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So You Want to Ace the

LSAT

ace

All actual LSAT questions printed within this work are used with the
permission of Law School Admission Council, Inc., Box 2000,
Newton, PA 18940, the copyright owner. LSAC does not review or
endorse specific test preparation materials or services, and
inclusion of licensed LSAT questions within this work does not
imply the review or endorsement of LSAC.

Dear Student:

The first and most important principle is that the LSAT is FUN. I know that some
of you may feel that taking a standardized test is akin to a root canal without
anesthesia, but we are going to change all that. Over the next few weeks you
will begin to see how enjoyable this test can be. The first step is to get rid of the
idea that LSAT preparation is drudgery. Studying for this test can be a pleasant
hobby if you will focus on the aspects that you enjoy and search for fun in the
other areas. You may be asking yourself, "Why should I try to make the LSAT
fun?" There are two main reasons. First, you will study more regularly, and with
better results if you enjoy the test. Second, you will be more relaxed when you
take the actual test. Both of these translate into a higher score.

The second principle is that you can do extremely well on this test. Believing you
can succeed is the first step toward achieving success. This principle is
intertwined with the first. The more you enjoy the LSAT the better you will
perform, and the better you perform, the more you will enjoy it. The LSATwill
require some skills that most people have never practiced, but they are skills that
can be learned. Learning speed will differ from student to student, but do not
expect to perfect the LSAT overnight. Like playing the piano or golf, practice is
essential to proper skill development. The key is to stay positive and keep it fun.
Therefore, get excited about your successes, but don't let your mistakes get you
down.

If you will keep these two basic principles in mind throughout your study, you will
more effectively develop the skills that will ensure success on the test. Enjoy.

ACE LSAT Preparation


Preliminary Drills

Logical Reasoning
One of the most important skills on the test is the ability to read with a high
degree of logical preCision. Specifically, students need to be able to quickly
identify the basic features of the logical argument. Therefore,
1. Practice reading the short passages and then identify the CONCLUSION
and the EVIDENCE or SUPPORT presented in favor of that conclusion.
As your skill increases try repeating from memory the conclusion and
evidence after reading the passage only once.
2. Begin each question by reading the question stem. This is the short blurb
above the answer choices that identifies the question type.

Analytical Reasoning
On this section you will be asked to note the connections between the rules and
how the rules will affect new information added to the scenario. There are two
main drills for this section.
1. Practice finding the connections between the rules by looking for the rules
that utilize the same variable(s). Also look for rules that will affect the
same space on your diagram. This is the most important skill on the
games section. Become adept at finding connections, and the games
section is a breeze.
2. Practice memorizing the rules. This will help you avoid the time intensive
practice of referring back to your rules again and again, and will help you
anticipate what the correct answer will be. After you have set up a
diagram, repeat the rules back without looking at them.

ACE Test Prep 2008

Reading Comprehension
The reading comprehension is the most familiar section on the LSAT. The
principle of precision reading applies to this section as well, but on a much lower
level. The one drill for this section is primarily designed to increase your speed by
eliminating the need to refer back to the passage.
1. Practice reading the question stems before reading the passage. Your
goal with this exercise is to identify the key word(s) or phrase(s) in the
question. Begin by highlighting or underlining this information.
2. Practice occasionally summarizing the information as you are reading.
This will help you to be able to internalize the passage more effectively.

ACE Test Prep 2008

Lecture Notes
Analytical Reasoning

I. What is on this section?

a. A hypothetical scenario with 3-10 variables


c. A set of 3-8 rules governing the variables in the hypothetical.
b. Five through seven questions about the scenario.

II. What does this section test?

a. Your ability to comprehend how a set of rules interacts.


b. Your ability to see how those interacting rules affect a hypothetical
scenario.
c. The fundamentals of formal logic.

III. How to set up the game.

a. Write down the variables.


b. Draw a template.
c. Translate the rules
d. Find the connections.
i.

Which rules use the same variable?

ii. How do the rules govern the spaces in the template?


iii. Is there a numbers issue? What are the general rules?

ACE Test Prep 2008

IV. How to answer the questions.


a. Process of elimination.
b. Draw a mini-diagram.
c. Use answers from previous questions.
d. (Default) Look at the main diagram.

