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INTRODUCTIO
INTRODUCTIO
INTRODUCTIO
INTRODUCTIO

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N

Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Power Plant is a coal-based plant. The requirement of coal for four units based on specific fuel consumption of 0.60 kg / kWh. The conveying and crushing system will have the same capacity as that of the unloading system. The coal comes in as large pieces. This coal is fed to primary crushers, which reduce the size of coal pieces from 400mm to 150mm. Then the coal is sent to secondary crusher through

forward conveyors where it is crushed from 150mm to 200mm as required at the mills. Then the coal is sent to boilers with the help of primary fans. The coal is burnt in the boiler. Boiler includes the pipes carrying water through them; heat produced from the combustion of coal is used to convert water in pipes into steam. This steam generated is used to run the turbine. When turbine rotates, the shaft of generator, which is mechanically coupled to the shaft of turbine, gets rotated so, three phase electric supply is produced. The basic requirements are:-

Fuel (coal)

♣ Boiler

Steam turbine

♣ Generator

Ash handling system

Unit auxiliaries

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BRIEF HISTORY BRIEF HISTORY OF OF PLANT PLANT
BRIEF HISTORY
BRIEF HISTORY
OF
OF
PLANT
PLANT

Due to high rate of increasing population day by day, widening gap between power demand and its availability was one the basic reason for envisaging the G.N.D.T.P. for the state of Punjab. The other factors favoring the installation of the thermal power station were low initial cost and comparatively less gestation period as compared to hydro electric generating stations. The foundation stone of G.N.D.T.P. at bathinda was laid on 19 th November 1969, the auspicious occasion of 500 th birth anniversary of great Guru Nanak Dev Ji. The historic town of bathinda was selected for this first and prestigious thermal project of the state due to its good railway connections for fast transportations of coal, availability of canal water and proximity to load center. The total installed capacity of the power station 440MW with four units of 110MW each. The first unit of the plant was commissioned in September, 1974. Subsequently second, third and fourth units started generation in September 1975, March 1978, January 1979 respectively. The power available from this plant gives spin to the wheels of industry and agricultural pumping sets.

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R&M WORKS AT R&M WORKS AT GNDTP, GNDTP, BATHINDA BATHINDA
R&M WORKS AT
R&M WORKS AT
GNDTP,
GNDTP,
BATHINDA
BATHINDA

R&M of GNDTP unit 1&2 has already been completed pending PG Test. R&M works of

unit 3&4 is underway to improve performance, enhance capacity and extend operating

life of the units. The present status of R&M works of GNDTP units is as under:

Unit I&II: - Against approved project Report of Rs. 229 Crores, Order was placed on M/S

NASL, New Delhi for major R&M works on Turnkey basis at a total of Rs.183 Crores.

Unit II: R&M works completed in October, 2005 (Pending attending to some deficiencies

by the firm). Average PLF achieved post R&M works is 87%.

Unit I: - R&M works completed and taken for normal operation in May, 2007(Pending

attending to some deficiencies by the firm). Average PLF achieved post R&M during

May’07 and June ’07 is 95.65%.

Unit III & IV: - Order for executing R&M works on Turnkey basis already placed on M/S

BHEL at a total cost of Rs. 465.36 Crores. 10% advance payment has been made to M/S

BHEL on 22/12/2006 and design and drawing work is in progress. As per Schedule, work

is to be completed in a phased manner upto July 2009. Apart from enhancing the

operating life and performance level of the units, it is also planned to upgrade the

capacity from 110 MW to 120 MW each resulting in total capacity addition of 20 MW.

SITE SITE SELECTION SELECTION
SITE
SITE
SELECTION
SELECTION

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The selection of site for Thermal Power Plant is more difficult compared to Hydro

Power Plant, as it involves number of factors to be considered for its economic

justification. The following consideration should be examined in detail before selection

of the site for the Plant. The location for plant should be made with full consideration not

only of the trends in the development and location but also the availability and location of

the cheapest source of primary energy:-

Availability of fuel

Ash disposal facilities

Space requirement

Nature of land

Availability of labour

Transport facilities

Public society problems

Development of Backward Area

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LANDMARK LANDMARK ACHIEVED ACHIEVED
LANDMARK
LANDMARK
ACHIEVED
ACHIEVED

G.N.D.T.P. won an award of Rs. 3.16 crores from Govt. of India for better

performance in 1983-84.

It achieved a rare distinction of scoring hart Rick by winning meritorious

productivity awards of Govt. of India, Ministry of Energy for year 1987, 1988 and

1989 due to its better performance.

It again won meritorious productivity awards during the year 1992-1993 and

1993-94 and has become entitled for the year 1996-1997 for better performance.

It also won awards for reduction in fuel oil consumption under Govt. of India

incentive scheme years from 1992-1993 (awards money for 1992, 1993 and 1994

already released for 1995, 1996 and 1997 under the consideration of Govt. of

India).

G.N.D.T.P. had achieved a generation of 2724240 LU’s (at a PLf of 70%) and

registering an oil consumption as low as 1.76ml/kwh during the year 1993-94 has

broken all previous records of performance since the inception of plant.

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CONTRIBUTION CONTRIBUTION OF OF THE PLANT THE PLANT
CONTRIBUTION
CONTRIBUTION
OF
OF
THE PLANT
THE PLANT

Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant, Bathinda, in addition to indirect contribution in various

facts of state economy, is also responsible for:-

Narrowing the gap between power demand and power availability of the state.

Providing employment potentials to thousands of workers.

Covering the backward surrounding area into fully developed Industrial

Township.

Providing additional relief to agricultural pumping sets to meet the irrigation

needs for enhancing the agriculture production.

Reliability and improvement in continuity of supply and system voltage.

Achieving cent percent rural electrification of the state.

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PLANT SALIENT PLANT SALIENT FEATURES FEATURES THE PLANT THE PLANT
PLANT SALIENT
PLANT SALIENT
FEATURES
FEATURES
THE PLANT
THE PLANT

PROJECT AREA:-

Power plant

238 acres

Ash disposal

845

Lake

180

Residential colony

285

Marshalling yard

256

Total area

1804

TOTAL COST: -

Rs. 115 crores

STATION CAPACITY: -

four units of 110MW.each

BOILER:-

Manufacturers

B.H.E.L.

Maximum continuous rating (M.C.R.)

375 T/hr.

Superheater outlet pressure

139 kg/cm²

Reheater outlet pressure

33.8 kg/cm²

Final superheater/reheater temperature

540C

Feed water temperature

240C

Efficiency

86%

Coal consumption per day per unit

1400 tones (Approximate)

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STEAM TURBINE:-

Manufacturers

B.H.E.L.

Rated output

110 MW.

Rated speed

3000 r.p.m.

Number of cylinders

three

Rated pressure

130 kg/cm²

Rated temperature

535C

Condenser vacuum

0.9 kg/cm²

GENERATOR:-

Manufacturers

B.H.E.L.

Rated output

(Unit- 1 & 2)

125000KVA

(Unit -3 & 4)

137000KVA

Generator voltage

11000 volts

Rated phase current

(unit –1 & 2)

6560 Amps.

(unit –3 & 4)

7220 Amps.

Generator cooling

hydrogen

BOILER FEED PUMPS:-

Number per unit

two of 100% duty each

Type

centrifugal

Rated discharge

445 T/hr.

Discharge head

1960 MWC.

Speed

4500 r.p.m.

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CIRCULATING WATER PUMPS:-

Numbers for two units

five of 50% duty each

Type

mixed flow

Rated discharge

8600 T/hr.

Discharge head

24 MWC.

COOLING TOWERS:-

Numbers

four

Water cooled

18000 T/hr.

Cooling range

10C

Height

120/12 metres

COAL PULVERISING MILLS:-

Numbers

three per unit

Type

drum-ball

Rated output

27 T/hr.

Coal bunkers

16 per unit

RATING OF 6.6 KV AUXILLIARY MOTORS:-

Coal mill

630 KW

Vapour fan

320 KW

C.W. Fan

800/746 KW

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Coal crusher

520 KW

Primary air fan

320 KW

Forced draught fan

320 KW

Boiler feed pump

3500 KW

Induced draught fan

900/1000 KW

Condensate pump

175 KW

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WORKING OF WORKING OF THERMAL THERMAL PLANT PLANT
WORKING OF
WORKING OF
THERMAL
THERMAL
PLANT
PLANT

Coal received from collieries in the rail wagon is mechanically unloaded by

Wagon Tippler and carried by belt Conveyor System Boiler Raw Coal Bunkers after

crushing in the coal crusher. The crushed coal when not required for Raw Coal Bunker is

carried to the coal storage area through belt conveyor. The raw coal feeder regulates the

quantity of coal from coal bunker to the coal mill, where the coal is pulverized to a fine

powder. The pulverized coal is then sucked by the vapour fan and finally stored in

pulverized coal bunkers. The pulverized coal is then pushed to boiler furnace with the

help of hot air steam supplied by primary air fan. The coal being in pulverized state gets

burnt immediately in the boiler furnace, which is comprised of water tube wall all around

through which water circulates. The water gets converted into steam by heat released by

the combustion of fuel in the furnace. The air required for the combustion if coal is

supplied by forced draught fan. This air is however heated by the outgoing flue gases in

the air heaters before entering the furnace.

The products of combustion in the furnace are the flue gases and the ash. About

20% of the ash falls in the bottom ash hopper of the boiler and is periodically removed

mechanically. The remaining ash carried by the flue gases, is separated in the electrostatic

precipitators and further disposed off in the ash damping area. The cleaner flue gases are

let off to atmosphere through the chimney by induced draught fan.

The chemically treated water running through the water walls of boiler furnace

gets evaporated at high temperature into steam by absorption of furnace heat. The steam

is further heated in the super heater. The dry steam at high temperature is then led to the

turbine comprising of three cylinders. The thermal energy of this steam is utilized in

turbine for rotating its shaft at high speed. The steam discharged from high pressure

(H.P.) turbine is returned to boiler reheater for heating it once again before passing it into

the medium pressure (M.P.) turbine. The steam is then let to the coupled to turbine shaft

is the rotor of the generator, which produces electricity. The power from the generator is

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pumped into power grid system through the generator transformer by stepping up the

voltage.

12 pumped into power grid system through the generator transformer by stepping up the voltage.

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The steam after doing the useful work in turbine is condensed to water in the

condenser for recycling in the boiler. The water is pumped to deaerator from the

condenser by the condensate extraction pumps after being heated in the low pressure

heater (L.P.H) from the deaerator, a hot water storage tank. The boiler feed pump

discharge feed water to boiler at the economizer by the hot flue gases leaving the boiler,

before entering the boiler drum to which the water walls and super heater of boiler are

connected.

The condenser is having a large number of brass tubes through which the cold

water is circulated continuously for condensing the steam passing out sides the surface of

the brass tubes, which has discharged down by circulating it through the cooling tower

shell. The natural draught of cold air is created in the cooling tower, cools the water fall

in the sump and is then recirculated by circulating water pumps to the condenser.

