa(sac o
cotton dus

bacteri/o
balan/o
bar/o
bartholin/o

bacteria
glans penis
pressure;weight
Bartholin gland

bas/o

base;opposite of acid

bibi/o
bil/i
bilirubin/o
-blast
blephar/o
bol/o
brachi/o
brachybrady-

two
life
bile;gall
bilirubin
embryonic;immature
eyelid
cast;throw
arm
short
slow

chir/o
chlor/o
chlorhydr/o
chol/e
cholangi/o
cholescyst/o
choledoch/o
cholesterol/o
chondr/o
chore/o

bronch/o

bronchial tube

chori/o

bronchi/o
bronchiol/o
bucc/o
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix

bronchial tube
bronchiole
cheek

chorm/o

color

cyst/o

chron/o
chym/o

time
to pour

cyt/o
-cyte

cib/o

meal

-cide
-cidal
cine/o
cirrh/o
cis/o
-clasis
-clast
calustr/o

killing
pertaining to killing
movement
orange-yellow
to cut
to break
to break
enclosed space

Meaning

-chalasia
-chalasia
cheil/o
chem/o
-chezia

chorion/o
choroid/o
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix

-cytosis

141

dacry/o
dacryoaden/o
dacryocyst/o
dactyl/o
de-

relaxation
relaxation
lip
drug;chem
defecation;
wastes
hand
green
hydrochlor
bile;gall
bile vessel
gallbladder
common b
cholesterol
cartilage
dance
chorion(ou
of the fetus

chorion
choroid lay

urinary vla
fulid
cell
cell
condition o
increase in

tear
tear gland
tear sac; la
fingers; toe
lack of; do

calvicul/o
-clysis
coagul/o
-coccus
( -cocci,pl.)
coccyg/o
col/o
coll/a
colon/o

calvicle(collar bone)
irrigation; washing
coaulation (clotting)
berry-shaped bacterium

colp/o

vagina

comat/o
comi/o
conconi/o
conjuctiv/o
-constriction/o
contracor/o
core/o
corne/o
coron/o

deep sleep
to care for
together, with
dust
conjunctiva(lines the eyelids)
narrowing
against;opposite
pupil
puipl
cornea
heart

dipl/o
dips/o
dist/o
dors/o
dorsi-dote
-dorme
duct/o
duoden/o
dur/o
-dynia

corpor/o

body

dya-

cortic/o
cost/o
crani/o
cras/o
crin/o
-crine/o
-crit
cry/o
crypt/o
culd/o
-cusis
citane/o
cyan/o

cortex,outer region
rib
skull
mixture; temperament
secrete
secrete; separate
to separate
cold
hidden
cul-de-sax
hearing
skin
blue

-eal
ececho-ectasia
-ectasis
ecto-ectomy
-edema
-elasme
electr/o
em-

coccyx_tailbone)
colon (large intestine)
glue
colon (large intestine)

dem/o
dent/i
derm/o
-derma
dermat/o
desicco
-desis
diadiaphor/o
-dilation

142

people
tooth
skin
skin
skin
drying
to bind, tie
complete; t
sweat
widening;
expanding
double
thrist
far; distan
back (of bo
back
to give
to run
to lead , ca
duodenum
dura mate
pain
bad; painfu
difficult;ab

pertaining
out;outsid
reflected so
streching;
streching;
out; outsid
removal; ex
swelling
flat plate
electicity
in

cycl/o
-cyesis
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
-emia
-emic
emmetr/o
enencephal/o
endo-

ciliary body of eye; cycle;


circle
pregnancy
Meaning

-ema
-emesis
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
fung/i
furc/o
-fusion

vomiting

galact/o

gastr/o
-gen
-genesis
-genic

milk
ganglion; c
cel bodies
stomach
producing;
producing;
produced b

ger/o

old age

gest/o
gester/o
gingiv/o
glauc/o

precnancy
precnancy
gum
gray
glue; neur
tissue(sup
nervous sy

epitheli/o
equin/o
-er
erg

blood condition
pertaining to blood condition
in due measure
in; within
brain
in; within
intestine(usually small
intestine)
red; rosy; dawn- colored
above;upon;on
epididymis
epiglottis
vulva (external female
genitalia)
skin;epthelium
horse
one who
work

erythem/o

flushed; redness

gli/o

erythr/o
-esis
esoesophag/o
esthes/o
esthesi/o
-esthesia
estr/o
ethm/o
eti/o
eu-

red
condition
inward
esophagus
nervous sensation (feeling)
nervous sensation
nervous sensation
female
sieve
cause
good; normal

-globin
-globulin
glomerul/o
gloss/o
gluc/o
glyc/o
glycogen/o
glycos/o
gnos/o
gon/o

enter/o
eosin/o
epiepididym/o
epiglott/o
episi/o

143

condition

ganglion/o

fungus; mu
forking; br
to pour

protine
protine
glomerulu
tounge
glucose; su
glucose; su
glycogen; a
glucose; su
knowledge
seed

