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Copprigts Copyright © 19 by: ary lrg All aghtt sored conc Pan Armenian and International Cagyright Cormeen Bibdiepraphical Note This Does edison, Gest published ie 2002. is aa anasbdged sepublicaion of te vrork exigially publahd by Weta Gupeill Publication, New York, 10 1969" urder (he tke Tie Mra ak bs Pas ond Pratl Deawony Tubssga. alma of Congres Catatepieg om Pediatr Dats Dorgan, Hay ‘Penund paral devwing trea | Harty Bergman, —Dorrs nem echoes er “hm orabrdged publication the work ergs mally poblishnt by Wcson-Gu Publacucars, New Yak, fn 1989 oar este "The eetatrs guide te pe te penal dwing techniques TAIN OLinA18 od (ph) 1. Pea drsieg—Tecing, 2. Pci devwicg—Tecadgue Horgan, bry Wawaee ade fo pen and pes drawing ech $903 .BGr4 3002 TALTededt roouwi737t ‘Manufactured im the Unied Stats of Arerics Dover Publication, Inc. 1 East 70 Steet, Minesds, N'Y: 1LY0 CONTENTS PART L._PENGIL DRAWING 2. STROKE TECHNIQUES 24 3. BUILDING TONE 40 4, SIMPLIFYING TONES 48 5. EXPERIMENTING WITH GRAPHITE PENCIL $2 6, EXPLORING CHARCOAL AND PASTEL PENCILS 70 2. USING Wax PENCE » DISSOLVED TONE, SUBTRACTIVE TECHNIQUES 38 9 USING CObOR 10, TECHNICAL TPS PART 2_INK DRAWING ___ji3 UL. MATERIALS AND TOOUS a 12, STROKE TECHNIQUES W2 13,_BASIC TONAL TECHNIQUES: 160 14. EXPLORING DIFFERENT LINE TECHNIQUES 178 1S. EXPERIMENTING WITH BRUSH LINE TECHNIQUES: 190 16. COMBINING PEN AND BRUSH 198 PREFACE Ir seests ro we that there is always a demand among artists for sound technical instruction in drawing, Aware of this ever-present need, the editors. of this Ibook ane! 1 felt that it wouk! be worthwhile tor pub lish one large volume covering in a compact and ive w. i hon one Soreticnenee taae rhea trator’s Guide to Per and Pencil Drawing Tech niques, which consists of what we deem to be the most useful information from my previous books Drawing in Pencil, Drawing in ink, and The Pen cand Pencil Tedmigue Book The material that we have taken from these three books has been com: pletely redesigned, reedited, revised, and updated My advice is io practice each exercise in the book until you have it down pat. Then you can further improve your drawing skills by working through each subsequent step-by.step demonstration, trying your hand at both pencil and ink rechnsques. Firally, ‘you sill want to practice the exercises thar show you howto combine pencil and ink with other mediums. Good luck, Huo Boron New York, 1989 INTRODUCTION ‘Tue bese way to work with this hook Is to think of it asa complete guide ta pen and pencil sechniques, which details how you cin develop your drawing skills using these tools in particule. As you work with this book, you will find yourself beginning 0 ‘build om your basic drawing skills. Examples throughout offer you a comprehensive collection of rechniqucs thatyou should study carctully and often, ‘You can learn a great deal through observation and ‘imitation. ‘The exercises in this book are planned to help you learn about the tals you will be using—whar they are capable of and what their limitations are ‘When you consider the many kinds of pens and pen. ab available, os well as the great varlery of paper surfaces on which to use them, the full scope of illustration techniques becomes apparent. With the added dimension of color, which has rarely been ‘covered in other drawing books, this exploration becomes even more exciting. Do not skip the exercises; they are an important part of the instruction in this book. In fact, I would ‘suggest that you do all the exercises several times, using various paper surfaces and kinds of pens and pants dove all saady the sseppbp-cagp dewsaeatrs ‘ons so that you really understand how the drawings are done. This is an inn means of Eumiliarizing yourself with all the drawing wols—by actually ‘working with them on many different paper sur- faces, The subject matter is diverse and includes out: ‘Pare pe Cama etl 177 157 (27.9 x 38 od. Th ery quo, bedd study seas came wit a jade JB grapbite stick ort MER Ingres Arches paper. Notice de wnaeresin serface taectare of the paper. res, vehicles, portraits, animals, buildings, and sill life subjects. To explore various and effects, I have included drawings done with a variety of drawing tools. These encom: pass a wide range of drawings from very rough sketches to highly finished works, Keep in mind that af amt instruction book can only help to make you awarc of the various tools, techniques, and some of the possibilities for experimentation. You must go on from there. In this hook [ hope to encourage you fo esperimemt and explore the endless possibilities of pen and pencil, and perhaps ta help you develop a personal drawing style. This will of course happen only if you consistenly practice d Developing your ability to draw is important, for it can be the basis for all your future artwork. As you develop your drawing skills, you will