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GENERAL GENERAL DESCRIPTION DESCRIPTION
GENERAL
GENERAL
DESCRIPTION
DESCRIPTION

BOILER FEED PUMP:-

As the heart is to human body, so is the boiler feed pump to the steam power plant. It is

used for recycling feed water into the boiler at a high pressure for reconversion into

steam. Two nos. 100% duty, barrel design, horizontal, centrifugal multistage feed pumps

with hydraulic coupling are provided for each unit. This is the largest auxiliary of the

power plant driven by 3500 KW electric motor.

The capacity of each boiler at GURU NANAK DEV THERMAL PLANT is

375 tones/hr. The pump which supplies feed water to the boiler is named as boiler feed

pump. This is the largest auxiliary in the unit with 100% capacity which takes suction of

feed water from feed water tank and supplies to the boiler drum after preheating the same

in HP-1, HP-2 and economizer. The delivery capacity of each boiler feed pump is 445

tones/hr. to meet better requirements corresponding to the various loads, to control steam

temperature, boiler make up water etc. The detailed particulars checking of protections

and inter locks, starting permission etc. are as below:-

Particulars of BFP and its main motor:-

BOILER FEED PUMP: - The 110 MW turboset is provided with two boiler feed

pumps, each of 100% of total quantity. It is of barrel design and is of horizontal

arrangement, driven by an electric motor through a hydraulic coupling.

Type

200 KHI

No. of stages

6

Delivery capacity

445 t/hr.

Feed water temperature

158C

Speed

4500 rpm

Pressure at suction

8.30 kg/cm²

Stuffing box

mechanical seal

Lubrication of pump

by oil under pressure

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And motor bearing

Consumption of cooling water

WATER TREATMENT PLANT:-

supplied by hydraulic coupling

230 L/min.

The water before it can be used in the boiler has to be chemically treated, since untreated

water results in scale formation in the boiler tubes especially at high pressure and

temperatures. The water is demineralised by Ion Exchange Process. The water treatment

plant has production capacity of 1800 Tonnes per day for meeting the make-up water

requirement of the power station.

COAL MILL:-

Coal Mill pulverizes the raw coal into a fine powder before it is burnt in the boiler

furnace. The pulverizing of coal is achieved with the impact of falling steel balls,

weighing 52.5 tonnes, contained in the mill drum rotating at a slow speed of 17.5 r.p.m.

The raw coal is dried, before pulverizing, with inert hot flue gases tapped from the boiler.

Three coal mills each with a pulverizing capacity of 27 T/hr. are provided for one unit.

INDUCED DRAUGHT FAN:-

Two nos. axial flow Induced Draught Fans are provided for each unit to exhaust ash laden

flue gases from boiler furnace through dust extraction equipment and to chimney. The fan

is driven by an electric motor through a flexible coupling and is equipped with remote

controlled regulating vanes to balance draught conditions in the furnace. The fan is

designed to handle hot flue gases with a small percentage of abrasive particles in

suspension.

CONTROL ROOM:-

The control room is the operational nerve center of the power plant. The performance of

all the equipments of the plant is constantly monitored here with the help of sophisticated

instrumentation and controllers. Any adverse deviation in the parameters of various

systems is immediately indicated by visual and audio warning and suitable corrective

action is taken, accordingly. The control room is air conditioned to maintain the desired

temperature for proper functioning of the instruments.

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SWITCH YARD:-

Electricity generated at 11 KV by the turbo-set is stepped-up by unit transformers to

132/220 KV for further transmission through high tension lines to Maur, Muktsar,

Malout, N.F.L., Sangrur and Ludhiana. Transmission of power to grid is controlled

through 7 nos. 220 KV and 15 nos. 132 KV. Air Blast Circuit Breakers along with their

associated protective systems.

WAGON TIPPLER:-

The coal received from the collieries, in more than 100 rail wagons a day, is unloaded

mechanically by two nos. wagon tipplers out of which one serves as a standby. Each

loaded wagon is emptied by tippling it in the underground coal hopper from where the

coal is carried by conveyor to the crusher house. Arrangements have been provided for

weighing each rail wagon before and after tippling. Each tippler is capable of unloading

6-8 rail wagons of 55 tonnes capacity in an hour.

CRUSHER HOUSE:-

Coal unloaded by the wagon tippler is carried to crusher house through conveyors for

crushing. Two nos. hammer type coal crushers are provided, which can crush coal to a

size of 10 mm. The crushed coal is then supplied to Boiler Raw Coal Bunkers. The

surplus coal is carried to coal storage area by series of conveyors. Crushing of coal is an

essential requirement for its optimum pulverizing and safe storage.

COOLING TOWERS:-

Cooling Towers of the power plant are the land mark of the Bathinda City even for a far

distance of 8-10 kilometers. One cooling tower is provided for each unit for cooling

18000 tones of water per hour by 10C. cooling towers are massive Ferro-concrete

structure having hyperbolic profile creating natural draught of air responsible for

achieving the cooling effect. Cooling tower is as high as 40 storey building.

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BOILER:-

It is a single drum, balanced draught, natural circulation, reheat type, vertical combustion

chamber consists of seamless steel tubes on all its sides through which water circulates

and is converted into steam with the combustion of fuel. The temperature inside the

furnace where the fuel is burnt is of the order of 1500C. The entire boiler structure is of

42meter height.

BOILER CHIMNEY:-

The flue from the boiler, after removal of ash in the precipitators, are let off to

atmosphere through boiler chimney, a tall ferro-concrete structure standing as high as the

historic Qutab Minar. Four chimneys, one for each unit, are installed. The chimney is

lined with fire bricks for protection of ferro-concrete against hot flue gases. A protective

coating of acid resistant paint is applied outside on its top 10 meters.

CIRCULATING WATER PUMP:-

Two nos. of circulating water pumps provided for each unit, circulate water at the rate of

17200 T/hr. in a closed cycle comprising of Turbine Condenser and Cooling Tower. An

additional Circulating Water Pump provided serves by for two units. The water

requirement for bearing cooling of all the plant auxiliaries is also catered by these pumps.

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COAL COAL MILLING PLANT MILLING PLANT
COAL
COAL
MILLING PLANT
MILLING PLANT

Since G.N.D.T.P. units are primarily coal fired units so each boiler is

provided with closed milling circuits to pulverize the raw coal which is

received from coal conveying system after coal crushes before it is fired in

the furnace. The necessity of pulverizing the coal is to be ensuring its

maximum possible combustion in the furnace. The coal data for units are: -

COAL DATA

UNITS 1 & 2

UNITS 3 & 4

Type of Coal

Bituminous

Bituminous

Net Calorific Value

4300 Kcal/kg

4727 Kcal/Kg

Moisture

 

10 %

7.5 %

Ash Content

30

%

32

%

Volatile

Matter

24

%

27

%

Incombustible

   

Inlet of Coal

10 mm

20 mm

Raw coal of maximum size 10 mm – 20 mm is pulverized in the milling

circuit and the output from the mill is fine coal. Milling circuits of the

following main constituents: -

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  • 1. Raw Coal Bunkers (R.C. Bunkers).

  • 2. Raw Coal Chain Feeders.

  • 3. Drum Mill or Coal Mill.

  • 4. Classifiers.

  • 5. Cyclone Separator.

  • 6. Vapour Fan.

  • 7. Pulverized Coal Bunkers (P.C. Bunkers).

19 1. Raw Coal Bunkers (R.C. Bunkers). 2. Raw Coal Chain Feeders. 3. Drum Mill or

COAL MILL

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RAW COAL BUNKER:-

Each of three raw coal bunkers is fabricated from the sheet metal and is well stiffened all

around. The storage capacity of each raw coal bunker is about 500 tones. There are four

outlet gates with each bunker. The gates are electrically operated from site. In case of

failure of the electric motors the gate can be hand operated from site. At a time only one

gate opening is suffices but should be changed so that there is no pilling within the

bunker.

RAW COAL CHAIN FEEDER:-

The raw coal chain feeder transports coal from raw coal bunker to the inlet chute leading

to the pulverized/coal mills. There is a double link chain of high tensile strength steel,

which moves on wheels and sweeps the raw coal falling over the top of the raw coal

chute of the mill. The height of the coal bed in the chain feeder can be adjusted manually

by means of lever operated damper. The maximum and minimum heights of the coal bed

are 200mm and 120mm respectively. The signaling equipment indicates the absence of

coal flow in the feeder, which is annunciated in the unit control board (U.C.B.). The main

shaft on the driving end is connected to the driving unit, consisting of variator, a gear box

and a motor all mounted as a single unit. The chain wheel on the driving end shaft is

provided with a shear pin, which will shear off and disconnect the driving mechanism if

there is any overload on the feeder. The speed of the chain feeder is regulated

automatically/remotely by actuating the control spindle of the variator through a

servomotor. A pump for circulating the oil in the gear box of variator is an integral part of

variator driven by a separator motor. Some of the technical data about the raw coal chain

feeder is given here:-

  • 1. Output of the chain feeder

10-45 tonnes/hr.

  • 2. Speed variations

0.0503-0.151m/sec.

  • 3. Main motor

7.5kW, 415V, 50Hz.

  • 4. Oil pump motor

0.05kW, 220V

  • 5. Operating motor of each gate

3HP, 415V and 50Hz.

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DRUM MILL:-

Each mill consists of single compartment drum, bearings driving motor, coal inlet

and discharge piping, ball change and lubricating equipment for mill bearings. Mill drum

is fabricated from thick steel plates and is supported on to the anti-friction bearings. The

mill is driven by an electric motor of capacity 630kW, 990 rpm, 6.6kV through a

reduction gear, which reduces the speed to 17.5 rpm. The ball charge for the mill consists

of the three different sizes of forged steel balls detailed as below. The capacity of each

mill is 27 T/hr. in case of unit 1 & 2 and 28 T/hr.

  • 1. 40mm diameter

22500 kg

  • 2. 50mm diameter

20000kg

  • 3. 60mm diameter

10000kg

  • 4. Total Ball Charge

52500kg

During operation only 60mm diameter balls are added is approx. 500 kg per week

and the guiding factor is the amperage of the coal mill, normally it should be 66-ampere

approx. at full load and when it falls below the above value ball charging of the mill is

carried out. Lubricating system consists of the oil tank, gear pump, oil cooler and base

frame to mount all these equipments. Gear pump is driven by an electric motor of rating 1

H.P., 415 V, 1440 rpm. Suction side of the gear pump is connected to the tube oil tank and

the delivery side is connected to inlet of the oil cooler and after cooling oil goes to the

bearings. The oil from the bearings is cooled to the required temperature in the cooler by

the means of plant bearing cooler water.

CLASSIFIER:-

The classifier is fabricated from the steel plates. It is an equipment that separates fine

pulverized coal from the coarser pieces. The pulverized coal along with the carrying as

well as drying medium (flue gas) strikes the impact plate in the classifier and the coarser

pieces get separated due to the change in the direction of flow and go back to mill. The

stream then passes to the outlet branch of the classifier through an adjustable telescopic

tube. At the outlet adjustable vanes are provided to change the size of coal when required.

