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MEC 423/523

Internal Combustion Engines

Instructor: Prof. Sotirios Mamalis


MEC 423/523

Assistant Professor Sotirios Mamalis
Office: 151 Light Engineering

Description of internal combustion engine hardware, operating principles and performance
analysis. Topics include thermodynamics fundamentals; fuel-air cycle analysis; engine
combustion; emissions formation and control strategies. Includes both the relevant fundamental
concepts and the extensive practical knowledge base on which engine research, development,
and design depend.


Monday and Wednesday, 10:00 AM 12:00 PM at LE 151


Perspective on this course

What you will learn
General engine types and features
Performance metrics
Thermodynamics of ideal cycles
Combustion basics, real fluid properties
Fuel/Air cycles
SI/CI processes; emissions; basic aftertreatment
What you will do
Use what you have learned to assess engine behavior and
understand design tradeoffs
Use computer program for combustion and cycle analysis


Perspective on this course (contd)

What is left for future courses and projects
Advanced combustion
Flow and combustion modeling (CFD),
Boosting system analysis with modern modeling
Vehicle fuel economy predictions
Alternative powertrain systems (e.g. hybrid)
Experimental work


Future of ICEs: brighter than ever before

New technologies are creating opportunities:
Electronically controlled fuel injectors
High pressure fuel injection systems
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA)
Better and cheaper electronic control
Hybrid (hydraulic, electric) systems
New challenges
Higher fuel cost and fuel economy regulations
Emissions regulations
Alternative fuels
New mobility preferences require new vehicle

Class Organization

MATLAB-based cycle simulation software
Will be available for download after the first exam

Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, by John B. Heywood, McGraw-Hill,

Lectures: Tu Th 11.30 AM -12.50 PM, Frey Hall 105

3 hours

HOMEWORK (MEC 423/523):

6 problem sets, including computer assignments

EXAMS (MEC 423/523):

Two exams, one mid-term and one final exam


Interpret and analyze experimental results based on course material

Internal Combustion Engine

Fundamentals, Heywood (1988)
> $200 new

The authoritative source on

Internal Combustion Engines
Somewhat dated but excellent
description of fundamentals
Not required for this course, but
highly recommended
You may find used on or
A more affordable version of
the book is available at the
bookstore (different cover)

$40-50 used


Course Notes
Will be posted on Blackboard prior to the lecture
You will need to bring them to class (hardcopy or
Your printed copies will constitute one of your open
books for the exams.

The course notes have been adopted from the ICE course taught at the University of
Michigan originally by Prof. Dennis Assanis (SBUs current provost).
Please feel free to provide comments and point out typos.

Grading Policy

MEC 423
Homework is worth 40% of course grade
HW1 through HW5 are each worth 6%
HW6 is worth 10%

Midterm is worth 25% of course grade

Final is worth 35% of course grade

MEC 523
Homework is worth 28% of course grade
HW1 through HW5 are each worth 4%
HW6 is worth 8%

Project is worth 12% of course grade

Midterm is worth 25% of course grade
Final is worth 35% of course grade

Cannot give a definite grading scale; however, a curve will be utilized.

MEC 423 will be graded on ABCDF scale.
MEC 523 will be graded on ABCF scale.


Homework and Project Policy

Homework and projects are due at the end of lecture
Only one homework (1-5) is accepted late at no cost
Homework 6 and project must be on-time otherwise no credit is
Late penalty: 10% per calendar day
When solutions are posted (typically 1-2 lectures after the
homework is collected), late homework will not be accepted.

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Re-grading Policy
If you have a question regarding grades received on
homework, lab or exam please return the graded paper
within one week.
Attach a separate sheet of paper to the front of the
assignment with a well-detailed description of where you
think the grader made an error.
We will then review the comments and make any necessary

You will have ONE week after the graded assignment/test

is returned to give us the papers for re-grading. This is to
ensure that the material is still fresh and a proper regrading can be done.
If you still have a problem with the number of points received
after getting the paper back from a re-grading, we may go over
the assignment with you.
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Exam Policy
Open Book and Open Notes
No laptops and wireless communication devices
Sample problems will be given and solutions will
be posted online

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Course Contents

Introduction (Heywood Ch. 1)

Engine classification

2. Engine Design and Operating Parameters

(Heywood Ch. 2)
Engine geometry
Brake Performance, Indicated Performance,
Relationships among performance parameters
3. Ideal Properties Models of Engine Processes
and Cycles (Heywood Ch. 5)
Constant volume (Otto)
Constant pressure (Diesel)
Limited pressure
Comparisons of ideal cycle results
Ideal intake/exhaust processes
Open cycle calculation with residual gas

4. Combustion Thermodynamics (Heywood Ch. 3)

Air and Fuels
Combustion Stoichiometry
Equilibrium combustion products
Practical chemical equilibrium
First law analysis of closed reacting systems
Heating value and enthalpy of formation
Adiabatic flame temperature
First law analysis of open reacting systems
Combustion efficiency
5. Thermodynamic Properties of Engine Working
Fluids (Heywood Ch. 4)
Working fluids for engine processes
Ideal gas mixtures
Tables for species properties
Curve fits for species properties
Computer routines for properties and

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Course Contents (Contd)

6. Fuel/Air Cycle Analysis (Heywood Ch. 5)
Fuel/air cycle computer simulation
Fuel/air cycle results: efficiency and
Comparison with actual cycles
Deviation from Ideal Cycle Behavior
7. Spark-Ignition Engine Combustion
(Heywood Ch. 9)
Features of process
Flame structure and propagation
Factors affecting burning rate
Abnormal combustion and knock
Combustion chamber design
8. Diesel Engine Combustion (Heywood Ch.
Features of diesel combustion process
Ignition delay
Knock in diesel engines

9. SI and Diesel Engine Emissions (Heywood

Ch. 11)
Nature and extent of problem
Nitrogen oxides
Carbon monoxide
Emissions control strategies
10. IC Engines: The Future
Engine development prospects
Stratified charge, direct injection systems
Homogeneous charge, compression ignition
Low temperature diesel combustion
Advanced electronic-controlled engines
Hybrids and fuel cells

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Common Acronyms

2V Two Valve
4V Four Valve
BDC Bottom Dead Center
CARB California Air Resources Board
CAFE Corporate Average Fuel Economy
CI Compression Ignition
CO Carbon Monoxide
CPS Cam Profile Switching
CR Compression Ratio
DI Direct Injection
EGR Exhaust Gas Recirculation
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
EV Electric Vehicle
FTP Federal Test Procedure
HC Hydrocarbons
HCCI Homogenous Charge Compression
HSDI High Speed Direct Injection
IC Intercooled or Intercooler
IDI Indirect Injection
LEV Low Emissions Vehicle
LTC Low Temperature Combustion
MON Motor Octane Number

NLEV Nearly Low Emissions Vehicle

NMHC Non-Methane Hydrocarbons
NO Nitric Oxide
NOx Nitric Oxides (NO + NO2)
PC Passenger Car
PCI Premixed Compression Ignition
PM Particulate Matter
RON Research Octane Number
SI Spark Ignition
SULEV Super Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle
SUV Sport Utility Vehicle
TC Turbocharged or Turbocharger
TDC Top Dead Center
TEL TetraEthyl Lead
UDDS Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule
ULEV Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle
VGT Variable Geometry Turbocharger
VNT Variable Nozzle Turbine
VVA Variable Valve Actuation
VVT Variable Valve Timing
WOT Wide Open Throttle
ZEV Zero Emissions Vehicle

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