V. Other Information
a. The "Number One Rule" is ALWAYS REMAIN CALM.
b. If you get stuck, think about #1 rule then check to be sure that a)
you are reading the question correctly, and b) you have read all of
the rules, and finally c) you have read the rules correctly.
c. If you are running out of time, be more thorough in finding
connections.

VI. The Rule Types.


a. General rules.
b. Rules that assign values.
c. Rules that define relationships ..
d. Or rules

i.

Governing a given space.

ii.

Governing a given variable.

e. If-then statements.

i.

The importance of understanding if-then statements.

ii.

The many faces of if-then statements.

iii.

The contra-positive.

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VII. How to practice.


a. Set up the game.
b. Answer the questions.
c. Check your answers.

d. Redraw your diagram.

**This is not an optional step**

ACE Test Prep 2008

Logical Reasoning
Lecture notes

I. What is on the Logical Reasoning section?

a. Brief logical arguments.


b. Questions specifically about those arguments.

II. What does this section test?

a. Your ability to understand logical arguments.


b. Your ability to evaluate and/or manipulate these arguments ..
c. Your understanding of the fundamentals of formal logic.
d. Your ability to read hyper-precisely.

III. What is a logical argument?

a. The Greek building diagram.


b. Conclusion
c.

Evidence

d. Assumptions
e. Gaps

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IV. What are the question types?

a. Assumptionsb. Inferences-

c.

Most Supported -

d. Conclusione. Strengthen-

f.

Weaken-

g. Resolveh. Structure-

V.

Flaw-

j.

Parallel Reasoning-

k.

Parallel Flaw-

How to Practice

a.

Pre-read the question stem.

b.

Identify the conclusion.

c.

Identify the premises and pieces of evidence.

d.

Identify any gaps or holes in the argument.

e.

Answer the question

f.

Make sure you understand why the correct answer is the best one.

ACE Test Prep 2008

FORMAL LOGIC
Formal logic is a little bit intimidating for many students just starting their LSAT
study, but it really should not be. Formal logic is simply a way of symbolizing
concepts that are already familiar to us. It is like writing the number 27 instead of
the word twenty-seven. They both refer to a concept that is familiar, but "27"
takes a lot less time to write. It is the same thing with formal logic. It is a way of
saving time when we are dealing with certain types of statements.
The most common form of formal logic that is used on the test is the if-then
relationship. We will represent this relationship with a circle around the "if'
element of the relationship and an arrow leading to the "then" portion of the
relationship. For example the statement "if something is a fish then it lives in the
water," will be represented ...
F~ W
We would also circle the letter F to let us know that it is the trigger for this
statement. This way of writing this statement not only saves us time, it also
clearly shows us exactly how the two variables are related to each other. The
arrow only points in one direction, so we can establish something if we show that
"it is a fish". If we know that something lives in the water, it doesn't tell us whether
or not it is a fish because there are lots of things that live in water that are not
fish.
Contra Positives
There is one other element to the statement if it is a fish then it lives in the water
that is helpful to us. In order to look at this we are going to introduce a new
symbol. The symbol "-" will be used to mean the word "not". Now back to our
sentence about the fish. We noted that establishing that something lives in the
. waters does not tell us whether or not it is a fish, but what if we know that
something does not live in the water? We know that if it were a fish it would have
to live in the water. Therefore if it does not live in the water, we know that it is not
a fish. Thus,
-w~ -F
The rule that we follow in creating the contra positive, is that we CHANGE
EVERYTHING. By the phrase everything we mean, the positions (what is circled,
or the direction of the arrow), the signs (add -, or take it away if it had - in the
first place), and we will change any "and" to "or" and any "or" to "and".

Change Everything
1- Positions
2- Signs
3- AndlOr

ACE Test Prep 2008

Essentially there are three wordings that if-then statements will take on the
games section. With each of these wordings there is a specific rule that you can
apply that will ensure that you translate the sentence correctly.

"If

... "

The rule when the logical indicator (the word that tells us it is an if-then
statement) is the word IF is that.. ..
Whatever directly follows the word IF goes INSIDE the circle.
It is important to remember the specific phrasing of this since the test writers can
put the word IF at either the beginning of the sentence or in the middle. For
example the statement X must be selected if Y is selected is translated as Y-----7
X because it is Y that directly follows the word IF.
I remember this because the word "IF" and the word "INSIDE" both start with the
letter "I".