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CYCLONE SEPARATOR:-

The centrifugal type cyclone separator consists of two cyclones made up of welded

sheets. It is equipment in the milling plant, which serves for separating the pulverized

coal from the vapours i.e. carrying medium. The pulverized coal gets stored in the

pulverized coal bunkers and vapours go to suction of vapour fan. At the bottom of the

cyclone separator a rotary valve (Turnikete) is provided to transport coal from cyclone

separator to P.C. bunker on the worm conveyor as the case may be.

VAPOUR FAN:-

Pulverized coal bunker is welded from thick steel sheets and has a capacity of 4 hours

coal consumption at maximum continuous rating of the boiler. The whole bunker is

insulated externally. The carbon-dioxide blanketing system has been provided in the P.C.

bunker to prevent fire hazards inside the bunker. The while storage bunker is divide into

four parts namely A, B C & D. Further four coal feeders are taken out from each bunker

leading to each corner of the furnace.

CRUSHING OF COAL:-

When coal reaches the plant, normal size of coal is about 500mm. After unloading the

coal from the rake is fed to primary crusher, which reduces the size to 120mm. Then coal

is fed to secondary crusher which reduces the size to 25mm and this coal goes to bunker

with the help of conveyor belt from where coal finally goes to coal mill where coal is

transferred in form of pulverized coal. The coal is heated with the help of hot primary air.

We maintain the temperature of about 70C in coal mill. This temperature is maintained

with the help of cold air and a hot air damper.

USE OF OIL:-

Before the coal reaches the furnace, we preheat the furnace in order to remove the

moisture and raise the temperature of furnace, so that coal can catch fire easily without

any delay. This preheating of furnace is done with the help of oil. With burning of oil, we

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maintain the temperature of furnace at 350C. we cut the oil supply after 350C because

oil is very costly. Source of oil for G.N.D.T.P., Bathinda is Mathura Oil Refinery. Other

use of oil is in bearing system for cooling. There are large number of bearings for plant.

For example bearing system of turbine. These bearings get heated upto high temperature,

which is dangerous. So we cool the bearing by circulating water in bearing.

COAL FEEDING AND COAL MILL:-

From the coal handling plant, coal comes in two belts namely 5A and 5B and then by

belts 6A and 6B coal comes in bunkers. Bunker capacity is 300 tonnes. Number of outlets

of bunker is three. First gate is opened for one hour and second and then third. If open the

one gate for long time, then coal will stop going to mill. That is why we open the gate

turn by turn.

RAW COAL CHAIN FEEDER:-

Raw coal chain feeder is just below raw coal bunker. It is a sliding chain which feed the

coal to mill. We can change the quantity of coal which is fed to mill in two ways.

By changing the speed of chain

By changing the depth of coal in chain

Speed of chain can be changed by adding a gear system to motor. We connect the

gear system with motor with a pin called shear pin. The prevent the overloading of motor

because when the coal quantity of coal on chain is greater than its capacity then the pin

will break and prevent the pin from overloading. Speed of Raw Coal chain is 2” to 6”/sec.

COAL MILL:-

These are mainly of two types:-

i)

Ball Mills

ii)

Bowl Mills

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Ball Mills: - In Ball Mills there are steel balls which are revolving in horizontal

cylindrical drum. These balls are free from any shaft and balls are touching with each

other and with internal body of drum. These types of mills are at Bathinda Thermal Plant.

On the other hand, bowl mills part of the mill contain drive system i.e. it contains 6.6 kV

electric motor and gear system which translates the revolution about horizontal axis to

revolve about vertical axis. The revolving vertical axis contains a bowl about the driving

system. This bowl is fixed with driving and revolving with shaft. There are also three

rollers which are suspended at some inclination, so that there is a gap of few mm between

roller surface. These rollers are free to rotate about the axis.

Bowl Mills: - The coal is grinded and then fed into the mill at the center or near of

revolving bowl. It passes between the grinding ring in revolving bowl and rolls as

centrifugal force causes the material to travel towards the out perimeter of bowl. The

springs, which load the rolls, impart the necessary force for grinding. The partially

pulverized coal continue going up and down and over the edge of bowl.

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COAL HANDLING PLANT COAL HANDLING PLANT (CHP) (CHP)
COAL HANDLING PLANT
COAL HANDLING PLANT
(CHP)
(CHP)

The G.N.D.T.P. units are primarily coal-fired units and the coal consumption at

maximum continuous rating (M.C.R.) per unit is about 58 T/Hr. the coal used at

G.N.D.T.P. is of bituminous and sub-bituminous type and this is received from some

collieries of M.P. and Bihar. The designed composition of coal is as below:-

Type

Bituminous Coal

Net calorific value

4300 kcal/kg

Moisture content in coal

10%

Ash content

30%

Volatile matter in combustibles

24%

Grind ability index

50 Hard Groove

The coal handling plant at G.N.D.T.P. has been supplied and erected by M/s Elecon

Engineering Company Limited, Vallabh Vidya Nagar, Gugarat. Coal is transported from

the coal mines to the plant site by Railways. Generally, the raw coal comes by railway

wagons of either eight wheels weighing about 75 to 80 tones each or four wheels

weighing about 35 to 40 tones each. The loaded wagon rake is brought by railways main

line loco and left on one of the loaded wagon tracks in the power station marshalling

yard. The main line loco escapes through the engine track. The station marshalling yard is

provided with 8 tracks. The arrangement of the tracks in the marshalling yard is as

follows:-

DESTINATION

NO. OF TRACKS

Loaded wagons receiving tracks

Four

Empty wagon standing tracks

Three

Engine escape tracks

One

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UNLOADING OF COAL:-

In order to unload coal from the wagons, two Roadside Tipplers of Elecon make

are provided. Each is capable of unloading 12 open type of wagons per hour. Normally

one tippler will be in operation while the other will be standby. The loaded wagons are

brought to the tippler side by the loco shunters. Then with the help of inhaul beetle one

wagon is brought on the tippler table. The wagon is then tilted upside down and emptied

in the hopper down below. The emptied wagon comes back to the tippler table and the

outhaul beetle handles the empty wagons on the discharge side of the tippler. The tippler

is equipped with the integral weighbridge machine. This machine consists of a set of

weighing levers centrally disposed relative to tippler. The rail platform rests on the

weighing girders and free from rest of the tippler when the wagon is being weighed. After

weighing the loaded wagons is tipped and returned empty to the weighing girders and

again weighed. Thus the difference of the gross weight and the tare weight gives the

weight of the wagon contents. The tipplers are run by motors of 80 H.P. each through

gears only.

26 UNLOADING OF COAL:- In order to unload coal from the wagons, two Roadside Tipplers of

WAGON TIPPLER

The tippler is designed to work on the following cycle of operation:-

Tipping

90 seconds

Pause

5-12 seconds

27

Return

90 secondS

Weighing

30 seconds

Total

215-222 seconds

Allowing 85 seconds for wagon changing it will be seen that 12 eight-wheel wagons or

24 four-wheel wagons per hours can be tipped. However since the coal carrying capacity

is 500 tones per hour load of 12 wagons comes to 8 to 9 per hour.

DUST TRAPPING SYSTEM:-

The tippler is also provided with the dust trapping systems by which the dust nuisance

will be minimized. As the tippler rotates, a normally closed hopper valve opens

automatically and the discharged material passes through it into the hopper with its dust-

setting chamber, there is an air valve of large area, which opens, simultaneously with the

hopper valve. The object of this air valve is to blow back through the hopper valve into

the tipping chamber, which must occur if, the settling chamber were closed, it being

remembered that a large wagon contains some 240 cubic feet of material and that this

volume of dust air would be forced back at each tip if the hopper chamber were a “closed

bottle”. The air valve and the hopper valve are shut immediately on reversal of the tippler

and are kept shut at all times except during the actual discharge. The hopper valve is

operated by a motor of 10 H.P., 415 Volts and the air valve is operated by electro-

hydraulic thruster. Inlet valve consists of large number of plates sliding under the wagon

tippler grating. Coal in the wagon tippler hopper forms the heap and as such obstructs the

movement of sliding valve and damaging the plates. The inlet and outlet valves have

therefore been bypassed.

The unloaded material falls into the wagon tippler hopper (common to both

tipplers) having a capacity of 210 tones. The hopper has been provided with a grating of

300mm X 300mm size at the top so as to large size boulders getting into the coal stream.

There is also a provision of unloading the wagons manually into the MANUALLY

UNLOADED HOPPER of 110 tones capacity. Manually unloading will be restored to

while unloading coal from sick wagons or closed wagons.

28

MAGNETIC PULLEYS:-

On belt conveyor no. 4A and 4B, there have been provided high intensity

electromagnetic pulleys for separating out tramp iron particles/pieces from the main

stream of coal conveying. D.C. supply for the magnet is taken on 415 volt, 3 phase, 50

cycles A.C. supply system.

In addition to above high intensity suspension type electromagnets have also been

provided on belt conveyors 4A and 4B for separating out tramp iron pieces/particles.

RECLAIMING:-

If the receipt of coal on any day more than the requirement of the boilers, the

balanced material will be stocked via conveyor 7Aand 7B and through telescopic chute

fitted at the end of the conveyor. At the end of the chute one tele level switch is provided,

which automatically lifts the telescopic chute to a predetermined height every time. The

tele level switch is actuated by the coal pile. When the telescopic chute reaches maximum

height during operation, which will be cut off by limit, switch and stop the conveying

system. When the pile under the telescopic chute is cleared, the telescopic chute can be

independently lower manually by push buttons.

There are five bulldozers to spread and compact the coal pile. Bulldozers of Bharat Earth

Movers Limited Make are fitted with 250 H.P. diesel engines. Each bulldozer is able to

spread the crushed coal at the rate of 250 tones/hr. over a load distance of 60m the coal

can be stacked to a height of 6m the stockpile stores coal for about 45 days for four units

with an annual load factor of 0.66.

Whenever coal is to be reclaimed the bulldozers are employed to push the coal in

the reclaim hopper having a capacity of 110 tones. The coal from the reclaim hopper is

fed either 9A or 9B belt conveyor through vibratory feeders 8A and 8B.

CRUSHER HOUSE:-

29

The crusher house accommodates the discharge ends of the conveyor 4A, 4B receiving

ends of conveyor 5A, 5B and conveyor 7A and 7B, two crushers, vibrating feeders and

necessary chute work. There are two crushers each driven by 700H.P. electric motor, 3

phase, 50 cycles and 6.6 kV supply. The maximum size of the crushed coal is 10mm. The

capacity of each crusher is 500 tones/hr. one crusher works at a time and the other is

standby. From the crusher the coal can be fed either to the conveyors 5A, 5B or 7A, 7B

by adjusting the flap provided for this purpose. There is built in arrangement of bypassing

the crusher by which the coal can be fed directly to the conveyors bypassing crusher.

29 The crusher house accommodates the discharge ends of the conveyor 4A, 4B receiving ends of

CONVEYOR BELT AND CRUSHER HOUSE

30

30
30

31

SWITCH GEAR

INTRODUCTION

The apparatus including its associated auxiliaries employed for switching, controlling and

protecting the electrical circuits and equipments is known as switchgear.