-eurysm
exexanthemat/o
exoextra-

widening
out;away from
rash
out;away from
outside

faci/o

face
fascia (membrane supporting
muscles)
femur(thigh bone)
to carry
fiber
fibrous connextive tissue
fibula
process of making
split
to bend
luminous
follicle; small sac
resembling; in the shape of

fasci/o
femor/o
-ferent
fibr/o
fibros/o
fibul/o
-fication
-fida
flex
fiuor/o
follicul/o
-form
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
hidr/o
hist/o
histi/o

Meaning

gonad/o
goni/o
-grade
-gram
granul/o
-graph
-graphy
gravid/o

sex glands
angle
to go
record
granule(s)
instrumen
process of
precnancy

-gravid/o

pregant wo

gynec/o

woman; fem

hallucin/o
hem/o
hemat/o
hemihemoglobin/o
hepat/o
harni
-hexia
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
jaund/o
jejun/o

hallucinati
blood
blood
half
hemoglobi
liver
harnia
habit

kal/i
kary/o
kerat/o

potassium
nucleus
horny, har
nucleus (c
cells in the

hormon/o
hurmer/o
hydr/o

sweat
tissue
tissue
sameness; unchanging;
constant
hormone
humerus (upper arm bone)
water

hyper-

above; excessive

kern-

hypn/o
hypohypophys/o
hyster/o

sleep
deficient; below; under
pituitary gland
utres; womb

ket/o
keton/o
kines/o

home/o

144

yellow
jejunum

ketones; ac
ketones; ac
movement

-ia
-iac
-iasis
iatr/o
-ic
-ical
ichthy/o
-icle
idi/o
ile/o
illi/o
immun/o
in-in, -ine
-ine
infrainguin/o
interintraiod/o
ion/o
-ion
-ior
ipsiirir/o
irid/o
is/o
isch/o
ischi/o
-ism
-ist
-it is
-ium

condition
pertaining to
abnormal condition
physician; treament
pertaining to
pertaining to
dry; scaly
small
unknowm; individual;
distinct
ileum
ileum
immune; protection; safe
in; into; not
a substance
pertaining to
below; inferior to beneath
groin
between
within; into
iodine
ion; to wander
process
pertaining to
same
in
iris_colored portion of eye)
iris_colored portion of eye)
same; equal
to hold back; back
ischium (part of hip bone)
process; condition
specialist
inflammation
structure; tissue
145

kinesi/o
-kinesia
-kinesis
klept/o
kyph/o

movement
movement
movement
to steal
humpback

labi/o
lacrim
lact

lip
tear; tear d
milk

lamin/o

lamina(par

lapar/o
-lapse
laryng/o
later/o
leiomy/o
-lemma
-lepsy
lept/o
-leptic
leth/o
leuk/o
lex/o
-lexia
ligament/o
lingu/o
lip/o
-listhesis
lith/o
-lithiasis
-lithotomy
lobo
log/o
-logy
lord/o
-lucent

abnominal
to slide, fa
larynx (voi
side
smooth(vis
sheath, co
seizure, ta
thin, slend
to sezie, ta
death
white
word; phar
word; phar
ligament
tounge
fat; lipid
slipping
stone; calc
condition o
incision(for
lobe
study of
study of
curve; swa
to shine

Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
lumb/o
lute/o
luxo
lympho
lymphaden/o
lymphangi/o
-lysis
-lytic

macromal-malacia
malleol/o
mamm/o
mandibul/o
-mania
mast/o
mastoid/o
maxill/o
meat/o
medi/o
mediastin/o
medull/o
mega-megaly
melan/o
men/o

Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
-motor
muc/o
mucos/o
multimut/a
mutagen/o

movement
mucus
mucos me
many
genetic cha
causing ge

my/o

muscle

large
bad

myc/o
mydr/o
myel/o
mycardio
myom/o
myos/o

softening

myring/o

malleolus
breast
mandible (lower jam bone)
obsesive preoccupation
breast
mastoid process (behind the
ear)
maxilla (upper jam bone)
meatus(opening)
middle
mediastinum
madulla (inner section);
middle; soft,marrow

myx/o

fungus
wide
spinal cord
myocardiu
muscle tum
muscle
tympanic m
(eardrum)
mucus

narc/o
nas/o

numbness
nose

nat/i

birth

natr/o
necr/o
nect/o
neo-

sodium
death
to bind, tie
new

nephr/o

kidney

neur/o
neutr/o
nid/o
noct/i
norm/o

nerve
nethier; ne
nest
night
rule;order

Meaning
lower back; lion
yellow
to slide
lymph
lymph gland(node)
lymph vessel
breakdown; separation;
desturction; loosening
to reduce, destory

large
enlargement
black
menses; menstruation

146

mening/o

meningi/o
ment/o
mesometametacarp/o
matatars/o
-meter
metr/o
metri/o
mi/o
micro-mimetic
-mission
mon/o
morph/o
mort/o
-mortem
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
onych/o
o/o
oophor/o
-opaque
ophthalm/o
-opia
-opsia
-opsy
opt/o
optic/o
-or
or/o
orch/o
orchi/o

menings(membranes covering
the spinal cord and brain)
meninges
mind; chin
middle
change; beyond
metacarpals (hand bones)
metatarsals (foot bones)
measure
utreus(womb); measure
utreus(womb)
smaller; less
small
mimic; copy
to send
one; single
shape; form
death
death
Meaning
nail (of fingera or toes)
egg
ovary
obcure
eye
vision
vision
view of
eye; vision
eye; vision
one who
mouth
testis
testis
147

