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TRAINING BASICS

TRAINING OVERVIEW
Training increases individual
knowledge and skill.
Career development helps
individuals assess their strengths,
weaknesses, interests, and
values, enabling them to explore
and select a workpath.
Team development helps team
members work and interact more
effectively and efficiently.
Organizational development
increases organizational
capability.
Human resource development
combines training, career, team,
and organizational development
to increase workplace health and
performance.
Performance improvement uses a
variety of strategies and tools to
increase performance of
individuals, groups, processes,
and organizations.
SOME TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT
ACTIVITIES
Employee orientation
o For new employees
Skills and technical training
o Focus on particular skill or
area of knowledge
Coaching
o Help employees take on
more responsibilities
Counseling
o Help employees deal with
personal problems
Management Training and
Development
EMERGING WORKPLACE TRENDS
1. Drastic times, drastic measures:
Uncertain economic
conditions force organizations to
reconsider how they can grow and
be profitable
2. Blurred lines life or work? New
organizational structures are
changing the nature of work for

3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

8.

employees and HRD


professionals.
Small world and shrinking: Global
communication technology is
changing the way people connect
and communicate.
New faces, new expectations:
Diversity in the workplace
continues to rise.
Work be nimble, work be quick:
The accelerated pace of
change requires more adaptable
employees and nimbler
organizations.
Security alert! Concerns about
security and about the ability of
governments to provide
protection have increased
individual anxiety levels
worldwide.
Life and work in the e-lane:
Technology, especially the
internet, is transforming the way
people work and live.
A higher ethical bar: Ethical
lapses at the highest levels in
large organizations have shaken
employees loyalty, trust, and
sense of security.

TRENDS IN TRAINING
Aligning training with business
strategy
o Training impacts the bottom
line
o The business environment
is changing rapidly
Training strategies will
need to support
strategic decisions of
the company
Managing Talent due to Changing
Demographics
o Diversity
Gender, age,
ethnicity, and others
o Developing the Right Talent
Changes in
technology and job
design means
retraining
Recruitment &
selection,
performance review,

HRIS innovative
delivery systems.
Quality and Continuous
Improvement
o ISO
Legal issues
o Equity
o Required training
o Liability for injury or illness
o Confidentiality
o Copyrighted materials
eLearning and EdTech
o Going mobile
o Use of social media
o Massive Open Online
Course (MOOC)
Adaptive Learning

TOP 8 ELEARNING AND EDTECH


TRENDS FOR 2015
1. Learning and Performance (L&P)
departments will become profit
centers.
2. SaaS (School as a Service)
3. MOOCs (Massive Open Online
Courses) move mainstream and
require authentication.
4. Gamification will be the new
problem-solving tool not just a
tool to enhance learning.
5. MVC (Minimum Viable Course)
Development will become the
norm in tech and software
industries to shorten product
launch cycles.
a. short, just-whats-needednow modules
6. E-Learning moves from seat
time to competency and in doing
so becomes more personalized.
a. Tailored to the learners
proficiency level, interests,
and personal motivators
7. Youll be wearing your learning.
8. Freelance eLearning ID
(instructional designer) rates will
decline; salaries for full-time IDs
with specialized skills will
increase
CHANGES IN TRAINING DESIGN AND
DELIVERY
Areas that constantly change:

o Course materials
o Course methods
o Trainer styles
o Learner expectations
Course Materials
o Learners demand easy to
use material
o Content that focuses on
direct application to the job
o Design and presentation of
content:
Graphics, job aids,
take-homes (for future
reference)
Course Methods
o Learners want clear and
easy to follow instructional
methods
Interactive
Have direct back to
the job
o Principles of learning should
be integrated in the course
instructional strategy
Trainer Styles
o Learners expect a credible
trainer and one who knows
the topic
o Trainer should be practical
and sensitive to all learning
styles
Trainer should know
when to play the role
of instructor, coach,
facilitator, or
consultant
Learner Expectations
o Learners expect to:
Take responsibility for
their own learning
Learn from others and
demand that content
be presented in a
manner that promotes
successful skill
transfer back to the
job
Be partners in the
learning process
Be given the
opportunity to
practice their own

facilitating and
coaching skills during
the session
NEEDS ASSESSMENT
Training Needs Analysis (TNA)
phase
Begins with identification of
organizational performance gap
Both training and non-training
needs are identified
o Training Needs
Inadequate KSA
o Non-training needs
Other reasons for
performance gap
(motivation, faulty
equipment, etc.)