"Only if ... "


When the logical indicator is the phrase ONLY IF our rule is that. ..
Whatever directly follows the phrase ONLY IF goes OUTSIDE the circle.
Again note that the rule simply focuses on what directly follows the phrase "only
if'.
I remember this rule because "ONLY IF" and "OUTSIDE" both start with the letter

"0".

"Unless ... "


When the logical indicator is the word unless, our rule is that we ...
Negate (change the sign) of whatever WE put INTO the circle.
With this rule it does not matter which of the two terms or letters we put into the
circle as long as we negate it. Let's look at an example of this type of statement.
Suppose we say that "You will not be admitted to Yale Law School UNLESS you
take the LSAT." Simplifying the terms to variables yields -Yale UNLESS LSAT.
Thus when we translate this statement it becomes Yale -----7 LSAT or -LSAT
-----7-Yale.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

The silly mnemonic for this one is that we "Un" (negate) "Ie" (the) "ss"ircle. (circle)

Basic forms

If (A) then (B).

A-+B

-B-+-A

(A), only if (B).

A-+B

-B-+-A

(A), unless (B).

-A-+B

-B-+A

All (A) are (B).

Only (A) are (B).

(A), if and only if (B).

No (A) are (B).

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A-+B

B-+A

B-+A and A-+B

B ';:;-A A-+-B

ACE Test Prep 2008

If -Then Exercises
If you eat too much then you will feel sick.
If you are not honest you will regret your actions.
If you fail your classes you will not graduate.
If you are kind and good-looking, the ladies/guys will like you.
If you fall asleep in class you are either tired or bored.
If A then B.
If not C then D.
If E then not F.
If G and H then not I.
If not J then not K and not L.
If M and N then not O.
If P or Q then R.
If Sand T then not U or not V.
You will be accepted to Law School only if you take the LSAT.
You will not be allowed to start Law School unless you graduate.
X cannot be selected unless Y and Z are selected.
A is chosen only jf B or C is chosen.
Frank gets a popsicle if Joan gets a popsicle.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

If Then Statements
(and other enjoyable exercises.)

1. Translate the following into symbolic notation.


2. Create the contra-positive notation for each statement.
3. State what the contra-positive is in words.

Example: If you throw cornbread down the well it's gonna get real soggy.
2. To+ S.
3. -SO+-T.
4. If that cornbread ain't soggy, you ain't thrown it down the well.
If you are really ambitious you can try to turn each of the following into "or"
statements.
The pattern is 07 Ocan be restated as -0 v a

If I had words to make a day for you, I'd sing you a morning golden and true.
If it does not fit, you must acquit.
You'll never shine if you don't glow.
All that glitters is gold.
Only love can break your heart.
Everybody here was a friend of mine yesterday.
You will not have the opportunity to spend $40 million dollars investigating
someone else's private life, unless you are appointed independent counsel.
Only a complete fool would make a qualified generalization.
If looks could kill, they probably will and it's a knockout.
If you won't scold or dominate us, we will never give you cause to hate us.
If I had a hammer, I'd hammer in the morning and I'd hammer in the evening.
Only when all people are equal will anyone be truly free.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Word Strength and Burden of Proof


Introduction
As we have already noted, attention to detail is essential to scoring well on the
logical reasoning and reading comprehension sections of the test. One element
of precision reading is noting the relative strength of the words used. Word
strength alone is not sufficient to answer any given question, but it is an
extremely useful tool for eliminating certain answer choices. Often word strength
will determine which of two similar answer choices is correct.
Most words have an inherent strength. Certain words are by definition stronger
than others. Let's look at a few examples of this principle.
Strong

Medium

Weak

All
Must
Certain
Greatest

Most
Should
Probable
Greater

some
can
possible
great

It is impossible to list all of the words that the LSAT might use that fall into these
categories. We will discuss a few of the general types to illustrate how word
strength affects sentences.
Categories of Word Strength
There are three basic categories into which word strength words fall, and if you
look at the chart above you can see that each fits into one of these three areas.
1. Number or Scope--These words tell us how many things are covered by
the statement and/or the size of the category.
2. Level of Certainty- These words let us know how sure we are about the
truth of the statement.
3. Oegree- These words tell us to what extent the characteristic is present.
This category is by far the broadest, since many of the words that we use
have an inherent strength to them for example
;; v f I'or;,-r - 5 oru-e... ~ \'JI&e..N:..
(('0";0 _

W.,.IC,- V 5 I v Oi!.

e, v I ct, e.n .::.e.