nos/o

disease

nucle/o
nullinyct/o

nucleus
none
night

obatetr/o
ocul/o
odont/o
odyn/o
-oid
-ole
olecran/o
olig/o
om/o
-oma
omphal/o
onc/o
-one
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
-partum
patell/a
patell/o
path/o
-pathy
pector/o
ped/o
pelv/i
pend/o
-penia
-pepsia
perperiperine/o

midwife
eye
tooth
pain
resembling
little; smal
olecranon(
scanty
shoulder
tumor; ma
umbilicus
tumor
hormone

birth; labo
patella
patella
disease
disease; em
chest
child; foot
pelvic bone
to hang
deficiency
digestion
through
surroundin
perineum

orchid/o
-orexia
orth/o
-ose
-osis
-osima
ossicul/o
oste/o
-ostosis
ot/o
-otia
-ous
ov/o
ovari/o
ovul/o
ox/o
-oxia
oxyoxysm/o

testis
appetite
straight
full of pertaining to; sugar
condition, usually abnormal
smell
ossicle(small bone)
bone
condition of bone
ear
ear condition
pertianing to
egg
ovary
egg
oxygen
oxygen
swift;sharp;acid
sudden

pachypalat/o
palpebr/o
panpancreat/o
papill/o
par-

heavy; thick
palate(roof of the mouth)
eyelid
all
pancreas
nipple-like; optic disc (disk)
other than; abnormal
near; beside; abnormal; apart
from; along the side of

para-para
-parous
parathyroid/o
-paresis
-pareunia

to bear, bring forth (live birth)


to bear, bring forth
parathyroid gland
slight paralysis
sexual intercourse

148

peritone/o
perone/o
-pexy
phac/o
phag/o
-phage
-phagia
phak/o
phalang/o
phall/o
pharmac/o
pharmaceut/o
pharyng/o
phas/o
-phasia
phe/o
-pheresis
phil/o
-phil
-philia
phim
phleb/o
phob/o
-phobia
phon/o
-phonia
-phor/o
-phoresis
-phoria
phot/o
phren/o
-phthisis
-phylaxis
physi/o
-physis

peritoneum
fibula
fixation; to
lens of eye
eat; swallo
eat; swallo
eating; swa
lens of eye
phalanges
penis
drug
drug
thorat (pha
speech
speech
dusky;dark
removal
like;love;at
attraction
attraction
muzzle
vein
fear
fear
voice; soun
voice; soun
to bear
carrying; t
to bear , ca
feeleing(me
light
diaphragam
wasting aw
protection
nature
to grow

Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix

Meaning

Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix

phyt/o

palnt

pub/o

phyte
pil/o
pineal/o
pitutiae/o
-plakia
plant/o
plas/o

pulmon/o
pupill/o
purul/o
py/o
pyel/o
pylor/o
pyr/o
pyret/o

fever

-plasm
-plastic
-plasty
ple/o
-plegia
-plegic
pleur/o

plant
hair
pineal gland
pitutitary gland
plaque
sole of the foot
development; formation
development; formation
;growth
formation
pertaning to formation
surgical repair
more;many
paralysis; palsy
paralysis; palsy
pleura

pubis(ante
bone)
lung
pupil (dark
pus
pus
renal pelvi
pylours;py
fever; fire

pyrex/o

fever

quandri-

four

rachi/o

plex/o

plexus; network (of nerves)

radi/o

spinal colu
x-ray; radi
(lateral low

-pnea
pneum
pneumon/o
pod/o
-poiesis
-poietin
poikil/o
pol/o

breathing
lung; air; gas
lung; air; gas
foot
formation
substance that forms
varied;irregular
extreme
gray matter (of brain or spinal
cord)
many; much
polyp; small growth
pons (a part of the brain)
condition of pores (spaces)
after; behind

-palsia

poliopolypolyp/o
pont/o
-porosis
post-

149

radicul/o
rerect/o
ren/o
reticul/o
retin/o
retro-

nerve root
back; again
rectum
kideny
network
retina
behind; ba

rhabdomy/o

striated (sk

rheumat/o
rhin/o
roentgen/o
-rrhage
-rrhagia

watery flow
nose
x-rays
bursting fo
bursting fo

poster/o
-prandial
-praxia
prepreaby/o
primipro-

back (of body); behind


meal
action
before; in front of
old age
frist
before; forward

-rrhaphy
-rrhea
-rrhexis
rrhythm/o

suture
flow; disch
rupture
rhythm

scar/o

proct/o

anus and rectum

salping/o

sacrum
fallopain tu
(eustachai

prosprostat/o
prot/o
prote/o
proxim/o
prurit/o
pseudopsych/o
-ptosis
-ptysis
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix

before; forward
prostate gland
first
protien
near
itiching
false
mind; chin
droop; sag; prolapse; fall
spitting

scoli/o

crooked; bent

-scope
-scopy

Meaning

instrument for visual


examination
visual examination

scot/o

darkness

seb/o
sebace/o
sect/o
semisemi/i
seps/o
sial/o
sailaden/o
sider/o

sebum
sebum
to cut
half
semen; seed
infection
saliva
salivary gland
iron

-salpnix
srac/o
scapul/o
-schisis
schiz/o
scint/i
scirrh/o
scler/o
-sclerosis
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
-sttial

stomat/o
-stomy

150

strept/o
styl/o
subsubmaxill/o
-supperssion
suprasymsynsyncop/o

fallopain tu
flesh
scapula; sh
to aplit
spilt
spark
hard
sclera (whi
hardening

to set; pert
standing o

mouth
new openin
mouth)
twisted cha
pole or sta
under; bel
mandible (
to stop
above, upp
together; w
together; w
to cut off,

