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Data Communication

1. Understanding the basic hardware and software components

required for the networking environment.

What is data communication?

1.2 Recent history
Since the early days of modern computing there has been a steadily increasing need for
more sophisticated data transfer services.
In the 1950s, the early computers were simple machines with ’Single-task’ operating
They typically had a single console, and data was entered either by cards, or on paper
In the 1960s, demand for large scale data entry grew, and the ’on-line’ batch system was
developed. The operating systems were better, and allowed many terminals to be
connected to the same computer. These terminals typically would allow deferred data
entry - that is the files would not be updated until a ’batch’ of data was ready. The data
entry was often done during the day, the processing of the data at night.

In the 1970s, on-line integrated systems were developed. These allowed terminals to
access the files, as well as update them. Database technology allowed immediate display
of the effect of completed transactions. Integrated systems generated multiple
transactions from single entries.

Since the 1980s we have moved to distributed databases and processing. In the 80s and
90s we see large machines - even the workstations have significant computing power.
There are many more options for interconnecting the machines.


So we can conclude that data communication is the study of transferring data or

communicating data through modern devices from one point to the other.

Definition 2:

It is the exchange of data between two parties.

Definition 3:

The exchange of information between two or more than two parties is called data
communication these parties can be computers humans, connecters etc.

Data communication = Data + communication

Data and its types
Data are raw facts and figures which are meaningless and not understandable.

A. Digital Data
a. Text
Text data type may contain A-Z letters 0-9 Numbers and other special
b. Sound
It entails audible beats.
c. Graphics
It contains all types of visual Data.

B. Analogue Data
The type of data which contains continuous waves of physical changes in
Hardware Used in Networking Environment
1. NIC
The Network Interface Card (NIC) provide the physical connection between the
network and the computer workstation
The function of a NIC is to connect a host device to the network medium. A NIC
is a printed circuit board that fits into the expansion slot on the motherboard or
peripheral device of a computer. The NIC is also referred to as a network adapter.
On laptop or notebook computers a NIC is the size of a credit card.
NICs are considered Layer 2 devices because each NIC carries a unique code
called a MAC address. This address is used to control data communication for the
host on the network. More will be learned about the MAC address later. As the
name implies, the network interface card controls host access to the medium.

2. HUB
Hubs are actually multiport repeaters. In many cases, the difference between the
two devices is the number of ports that each provides. While a typical repeater has
just two ports, a hub generally has from four to twenty-four ports. Hubs are most
commonly used in Ethernet 10BASE-T or 100BASE-T networks, although there
are other network architectures that use them as well.
Using a hub changes the network topology from a linear bus, where each device
plugs directly into the wire, to a star. With hubs, data arriving over the cables to a
hub port is electrically repeated on all the other ports connected to the same
network segment, except for the port on which the data was sent.
3. Switch
A switch is sometimes described as a multiport bridge. While a typical bridge
may have just two ports linking two network segments, the switch can have
multiple ports depending on how many network segments are to be linked. Like
bridges, switches learn certain information about the data packets that are
received from various computers on the network. Switches use this information to
build forwarding tables to determine the destination of data being sent by one
computer to another computer on the network

Software used in Networking Environment

1. O.S (Win NT)

2. Router OS
2. Evaluate the networking systems with regard to different types of
network topologies.

What is Network Topology?

Network topology defines the structure of the network. They physical layout of a network
is called topology. The physical topology, which is the actual layout of the wire or media,
and the logical topology, which defines how the media is accessed by the hosts for
sending data.

Bus Topology
Bus - single backbone segment (length of cable) that all the hosts connect to directly.

Advantages of Bus Topology:

Use of cable is economical
Media is inexpensive and easy to work with
System is simple and reliable.
Bus is easy to extend
Disadvantages of Bus Topology:
Network can slow down in heavy traffic Problems are difficult to isolate
Cable break can affect many users
Star Topology
Star - connects all cables to a central point of concentration

Advantages of Star Topology:

Modifying system and adding new computers is easy. Centralized monitoring and
management are possible.
Failure of one computer does not affect the rest of the network.
Disadvantages of Star Topology:
If the centralized point fails, the network fails.

Ring Topology
Ring - connects one host to the next and the last host to the first.

Advantages of Ring Topology:

System provides equal access for all computers Performance is even despite many users.
Disadvantages of Ring Topology:
Failure of one computer can impact the rest of the network. Problems are hard to isolate.
Mesh Topology
Mesh - used when there can be absolutely no break in communications, each host has its
own connections to all other hosts.

Advantages of Mesh Topology:

System provides increased redundancy and reliability as well as ease of troubleshooting.

