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# CHAPTER 16 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS

## EXERCISE 64 Page 136

1. Evaluate the following, correct to 4 significant figures: (a) e1.8 (b) e 0.78 (c) e10

Using a calculator:
(a) e1.8 = 0.1653, correct to 4 significant figures
(b) e 0.78 = 0.4584, correct to 4 significant figures
(c) e10 = 22 030, correct to 4 significant figures

## 2. Evaluate the following, correct to 5 significant figures:

(a) e1.629

(b) e2.7483

(c) 0.62e4.178

Using a calculator:
a) e1.629 = 5.0988, correct to 5 significant figures
(b) e2.7483 = 0.064037, correct to 5 significant figures
(c) 0.62e4.178 = 40.446, correct to 5 significant figures

## 3. Evaluate correct to 5 decimal places: (a)

1 3.4629
e
7

(b) 8.52e1.2651

(c)

5e 2.6921
3e1.1171

Using a calculator:
(a)

1 3.4629
e
= 4.55848, correct to 5 decimal places
7

## (b) 8.52e1.2651 = 2.40444, correct to 5 decimal places

(c)

5e 2.6921
= 8.05124, correct to 5 decimal places
3e1.1171

## 4. Evaluate correct to 5 decimal places: (a)

5.6823
e 2.1347

249

(b)

e 2.1127 e 2.1127
2

(c)

4 (e 1.7295 1)
e3.6817

## 2014, John Bird

Using a calculator:
(a)

5.6823
= 48.04106, correct to 5 decimal places
e 2.1347

(b)

e 2.1127 e 2.1127
= 4.07482, correct to 5 decimal places
2

(c )

4 ( e 1.7295 1)
e3.6817

## 5. The length of a bar l at a temperature is given by l = l 0 e, where l 0 and are constants.

Evaluate l, correct to 4 significant figures, where l0 = 2.587, = 321.7 and = 1.771 104
Using a calculator,
=
l l0=
e (2.587) e(321.71.771104 ) = 2.739, correct to 4 significant figures

6. When a chain of length 2L is suspended from two points, 2D metres apart, on the same
L + L2 + k 2
horizontal level: D = k ln

. Evaluate D when k = 75 m and L = 180 m.

L + L2 + k 2
180 + 1802 + 752
180 + 195
=
k ln =
75 ln =
75
ln
75 {ln 5} = 120.7 m
k
75
75

250

## EXERCISE 65 Page 138

1. Evaluate 5.6e1, correct to 4 decimal places, using the power series for ex.

e x =+
1 x+

x 2 x3 x 4
+ + + ...
2! 3! 4!

When x = 1, e 1 = 1 + (1) +

+
+
+
+
+ ...
2!
3!
4!
5!
6!

## = 1 1 + 0.5 0.166666 + 0.041666 0.0083333

+ 0.001388 0.000198 + 0.0000248 +
= 0.36788
Hence, 5.6e1 = (5.6)(0.36788) = 2.0601, correct to 4 decimal places
2. Use the power series for ex to determine, correct to 4 significant figures,
(a) e2 (b) e 0.3 and check your result by using a calculator.

(a)

e x =+
1 x+

When x = 2, e 2 = 1 + 2 +

x 2 x3 x 4
+ + + ...
2! 3! 4!
2 2 23 2 4 25 2 6
+ + + + + ...
2! 3! 4! 5! 6!

## = 1 + 2 + 2 + 1.33333 + 0.66666 + 0.26666 + 0.08888 + 0.02540 + 0.00635

+ 0.00141 + 0.00028 + 0.00005 +
= 7.389, correct to 4 significant figures, which may be checked with a calculator
(b) When x = 0.3, e 0.3 = 1 0.3 +

+
+
+
+ ...
2!
3!
4!
5!

## = 1 0.3 + 0.04500 0.00450 + 0.00034 0.00002 +

= 0.7408, correct to 4 significant figures
3. Expand (1 2x)e2x as far as the term in x4

(2 x) 2 (2 x)3 (2 x) 4

+
+
+ ...
(1 2x) e 2 x = (1 2x) 1 + 2 x +
2!
3!
4!