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon

syndesm/o

silic/o

glass

synov/o

sinuso
-sis
-sol
somat/o
-some

sinus
state of; condition
solution
body
body

somn/o

sleep

-somnia
son/o
-spadia

sleep
sound
to tear, cut
sudden contraction of
muscles
spermatozoa; spern cells
spermatozoa; spern cells
wedge; sphenoid bone
globe- shaped; round
pulse
pluse
spine(backbone)
to breathe
spleen
vertebra(backbone)
scale
contraction
stapes (middle ear bone)
clusters;uvula
stop; control; place
pertaining to
stoping;controlling
fat, sebum
tightening; stricture
solid structure; steroid
solid;three-dimensional

-spasm
sperm/o
spermat/o
sphen/o
spher/o
sphygm/o
-sphyxia
spin/o
spir/o
splen/o
spondyl/o
squam/o
-stalsis
staped/o
staphyl/o
-stasis
-static
steat/o
-stenosis
ster/o
stere/o

syring/o

tube

tachy-

fast
tarsus; hin
bones betw
the leg)

tars/o

151

ligament
synovia; sy
sheath aro

tax/o
tel/o

order; co o
complete

tele/o

distint

ten/o
tendin/o
-tension
terat/o
test/o
tetrathalam/o
thalas/o
the/o
thec/o
thel/o
theraeeut/o
-therapy
therm/o
thorac/o

tendon
tendon
pressure
monster; m
testis(testic
four
thalamus
sea
put; place
sheath
nipple
treatment
treatment
heat
chest

thromb/o

clot

thym/o
-thymia
-thymic
thyr/o

thymus gla
mind (cond
pertaining
thyroid gla

stern/o
steth/o
-sthenia
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
toc/o
-tocia
-tocin
tom/o
-tome
-tomy
ton/o
tone/o
tonsill/o
top/o
tox/o
toxic/o
trache/o
trans-tresia
tritrich/o
trigon/o
-tripsy
troph/o
-trophy
-tropia
tropic
-tropin
tympan/o

-type

labor; birth

thyroid/o
tibi/o
-tic
Combining Form,
Suffix, or Prefix
uter/o

labor; birth (condition of)

uve/o

sternum(breastbone)
chest
strehgth
Meaning

labour; birth ( a substance


for)
to cut
instrument to cut
process of cutting
tension
to stretch
tonsil
place;position ;location
poison
posion
trachea(windpipe)
across;through
opening
three
hair
trigone(area within the
bladder)
to crush
nourishment; development
nourishment; development
to turn
turning
stimulate;act on
tympanic
membrane(eardrum);middle
ear
classification; picture

152

thyroid gla
tibia (shin
pertaining

uterus (wo
uvea, vacc
(iris, chori

uvul/o

uvula

vag/o
vagin/o
valv/o
valvul/o
varic/o
vas/o
vascul/o
ven/o
ventr/o
ventricule/o
venul/o

vagus nerv
vagina
valve
valve
varicose ve
vessel;duc
vessel(bloo
vein
belly side o
ventricle(o
venule(sma

-verse

to turn

-version
vertebr/o
vesic/o
vesicul/o
vestibul/o
viscer/o

to turn
vertebra(ba
urinary bla
seminal ve
vestibule o
internal or

vit/o

life

vitr/o
vitre/o

vitreous bo
glass

viv/o
vol/o
-ule

vulv/o

little;small

uln/o
ultra-um
umbilic/o
ungu/o
uniur/o
ureter/o
urethr/o
-uria
urin/o
-us

ulna( medial lower arm bone)


beyond; excess
structure; tissue; thing
umbilicus(navel)
nail
one
urine; urinary tract
ureter
urethra
urination;conditio of urine
urine
structure;thing

GLOSSARY

xanth/o
xen/o
xer/o
xiph/o

-y

life
to role
vulva(fema
genitalia)

yellow
stragner
dry
sword

condition;p

zo/o

animal life

Medical Word Parts ------ English

Meaning

abdomen

Combining Form, Suffix, or


Prefix
abdomin/o( use with -al, centesis)
celi/o (use with -ac)
lapar/o (use eith -scope,
-scopy,-tomy)

abdominal

lapar/o

abnormal

dysparpara-

Meaning

appendix

append/o

appetite

appendic/
-orexia

arm

brachio

arm bone, lower,


lateral
arm bone, lower,
madial
arm bone, upper
armpit
arteriole
153

Combinin

radio/o
uln/o
humer/o
axill/o
arteriol/o

abnormal condition
above

acetabulum

acid
acromion
across
action
act on
adrenal glands
after
again
against
air

artery

-iasis
-osis

articulate (speak
distinctly)