Particular Areas of Interest


Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
Most adjectives have comparative and superlative forms. The classic example
is good, better, best. Comparative adjectives often end in -er (smarter) or are
accompanied by the word more (more intelligent). Comparative adjectives fall
into the medium category, because they are stronger than the root adjective, but
weaker than the superlative form. Most superlative adjectives end in -est
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ACE Test Prep 2008

(greatest), or are accompanied by the word most (most important). Comparative


and superlative adjectives will always affect the relative strength of the sentence
in which they are used.
Logical Indicators
When we discussed if-then statements we talked about certain words that
indicate an if-then statement. You may have noticed that some of these words
appear in the table above (all, must etc.). We call these words logical indicators.
Whenever we encounter logical indicators we need to be certain that we
understand how they affect the argument. For example, noting the difference
between "ACE is an effective way to study for the LSAT," and "ACE is the only
effective way to study for the LSAT." Logical indicators naturally affect the
strength of a statement.
Negative Counterparts
Many of the words mentioned have negative counterparts. Always [never],
necessary [impossible], are good examples. These negative counterparts have
the same strength as the original word. "No one" and "everyone" have similar
strength, because both words definitely apply to all people. Take a few moments
to think of several strong words and their negative counterparts. Notice that the
negative counterpart for the word is formed by negating the weak word in the
series. When we negate the word 'possible' we arrive at 'not possible' or
'impossible,' which are the negative counterparts of 'certain.'
Negative Counterparts vs. Negations
Negative counterparts are different from negations. A negation is usually
formed by placing the word 'not' in front of the strong word. 'Not all' has a
distinctly different strength than 'none.' Negating the strong words by adding 'not'
makes the new phrase weak. The phrase 'not all' carries the same logical
strength as the word 'some.'
Evaluating Arguments

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Using Word Strength


Evaluating Arguments
There are essentially two areas where noting word strength will be very helpful
on the LSAT. The first is when we are EVALUATING ARGUMENTS. This step
is essentially looking at the relationship between the word strength of the
evidence and the word strength of the conclusion.
WORD STRENGTH OF THE EVIDENCE
-VSWORD STRENGTH OF THE CONCLUSION
In a good argument the word strength of the evidence should be at least as great
as that of the conclusion. Most LSAT arguments are not good arguments. If the
word strength of the evidence is not as strong as the word strength of the
conclusion, then there is a GAP in the argument. As we have noted before GAPS
in arguments are a good place to focus when trying to predict answer choices.
So, if our evidence talks about MOST Samoans, and our conclusion says ALL
Polynesians, we have a gap between the evidence and the conclusion.
Most Samoans is less than all Polynesians.
Evaluating Answers
The second area where noting word strength can help us is EVLAUATING
ANSWERS. This area is very similar to evaluating arguments, but here we are
looking at the relationship between the word strength of the passage and the
word strength of the answer choices.
WORD STRENGTH OF THE PASSAGE
-VSWORD STRENGTH OF THE ANSWER CHOICES
This is the area where many of you will apply word strength most directly. For the
majority of the question types, the word strength of the passage sets the limit for
the word strength of the answer choices. So, if the passage tells us about some
mangoes, we cannot properly conclude anything about most tropical fruits.
Some mangoes is less than most tropical fruits.
It is important to note that in each of these areas the scope or size of the
category is one of the elements of the term "word strength". In the two examples
given we not only increased the word strength, we also broadened the scope or
category.

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@ ACE Test Prep

2008

Logical Reasoning Question Categories and Types


What Must Be Assumed?
Assumption
What is absolutely necessary?

Stem
''The argument assumes which of the following?" "The argument
relies/depends on which of the following assumptions?" "In order for the
conclusion to be drawn what must be true/assumed?"
Passage
1-ldentify evidence and conclusion
2-Note any gaps or assumptions
3-Predict a possible answer
4-Note word strength
Answer Choices
1-Ask, "Does this absolutely have to be true?"
2-lf false, will it destroy the conclusion?
*Remember the strength of the passage limits the strength of the answer. Also
watch out for the incorrect answer that would strengthen the argument but is not
absolutely necessary.