251

## 2014, John Bird

4
2

= (1 2x) 1 + 2 x + 2 x 2 + x3 + x 4
3
3

= 1 + 2 x + 2 x2 +

4 3 2 4
8
x + x 2 x 4 x 2 4 x 3 x 4 ...
3
3
3

8
= 1 2 x 2 x3 2 x 4
3
4. Expand (2e x2 )(x1/2) to six terms.

e x =+
1 x+

1/2

(2x ) e

x2

x 2 x3 x 4
+ + + ...
2! 3! 4!

( x 2 ) 2 ( x 2 )3 ( x 2 ) 4 ( x 2 )
2
= (2x ) 1 + x +
+
+
+
...

2!
3!
4!
5!

1/2

x 4 x 6 x8 x10

+
+ ...
= (2x1/2) 1 + x 2 + + +
2 6 24 120

1
2

= 2x + 2x

2+

1
2

4+

2x
+
2

1
2

2x

6 +

1
2

8+

10

2x 2 2x 2
...
+
+
24
120

1
5
9
1 13 1 17 1 21
= 2x 2 + 2x 2 + x 2 + x 2 + x 2 +
x 2 ...
3
12
60

252

## EXERCISE 66 Page 139

1. Plot a graph of y = 3e 0.2 x over the range x = 3 to x = 3. Hence determine the value of y when
x = 1.4 and the value of x when y = 4.5

## y = 3 e0.2 x 1.65 2.01 2.46 3.00 3.66 4.48 5.47

From the graph, when x = 1.4, y = 3.95 and when y = 4.5, x = 2.05

2. Plot a graph of y =

1 1.5 x
e
over a range x = 1.5 to x = 1.5 and hence determine the value of y
2

x
y=

1.5
1 1.5 x
e
2

4.74

0.5

0.5

1.5

2.24

1.06

0.50

0.24

0.11

0.05

253

## 2014, John Bird

From the graph, when x = 0.8, y = 1.65 and when y = 3.5, x = 1.30

3. In a chemical reaction the amount of starting material C cm 3 left after t minutes is given by:
C = 40e 0.006t . Plot a graph of C against t and determine (a) the concentration C after 1 hour, and
(b) the time taken for the concentration to decrease by half.

Time t (min)

20

40

60

80

100 120

## C = 40e 0.006t (cm 3 ) 40 35.3 31.5 27.9 24.8 22.0 19.5

A graph of C against t is shown below.
From the graph,
(a) When t = 60 min, C = 28 cm3
(b) When C has decreased by half, i.e. to 20 cm 3 , time, t = 116 min

254

## 2014, John Bird

4. The rate at which a body cools is given by = 250e 0.05t , where the excess of temperature of a
body above its surroundings at time t minutes is C. Plot a graph showing the natural decay curve
for the first hour of cooling. Hence determine (a) the temperature after 25 minutes and (b) the time
when the temperature is 195C.

10

20 30 40 50 60

## From the graph,

(a) after t = 25 minutes, temperature = 70 C
(b) when the temperature is 195 C , time t = 5 minutes

255

256

## 1. Evaluate correct to 5 significant figures:

(a)

1
ln 5.2932
3

(b)

ln 82.473
4.829

5.62 ln 321.62
e1.2942

(c)

Using a calculator:
(a)

1
ln 5.2932 = 0.55547, correct to 5 significant figures
3

(b)

ln 82.473
= 0.91374, correct to 5 significant figures
4.829

(c)

5.62 ln 321.62
= 8.8941, correct to 5 significant figures
e1.2942

## 2. Evaluate correct to 5 significant figures:

(a)

1.786 ln e1.76
lg101.41

(b)

5e 0.1629
2 ln 0.00165

(c)

ln 4.8629 ln 2.4711
5.173

Using a calculator,

(a)

1.786 ln e1.76
(1.786)(1.76)
=
= 2.2293, correct to 5 significant figures
lg101.41
(1.41)