epihypersupraacetabul/o
ket/o
keton/o
oxyacromi/o
trans-praxia
-tropin
adren/o
adrenal/o
postreanticontraaer/o

asbestos
assemble
atrium
attraction for
attraction to
auditory tube
away from

back
back,lower
back portion of
body

pneum/o
air sac
albumin

penumon/o
alvelo
albumino

all

pan-

along the side of


alveolus
amnion
aneurysm
angle

paraalveolo
amni/o
aneuryusm/o
goni/o

animal

zo/o

animal life

glycogen/o

154

backbone

backward
bacteria
bactrium (berryshaped)
bacilli (rod-shaped
bacteria)

arter/o
arteri
-ateri/o
asbest/o
-agon
atri/o
-phil
-philia
phil/o
salping/o
abapoexexo-

reretrolumbo/o
dorsi-

dors/o
poster/o
spin/o (us
spondly/o
-liathesis,

vertebr/o (
anaretrobacteri/o

-coccus (bacill

ankle
anus
anus and rectum
anxiety
apart
apart from
bear (to)

tars/o
an/o
proct/o
anxi/o
anapara-para
-parous

bad

barrier
base (not acidic)
blood condition

blood vessel

-phoria

before

phor/o
ante-

vas/o (use
-construct
-motor)

pre-

beside
between

propros-arche
postposter/o
retroceli/o
ventr/o
hypoinfrasubflex/o
ankly/o
scoli/o
parainter-

beyond

hyper-

beginning
behind

belly
belly side of body
below, beneath

bend (to)
bent

cac/o
dysmalclaustro
bas/o
-emia
-emic
angi/o (us
-genesis,-g
-oma, -pla

blue
body

bone
bone condition
bone ,marrow
brain
branching
break
breakdown
breast

vascul/o (u
cyan/o
corpor/o
somat/o
-some
oste/o
-ostisis
myle/o
enecphal/o
cerebr/o
furc/o
-clasis
-clast
-lysis
mamm/o (
-gram, -gra

meta-

mast/o (us
dynia, -ect

ultra-

155

bile
bile vessel
bilirubin
bind
birth

bil/i
chol/e
cholangi/o
bilirubin/o
-desis
nect/o

breastbone
breathe
breathing
bring forth

nat/i

bronchial tube
(bronchus)

-partum
toc/o
-tocia
birth (substance
for)
briths (live)
black
bladder (urinary)

blood

-tocin
-para
anthrac/o, melan/o,
cyst/o (use with -ic, -it is,
-cele, -gram, -scopy, -stomy,
-tomy)
vesic/o (use with -al)
hem/o (use with -dialysis,
-glodin, -lysis, -philia, -ptysis,
-rrhage, -stasis, -stat)

hamat/o (use with -crit,


-emises, -logist, -logy, -oma,
-poiesis, -uria

capillary
carbon dioxide
care for (to)
carry

bronchiole
bunion
brun

caus/o

bursa

cauter/o
burs/o

bursting forth of
blood

-rrhage
-rrhagia

calcaneus

calane/o

calcium
calculus

calc/o
calci/o
lith/o

calyx

cali/o

condition

156

bronch/o

bronchi/o
bronchiol/
bunion/o

canerous
common bile duct
complete

capillar
capn/o
-capnia
comi/o
duct/o
-ferent
-phoria

stren/o
spri/o
-pena
-para
-praous

calic/o
carcin/o
choledoch/
diael/o
-ation
-ema
-esis
-ia

carrying
cartilage
cast; throw

-phoresis
chondr/o
bol/o

cause

eti/o

cecum
cell
cells, condition of
cerebellum
cereburm

cec/o
cyt/o
-cyte
-cytosis
cerebell/o
cerebr/o

cerumen

cerumin/o

cervix
change
cheek
chemical
chest

cervic/o
metabucc/o
chem/o
pector/o
steth/o
thorac/o
-thorax
ped/o
ment/o
cholesterol/o
chori/o
chorion/o

child
chin
cholesterol
chorion
choriod/o layer (of
the eye)
ciliary body (of the
eye)
circle or cycle
clavicle (collar
bone)
clot
clumping
clusters
coagulation

-ism
-sis
-y
condition,
abnormal
connect
connective tissue
contanst
contorl
contraction
contraction of
muscles, sudden
coordination
copy
corena (of the eye)
cortex
cotton dust
crooked
crush (to)
curve
cut

choroid/o

-iasis

-osis
nect/o
sarc/o
home/o
-stasis, -s
-stalsis
-spasm

tax/o
-mimetic
corne/o
kerat/o
cortic/o
byssin/o
ankly/o
scoli/o
-tripsy
lord//o
cis/o
sect/o, -se
tom/o

cycl/o

cut off

cycl/o

cutting, process of

clavicul/o

cycle

cycl/o

thromb/o
agglutin/o
staphyl/o
coagul/o

cyst (sac of fluid)

cyst/o

dance

chore/o

157

syncop/o
-tomy

coal dust
coccyx
cold
collar bone
colon

anthrac/o
coccyg/o
cry/o
clavicul/o
col/o (use with -ectomy, -it is,
-pexy, -stomy)