What is proved?
Inference
If-Then Statement

Stem
"Which of the following can be logically/validly/properly
inferred/concluded?" "Which of the following must also be true?"
Passage
1-Diagram the If-Then statements.
2-8e sure to connect the statements especially the contra positive.
3-Look for one of the two forms.
Answer Choices
1-Follow the arrows.
2-Watch for A-l>8-l>C and the answer as -C-7 -A.
3-Also watch for some A are 8, all 8 are C, and the answer is some A
areC .

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Inference
Not If-Then Statement

Stem
(Same as If-Then Inference stems)
Passage
1-Carefully identify the pieces of evidence
2-Look for how the pieces of evidence connect
3-Note word strength
4-Formulate possible answers
5---Pay special attention to numeric data (statistics and numbers)
Answer Choices
1-Ask" Is this proved 100 %?"
2-Word strength will often times playa key role
3-The correct answer does not have to correspond to reality

Most Supported
These are usually a less stringent form of the non if-then inferences
Stem
"Which of the following is most supported by the information above?" "The
passage provides the most evidence in support of which of the following?"
"The passage most strongly supports which of the following?"
Passage
1-Carefully identify the pieces of evidence.
2-Look for how the pieces of evidence connect
3-Note word Strength
4-Formulate possible answers
Answer Choices
1-ls there any evidence in favor of this answer?
2-ls it better than the other four choices?
3---Word strength will usually help eliminate the wrong answers.

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ACE Tcst Prep 2008

Conclusion
What is the main point?

Stem
"Which of the following best expresses the author's conclusion/main
point?" "The conclusion/main point of the argument is that?"
Passage
1-Carefulfy note pieces of evidence
2-Look for connections between evidence
3-Ask yourself "Therefore what?" and formulate your answer
4-Note word strength
Answer Choices
1-0ften uses first and last sentences combined
2-Beware of answer choices that are simply one of the pieces of
evidence
3-Word strength will often playa role in getting rid of wrong answer
choices.

"The Following IF TRUE"


Strengthen
What will make the argument better? What will support the conclusion?

Stem
"Which of the following, IF TRUE/assumed/established/shown, would most
strengthen/bolster/support/justify the conclusion/argument?"
Passage
1-ldentify evidence and conclusion
2-Notice any gaps
3-Formulate possible answers
Answer Choices
1-Remember these are usually best of five
2-Ask. "Does this strengthen (state conclusion)?"
3-Does it beat out the other four?
4-Three ways to strengthen.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Weaken
What will undermine the conclusion?

Stem
"Which of the following, IF TRUE/assumed/established/shown, would most
weaken/undermine/cast doubt/call in question the conclusion/argument?"
Passage
1-ldentify evidence and conclusion
2-Notice any gaps
3-Formulate possible answers
Answer Choices
1-Remember these are usually best of five
2-Ask, "Ooes this weaken (state conclusion)?"
3-00es it beat out the other four?
4-Three ways to weaken.

Resolve
What will explain the weird thing?

Stem
~

"Which of the following, IF TRUE/assumed/established/shown, would most


explain/justify/resolve/account for the
discrepancy/paradox/contradiction/unusual finding above?"
Passage
1-Find the discrepancy
2-Note the two groups or cases (esp. norm vs. exception)
3-Formulate a "Why .. ?" question.
4-Think of possible answer.
Answer Choices
1-00es this differentiate between the two groups or cases?
2-00es this answer the "Why.. ?" question
3-ls it better than the other four?

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Describe the Argument


Structure
Describe the argument in general terms.

Stem
The argument proceeds by, the argument uses/employs which one of the
following techniques/methods/devices/strategies?, which of the following best
describes the method/technique/strategy?
Passage
1-ldentify evidence and conclusion.
2-Focus on the evidence.
3-Describe the evidence generally/broadly.
Answer Choices
1-ls this what you said?
2-lf no, is it possibly a description of the argument?
3-Focus on the active clause of the answer choices to speed upthe
process.
4-8e sure you can correlate specifics in the passage to the answer
choice.
5-Remember that they will often use confusing language.