A tumbler switch, which is an ordinary fuse, is the simplest form of switchgear and is

generally used to control and protect the domestic and commercial appliances and

equipments. For high rating circuits, a high rupturing capacity (H.R.C.) fuse in

conduction with switch may serve the purpose. However, such switchgear cannot be

applied on power system operating at high voltages, i.e. more than 11 KV because of the

following reasons: -

  • 1. When fuse blows, it takes sometime to replace it and consequently there is interruption of power supply.

  • 2. On high voltage system, a fuse cannot successfully interrupt large fault currents.

  • 3. When fault occurs, fault takes sometime to blow. During this time the costly equipments e.g. generators, transformers etc. may be damaged.

Therefore in order to protect lines, generators, transformers and other electrical

equipments from damage, an automatic protective device or switchgear are required.

Automatic protective switchgear mainly consists of the relays and circuit breakers. A

circuit breaker is switchgear, which can be open or close the circuit after an operation.

Therefore, a circuit breaker is rather preferred even in the instance when a fuse is

adequate.

Switch : -

It makes

and breaks the circuit under full load or no load condition

but cannot be

operated under fault conditions. It is generally operated manually.

Isolator: -

It is only operated under no load conditions. Its main purpose is to isolate a portion of

the circuit from the other. Isolators are generally place on the both sides of a circuit

32

breaker from the other in order to make repairs and maintenance on the circuit breaker

without any danger. There are two types of isolators: -

TYPES OF ISOLATER:-

Single pole Isolator

Double pole Isolator

FUSES:-

A fuse is short piece of metal, insert in series with the circuit, which melt excessive

current flows through it and thus breaks the circuit. The material used for the fuse

element should possess the following properties: -

Low melting point.

High conductivity.

Free from oxidation.

The common materials used for the fuse element are copper, tin-lead alloy (tin 63% and

lead 37%, silver, aluminum etc.) A fuse is connected in series with the circuit to be

protected and carries the load current without overheating under normal conditions.

However when abnormal condition occurs, an excessive current flows through it. This

raises the temperature, which melt the fuse element and open the circuit. This protects the

machine or apparatus from the damage, which can be used by excessive currents.

CIRCUIT BREAKERS

Circuit breaker is on/off switch operating in an electric circuit in normal as well as

abnormal operating conditions. While making or breaking contact there is a transition

stage of arcing between contacts which is governed by electric discharge between the

contacts at instant of separation, thus current continuous in the circuit till discharge

appears.

The study of this phenomenon

is very important

for design and operational

characteristics of C.B.

33

Functions of Switchgear: -

Under different conditions CB is subjected to varying stresses as current varies from few

amp due to no load current of T/F up to many K amp heaviest short circuit current and

varying circuit impedance. CB not only interrupts, but also closes the circuit. If breaker

closes during short circuit it causes some trouble because then the voltage break down

that bridges the contact gap produces high current arc which melt the contact before

closer such situations is not desirable as breaker may not reopen. Often automatic re-

closing is required because usually fault is of temporary nature. About 20% of the short

circuit current persists however immediately after re-closing the breaker has to re-

interrupt the short circuit current. This is main function specially if there are extremely

high currents, which would result in the contact wear and tear.

The main function, which CB has in addition to satisfy the rated breaking capacity and

rated making and breaking times are: -

Short Circuit interruption.

Interruption of small induction currents.

Capacitor Switching.

Asynchronous Switching.

Interruption of Shot Line Faults.

Operating Principle Of Circuit Breaker: -

A circuit breaker is a device which: -

Makes or Breaks a circuit either manually or by remote contact under normal

(full load) conditions.

Breaks a circuit manually or by remote control under abnormal conditions.

Breaks a circuit automatically under abnormal conditions i.e. fault conditions.

Thus circuit breaker is just a switch, which can be operated under normal, and

abnormal conditions both manually and automatically.

To perform the above operation a circuit breaker essentially consists of fixed and

moving contacts, called electrodes. When fault occurs on the power system, the trip coil

34

of the circuit breaker is energized, which pulls apart the moving contacts from the fixed

contacts as shown in fig thus opens the circuit.

When the moving contacts are separated from the fixed contacts, an arc is struck

between them. The production of arc not only delays the current interruption process but

also generates enormous heat which may cause damage to the equipments of the power

system or the breaker itself. Therefore every effort is made to extinguish the arc produced

in the circuit breaker as quickly as possible.

Circuit Breaker Ratings: -

A circuit breaker is required to be operated under all conditions. However this major

duty of the circuit breaker is to operate the circuit under short circuit condition. Under

short circuit conditions, a circuit breaker is required to perform three major duties: -

It must be capable of operating circuit on the occurrence of the fault.

It must be capable of closing the circuit on fault.

It must be capable of carrying a fault current safely for a short time, while another

circuit breaker (in series) is clearing the fault.

According to the duties to be performed by a circuit breaker, there are three types of

ratings: -

Breaking Capacity: -

The r.m.s. value of current that a circuit breaker is capable of breaking at a recovery

voltage under specified conditions (i.e. recovery voltage and rate of recovery voltage) is

known as breaking capacity of a circuit breaker. Breaking Capacity in MVA= 3 rated

voltage rated breaking current 10 -6 .

Making Capacity: -

The peak or maximum value of the current (including d.c. component) during the first

cycle of the current wave after the circuit is closed by the breaker (under dead short

35

circuit) is called making capacity.Making Capacity= 31.8 Symmetrical breaking

capacity.

Short Time Capacity: -

The period for which the circuit breaker is able to carry the fault current while remaining

closed is called short time capacity of the circuit breaker.

Normal Current Rating: -

The r.m.s. value of the current which a circuit breaker is capable of carrying continuously

at its rated frequency under specified conditions without overheating the arc or contacts is

called normal current rating.

Oil Circuit Breaker: -

In this circuit breaker; the current carrying contacts are immersed in transformer oil.

When the contacts are separated, arc is struck between them. The heat of the arc

dissociates the oil and gases viz. Hydrogen etc are evolved. The hydrogen gas bubble

surrounds the arc and cool it downs which help in de-ionization of the medium between

the contacts and extinguishes the arc. Moreover, gases setup turbulence in the oil and

force it into the arc space when the current is zero which further helps in extinguishing

the arc.

Advantages: -

It absorbs the energy of the arc by decomposing the oil into gases.

The gases evolved provide good cooling effect.

The surrounding oil enclose the proximity to the arc provides cooling effect.

It has ability to flow in the arc space after the current is zero.

It acts as insulator between the live contacts and earthed tank.

36

advantages:-

It is easily inflammable.

It may form an explosive mixture with air.

It requires more maintenance.

Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker: -

Dis

In bulk oil circuit breaker, transformer oil is not only used extinguish the arc but also

serves as insulation between the live and earthed parts. A heavy quantity of oil,

depending upon system voltage, is used in the bulk oil circuit breakers (about 5000 liters

in 220KV system). This not only increases the expenses but also increases the fire risk.

Therefore minimum oil circuit breakers are designed in which only 10 % of the oil is

used to extinguish the arc. The container of minimum oil circuit breakers is supported on

porcelain insulators. To provide the required insulation between the live and earthed

parts. Thus the minimum oil circuit breakers also require less space for installation.

37

37 MOCB’s have following merits and demerits: - Merits : -
37 MOCB’s have following merits and demerits: - Merits : -

MOCB’s have following merits and demerits: -

Merits: -

38

  • a. It requires lesser quantity of oil i.e. only for arc extinction.

  • b. It requires smaller space for installation.

  • c. Risk of fire is considerably reduced.

  • d. Lesser maintenance.

De-Merits: -

  • a. Due to smaller quantity of oil the degree of carbonization is increased therefore oil needs replacement after each operation.

  • b. Proper design is required to remove the gases from the contacts space in time

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF 6.6 KV/415V

SWITCHGEAR SUPPLIED TO G.N.D.T.P. BATHINDA

In 6.6/0.415 KV switchgear we have two unit transformer and one station T/f that after

stepping down the voltage, fed it to two 6.6 KV unit buses and to station bus. Various

feeders are connected to 6.6 KV buses and in order to avoid complete shutdown, supply

is maintained by drawing supply from station bus, to 3B & 4B bus. Supply from 3A bus

is stepped down to 415 V by 1000 KVA SWGR T/F – 1 & fed to 415 V bus. Same in 4B

bus. In case of tripping standby bus used. Various feeders are connected to these

buses.We generate electricity at 11 KV & step-down to 7 KV by UAT. Rating of UAT T/F

is 15 MVA & station T/f is 225 MVA, 11/7 KV.

CIRCUIT BREAKER USED IN INDOOR SWITCHGEAR: -

Mainly two types of CB’s are used in switchgear according to the requirement: -

1. 6.6KV MOCB’s

39

2. 415 V ACB’s

Minimum Oil CB (6.6 KV): -

It is provided for each motor feeder of rating 6.6 KV and as incoming breaker for 6.6 KV

bus. In these CB’s arc is quenched in arcing chamber with minimum quantity of oil.

SPECIFICATIONS OF MOCB OF MOTOR FEEDER: -

Rated Voltage

6.6 KV, 50 Hz, 3-pole

Rated current

1250 Amperes

Breaking Current

34.7 KA (Sym)-378 (Asym)

Breaking Capacity

395 MVA

Making Capacity

88 Peak KA

Short Time Current Capacity

34.7 KA for 1 Sec

MOCB uses solid material for insulating purposes and use just minimum oil for arc

quenching. The arc-interruption device is enclosed in a tank of insulating material, which

is a line voltage in normal operation. Thus are also known as live tank breathers.

Various protections relay are used in conjunction with MOCB’s according to requirement

of connected equipment are: -

Over current relay

Instantaneous relay

Locked rotor relay

Unbalanced protection relay

Earth fault protection relay

Under voltage relay

415V ACB’s: -

40

In these CB’s air at atmospheric pressure is used for quenching the arc.

Specifications of ACB’s: -

Rated Voltage

660 V (AC)

Rated Current

1600 Amperes

Rated Making Capacity

95 KA (PEAK)

Rated Breaking Capacity

45 KA (rms)

Max. Switching Frequency/hour

15 make/break open

Opening Time

20msec

Total Opening Time Included

Arcing Time

30.35 msec

Closing Time

500 msec

This CB is Provided With Three Main Protection Trips: -

1. Thermal Delayed Over Current Trip: -

This consists of three bimetal strips, each headed by a current T/F, which is slid on to the

appropriate phase conductor. Tuning the calibrated knob vary the setting. A temp,

compensating strip is also used which makes the tripping time largely independent of

ambient temperature.

2. Instantaneous Over Current Trip: -

This is fitted in contact assemblies. The U shaped magnet cores with associated armature

are mounted on the conductor and energized by breaker current.

3. Under Voltage Trip: -

41

It opens the breaker instantly if the auxiliary as main voltage drop to 50% of the rated

coil voltage.

VARIOUS REQUIREMENTS OF CB USED IN S/G

  • a. All the CB should be three-pole and there should be suitable for remote/local electrical operation and manual operation also.