DESIGN PHASE
Define objectives
Develop lesson plan
Develop/acquire materials
Select trainer/leader
Select methods/techniques
Scheduling
Identification of factors needed in
the training program to facilitate
learning and transfer of learning
back to the job which include:
o Alternative instruction
methods
o Amount of practice required
o Organization of content
o Others
Inputs
o Identified training needs
o Areas of constraint and
support
IMPLEMENTATION PHASE
Where all aspects of the training
program come together
o Deliver program as
designed
o Create atmosphere that
promotes learning
o Resolving emergent
problems as they occur
Note: do not assume that
everything will happen as planned
o Conduct a dry run and pilot
of the program
EVALUATION PHASE
Begins during the development
phase
Inputs to this phase:
o Training objectives
o Organizational constraints
Time
Money
Staff
Must be able to quantify results of
trainings and determine impact
on bottom line
Two types of evaluation:
o Process evaluation
o Outcome evaluation
Evaluate participate reaction
Evaluate how much was learned

Evaluate transferability of
learning to workplace
Evaluate if program contributes to
organizations effectiveness

KEY STAKEHOLDERS IN THE SUCCESS


OF TRAINING
Learners
Course designers
Course instructors
Learners employer
ROLES OF KEY STAKEHOLDERS
Learners must ensure that:
o They will actively work to
transfer learning to the job
o They will strive to
understand the topic
o They will trust themselves
enough to try something
new
o They will try to work well in
teams
Course designers must ensure
that:
o Written objectives can be
accomplished
o Activities are appropriate
for topics
o Course content flow is
correct
o Clear directions are given
o Topics are organized
logically
Course instructors must ensure
that:
o Materials are easy to
implement
o Reference materials are
useful
o Learners see the relevance
of the topic
o Activities are easily
transferred to the job
Employers must manage training
to ensure that:
o The investment increases
the productivity of
employees, results in a
positive return on
investment, and is part of
the company strategy

o The training connects to the


professional growth of the
learner and creates more
loyal, satisfied employees

TECHNOLOGY AND TRAINING NEEDS IN


THE WORKPLACE
Technology can be viewed as an
aid to make tasks easier by using
equipment and procedures to
create, process, and output
information
Technology forces new workplace
skills
o It has lowered the skill
levels of some jobs while
raising the skill levels of
others
RETRAINING THE EXISTING WORKFORCE
The emergence of new
technology and practices gives
rise to the need for retraining and
upgrading of skills of workers
currently on the job
Organizations today realize that
ongoing and continuous training
are needed to improve the quality
of the workforce.
NEW TRAINING TOPICS
Leadership for non-managers
Global issues for the quality
workplace
Organization, paradigms and
change
Computer usage and network
applications
Microcomputer repair and
troubleshooting
Writing for results
Teamwork dynamics
Business ethics
Total customer service
Principles of total quality
management
Leadership and empowerment
strategies
Achieving goals
Developing a healthy attitude
Personal effectiveness
Problem solving
Stress management
Thinking like a leader
Managing challenging employees
Workplace safety

LEARNING AND HRD


LEARNING
Relatively permanent change in
behavior, cognition or affect that
occurs as a result of ones
interaction with the environment
LEARNING IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF THE
DEFINITION
Change is the focus of learning
o Acquire something new
o Modify something that
exists
Change must be long lasting
before we could say learning has
really occurred
o Whatever is learned must
be retained if it is to be
useful
Focus of learning can include:
o Behavior
o Cognition
o Affect
o Combination of the three
Learning results from the
individual interaction with the
environment
SEARCH FOR BASIC LEARNING
PRINCIPLES
Association
o Cornerstone of learning
defined as the process by
which two cognitions
become paired
o Three principles that
influence learning
associations:
Contiguity
The Law of Effect
Practice
PRINCIPLES INFLUENCING ASSOCIATION
LEARNING
Contiguity
o Objects that are
experienced together tend
to become associated with
each other
Law of Effect

o A behavior followed by a
pleasurable consequence is
likely to be repeated
Practice
o Repeating the events in an
association will increase the
strength of the association
Practice alone is not
enough to guarantee
strong association
Effect of practice is
strengthened with
reinforcement

GESTALT
An alternative to the association
view of learning
o Learning occurs not through
trial and error or by
association
o It occurs not through trial
and error or by association
o It occurs suddenly through
insight
An epiphany
Aha!
o Not very effective for
HRD
LIMITS OF LEARNING PRINCIPLES IN
IMPROVING TRAINING DESIGN
Robert Gagn Military Training
Principles of Learning
o Showed that practice and
reinforcement failed to
improve performance of
three representative
military tasks:
Gunnery (motor skill)
Turning on a radar set
(procedural task)
Diagnosing
malfunctions in
complex electronic
equipment
(troubleshooting)
PRINCPLES TO IMPROVE TRAINING
(ROBERT GAGN)

Task Analysis
o Any task can be analyzed
into a set of distinct
component tasks
Component Task Achievement
o Each component task must
be fully achieved before the
entire task may be
performed
Task Sequencing
o Arrange the learning
situation so that each of the
component tasks is learned
in the appropriate order
before the total task is
attempted

INSTRUCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Instructional theories focus on
what must be done before
learning can take place
Focusing on human competence
with the following components
(Robert Glaser):
o Describe the learning goal
to be achieved
o Analyze the initial stage of
the learner
o Identify conditions that
allow the learner to gain
competence
o Assess and monitor the
learning process to
determine progress and
whether alternative
techniques should be used
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY
Adopting the language, methods
and methods that portray humans
as information processors
Cognitive Architecture
o A fixed system of
mechanisms that underlies
and produces cognitive
behavior
o Symbolic Architectures
Rely heavily upon
processing
information as
symbols and language
o Connectionist Architectures