dark
darkness
dawn-colored
death

phe/o
scot/o
eosin/o
leth/o

mort/o, -m
necr/o

colon/o (use with -ic, -pathy,


-scope, -scopy)
color
destroy
destruction
development

phern/o

difficult
digestion
dilation

droop

dys-pepsia
-ectasia
-ectasis
ambly/o
-rrhea
nos/o
path/o
-pathy
dist/o
tele/o
idi/o
dipl/o
cata/o
de-ptosis

drug

chem/o

dim
discharge
disease

distant
distinct
double
down

deficiency
deficient
eating
egg cell

chrom/o
-lytic
-lysis
plas/o
-plasis
troph/o
-trophy

diaphragm

defecation

elbow
electricity
elimination of
wastes
embryonic
enlargement
enzyme
epididymis
epiglottis
equal
esohagus
eustachian tube
excess
excessive
excision
expansion
extreme
extreme point
extremities
eye

158

-chezia
-penia
hypo-phagia
o/o
ov/o
ovul/o
olecran/o
electr/o
-chezia

-blast
-megaly
-ase
epididym/
epiglott/o
is/o
esophag/o
salping/o
ultrahyper-ectomy
-ectasia
-ectasis
pol/o
acr/o
acr/o
ocul/o (us
-motor)

pharmac/o

opthalm/o
-logist, -log
-plegia, -sc

pahrmaceut/o
dry
drying
duct
dull

ichthy/o
xer/o
desicc/o
vas/o
ambly/o

duodenum

duoden/o

dura mater
dusky
dust

dur/o
phe/o
coni/o

ear

aur/o (use with -al, -icle)


auricul/o (use with -ar)
ot/o (use with -alagia, -ic,
-itia, -logy, -mycosis, -rrhea,
-sclerosis, -scope, -scopy

ear (condition of)


eardrum

eyelid

palpebe/o

-otia
myring/o (use with -ectomy,
-it is, -tomy)

face
fall

faci/o
-ptosis

fallopian

salping/o

false
far
fascia

-slapnix
pseudodist/o
fasci/o

fast

tachy-

adip/o (us
lip/o (use
-genesis, steat/o (us
-rrhes_

tympan/o (use with, -ic,


-metry, -plasty)
eat
fear
feeling

opt/o (use
optic/o ( u
blephar/o(
-chalasis,
-plegia, -pt

phag/o
-phage
phob/o
-phobia
eathesi/o
-phoria

gas
gather
genetic change
159

pneum/o
pneumon/
-agon
mut/a

female

estr/o (use with -gen, -genic)


gynec/o (use with -logist,
-logy, -mastia)

femur
fever

fibre
fibrous connective
tissue
fibula
fingers and toe
bones
fingers
fire
first
fixation
flat late
flesh
flow
fluid
flushed
foot
foot bones
forking
from
formation

forming
forward
four
front

give (to)
given (what is)
gland
glans penis
glass

femor/o
pyr/o
pyret/o
pyrex/o
fibr/o
fibros/o

dactyl/o
pyr/o
prot/o
-pexy
-elasma
sarc/o
-rrhea
-oma
erythem/o
pod/o
metatras/o
furc/o
morph/o
plas/o
-plaisa
-plasm
-poiesis
-genesis
ante-, pro-, prosquadri
anter/o
160

-dote

globe-shaped
glomerulus

aden/o
balan/o
silic/o
vitre/o
spher/o
glomerul/o

glucose

gluc/o

fibul/o(use with -ar)


perone/o
phagal/o

mutagen/o
-dote

glyc/o
gluycos/o
glue

colla/a

glycogen
go (to)
good
granule(s)
gray
gray matter
green
groin
grow
gorwth
gum

gli/o
glycogen/o
-grade
eugranul/o
glauc/o
poli
chlor/o
inguin/o
-physis
-plasia
gingiv/o

habit
hair
half
hallucination

-hexia
pil/o
trich/o
hemisemihallucin/o

full of
fungus

-ose
fung/I (use with -cide, -oid,
-ous, -stasis)
myc/o)use with - logist, -logy,
-osis, -tic)

gall
gallbladder
ganglion

heart

heart muscle
heat
heavy
heel bone
hemoglobin
herina
hidden
hip
hold back
hormone
horny
horse
humerus

bil/i
chole (use with -ary)
choleycyst/o
gangli/o
ganglion/o
cardio (use with -ac, -graphy,
-logy, -logist, -meglay, -pathy,
-vascular)

coron/o ( use with -ary)


myocardi/o
cauter/o
therm/o
pachycalcane/o
hemoglobin
-cele
herni/o
crypt/o
pelv/i
isch/o
hormon/o
-one
kerat/o
equin/o
humer/o