3. Networking models

Some useful terms

• Server – Computers that Provide shared resources to network user
• Clients – Computers that access shared network resources Provide by a server
• Media – The wires that make the physical connections.
• Shared data – Files provided to clients by servers across the network.
• Resources – Any Service or device, such as files, printers, or other items ,made
available for use by members of the network .

By role of computer we have two types of networks/ network models.

Peer to Peer Model

By using LAN and WAN technologies, many computers are interconnected to provide
services to their users. To accomplish this, networked computers take on different roles
or functions in relation to each other. Some types of applications require computers to
function as equal partners. Other types of applications distribute their work so that one
computer functions to serve a number of others in an unequal relationship. In either case,
two computers typically communicate with each other by using request/response
protocols. One computer issues a request for a service, and a second computer receives
and responds to that request. The requestor takes on the role of a client, and the responder
takes on the role of a server
In a peer-to-peer network, networked computers act as equal partners, or peers. As peers,
each computer can take on the client function or the server function. At one time,
computer A may make a request for a file from computer B, which responds by serving
the file to computer A. Computer A functions as client, while B functions as the server.
At a later time, computers A and B can reverse roles
In a peer-to-peer network, individual users control their own resources. The users may
decide to share certain files with other users. The users may also require passwords
before allowing others to access their resources. Since individual users make these
decisions, there is no central point of control or administration in the network. In
addition, individual users must back up their own systems to be able to recover from data
loss in case of failures. When a computer acts as a server, the user of that machine may
experience reduced performance as the machine serves the requests made by other

Client Server Model

In a Clients Server Networks one or more computers act as servers and provide the
resources to the network .the other computers are clients and use the resources provided
by the server.
In a client/server arrangement, network services are located on a dedicated computer
called a server. The server responds to the requests of clients. The server is a central
computer that is continuously available to respond to requests from clients for file, print,
application, and other services. Most network operating systems adopt the form of a
client/server relationship. Typically, desktop computers function as clients and one or
more computers with additional processing power, memory, and specialized software
function as servers.
Peer-to-Peer Networks Clients Server Networks

Good for 10 or fewer computers. Limited only by server and network hardware
Security established by the user of Extensive and consistent resource and user
Each computer. Security.
Individual users responsible for their centrally located for network control, requires
Own administration, no full-time at least one knowledgeable administrator
Administration necessary.


Cable is the medium through which information usually moves from one network device
to another. There are several types of cable which are commonly used with LANs. In
some cases, a network will utilize only one type of cable, other networks will use a
variety of cable types. The type of cable chosen for a network is related to the network's
topology, protocol, and size. Understanding the characteristics of different types of cable
and how they relate to other aspects of a network is necessary for the development of a
successful network

There are three primary types of cables used in networking

A. Twisted Pair Cable
There are two types of twisted pair cable.

• Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable

Twisted pair cabling comes in two varieties: shielded and unshielded. Unshielded
twisted pair (UTP) is the most popular and is generally the best option for school
The quality of UTP may vary from telephone-grade wire to extremely high-speed
cable. The cable has four pairs of wires inside the jacket. Each pair is twisted with a
different number of twists per inch to help eliminate interference from adjacent pairs
and other electrical devices. The tighter the twisting, the higher the supported
transmission rate and the greater the cost per foot. The EIA/TIA (Electronic Industry
Association/Telecommunication Industry Association) has established standards of
UTP and rated five categories of wire.

• Shielded Twisted Pair Cable (STP)

A disadvantage of UTP is that it may be susceptible to radio and electrical frequency

interference. Shielded twisted pair (STP) is suitable for environments with electrical
interference; however, the extra shielding can make the cables quite bulky. Shielded
twisted pair is often used on networks using Token Ring topology
Twisted-Pair (UTP and STP)
STP only:
Shielded Insulation Twisted-Pair
to Reduce EMI Color-Coded
Outer Jacket Plastic Insulation

Speed and throughput: 10/100 Mbps

Relative cost: Least costly
Media and connector size: Small
Maximum cable length: 100 m
B. Coaxial Cable
Coaxial cabling has a single copper conductor at its center. A plastic layer provides
insulation between the center conductor and a braided metal shield (See fig. 3). The
metal shield helps to block any outside interference from fluorescent lights, motors,
and other computers
Although coaxial cabling is difficult to install, it is highly resistant to signal
interference. In addition, it can support greater cable lengths between network devices
than twisted pair cable