be able to move into more difficult areas of ary, such as paint- ing. Used properly, this book can provide you with the necesstry background for your development as an artist. Keep in mind that an an instruction book should be tsed, not left sitting on a library shelf, It fs also Important to remember that being an artist requires self-discipline. This can often be more important than talent. Without discipline, it is daubt- ful whether you can even develop as an artist. Re- member that no one will tell you when to doa draw. ing or force you to work you must be self-motivated ‘One of the most importam things you can Fearn from this book is chat you can grow and develop as an artist only by working at st consistently. Mrxnoumnoo BARS, Jc" JI0" (204 % 286 em) PART PENCIL DRAWING ir weven, sserer is fundamental to an. Most work—whether painting, drawing. illustrations prints, engravings, or even sculpoure—inwarlably be: gins as a pencil sketch, But the peneil als other possibilities to the: artist, IF cart effect fi finished drawings that can stand on their own, Un fortunately, most anists use pencil for preliminary drawings and never develop pencil wehniques to the degree they might. in Part One of this book, Pencil Drawing, you will hrve a chance to explore 2 variety of pencil techniques with the aim of devel- ° id expanding your drawing skills For the beginning art studem.the pencil is already a familiar tool, used for writing if not drawing As a patural drawing instrument, # is simplicity itsell With a pencil and a sheet of paper, you are ready to start drawing, Nor only is there a variety of deawing pencils avail- able 10 artists, but pencils eat be used in so many ways Just by sharpening the lead poim differently, you can create distinctively derwn lines, And the war! sous grades of lead, from very hard to very sofl, pro- duce even more variety, in both line and sane. You can create drawings by using only Lines, by using tones devoid of lines. er by using any number of techniques in between Pencil is also compauible with a wide variety of paper surfaces, whose textures can add a gree deal of interest toa drawing These differeat papers broaden the drawing possibilities, since each surface respunds differently to the pencil Anak most try and. the artist's own brings further possibilities to thi medium, meapination truly marvelous MATERIALS AND TOOLS Ie you ane sestots about deawing, you will need ta know about the many possibilities available in this medium. One way to gain more skill ia your dras- ing. $0 that you can move from the simple to the complex, is to Jearn about your drawing tools and how to handle them. This will tell you what the best materials are andl how ro use them, Just knowing your tools can give you a measure of con- fidence, which will retlect itself in your work. PENCILS Fortmnancly for artists and art students, there are a reat variety of drawing pencils available, as well as many excellent paper surfaces to work on. Grapbite Pencils. The traditional basic drawing jool—the graphite pencil—is made of compressed fe that is encased in cedarwood. It is available in many different grades, ranging from very hard to very soft. The order of grading is 9H, 8H, 7H, GH, 5H, 4H, 3H, 2H, H, HB, B, 28, 38, 4B, $B, and 6B, The 9H lead is the hardest grade, and the 68 is the softest. Personally I prefer using the HB grade for general work and often use the H and 2H grades as well. Experiment with a few of the different graces to see which you prefer. Generally speaking ihe the harder grades work better on smooth, hard-surface paper, and the softer grades work better on textured Paper. With regard to lead grades, the harder the lead, the lighter the line; the softer the lead, the darker the line. The harder grades—those abowe 2H are usually used for drafting or for mechanical drawing, the softer grades are used for general drawing, For skeiching, the very soft grades—2B through 68— are best; the hard 2H 10 B grates are better for me- ticulous renderings. ‘Many fine brands of graphite pencils are available, and you will have to try a few of them to see which you prefer. Some brands I huve found to be excel lent are Berol Eagle turquoise, Koh--Noor, Mars Lae mograph, and Venus. Some graphite pencils cspe- cially sulted for sketching have very broad, flat leads. for drawing thick lines. These sketching pencils usw- ally come'in grades of 2B, 4B, and 6B. ‘The Ebony pencil. which has a lange diamcter and a very black. ead, is also quite good. (Charcoal and Carbon Pencils. There are many types of charcoal and carbon ils on the market A ood brand is General Chareval. isa deep black and comes in grades of HB, 28, 4B, 68, and in white. Wollf carbon pencils are alsa quite good, and they come in grades of HH, i HB, B, 8B, and BRB, which is the softest. Wear Type Pencils. One of my lavorite drawing pen- cals is the Kah--Noor Hardimuth Negro pencil. It