161

hand

chir/o

hand bones

metacarp/

hang(to)

pend/o

hard

kerat/o

hardening
head
hearing

scrrih/o
-sclerosis
cephal/o
acous/o
audi/o
audit/o
-acusis
-cusis

intestine, small

enter/o

iodine
ion
iris

iod/o
ion/o
ir/o
irid/o
sider
poikil/o
-clysis
ischi/o
prurit/o

iron
irregular
irrigation
ischium
itching

jaw,lower
jaw, upper
joint

ketones

mandibul/
submaxill/
maxill/o
arthr/o
articul/o

ket/o
keton/o

humpback

kyph/o

hydrochloric acid
ileum

chlorhydr/o
ile/o

ilium

ili/o

immature
immune
in, into

in due measure
inf front of

-blast
immun/o
emenendoin-, intrairemmetr/o
pre-

incomplete

atel/o

increase in
numbers (blood
cells)
individual
infection
inferior to
inflammation
instrument for
recording
instument for
visual examination
instument to cut
internal organs
intesine, large
less

kideny

nephr/o (u
-ectomy, -i
-oma, -osi,
-sclerosis,

ren/o (use
-vascular)
killing
knowledge

labor

labor (substance
for)

-cytosis

idi/o
seps/o
infra-it is
-graph

-cidal
-cide
gnos/o

-partum
toc/o
-tocia
-tocin

lack of

de-

lack of strength
lacrimal duct
lacrimal sac
lamina

-asthenia
dacry/o
lacrim/o
dacryocyat
lamin/o

large

macro-

-scope

megalarynx
lead
lens of eye

-tome
viscer/o
col/o
demi/o

meatus
mediastinum

162

laryng/o
duct/o
phac/o
phak/o
meat/o
mediastin/

life

bi/o
vit/o
viv/o

ligament

ligament/o

like
lip
little

liver
lobe
location
loin
loosening
love
luminous
lung

medulla oblongata
meninges

syndesm/o
phil/o
cheli/o
labi/o
lip/o
-ole
-ule
hepat/o
lob/o
top/o
lumb/o
-lysis
phil/o
fluor/o
pneum/o (use with - occus,
-coniosis, -thorax)
pneumon/o (use with
-ectomy, -ia, -ic, -it is, -lysis)

lymph
lymph gland
lymph vessel

lymph/o
lymphaden/o
lymphangi/o

make (to)
male
malformed fetus
malleolus
mandible

-fication
andr/o
terat/o
malleol/o
mandibul/o

163

menstruation;
menses
metacarpals
metatarsals
middle

middle ear
midwife
milk
mimic
mind

medulla/o
mening/o
meningi/o
men/o

metracarp
metatars/o
medi/o
medull/o
mesotympan/o
obstetr/o
galact/o
lact/o
-mimetic
ment/o
phren/o
psych/o
-thymia
-thymic

mixture

cras/o

monster

terat/o

more
mouth
movement

ple/o
or/o(use w
cine/o
kines/o
kinesi/o
-kinesia
-kinesis
-motor
polymucos/o
muc/o
myx/o

much
mucous membrane
mucus

submaxill/o
many

muscle

multi-

my/o (use
-ectomy, -o
-pathy, -rr

pel/o

marketplace
marrow
mass
mastiod process
maxilla
meal

polyagora
madull/o
-oma
mastiod/o
maxill/o
cib/o

muscle, heart
muscle, smooth
(visceral)
muscle, striated
(skeletal)
muscle tumor
muzzle
sheath
shield
shin bone
shine
short
shoulder
side
sieve
sigmoid colon
single
sinus
skin

-prandial
measure
rib
roll (to)
rosy
round
rule
run
rupture

sac, small

-meter
metr/o
cost/o
vol/o
eosin/o
spher/o
norm/o
-drome
-rrhexis

sac of fluid
sacrum

alveol/o
follicul/o
cyst/o
sacr/o

safe

immun/o

sag (to)

musucl/o
-skeletal)

myos/o (us
myocardi/
leiomy/o

rhabdomy/

myom/o
phim/o
thec/o
thyr/o
tibi/o
-lucent
brachyom/o
later/o
ethm/o
sigmoid/o
mon/o
sinus/o
cutane/o (
derm/o (u
-derma (u
leuk/o

-ptosis

saliva

sial/o

salivary gland

sialaden/o

dermat/o
-logist, -log

164

same
sameness
scaly
scanty
sclera
scrotum
sea
sebum

secrete
seed
seizure
seize (to): take hold
of
self
semen
seminal vesicle
send (to)
sensation (nervous)
separate
separation
set (to)
severe
sex glands
sexual intercourse
shape
sharp
sperm cells
(spermatozoa)

epitheli/o
-oid, -oma

ipsiis/o
home/o
icthy/o
olig/o
scler/o
scrot/o
thalass/o
seb/o
sebace/o
steat/o
crin/o
-crine
gon/o
semin/i
-lepsy

skull
sleep

sleep (deep)
slender
slide (to)
slipping
slow
small

-leptic

crani/o
hypn/o
somn/o
-somnia
comat/o
lept/o
-lapse
lux/o
-listhesis
brady-icle
micro-ole
-ule

small intestine
smaller
smell
sodium
soft
softening
sole (of the foot)
solution
sound

aut/o
autosemin/i
vesicul/o
-mission
-esthesia
-crine
-lysis
-stitial
acu/o
gonad/o
-pareunia
-form
morph/o
acu/o
oxysperm/o
spermat/o

spark
specialist
speech
surgical repair
surrounding
165

enter/o
mi/o
-osmia
natr/o
medull/o
-malacia
plant/o
-sol
echophon/o
-phonia
son/o
scint/i
-ist
phas/o
-phasia
-plasty
peri-