(b)

5e 0.1629
= 0.33154, correct to 5 significant figures
2 ln 0.00165

(c)

ln 4.8629 ln 2.4711
= 0.13087, correct to 5 significant figures
5.173

## Rearranging 1.5 = 4e2t gives:

1.5
= e2t
4

1.5
2t
Taking Napierian logarithms of both sides gives: ln
= ln(e )
4
Since log ee = , then

1.5
ln
= 2t
4
257

## 2014, John Bird

Hence,

t=

1 1.5 1
ln
= ( 0.980829) = 0.4904, correct to 4 significant figures
2 4 2

## If 7.83 = 2.91e 1.7 x

i.e.

7.83
2.91

e 1.7 =

then

7.83
1.7x = ln

2.91

and

x=

7.83
ln e 1.7 x = ln

2.91

and

1 7.83
ln
= 0.5822, correct to 4 significant figures
1.7 2.91

## 5. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: 16 = 24(1 e 2 )

If=
16 24 1 e 2

then

t
16

= 1 e 2
24

16
24

from which,

e 2 = 1

and

t
16
= ln 1
2
24

16
t = 2 ln 1 = 2.197, correct to 4 significant figures
24

and

x
6. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: 5.17 = ln

4.64
x
x
5.17
From the definition of a logarithm, since 5.17 = ln
then e =
4.64
4.64

Rearranging gives:

x = 4.64 e5.17

i.e.

## x = 816.2, correct to 4 significant figures

1.59
7. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: 3.72 ln
= 2.43
x

1.59
If 3.72 ln
= 2.43
x

then

1.59 2.43
ln
=
x 3.72
258

2.43
1.59

= e 3.72
x

from which,

and

1.59

x=

2.43

3.72

= 1.59 e

2.43

3.72

If

ln x = 2.40

then

## 9. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: 24 + e 2 x =

45
Since 24 + e 2 x =
45 then e 2 x = 45 24 = 21
Then
i.e.
from which,

ln e 2 x = ln 21
2x = ln 21
x=

1
ln 21 = 1.522
2

## 10. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: =

5 e x+1 7
Since =
5 e x+1 7 then e x+1 = 12
Then

ln e x+1 = ln12

i.e.

x + 1 = ln 12

and

## x = (ln 12) 1 = 2.485 1 = 1.485

5 8 1 e 2
11. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: =

Rearranging=
5 8 1 e 2 gives:

and

x
5

=1 e 2
8

x
2

=1

5 3
=
8 8
x

e2 =
259

8
3

## 2014, John Bird

x
8
Taking Napierian logarithms of both sides gives: ln e 2 = ln
3

x
8
= ln
2
3

i.e.

8
x = 2 ln = 1.962, correct to 4 significant figures
3

from which,

## 12. Solve, correct to 4 significant figures: ln(x + 3) ln x = ln(x 1).

x+3
Since ln(x + 3) ln x = ln(x 1) then ln =
ln ( x 1)
x
x+3
=

from which,

( x 1)

i.e.

x + 3 = x(x 1)

i.e.

x + 3 = x2 x

Rearranging gives:
Factorizing gives:
from which,

x2 2x 3 =
0
(x 3)(x + 1) = 0
x = 3 or x = 1

## In the given equation x = 1 is not a possible solution, hence x = 3

13. Solve, correct to 4 significant figures: ln ( x 1) ln 3= ln ( x 1)
2

Since ln ( x 1) ln 3= ln ( x 1)
2

from which,

then

( x 1)2
ln ( x 1)
ln
=
3

( x 1) 2
= x 1
3

i.e.

x2 2x + 1
= x 1
3

and

x 2 2 x + 1 = 3x 3

i.e.

x2 5x + 4 =
0

Factorizing gives:
from which,

(x 4)(x 1) = 0
x = 4 or x = 1
260

i.e.