  • b. The CB should be suitable for the operation on 220 V dc auxiliary control supply.

  • c. The CB is required to drive motors and also be suitable for incoming from LT T/F.

  • d. The closing Of CB should be direct motor drive type as stored energy type.

  • e. The CB should be provided with manual closing and tripping device also.

  • f. The CB should also provide with shunt tripping coil suitable for 220 V.

  • g. CB should have mechanical indication for ON/OFF position.

  • h. CB should be provided with the device, which does not allow closed breaker reached in as reached out

  • i. The CB’s should be suitable for locking, test & service position & it should also be suitable for electrical/mechanical operation in both testing service position.

Bus Bars (6.6 KV/415 V): -

This term is used for main bar on conductor carrying electric current through which many

connections are made for connecting switches and the equipments like bus bar made of

Aluminum because it has higher conductivity, corrosion resistant and lower cost as

compared to copper

42

Switch Gear 6.6 KV

Circuit Breakers

Minimum Oil Type

Rupturing Capacity

350 MVA

Current Rating

1250 Amperes

Switch Gear 415 V

Circuit Breakers

Air Type

Rupturing Capacity

332 VA

Current Rating

0.8Ampere

D.C. SUPPLY SYSTEM

D.C Supply is the brain of the plant. Each unit has its own 220volts D.C system located

in the electrical bay. 48 battery of requisite rating are also being provided. Each D.C

system comprises of the following:-

1.

Storage battery

2

Battery Charges

3.

Distribution & sub-distribution boards

The batteries are of lead acid type. Battery cells have high discharge performance cell

types each of 2volts. Battery charge are static type & capable of trickle charging & boost

charging. Adequate standby provision is also made for the outage of the charger in the

form of installation of standby charges.

The D.C distribution & sub-station boards are compartmentalized; draw out type,

construction, housing switches & fuses for various feeders are as per the requirements for

the plant.

The battery rooms are well ventilated & well lighted & there is adequate provision for

expelling acid fumes & fumes h2 gas out from the battery room.

43

1.

Dry cell batteries

2.

Lead acid batteries

3.

Alkaline cell batteries.

Lead acid cells are of further two types:-

1)

Automobile battery

2)

Stationary lead acid battery.

Out of theses three types of the cells lead acid cell & alkaline cells are rechargeable

whereas dry cells cannot be recharged. In case of lead acid ell both the electrodes are of

the same material i.e. Lead in case of Alkaline cell electrodes are of two types:-

 

1.

Nickle,Lead

2.

Iron,Nickle.

Electrodes, which is mostly used is potassium hydroxide. As the battery discharges,

concentration of lead sulphate goes on increasing, at a specific gravity for 1.23

discharging stops & the battery will not provide any amount of D.C energy.The batteries

which are used at G.N.D.T.P. Is having the rating of 600 Ah. If these having 10 rating, the

battery supplies 60Amp. Of current rating 10 hours.

Batteries used in the G.N.D.T.P. for the main purpose of:-

1.

Emergency lightening

2.

Protection

Two sets of the batteries are used for each circuit. So that if one fails second comes in

action.

BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM AT G.N.D.T.P.

44

44 The various requirements for charging the batteries are listed bellow 1. Power requirement 2. Acid

The various requirements for charging the batteries are listed bellow

  • 1. Power requirement

  • 2. Acid

  • 3. connections of cells

  • 4. connections polarity

POWER REQUIREMENT

A DC source capable of delivering current as specified. The voltage required will be two

times the No. of cells in battery. The initial charging of the battery will takes approximate

55 to 90 hours.

ACID

The acid used filling battery is sulphuric gravity 1.190±0.005(at 27 c)

CONNECTIONS OF CELLS

45

The +ve terminal lug of the cell in one row is connected to the –ve lug of the end cell in

the other row. The connections b/w the two rows may be made with the necessary length

of CU of the size used b/w the switchboard & battery.

POLARITY OF THE CONNECTIONS

It’s very important that +ve terminal of the battery is connected to the +ve lead of the

charging source.

To ascertain the polarity of the charging leads connected a lamp in the series & dip the

ends in a glass of slightly saline water. Switch on the supply. Fine bubbles of the gas will

be given off from the –ve lead. The lamp connected in the series eliminates the danger of

accidental short circuit.

CHARGING EQUIPMENT

CHARGING

Batteries have to be charged occasionally to restore them to be in working condition.

During the charging DC current is passed through the battery in the direction opposite to

that when the battery is being used. Charging current is usually obtained from battery

charger, which is the selenium or transformers designed to step up the voltage or down to

suitable values.

BATTREY CHARGING EQUIPMENT

The charging of battery is done by a system known as trickle charging unit.

TRICKLE CHARGING UNIT

Float charger

46

Boost charger

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE BATTERY CHARGING

  • 1. Float charger operates on constant voltage mode & maintains the DC output within +/-1% of the set value.

  • 2. The boost charger operates on constant current mode till the o/p current reaches set value, beyond which it operates in constant current mode.

  • 3. During charging or providing the equalizing charger to the battery the boost charger operates in constant current mode.

Under normal running condition the DC load is connected across the float

charger & the batteries are also connected across the float charger through the DC

contactor & gets the trickle charger from the float charger so that if in case suddenly

the AC supply fails the batteries will supply the DC power to the continuous DC load

& disturbance will not be created. The float charger floats on the DC bus that’s why it

is called float charger. Basically the float charger is provided for the continuous Dc

load & at the same time trickle chargers the batteries so that when the mains fail the

load demand meet the battery immediately. Now if the battery gets discharged while

supplying the load. To charge the battery again boost charge is provided which

boostly charges up the battery to the desired level of the voltage.Both the boost &

float charges are thyirosterised power supplies having automatic voltage current

regulation features.

BOOST CHARGER

The working of the boost charger depends on the voltage of the cells of the battery i.e.

when the voltage of the a single cell of the battery reaches 1.8 volts/cell the boost charger

is automatically tuned ON 7 starts charging the battery cells & remains ON till the

voltage reaches 2.7 volt/cell i.e. 35.1 volt of the total battery.

The float charger will determine the load voltage. When the AC supply is

available both the float charger & the batteries are connected across the DC cont. load.

47

The float charger simply converts the AC supply to DC supply & feed the continuous Dc

load as well as to float the batteries at 2.16 volts/cell.

Suddenly if now AC fails the batteries will come across the Dc load current

requirement. Now when the AC supplies resumes the boost charger is connected to the

batteries to recharge them with the boost energy. Boost charger operates in the constant

current mode.

COMPONENTSS OF THE FLOAT CHARGER

  • 1. Input switch

  • 2. HRC fuses

  • 3. Contractor with thermal overload relay

  • 4. indication lights

  • 5. Dc voltmeter & ammeter

WORKING

The circuit Works on the AC phase control principle. The SCR is a semiconductor device

with 3 terminals i.e. anode cathode gate. The main load current is carried by the anode,

cathode, while the control current flows through the gate & cathode. Characteristics of

the SCR are such that iot blocks the forward voltage when gate is not supplied with the

anode current. While it goes into conduction when gate current reaches a specified level

therefore charging the instant at which the gate current or the pulse is supplied can

control the instant at which the SCR goes into conduction. Once the SCR is triggered it

remains in conduction until anode current is reduced to zero or reverse voltage is applied

anode.Thus changing the instant of firing of the SCR. Potentiometer RV 1 is used for

adjusting the output voltage setting can control the output voltage of the rectifier bridge.

The DC output load current is sensed by the Dc shunt. The signal proportional to this load

is fed to the controller. In the event of the load current exceeds the rated full load current,

the output voltage starts dropping, thus limiting the load current. This inherent is

provided in the float charger apart from the back-up.

48

SPECIFACTIONS OF FLOAT CHARGER

It is thyristor controlled power supply transformer is double wound 3-phase, natural air

cooled. Rectifier Bridge is 3-phase, full wave, half controlled. Each device is protected

from the voltage surge with suitable suppressor network & from overload with HRC s/c

fuses. During overload the charger output is drops below set level, their allowing batteries

to take current surge.Float charger is provided with I/P switch, HRC fuse, contactor with

thermal overload relay ,DC voltmeter & auto manual switch.

MAIN POWER SUPPLY CIRCUIT

Main incoming power supply is connected to the main t/f through the rotary switch, fuses

& AC contactors.Three indicating lamps are provided to indicate the AC main supply

available.ON & OFF switch is provided for switching ON & OFF the

contactor.Indicating lamps indicate the contactor OMN condition.The contactor would

trip of during phase sequences fail or AC overload as the coil of the contactor is

connected in the series with NC contacts of the phase fail relay & ac overload relay.The

transformer is connected in star-delta configuration.The secondary of the main

transformer is connected in delta & its 3 outgoing lines are connected to the diode(SCR

half controlled rectifier bridge that consist of three diode D1,D2,D3,D4 & 3

SCR’S.SCR1, SCR2, SCR3.Diode is freewheeling diode.Surge suppressor RC1 TO RC7,

which consist of the registers & capacitors n/w, protect the SCR’s diode against transit

voltage.The output of the bridge is filtered using L-C circuit.The filtered output is

connected to the load circuit or battery through a rotary switch.A shunt SH1 is used for

current limit control which is also used for output current on ammeter.A DC voltmeter

indicates the DC output voltage.Indicating lamp indicates DC on condition. Blocking

diodes are used to prevent reverse current following from the battery to the charger.When

the charger voltage goes below the battery voltage or the charger is off.The DC voltmeter

reads voltage across float, boost or battery tap through a switch.

49

CONTROL CIRCUIT

The o/p of the charger is controlled through the electronic controlled. The control circuit.

Has plug in type cards with connections for external connections. The output is

controlled using the phase control of the SCR & feedback.

MAIN FUNCTIONAL CIRCUITS

Power Supply

UJT firing for SCR control

Amplifier

DC under voltage/over voltage sensing

AC under voltage/over voltage sensing

POWER SUPLLY

Power supply in the form of power supply car. It provides Regulated power of +/-12

volts.Unregulated power of 24 volts used for IC”s & relays respectively.

BOOST CHARGER

In the boost charger main T/F is used to step down voltage. The primary has suitable I/P

taps for +/-10% of the normal voltage. Secondary of the T/F is directly fed to 3 phase full

wave full controlled bridge rectifier stack & the DC O/P is used for charging the batteries.

During the boost charging the DC contractor is de-energized & inhibits the excess

voltage of the boost charger to reach the DC load terminals. If now during the boost

charging of the battery again the AC supply fails. Then the DC contractor will operate &

the full battery voltage is provided across the load.

In case of failure of the float charger the continuity if the DC supply is maintained

through the blocking diodes connected through the tap cells of the battery.

To cure this problem of failure of the float charger the boost charger is also used to

supply the DC load. But this is an extraordinary situation when the boost charger is

operated in the constant voltage mode. And the DC contractor will not be DE energized

50

during this time. The boost voltage is set to 2.16 volts/cell & would remain constant

within +/-1% of the set voltage.