spinal column
spinal cord
spinal column
(spine)

spiny
spitting
spleen
split
split (to)
stake (pole)
stapes
starch
state of
steal
sternum
steroid
sticking together
stiff
stimulate
stomach
stone
stop
stopping

rachi/o
myel/o

suture
swallow

spin/o

swallowing

rachi/o
vertebr/o
acanth/o
-ptysis
splen/o
-fida
schiz/o
-schisis
styl/o
staped/o
amyl/o

swayback
sweat
swift
sword
synovia (fluid)
synovial membrane

tail
tailbone
tear

-sis

straight

klept/o
stern/o
ster/o
agglutin/o
ankyl/o
-tropin
gastr/o
lith/o
-suppression
-stasis
-static
orth/o

stranger

xen/o

strength
stretch

-sthenia
tone/o

stretching

-rrhaphy
phag/o
-phagia

lord/o
diaphor/o
hidr/o (us
oxyxiph/o
synov/o
synov/o

caud/o
coccyg/o
dacry/o (u
-rrhea)

lacrim/o (u
tear (to cut)
tear gland
tear sac
temperament
tendon
tension
testis

- spadia
dacryoade
dacryocyst
cras/o
ten/o
tend/o
tendin/o
ton/o
orch/o (us
orchi/o (us
-dynia, -ec
-tomy)

orchid/o (u
-pexy, -pla
-ptosis, -to

-ectasia

166

stricture
structure
structure, solid
study of
stupor
substance
substance that
forms
sudden
sugar

thyroid gland
tibia
tie
tie together
tightening
time
tissue

-ectasis
-stenosis
-ium
-um, -us
ster/o
log/o
-logy
narc/o
-in
-ine

three

tri-

throat
through

pharyng/o
diapertransbol/o
thym/o
om/o
hypoanis/o
idi/o
anaepiazot/o
ureter/o
urethr/o

thick
thigh bone
thin
thing

-poietin
acu/o
oxysm/o
gluc/o
glyc/o
glycos/o
-ose
thyr/o
thyroid/o
tibi/o
nect/o
-desis
-stenosis
chron/o
hist/o
histi/o

throw (to)
thymus gland
unchanging
under
unequal
unknown
up
upon
urea
ureter
urethra
urinary baddler

-ium

toes
together

thirst
thorny

test/o (use
pachyfemor/o
lept/o
-um
-us
dips/o
acanth/o

-um
dactyl/o
consymsyn-

urinary tract

167

cyst/o (use
-it is, -pexy
-scope, -sc

vesic/o(us
ur/o

tongue

gloss/o (use with -al, -dynia,


-plasty, -plegia, -rrhapy,
-spasm, -tomy)

urination

lingu/o (use with -al)


tonsil

tonsill/o

uterus

tooth

dent/i
odont/o

top

acr/o

toward
trachea
transmission

adaftrache/o
-phoresis

uvea

treatment

iatr/o

uvula

-uria

urin/o
hyster/o (u
-graphy, -g

metro/o (u
-rrhea, -rr

metri/o (u
utre/o (us
uve/o
uvul/o (us
-ptosis)

therapeut/o

staphly/o
-plasty, -to

-therapy
trigone
tube
tumor

trigon/o
syring/o
-oma
vagina

onc/o
turn

turning
twisted chains
two
tympanic
membrane

ulcer

-tropia
-verse
-version
-tropic
strept/o
bi-

colp/o (use
-plasty, -sc

vagin/o (u
vagus nerve
valve

myring/o

vag/o
valv/o
valvul/o

tympan/o

varicose veins
varied
vas deferens

aphth/o

vein

168

varic/o
poikil/o
vaslo
phleb/o (u
is, -tomy)

ulna
umbilicus, navel
vertebra

uln/o
omphal/o (use with -cele,
-ectomy, -rrhagia, -rrhexis
umbilic/o (use with -al)
rachi/o (use with -itis, -tomy)
spondyl/o (use with -itis,
-listhesis, -osis, -pathy)

vessel

vertebr/o (use with -al)


angi/o (use with -ectomy,
-genesis, -gram, -graphy,
-oma, -plasty, -spasm)

ven/o(use
ventricle
wedge

ventricul/o
sphen/o

weight

bar/o

white

alb/o
albin/o
leuk/o

wide
widening

vas/o (use with -constriction,


-dilation, -motor)

view of
vision

visual examination
vitreous body
voice
voice box
vomiting
vulva
wander
washing
wasting away
water

vascul/o (-ar, -itis)


-opsy
-opia
-opsia
opt/o
optic/o
-scopy
vitr/o
phon/o
-phonia
laryng/o
-emesis
episi/o (use with -tomy)
vulv/o (use with -ar)
ion/o
-clysis
-phthisis
aque/o
169

mydr/o
-dilation
-ectasia
-ectasis

word
work
wrist bone
x-ray

-eurysm
trache/o
consymsynenendointragynec/o
hyster/o
metr/o
metri/o
uter/o
-lexia
erg/o
carp/o
radio/o

yellow

lute/o

windpipe
with

within

woman
womb

watery flow

hydr/o
rheumat/o

jaund/o
xanth/o

170