## ln[(x + 3)(x 2)] = 10

i.e.

ln[ x 2 2 x + 3 x 6 ] = 10

i.e.

ln[ x 2 + x 6] = 10

x 2 + x 6 = e10
and x 2 + x 6 e10 = 0
i.e.

from which,

x 2 + x 22 032.5 =
0
x=

1 12 4(1)(22032.5) 1 296.87
= 147.9 or 1.001
=
2(1)
2

## Neglecting the negative answer, x = 147.9

15. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: e( x +1) = 3e( 2 x 5) )

## Since e( x +1) = 3e( 2 x 5) ) then

ln ( e( x +1) ) = ln ( 3e( 2 x 5) )

i.e.

1)
ln ( e( x +=
) ln 3 + ln ( e( 2 x5) ) by the first law of logarithms

and

(x + 1) = ln 3 + (2x 5)

Rearranging gives:

5 + 1 ln 3 = 2x x

i.e.

x = 6 ln 3 = 4.901

## 16. Solve correct to 4 significant figures: ln ( x + 1) = 1.5 ln ( x 2 ) + ln ( x + 1)

2

Since

ln ( x + 1) = 1.5 ln ( x 2 ) + ln ( x + 1)

then

ln ( x + 1) + ln ( x 2 ) ln ( x + 1) =
1.5

261

## 2014, John Bird

and

( x + 1) 2 ( x 2) )
ln
= 1.5
( x + 1)

i.e.

ln ( ( x + 1)( x 2) ) =
1.5

i.e.

ln ( x 2 2 x + x 2 ) =
1.5

and

( x 2 2 x + x 2 ) =e1.5

i.e.

x 2 x 2 e1.5 =
0

i.e.

x 2 x 6.48169 =
0
2
1 ( 1) 4 (1)( 6.48169 ) 1 26.92676

x=
=
2 (1)
2

then

1 + 26.92676
1 26.92676
or
2
2

## = 3.095 or 2.095, correct to 3 decimal places

The solution x = 2.095 is not possible in the given equation, hence x = 3.095

## 17. Transpose: b = ln t a ln D to make t the subject.

Since b = ln t a ln D then ln t = b + a ln D
b + a ln D
=
t e=
eb=
e a ln D eb eln Da

and

18. If

Since

i.e. t = eb D a

since eln x = x

P
R1
= 10 log10 find the value of R1 when
=
P 160,
=
Q 8 and R2 = 5
Q
R2
P
R1
= 10 log10
Q
R2

then

P
R1
= log10
10Q
R2
P

1010Q =

and

R1
R2
P

160

R1 = R2 1010Q =
5 10 80 =
5 102 = 5 100 = 500

from which,

262

## 2014, John Bird

Since U 2 = U1 e

PV

W
W
U2
U2

then
= e PV and ln
= ln e PV

U1
U1

U2 W
ln
=
U1 PV

i.e.

U2
W = PV ln

U1

from which,

m1
20. The velocity v2 of a rocket is given by v2= v1 + C ln
where v1 is the initial rocket
m2
velocity, C is the velocity of the jet exhaust gases, m1 is the mass of the rocket before the jet
engine is fired, and m2 is the mass of the rocket after the jet engine is switched off. Calculate
the velocity of the rocket given v1 = 600 m/s, C = 3500 m/s, m1 = 8.50 104 kg and

## m2 = 7.60 104 kg.

m1
8.50 104
v1 + C ln
600 + 3500 ln
Velocity of rocket v2 =
=

m2
7.60 104
= 992 m/s

21. The work done in an isothermal expansion of a gas from pressure p1 to p2 is given by:
p1
w = w0 ln
p2
If the initial pressure p1 = 7.0 kPa, calculate the final pressure p2 if w = 3 w0

If w = 3 w0 then

p1
3 w0 = w0 ln
p2

i.e.