There are special designed features which are incorporated in the boost charger

enables it to be used as a float charger so that the delay cause during rectifying the float

charger does not effect the DC supply system.

FLOAT CHARGER

The charger is so called because if floats on the DC bus. The charger is fed from 3 phase

Ac supply & gives the DC stabilized O/P at rated full load current. The variation in DC

O/P voltage is limited to +/-1% for 0-100% load variation & simultaneously AC voltage

variation of +/-10% & frequency variation of +/-5% from 50 HZ.

RELAYS

Relay is a device that detects the fault mostly in the high voltage circuit. & initiates the

operation of the CB to isolate the defective section from the rest of the circuit.Whenever

fault occurs on the power system, the relay detects that fault & closes the trip coil circuit.

This results in the opening of the CB which disconnects the faulty circuit. Thus the relay

ensures the ensures the safely of the circuit. equipment from damage which the fault may

cause.

PURPOSE OF PROTECTIVE RELAY AND RELAYING

The capital investment involved in a power system for the generation, transmission &

distribution if electrical power is so great that the proper precautions must be taken to

ensure that the equipment not only operates as nearly as possible to peak efficiency but

also that it is protected from accidents. The normal path of the electric current is from the

power source through copper conductors in the generators, transformers & transmission

lines to the load & it is confined to this path by insulation. The insulation however may

be broken down either by effect of temp. & age or by a physical accident, so that the

51

current then follows an abnormal path generally known as short-circuit or fault.

Whenever this occurs the destructive capabilities of the enormous energy the power

system may be causes expensive damage to the equipment, severe drop in the voltage &

loss of revenue due to interruption of service. Such faults may be made infrequent by

good design of the power apparatus & lines the provision of protective devices, such as

surge diverters & ground fault neutralizers, but a certain number will occur inevitably due

to lightening & unforeseen accidental conditions.The purpose of protective relays &

relaying systems is to operate correct C.B so as to disconnect only the faulty equipment

from the system as quickly as possible.

CONSTRUCTION:

All the relays have following three essential fundamental elements:

  • 1. SENSING ELEMENT:

Sometime it is also called measuring element. It is element which is the responsible to

the change in magnitude or phase of the quantity.

  • 2. COMPARING ELEMENT :

It is the element which compares the action of the actuating quantity of the

relay with the pre-designed relay setting. The relay only picks up if the

actuating quantity is more than the relay setting.

  • 3. CONTROL ELEMENT :

When the relay picks up it accomplishes a sudden change in controlled quantity such as

closing of the trip coil circuit.

TYPES:-

According to the conc. & principle of operation relays are of following three types.

52

  • 1. THERMAL RELAYS:

The operation of these relays depends on the heading effect of the electric current.

  • 2. E.M. ATTRACTION RELAYS:

These are the electromagnetic relays. The operation of these relays depends

on the movement of armature under the influence of attractive forces due to

magnetic field up by current flowing through the relay coil.

  • 3. INDUCTION RELAYS:

The operation of these relays depends on the electromagnetic induction phenomena. By

induction, eddy currents are induced in the AL in the disc, free to rotate, which exerts

torque on it.

VARIOUS TYPES OF RELAYS USED FOR PROTECTION ARE:

  • 1. OVER CURRENT RELAY: -

In this protection trip coil is energized when current in the circuit is 10 times the normal

current. This protection is applied b/w 3 phases.

  • 2. INSTANTANEOUS RELAY:-

The time operation of this relay is 0.1 sec. It is more effective where impedance b/w the

sources &relay is small as compared with the impedance of section be operated.

  • 3. LOCKED ROTOR RELAY:-

This protection is applied b/w 2 phases. In this protection the trip coil is energized when

the current usually during starting the current is 5 to 6 times the normal current.

53

It protects against –ve phase sequence current. The relay normally used is an IDMT relay.

  • 5. EARTH FAULT PROTECTION:-

The s1 terminals of 3 C.B’s are connected to 3 phases R,Y,B & second terminals S2 are

connected together. This form neutral thus connections are star connected. Ideally there is

no current in neutral. But if by any reason the circuit. Start to flow in the neutral the earth

fault occurs & trip coil is energized thus tripping the C.B’s.

  • 6. UNDER VOLTAGE RELAY:-

In this protection the coil is energized when the voltage drops to 70% of the normal

value. It’s app. Is reverse time under voltage protection of a.c circuit capacitor, rectifier &

m/c such as induction motor?

53 It protects against –ve phase sequence current. The relay normally used is an IDMT relay.

54

54 ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR Dust extractions from industrial gases become a necessity for environmental reasons. Most of

ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

Dust extractions from industrial gases become a necessity for environmental reasons.

Most of the plants in India use coal as fuel for generating steam. The exhaust gases

contain large amount of smoke and dust, which are being emitted into atmosphere. This

poses a real threat to the mankind as a health hazards. Hence it has become necessary to

free the exhaust gases from smoke and dust.

Need For Installation Of New Electrostatic Precipitator at GNDTP Units:

The electrostatic precipitators installed at GNDTP units are designed to give an emission

level of 789 mg/NM 3 for a coal having an ash content of not more than 30%. However on

55

actual testing it has been found that emission level from ESP’s was about 3.0 mg/M 3 . The

high level of emission is due to the fact that coals burnt in the boiler have much higher

ash content than what boilers are designed for. The pollution control board of Punjab

Govt. has specified an emission level of 380 mg/M 3 from chimney. In order to achieve

this new emission level additional ESP’s have been installed at GNDTP Bathinda.

Working Principle: -

The Electrostatic precipitator utilizes electrostatic forces to separate the dust particle

form the gas to be cleaned. The gas is conducted to a chamber containing “Curtains” of

vertical steel plates. These curtains divide the chamber into a number of parallel gas

passages. The frames are linked to each other to form a rigid framework.The entire

framework is held in place by four supports insulators, which insulates it electrically from

all parts, which are grounded. A high voltage DC is applied between the framework and

the ground thereby creating a strong electrical field between the wires in the framework

and the steel curtains. The electrical field becomes strongest near the surface of the wire,

so strong that an electrical discharges. “The Corona” discharge is developed along the

wires. The gas is ionized in the corona discharge and large quantities of positive and

negative ions are formed. The positive wires are immediately attracted towards the

negative wires by strength of the field induced. The negative ions however have to travel

the entire space between the electrodes to reach the positive curtains. On routes towards

the steel curtains the ions collide with each other and get charged and also this charge is

transferred to the particles in the gas. The particles thereby become electrically charged

and also begin to travel in the same direction as the ions towards the steel curtains. The

electrical force on each particle becomes much greater than gravitational force. The speed

of migration towards the steel curtains is therefore much greater than the speed of

sedimentation in free fall.

56

56 General Description : - There various parts of the precipitators are divided into two groups:

General Description: -

There various parts of the precipitators are divided into two groups: -

  • a. Mechanical system comprising of casing, hoppers, gas distribution system,

collecting and emitting systems, rapping mechanism, stairway and galleries.

  • b. Electrical system comprising of transformer rectifier units with Electronic Controller, Auxiliary Control Panels, Safety Interlocks and Field Equipment Devices.

1)

Precipitator Casing: -

The precipitator casing is an all welded pre-fabricated wall and roof panels. The casing is

provided with inspection doors for entry into the chamber at each field. The doors are of

heavy construction with machined surface to ensure a gas tight seal.

57

57 The roof carries the precipitator’s internals, insulator housings, transformers etc. The casing rests on roller

The roof carries the precipitator’s internals, insulator housings, transformers etc. The

casing rests on roller supports which allows for free thermal expansion of the casing

during operating conditions. Galleries and stairway are provided on the sides of the

casing in easy access to rapping motors, inspection doors, transformers etc. walkways

are provided inside EP between fields for inspection and maintenance. The dust is

collected in large quantities on the curtains, the collected electrodes. Due to periodic

rapping, the dust falls into the hopper.

2)

Hoppers: -

The hoppers are sized to hold the ash for 8 hrs. Collection. Buffer plates provided in

each hopper to avoid gas leakage. Inspection door is provided on the one side of

hoper wall. Thermostatically controlled heating elements are arranged at the bottom

portion of the hopper to ensure free flow of ash.

58

58 3) Gas Distribution System : - The good performance of the precipitators depends on the

3) Gas Distribution System: -

The good performance of the precipitators depends on the event distribution of gas over

the entire cross-section of the field. As the gas expands ten-fold while entering the

precipitator, guide vanes, splitters and screens are provided in the inlet funnel to

distribute the flue gas evenly over the entire cross section of the EP.

4) Collecting Electrode system: -

59

The collecting plates are made of 1.6 mm cold rolled mild steel plate and shaped in piece

by roll forming. The collecting plates and shaped in one piece by roll forming. The

collecting electrode has unique profile with a special configuration on its longitudinal

edges. This profile is designed to give rigidity and to contain the dust in quiescent zone

free from re-entertainment; collecting plates are provided with hooks at their top edge for

suspension. The hooks engage in slot of the supporting angle. All the collecting plates in

arrow are held in position by a shock bar at the bottom. The shock bars are spaced by

guides.

59 The collecting plates are made of 1.6 mm cold rolled mild steel plate and shaped

Figure: - TYPICAL COLLECTION PLATES

5)

Emitting Electrode system: -

The most essential part of precipitators is emitting electrode system. Four insulators

support this, the frames for holding the emitting electrodes are located centrally between

collecting electrodes curtains. The entire discharge frames are welded to form a rigid box

like structure. The emitting electrodes are kept between the frames.

60

Fig: - Rigid frame discharge electrode design

60 Fig: - Rigid frame discharge electrode design 6) Rapping System : - Rapping mechanism is

6) Rapping System: -

60 Fig: - Rigid frame discharge electrode design 6) Rapping System : - Rapping mechanism is

Rapping mechanism is provided for collecting and emitting electrodes. Geared motors

drive the rapping mechanism. The rapping system employs tumbling hammers, which are

mounted on a horizontal shaft. As the shaft rotates slowly the hammers which are

mounted on a horizontal shaft. As the shaft rotates slowly the hammers tumble on the

shock bar/shock, which transmits blow to the electrodes. One complete revolution of the

rapping shaft will clean the entire field. The rapper programmer decided the frequency of

rapping. The tumbling hammers disposition and the periodicity of the rapping are

selected in such a way that less than 2% of the collecting area is rapped at one time. This

avoids re-entertainment of dust and puffing at the stock outlet.

60 Fig: - Rigid frame discharge electrode design 6) Rapping System : - Rapping mechanism is

61

The rapping shaft of emitting electrodes system is electrical isolated from the geared

motor driven by a shaft insulator. The space around the shaft insulator is continuously

heated to avoid condensation.

61 The rapping shaft of emitting electrodes system is electrical isolated from the geared motor driven

Following Are the Modules for the Outgoing Feeders: -

Hopper heater for each field

Support insulator heaters.

Shaft insulator heaters.

Collecting electrode-rapping motor for each field.

Emitting electrode rapping motor for each filed.