Flaw
Describe what is wrong with the passage.

Stem
"The argument uses/employs which one of the following
flawed/questionable techniques/methods/devices/strategies?" "Which of
the following best describes the flawed/questionable
method/technique/strategy used in the argument?" "The argument is
flawed/vulnerable because it, which of the following best describes the
flaw/weakness/error/fallacy in the argument?"
Passage
1-Find the flaw
a. Identify evidence and conclusion
b. Note the gap
2-Describe the flaw in general terms
Answer Choices
1-ls this what you said?
2-lf no, is it possibly a description of the argument?
3-Focus on the active clause of the answer choices to speed up the
process
4-8e sure you can correlate specifics in the passage to the answer
choice
5-Remernber that they will often use confusing language.
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ACE Test Prep 2008

Parallel Reasoning
What is most similar to the passage?

Stem
"The reasoning/method/strategy/structure of which of the following is most
similar/parallel to that above?" "Which of the following most closely
parallels the reasoning/strategy/method used above?"
Passage
1-Conclusion trick
a. If-Then statements?
b. Word Strength/Scope
c. Tense and Pos. Vs. Neg.
2-lf that does not work use the same strategy on the evidence, or ...
3-Describe the evidence
Answer Choices .
1-Look for answer that matches in all relevant respects
d. If-Then statements?
e. Word Strength/Scope
f. Tense and Pos. Vs. Neg.

Parallel Flaw
Which one is most similarly flawed?

Stem
"The flawed/faulty reasoning/method/strategy/structure of which of the
following is most similar/parallel to that above?" "Which of the following
most closely parallels the flawed/faulty reasoning/strategy/method used
above?" "Which of the following exhibits a similar flaw/error/fallacy?"
Passage
1-Find the flaw
2-Describe the flaw.
Answer Choices
1-Look for a similar flaw in the answer.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Reading Comprehension
Lecture notes

I. What is on the Reading Comprehension section?


a.

Four longer (55-70 lines) reading passages.

b.

Six to eight questions specifically about each passages.

II. What does this section test?


a. Your ability to understand long passages.
b. Your ability to find and recall key details with in the passage.
c. Your ability to make reasonable extensions based on the passage.
d. Your ability to read carefully (even when the subject matter is
boring).

III. How to approach this section.


a. Pre- read the question stems.
b. Prepare to read.
C.

Summarize what you have read.

IV. Pre-Reading the question stems.


a.

Get an overview of the subject matter.

b.

Identify the key details.

c.

Generate interest in the passage.

V. Preparing to read.

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a.

Relax.

b.

Focus/Clear your mind.

c.

Review the key details.

ACE Test Prep 2008

VI. Summarizing what you have read.


a. Every 5-10 lines restate what you read.
b. At the end of the passage restate the restatements.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Games Types
These "games types" could perhaps more appropriately be called skill sets. Each
"type" lists a specific skill that is being tested through that game. Often a game
will test more that one skill set and therefore would fall into multiple "types."
In the resource center of the website you can access a spreadsheet that breaks
down all of the games by type. This is very helpful for identifying which particular
types of games are your strengths and weaknesses. It is also the easiest way to
find games to practice on when trying to improve your performance on a
particular game type.

ORDER
This is the most common skill that is tested on the games section. It is also one
of the skills that is most intuitive for most people as well. Nearly every test has
multiple games that involve putting the variables in some sort of order.

1. Rules that define relationships are very common.


2. Link rules to find chains.
3. Limiting the options for the positions.
--remember to list options when there are three or less
4. Pay special attention to the rules that provide more specific relationships.

2-GROUP GAMES
There are really two types of games that fall under this category. Both types will
usually test your ability with if-then statements, but there are particular tricks with
each.
Defined

These games begin by defining how many variables will be assigned to each
group.
1. If-Then rules are very common.
2. Watch for rules that will fin up group.
--Out groups are favorite things to fill.
--Subgroups also are often used when there are multiple variable
types.
3. You may need to run out multiple diagrams.
--When a numbers issue allows limited compositional options,
--When a rule will fill up a group or sub-group.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Undefined
These games do not have a set number in each group at the outset of the game.
If-Then rules dominate these games.
Drop the contra positive of the first rule to the bottom of the diagram.
Form chains of if-then statements.
Rules that cross the centerline create "OR" statements in the direction of
the arrow.
5. Keep track of MAXIMUM and MINIMUM for each group.
--Use the "OR" statements.
6. Run out the "Big Triggers"

1.
2.
3.
4.