p1
3 = ln
p2

and

=
e3

from which,

final pressure,=
p2

p1 7000
=
p2
p2
7000
= 7000 e 3 = 348.5 Pa
e3

263

## EXERCISE 68 Page 145

1. The temperature, TC, of a cooling object varies with time, t minutes, according to the
equation:

## (a) When t = 0, T = 150 e 0.04 t = 150 e0 = 150C

(b) When t = 10, T ==
150 e 0.04 t 150
=
e 0.04(10) 150 e 0.4 = 100.5C

2. The pressure p pascals at height h metres above ground level is given by: p = p 0 e h/C, where p 0 is
the pressure at ground level and C is a constant. Find pressure p when p 0 = 1.012 105 Pa, height
h = 1420 m and C = 71 500

Pressure, p = p0 e

h
C

=
(1.012 105 ) e

1420
71500

=
(1.012 105 )(0.980336) = 9.921104 Pa or 99.21 kPa

3. The voltage drop, v volts, across an inductor L henrys at time t seconds is given by: v = 200 e

Rt
L

where R = 150 and L = 12.5 10 3 H. Determine (a) the voltage when t = 160 106 s, and
(b) the time for the voltage to reach 85 V.

Rt
L

= 200 e

and

Thus,

(150 )(160106 )
12.5103

150 t
12.5103

from which,

150 t
85

= e 12.5103
200

150 t
85
=
ln

12.5 10
200
time t =

12.5 103 85
6
ln
= 71.3110 s
150
200

264

## 2014, John Bird

4. The length l metres of a metal bar at temperature tC is given by l = l 0 et, where l 0 and are
constants. Determine (a) the value of l when l 0 = 1.894, = 2.038 10 4 and t = 250C, and
(b) the value of l 0 when l = 2.416, t = 310C and = 1.682 104
2.038104 )( 250 )
(a) Length,
l = l0 e t 1.894 e(=
=
1.894
=
e0.05096 (1.894)(1.05227) = 1.993 m

l
)( 310 ) 2.416 e 0.052142
(b) Since l = l0 e t , then l0 = = l =
e t 2.416 e (1.682104=

t
e

= (2.416)(0.949194) = 2.293 m
5. The temperature 2 C of an electrical conductor at time t seconds is given by: 2 = 1 (1 et/T),
where 1 is the initial temperature and T seconds is a constant.
Determine (a) 2 when 1 = 159.9C, t = 30 s and T = 80 s,
and

30

t
2

= 1 e T
1

## (b) Since 2 = 1 (1 et/T) then

from which,
Then

and
from which,

t
T

= 1

2
1

2
Tt
ln e =
ln 1

1
t
2
= ln 1
T
1
1
2
time, t = T ln 1 = 80 ln 1 = 80 ln 0.5 = 55.45 s
2
1

265

## 2014, John Bird

6. A belt is in contact with a pulley for a sector of = 1.12 radians and the coefficient of friction
between these two surfaces is = 0.26. Determine the tension on the taut side of the belt, T
newtons, when tension on the slack side is given by T 0 = 22.7 newtons, given that these
quantities are related by the law T = T0 e.
Tension T = T0 e = 22.7 e( 0.26)(1.12) = 22.7 e0.2912 = 30.37 N

7. The instantaneous current i at time t is given by: i = 10et/CR when a capacitor is being charged.
The capacitance C is 7 10 6 farads and the resistance R is 0.3 106 ohms. Determine:
(a) the instantaneous current when t is 2.5 seconds, and
(b) the time for the instantaneous current to fall to 5 amperes.
Sketch a curve of current against time from t = 0 to t = 6 seconds.

(a) Current, i = 10 e
(b) When i = 5,

2.5
7106 0.3106

5 = 10 e

= 3.04 A

t
2.1

from which,

t
5
ln =
2.1
10

Thus,
Time t

Current i 10

and
2

t
5

= e 2.1
10

4

266

## 2014, John Bird

8. The amount of product x (in mol/cm3) found in a chemical reaction starting with 2.5 mol/cm3 of
reactant is given by: x = 2.5(1 e 4t) where t is the time, in minutes, to form product x. Plot a
graph at 30-second intervals up to 2.5 minutes and determine x after 1 minute.
Amount of product, x = 2.5(1 e 4t)
Time t (min) 0
x (mol/cm3)