High Voltage Transformer Rectifier (HVR) with Electronic Controlled

(EC): -

The rectifier supplies the power for as particle charging and collection. The basic

function of the EC is to feed the precipitator with maximum power input under constant

current regulation should there be any flash between collecting and emitting electrodes,

the EC will sense the flash and quickly react by bringing the input period voltage to zero

62

and blocking it for a specific period. After the ionized gases are cleaned and the dielectric

strength restored, the control will quickly bring back the power to a present value and

raise it to the original non-sparking level. Thus the EC ensure the electrical disturbance

within precipitator. Regulated AC power from EC is fed to the primary of the

transformer, which is stepped up and rectified to give a full wave power output. The

transformer is mounted on roof of the precipitator while the EC is located in an air

conditional room.

Auxiliary Control Panel (ACP): -

The ACP houses the power and circuits required for energizing rapping motor and

heating elements of the precipitator. ACP controls each gas path. The complete ACP is of

modular type with individual module for each feeder. Each module houses the power and

control circuit with meters. Push buttons, witches and indicating lamps are mounted on

the door of the compartments.

Maximizing The Performance OF ESP: -

The performance of the ESP is influenced by a number of factors many of which may be

controllable. It should be the aim of every operator to maximize the performance by

judiciously adjusting the controllable variables.

Cleaning Of Electrodes: -

The performance of the ESP depends on the amount of electrical power absorbed by the

system. The highest collection efficiency is achieved when maximum possible electric

power for a given set of operating conditions is utilized on the fields. Too thick a dust

layer on the collecting plates will lead to drop in the effective voltage, which

consequently reduces the collection efficiency. It also leads to unstable to unstable

operating conditions. Therefore the rapping system of collecting and emitting electrodes

should be kept in perfectly working condition. All the rapping motors have been

programmed to achieve the optimum efficiency.

Ash Hopper Evacuation: -

63

Improper/incomplete hopper evacuation is a major cause for the precipitator

malfunction. If the hopper are not emptied regularly, the dust will build up to the high

tension emitting system causing shot circuiting. Also the dust can push the internals up

causing misalignment of the electrodes. Though the hoppers have been designed for a

storage capacity of 8 hours, under MCR conditions, this provision should be used in case

of emergency. Normally, the hopper should not be regarded as storage as storage as

storage space for the collected ash.

Oil combustion: -

The combustion of oil used during start up or for stabilization of the flames can have an

important impact on precipitator operation. Un burnt oil, if passed into ESP can deposit

on the emitting and collecting electrodes and deteriorates the electrical condition i.e.

reduce the precipitators operating voltage due to high electrical resistivity and

consequently the ESP’s performance is affected adversely. The precipitator performance

remains poor until the oil vaporizes and the ash layer gets rapped off, which usually takes

along time.

TECHNICAL DATA OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

COLLECTING ELECTRODE

 
  • 1. Total No. of collecting plates

 

2480

  • 2. Nominal height of collecting plate

12.5 m

  • 3. Nominal Length of collecting plate

400 mm

Design Conditions

Unit-1,3,4

 
   
 
  • 1. Gas flow rate

200m 3 /sec

  • 2. Temperature

145

0 C

  • 3. Dust concentration

  • 4. Number of precipitator

38.9 gms/Nm 3

One

  • 5. Number of gas path per boiler

2

  • 6. No. of fields in series in each

5

gas pass

64

EMITTING ELECTRODES

1.

Type

Spiral

  • 2. Size

2.7mm

  • 3. No. of electrodes in each field

1440

  • 4. Plate/Wire spacing.

150 mm

RAPPERS FOR COLLECTING ELECTRODES

1. No. & type of

One drop hammer per row

rapper

of collecting electrodes

surface area 90 m 2

2.Frequency of

Varying from 12 raps/hr at

Rap

the inlet field to 1 rap/hr at

exist

3.Drive

Geared electric motor

Controlled by synch.

programmer

4.Location

At the bottom of

collecting system

RAPPERS FOR EMMITING ELECTRODES

1.No.

and

type

of

Approx. one drop hammers/two

rappers

rows of electrodes

65

  • 2. Frequency of Rap

10 raps/hour

  • 3. Driver

Geared Electric Motor controlled by

Synch. Programmer

  • 4. Location

On the side of emitting frame

middle position

HOPPERS

1. Type

Pyramidal

2.No of Hoppers

20

3. Capacity

8 hour storage

MOTORS

RAPPING OF EMMITING ELECTODE

1. Quantity

10 Nos.

2.

Rating

Geared Motor

 

0.33hp/2.5 rpm at 3-

phase 415 V 50 Hz

3.

Location

On the top EP

RAPPING OF COLLECTING ELECTODE

66

 

1.

Quantity

10 Nos.

 

2.

Rating

Geared Motor, 33

 

hp/2.5 rpm at 3

Phase 415 V 50 Hz.

3.

Location

On the top EP

 

ELECTRICAL ITEM

RECTIFIERS

 
 

1. Rectifier Rating

 

70 KV (peak)

800 MA (Mean)

  • 2. Number/Boiler

10

  • 3. Type

 

Silicon Diode Full Wave,

 

Bridge connection

  • 4. Location

 

Mounted on the top of

 

precipitator

RECTIFIER CONTROL PANEL

 
 

1.

Type of Control

Thyristor

 

2.

Location

In the Control Room

67

67 Boiler section
67 Boiler section

Boiler section

68

The steam generating unit is designed to meet the nominal requirements of 110MW turbo

generator set. The unit is designed for a maximum continuous rating of 375 tones/hr. at a

pressure of 139kg/cm2 and a steam temperature of 5400C. the reheated steam flows at

MCR 32H tones/hr. at the feed water temp at MCR is 2400C. The unit is a balance

draught dry bottom; single drum natural circulation, vertical water tube type, construction

with skin casing and a single reheat system. The furnace is arranged for dry ash discharge

and is fitted with burners located at the four corners. Each corner burner comprises coal,

vapour oil and secondary air compartments. The unit is provided with three ball mills and

arranged to operate with intermediate cool powder bunker. The steam super heater

consists of 4 stages Viz. Ceiling, convection, platen and final superheated. The ceiling

super heated forms the roof of the furnace and horizontal pass and finishes as the rear

wall of the second pass. The convection super heated is made up of horizontal banks

located in the second pass. While the platens are located at the furnace exit, the portion

above the furnace nose encloses the final superheated reheater are in two stages, first

stage is the triflux heat exchangers located in the second pass, which absorbs heat from

superheated steam as well as from the flue gases. The second stage is exit reheater

located in the horizontal pass as pendant tubular loops.

(a) The flue gas for drying the cool in the mills is tapped off after the triflux heat

exchangers. The damper located in the hot flue gases pipe leading to mill controls the

quantity. Control the circulating vapour of the mill entry effect temperature control.

Immediately after the triflux heat exchanger, the air heaters and economizers are located.

The air heater is in 2 stages.

(b) The hot air for combustion from air heater stage 2 is led into the common wind box

located on the sided of the furnace. 4 cool air mixed pipes from pulverized coal bounders

are connected to 4 cool burners’ nozzle at the corners. There will be totally 16 coal

nozzles. 4 located in each corner. Oil guns will be located in the secondary air nozzle for

coal burning. The turn down ratio of the guns will be so selected that it will be possible to

use them also for pulverized fuels flame stabilization while operating under load below

the control point.

69

(c) Take into consideration the high % age of ash and the relatively poor quality of coal

due regards has been paid to wide pitching the tubes and to the gas velocity across the

heating surface areas. In order to insure reliable and continuous operation sample sot

blowing equipment is provided. There are short retractable steam root blowers provide at

the top of furnace fully retractable rotary type blowers are located for cleaning of the

secondary super heater and final heater partly retractable steam blowers are arranged for

the horizontal reheater and super heaters in the second pass. The steam root blowers are

electrically operated.

(d) Root blowing nozzles using blow down from boilers drum are provide for the

cleaning of areas around the burners nozzles zone for dislodging of slag boulder if any in

the bottom ash hopper in the furnace.

(e) Two FD fans are provided per boiler. The FD fans are of the axial type driven by

constant speed motor. The regulation of quantity and pressure is done by inlet vane

control. The flue gases are sucked through the mechanical and electrostatic precipitators

by I.D. fans and delivered into the chimney. Two I.D. fans are provided for each boiler

and they are of the axial type driven by constant speed motors. Inlet vane control effects

the capacity change with reference to load. Both the I.D. and FD fans have been

dimensioned taking into account the minimum margins of 15% on volume and 32% on

pressure.

Specification

Manufacturer

B.H.E.L

Maximum continuous rating

375tones/hr.

Super heater outlet pressure

139kg /cm 2

Reheater outlet pressure

33.8 kg/cm 2

Final super heater temperature

540 deg.c

Feed water temperature

240deg.c

Efficiency

86% (stage-1)

87% (stage-2)

Coal consumption per day

1500 tones

70

ASH SYSTEM

BOTTOM ASH SYSTEM

The ash deposited at the bottom of the furnace is collected in a water impounded hopper

where a continuous flow of water is maintained to limit the temperature of ash inside the

hopper. The bottom ash cleaning is done in every cycle of 8 hours. The bottom ash

system is local manually operated. On opening of feed gate ash is allowed to discharge

into a double roll linder grinder where it is grounded to smaller size, which can be

transported through the pipe line below the linker grinder there is a venturi which sucks

the ground ash the vaccum created at the venturi throat by the flow of high pressure water

tapped. Dawn stream of the discharge of the ash water pumps. The pressure recovered at

the end of venturi is adequate to convey the slurry to disposal area.

STEAM CYCLE

The design of the power cycle based on the modern concept, where a unit consists of a

steam generator with its independent firing system tied to the steam generation. The

steam generator is designed for maximum continuous rating of 375-tonnes/hr. and steam

Pressure of 139-kg/cm 2 at temperature of 540C respectively. The steam generator is

designed to supply to a single reheat type condensing steam turbine with a 8 non

regulated extraction points of steam for heading the condensate and feed water. The

steam cycle can be classified into the following three divisions: -

  • a. Main steam (b) Reheat steam (c) extraction steam

(a)MAIN STEAM

Saturated steam from the steam generator drum is led to the super heater bank to heat if

up to 540C saturated steam from the drum is led to the ceiling super hearter (between

SHH1 and SHH2) from ceiling super steam goes to convection super heater (between

SHH2 and SHH3) the first regulated infection for at temperature takes place after

convection super heater (between SHH9 and SHH10). Before entry to final super heater

71

the steam is again at temperature by regulated injection. The steam is coming out from

the final super heater normally at a pressure of 139 kg/cm 2

71 the steam is again at temperature by regulated injection. The steam is coming out from

72

Temperature takes place after convection super heater (between SHH9 and SHH10).

Before entry to final super heater the steam is again at temperature by regulated injection.

The steam is coming out from the final super heater normally at a pressure of 139 kg/cm 2

at a temperature of 540 o C. This steam is feed to the control valve. In each of the two live

steam lines there is one turbine side main steam stop valve and one high pressure quick

closing valve along with two control valves.