3-GROUP GAMES
Again there are two types of games that fall into this category, with similarities
and differences.

Defined
These games begin by defining how many variables will be assigned to each
group.
1. Create "OR" statements when one group is ruled out for a given variable.
2. Rules that create conflicting variables are very common.
3. Watch for the ways to trigger the "OR" statement
--Filling up one of the remaining groups.
--Putting a conflicting variable in one of the groups.
4. Pay special attention to games that have multiple conflicting variables.
--Three conflicting with each other.
--Two sets of two conflicting variables.
Undefined
These games do not have a set number in each group at the outset of the game.

1. Create "OR" statements when one group is ruled out for a given variable.
2. Rules that create conflicting variables are very common.
3. Watch for the ways to trigger the "OR" statement
--Putting a conflicting variable in one of the groups.
4. Pay special attention to games that have multiple conflicting variables.
--Three conflicting with each other.
--Two sets of two conflicting variables.
5. Keep track of MAXIMUM and MINIMUM for each group.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

NUMBER ISSUES GAMES


These games have been discussed to a large degree in week three. They will be
combined with the other elements in a variety of situations.
General Skills with Numbers

1. Keep track of MAXIMUM and MINIMUM variables per group, or MAXIMUM


and MINIMUM contribution of each variable type.
2. Lock in what is certain.
3. Pay attention to "swing spots".
4. Run multiple diagrams when necessary.

3-VARIABLE GAMES
These games give a series of positions all of which will be one of three variables.
They generally are quite simple.
1. Re-Apply General Rules dominate these games.
2. Apply the general rules to all new information and to any potentially
applicable positions.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

4-0R-MORE GROUP GAMES

There are two basic types of games that fall into this category. For the most part
they are listed in the spreadsheet under the "Number" column. In many ways
they reflect the 3 group games.

Defined
In the typical version of this game each variable occurs a set number of times
(once ore twice usually).
1. Watch for rules that will fill up the groups.
2. Conflicting variable rules are very common.
3. Pay special attention to multiple conflicting variables.

Undefined
In the typical version of this game each variable occurs a set number of times
(once are twice usually).
1.
2.
3.
4.

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Keep track of MAXIMUM and MINIMUM for each group or category.


Conflicting variable rules are very common.
Pay special attention to multiple conflicting variables.
Be sure to note how con-mcting variables affect the MAX and MIN.

ACE Test Prep 2008

Plotting Your Course


When thinking about the LSAT you should start by figuring out what score you
hope to achieve. This will probably be determined by a combination of factors.
To a large degree the schools that you want to attend will decide what score you
want. The average LSAT scores of the schools you want to attend should give
you an idea of where you should aim. Of course other aspects of your
application are important, but optimally, each element of your application should
be around or above the schools average.
Once you have determined what score you would like to achieve, set goals on
how to get there. Significantly increasing your score will require significant
amounts of study. Therefore, you will need to take into account what you are
currently scoring, and the difference between that score and your optimal score.
Your goals should deal with:

Study Time
Specific Question Types
Section Scores
Total Score

Obviously your performance on certain question types determines your score on


a given section. Also, your section scores make up your total score. Therefore
make sure that as you set your goals you do so with each of the areas. One
good way to improve your overall score is to simply try and get one more
question correct per section. Thinking only of overall score will have little positive
effect.

Study Time
You must be willing to spend time developing and sharpening your skills. How
well you score, in large measure, depends on how much time you spend
studying. Daily consistent study is more important than total time spent studying.
We have found that two hours a day well managed for four to six months is a
good estimate of time needed to ace this exam.

Specific Question Types


The test is really only a matter of getting one question correct several times in
succession. In order to do well, you will need to be able to answer each of the
major question types successfully. It is best to start by identifying the question
types that are difficult for you. By focusing your study on these questions you can
add points to the section score.

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ACE Test Prep 2008

Tracking Sheet
Date

Test #

ACE Test Prep 2008

LR1

LR2

RC

Raw
Score

Score

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