0.5 1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

267

## The amount of product after 1 minute = 2.45 mol/cm3

9. The current i flowing in a capacitor at time t is given by: i = 12.5(1 et/CR) where resistance R
is 30 k and the capacitance C is 20 F. Determine (a) the current flowing after 0.5 seconds, and
(b) the time for the current to reach 10 amperes.

t
0.5

(a) Current,
=
i 12.5 1 e CR = 12.5 1 e 20106 30103 = 7.07 A

t
t
10

(b) When i = 10 A, =
from which,
10 12.5 1 e 0.6
= 1 e 0.6
12.5

Thus,

i.e.

t
0.6

= 1

10
12.5

and

t
10

= ln 1

0.6
12.5

10

time, t = 0.6 ln 1
= 0.966 s
12.5

268

## 2014, John Bird

10. The amount A after n years of a sum invested P is given by the compound interest law:
A = Per n/100 when the per unit interest rate r is added continuously. Determine, correct to the
nearest pound, the amount after eight years for a sum of 1500 invested if the interest rate is 6%
per annum.

rn

68

## Amount after eight years, A=

= P e100 (1500)
=
e 100 1500 e0.48 = (1500)(1.6160744)
= 2424 correct to the nearest
pound

11. The percentage concentration C of the starting material in a chemical reaction varies with time t
according to the equation C = 100 e 0.004t . Determine the concentration when (a) t = 0,
(b) t = 100 s, (c) t = 1000 s.
Percentage concentration, C = 100 e 0.004t
(a) When t = 0, C = 100 e0 = 100%
(b) When t = 100, C = 100 e 0.004(100) = C = 100 e 0.4 = 67.03%
(c) When t = 1000, C = 100 e 0.004(1000) = C = 100 e 4 = 1.83%
12. The current i flowing through a diode at room temperature is given=
by: i iS ( e 40V 1) amperes.
Calculate the current flowing in a silicon diode when the reverse saturation current iS = 50 nA
and the forward voltage V = 0.27 V
Current in diode, i = iS ( e 40V 1) = 50 109 ( e 40(0.27) 1) = 50 109 ( e10.8 1)
= 2.45 103 A = 2.45 mA

269

## 2014, John Bird

13. A formula for chemical decomposition is given by: C = A 1 e 10 where t is the time in

## seconds. Calculate the time, in milliseconds, for a compound to decompose to a value of

C = 0.12 given A = 8.5

C = A 1 e 10

hence

0.12 = 8.5 1 e 10

t
0.12

= 1 e 10
8.5

i.e.

from which,

t
10

= 1

and

0.12
10
ln e=
ln 1

8.5

Hence,

0.12
time, t = 10 ln 1
= 0.142 s = 142 ms
8.5

i.e.

0.12
8.5

t
0.12
= ln 1

10
8.5

14. The mass m of pollutant in a water reservoir decreases according to the law m = m0 e 0.1t
where t is the time in days and m0 is the initial mass. Calculate the percentage decrease in the
mass after 60 days, correct to 3 decimal places.
0.1t
0
Initially, i.e. at time t = 0,
=
m m0 e=
m=
m0
0e

6
0.1(60)
When t = 60,
=
m m0=
e 0.1t m0 e =
m=
0.00248m0
0e

Percentage decrease =

1 0.00248
100% = 99.752%
1

15. A metal bar is cooled with water. Its temperature, in C, is given by: = 15 + 1300 e 0.2 t where
t is the time in minutes. Calculate how long it will take for the temperature, , to decrease to
36C, correct to the nearest second.
Temperature, = 15 + 1300 e 0.2 t
When = 36,

36 = 15 + 1300 e 0.2 t

270

Hence,

i.e.

from which,

36 15
= e 0.2t
1300

and

36 15
0.2 t
ln
= ln e
1300

36 15
0.2t = ln

1300
time, t =

1
36 15
ln
= 20.63 minutes
0.2 1300

## 0.63 min = 0.63 60 s = 37.8 s = 38 s correct to the nearest second.

Hence, time for the temperature to decrease to 36C = 20 min 38 s

271