(b) EXTRACTION STEAM

Steam for heating of the condenser and the feed steam is extracted from 8 non regulated

extraction points from the turbine. Heating is carried out in five stages of L.P. heaters,

one deareating heater and in two H.P. heaters extraction 1,2,3, is taken from L.P. turbine.

Extraction 4, 5, 6 and 7 are taken from M.P. turbine. Extraction 8 is obtained from C.R.H.

line first and second stage of heating is done by two sets of twin low-pressure heaters

mounted directly in the L.P. casing of the turbine. Extraction 3,4 and 5 are connected to

the deaereating heater placed above feed water storage tank 7 th and 8 th extraction steam is

fed to the vertical H.P. heaters respectively.

(C) REHEAT STEAM

Exit steam from the H.P. turbine is taken back to the reheater section of the steam

generating unit. Reheating is done in two stages both by flue gas and by super heated

steam. The steam to be reheated is first pass through the triple-heated exchanger, where

super heated steam is used as the heating media. The steam is finally reheated in final

reheaters (RHH3) RHH4 and RHH5) suspended in the horizontal pass of the furnace.

Reheat steam at a normal pressure of 36.4 kg/cm2 at a temperature of 540C respectively

is fed to the M.P. cylinder by two hot reheat steam pipes through strainers and combined

stop and interceptor valves. In each of the cold reheat steam lines from H.P. cylinder a

non-return valve is operated by oil pressure is provided.

73

MILLING CIRCUIT

The crushers crush the coal upto the dia of 20 mm. This coal comes to the raw coal

bunker through conveyer belts. This coal is fed into the ball mill through chain feeder,

operated by motor. In drum the steel balls are used to make it pulverized. At one end coal

enters the mill and from the other end pulverized coal is sucked by vapour fan. The

pulverized coal is used for burning in the furnace. On its way the p.c. (pulverized coal)

bunker, it goes from classifier and cyclone separator function of classifier is to use the

coal for burning coal which could not pass the classifier, is collected on the gravity

damper. When the weight of this coal is enough, gravity damper is opened because of the

weight of the coal and this coal goes back to mill through run back piping and is further

pulverized. In cyclone separator much finer particles of coal is stored in P.C. bunker

because of centrifugal force. This coal is fed to the P.C. bunker through the warm feeder.

Through warm feeder, we can collect the pulverized coal in any of the P.C. bunker. Warm

feeder runs with the help of motor and gearbox.

COAL PULVERIZING MILL

Coal mill pulverizes the raw coal into a fine powder before it is burnt in the boiler

furnace. The pulverizing of coal is achieved with the impact of falling steel balls,

weighing 52.5 tones contained in the mill drum rotating at a slow speed of 17.5 rpm. The

raw coal is dried before pulverizing with inert hot flue gases tapped from the boiler.

Three coal mills each having a pulverizing capacity of 27 tones per hours are provided

for one unit.

Specification

Numbers

Three per unit

Type

Drum ball

Rated output

30-32 tonnes/hr.

74

74

75

75 TURBINE SECTION
75 TURBINE SECTION

TURBINE SECTION

76

The turbine is the prime mover for the generator in the power plant Different types of

steam turbines used in thermal power plants, but the ones. Which are used at G.N.D.T. P.

are categorized as follows

S.No.

Type of Turbine

Turbine at G.N.D.T.P.

  • 1. Horizontal/vertical

Horizontal

  • 2. Single/multi cylinder

Multi cylinder

  • 3. Condensing/non condensing

condensing

  • 4. Reheat/ non-reheat

Reheat

  • 5. Regenerative/non regenerative

Regenerative

  • 6. With by pas/without by pass

with by pass (stage-1)

BASIC WORKING OF TURBINE

Without by pass (stage-2)

First of all the turbine is run on gear motor with the help of exciter. At that time steam is

kept on recirculating with the help of by pass valve. When the pressure of steam is

increased to on optimum level and turbine acquires a particular rpm then steam is

introduced in the H.P. (high-pressure) cylinder first. The temperature of steam at entrance

is 540C and pressure is about 139 Kg/cm 2 . After doing its work on the H.P. Turbine, the

steam is taken out for reheating rated temperature of steam at reheater inlet is 360C. The

temperature of steam is increased upto 535C in the boiler shell and steam is again

introduced in M.P (Medium pressure) turbine. After M.P.turbine, the steam is passed on

to L.P. (Low-pressure) turbine. This process helps the turbine to reach the speed of 3000

rpm. After L.P. turbine, the steam is condensed in condenser, build below the turbine unit.

The condenser contains a number of brass tubes through which cooling out from L.P.

turbine it comes in contact with colder brass tubes then steam get transformed into water.

This water get collected in HOT WELL just below the condenser. From here the hot

77

water is again pumped with the help of condensate pumps. The cooling water is used to

condense steam gets heated up and is cooled by falling from cooling tower. This

completes the processing of steam through turbine and condenser.

ROTOR OF TURBINE

All the rotors are manually by means of rigid coupling, including the rotors of the

generator. The speed of whole system of rotor lies in the following ranges of the speed at

the operating conditions: -

  • 1900 to 2000 rpm Best noticed on the M.P. and L.P. rotors and generators.

  • 2350 rpm Best noticed on H.P. rotor.

    • 1. BEARING OF ROTORS

The axial load of the entire system of rotors is taken up by a double-sided axial bearing

located in the bearing stand between the H.P. and M.P casing. These are two protections

mounted near the axial bearing one hydro chemical and one electromagnetic, which fouls

the turboset during the non-permissible movement of the rotor.

The rotors are placed on radial bearing which are machined to elliptical shape. Further

scrapping operations or change top and side clearances and change in temperature of oil,

influence the oil wedge and the position of the journal bearing to maintain the same

condition as existed during the initial assembly.

In the lower half of bearing a hollow groove is provided in the babbit metal through

which oil the supplied through a drilled hole through H.P. jacking oil pumps.

The high-pressure oil rotors are lifted in the bearing so that any scrapping of the bearing

is prevented.

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2. TURBINE CASING

The high-pressure part of turbine is consisted of two-concentric horizontal casing. Inner

casing is connected in such a way to the other casing that it enables to expand in all

direction. The nozzles are attached to the inner casing. The steam pipe is connected to the

condensers and the condensers are supported by springs. The casings are inter connected

by the system of guide keys through bearing pedestals in such a way that thermal

expansion of casing does not destroy the various parts of turbine.

The displacement-bearing pedestal between M.P. and H.P parts is measured by the

electromagnetic pick up. This valve is about of 15 mm to prevent deformation at the

casing. It is very important that sliding part clean lubricated and free from hazard for

connecting parts bolts elements. The heating of bolts before tightening up and before the

locking presents. The flanges of M.P. and H.P. casings are designed to heat up by steam

during the starting up of turbo boost by which the difference in temperature between the

cylindrical position of the casing flanges and connected bolts is reduced to limited

deformation. The thermo couples are used for measuring temperatures. The thermo

couple is partially connected to the indicated apparatus. Cooling fluid is generally used

for reducing the temperature of various parts.

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79 3. REGULATION AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR TURBINE GOVERNING The quality of steam entering in the

3. REGULATION AND SAFETY EQUIPMENT FOR TURBINE GOVERNING

The quality of steam entering in the turbine is regulated by the four governing valves on

the inlet to the M.P. part. The amount of opening at any instant of these valves is

controlled by the pressure of secondary oil, which is indirectly depending on the primary

oil pressure and directly depending upon the spring force in the transformer during the

stand still and during starting of the turbo set. The pressure of primary oil is directly

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depending on the speed of the set through the speed-sensing element. Operating the speed

changer or the normal speed changer can very the tension in the spring in the transformer.

Thus make it possible to vary the speed before synchronizing. In case break down of any

equipment of the block the quick closing devices are provided in the regulation system of

the turbo set. H.P. quick closing valves (H.P.Q.C) M.P. quick closing valves (M.P.Q.C) at

return flap valves are operated by either directly by the tripling lever or through the relay

magnet on the main relay which creates instantaneously loss of pressure of the quick

closing oil by the change of flow of oil inside the relay.

Distribution is used for checking the function of H.P.Q.C and M.P.Q.C valves. The H.P.

and M.P quick closing valves, the non return flaps and non return extraction valves

during normal operating condition have only two positions one is fully opened another

fully closed.

4. STEAM CYCLE

The design of the power cycle based on the modern concept, where a unit consists of a

steam generator with its independent firing system tied to the steam generation. The

steam generator is designed for maximum continuous rating of 375-tonnes/hr. and steam

Pressure of 139-kg/cm 2 at temperature of 540C respectively. The steam generator is

designed to supply to a single reheat type condensing steam turbine with a 8 non

regulated extraction points of steam for heading the condensate and feed water. The

steam cycle can be classified into the following three divisions: -

(a) Main steam (b) Reheat steam (c) extraction steam

(a) MAIN STEAM

Saturated steam from the steam generator drum is led to the super heater bank to heat if

up to 540C saturated steam from the drum is led to the ceiling super hearter (between

SHH1 and SHH2) from ceiling super steam goes to convection

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81 Super heater (between SHH2 and SHH3) the first regulated infection for at temperature takes place

Super heater (between SHH2 and SHH3) the first regulated infection for at temperature

takes place after convection super heater (between SHH9 and SHH10). Before entry to

final super heater the steam is again at temperature by regulated injection. The steam is

coming out from the final super heater normally at a pressure of 139 kg/cm 2 at a

temperature of 540 o C. This steam is feed to the control valve. In each of the two live

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steam lines there is one turbine side main steam stop valve and one high pressure quick

closing valve along with two control valves.

(b) EXTRACTION STEAM

Steam for heating of the condenser and the feed steam is extracted from 8 non regulated

extraction points from the turbine. Heating is carried out in five stages of L.P. heaters,

one deareating heater and in two H.P. heaters extraction 1, 2, 3, is taken from L.P. turbine.

Extraction 4, 5, 6 and 7 are taken from M.P. turbine. Extraction 8 is obtained from C.R.H.

line first and second stage of heating is done by two sets of twin low-pressure heaters

mounted directly in the L.P. casing of the turbine. Extraction 3, 4 and 5 are connected to

the deaereating heater placed above feed water storage tank 7 th and 8 th extraction steam is

fed to the vertical H.P. heaters respectively.

(C) REHEAT STEAM

Exit steam from the H.P. turbine is taken back to the reheater section of the steam

generating unit. Reheating is done in two stages both by flue gas and by super heated

steam. The steam to be reheated is first pass through the triple-heated exchanger, where

super heated steam is used as the heating media. The steam is finally reheated in final

reheaters (RHH3) RHH4 and RHH5) suspended in the horizontal pass of the furnace.

Reheat steam at a normal pressure of 36.4 kg/cm2 at a temperature of 540C respectively

is fed to the M.P. cylinder by two hot reheat steam pipes through strainers and combined

stop and interceptor valves. In each of the cold reheat steam lines from H.P. cylinder a

non-return valve is operated by oil pressure is provided.

  • 5. Turbine Accessories and Auxiliaries

I.

Surface condenser.

II.

Steam jet air ejector