Coaxial Cable

Braided Copper Shielding

Plastic Insulation
Copper Conductor

BNC Connector
Speed and throughput: 10/100 Mbps
Relative cost: More than UTP, but still low
Media and connector size: Medium
Maximum cable length: 200/500 m
C. Fiber Optic Cable
Fiber optic cabling consists of a center glass core surrounded by several layers of
protective materials. It transmits light rather than electronic signals eliminating the
problem of electrical interference. This makes it ideal for certain environments that
contain a large amount of electrical interference. It has also made it the standard for
connecting networks between buildings, due to its immunity to the effects of moisture
and lighting.
Fiber optic cable has the ability to transmit signals over much longer distances than
coaxial and twisted pair. It also has the capability to carry information at vastly
greater speeds. This capacity broadens communication possibilities to include
services such as video conferencing and interactive services. The cost of fiber optic
cabling is comparable to copper cabling; however, it is more difficult to install and
modify. 10BaseF refers to the specifications for fiber optic cable carrying Ethernet

Fiber-Optic Cable
Kevlar Reinforcing
Outer Jacket Shield Glass Fiber
and Cladding


Speed and throughput: 100+ Mbps

Average cost per node: Most expensive
Media and connector size: Small
Maximum cable length: Up to 2 km
5. Using special Hardware Modem and Routers?



Digital modems developed from the need to transmit data for North American air defense
during the 1950s. Modems were used to communicate data over the public switched
telephone network or PSTN. Analog telephone circuits can only transmit signals that are
within the frequency range of voice communication. A modem sends and receives data
between two computers.

In 1962, the first commercial modem was manufactured - the Bell 103 by AT&T. The
Bell 103 was also the first modem with full-duplex transmission, frequency-shift keying
or FSK, and had a speed of 300 bits per second or 300 bauds. The 56K modem was
invented by Dr. Brent Townshend in 1996.

What a modem is?

Short for modulator-demodulator. A modem is a device that enables a computer to

transmit data over a telephone or cable line. Computer information is stored digitally,
whereas information transmitted over telephone lines is transmitted in the form of analog
waves. A modem converts between these two forms.

Fortunately, there is one standard interface for connecting external modems to computers
called RS-232. Consequently, any external modem can be attached to any computer that
has an RS-232 port, which almost all personal computers have. There are also modems
that come as an expansion board that you can insert into a vacant expansion slot. These
are sometimes called onboard or internal modems.

Common Terms

Bps (Bits per Second): How fast the modem can transmit and receive data. At slow
rates, modems are measured in terms of baud rates. The slowest rate is 300 baud (about
25 cps). At higher speeds, modems are measured in terms of bits per second (bps). The
fastest modems run at 57,600 bps, although they can achieve even higher data transfer
rates by compressing the data. Obviously, the faster the transmission rate, the faster you
can send and receive data. Note, however, that you cannot receive data any faster than it
is being sent. If, for example, the device sending data to your computer is sending it at
2,400 bps, you must receive it at 2,400 bps. It does not always pay, therefore, to have a
very fast modem. In addition, some telephone lines are unable to transmit data reliably at
very high rates.

Types of Modem

Voice/data: Many modems support a switch to change between voice and data modes. In
data mode, the modem acts like a regular modem. In voice mode, the modem acts like a
regular telephone. Modems that support a voice/data switch have a built-in loudspeaker
and microphone for voice communication.
Auto-answer: An auto-answer modem enables your computer to receive calls in your
absence. This is only necessary if you are offering some type of computer service that
people can call in to use.
Data compression: Some modems perform data compression, which enables them to
send data at faster rates. However, the modem at the receiving end must be able to
decompress the data using the same compression technique.
Flash memory : Some modems come with flash memory rather than conventional ROM,
which means that the communications protocols can be easily updated if necessary.
Fax capability: Most modern modems are fax modem, which means that they can send
and receive faxes.

These modems are

connectable by RJ-45
PCI Modem Which Can Connectors which
be Connected to internal connects a PC to a
circuitry of Mother board Telephone Line.
(also know Expansion Slot
6. What are protocols, their uses and different types of

Protocols Introduction:

Protocols are rules and procedures for communicating. The term "protocol" is used in a
variety of contexts. For example, diplomats from one country adhere to rules of protocol
designed to help them interact smoothly with diplomats from other countries. Rules of
protocol apply in the same way in the computer environment. When several computers
are networked, the rules and technical procedures governing their communication and
interaction are called protocols.

How Do Protocols Work

The entire technical operation by which data is transmitted over the network has to be
broken down into discrete, systematic steps. At each step, certain actions take place that
cannot take place at any other step. Each step includes its own rules and procedures, or

The protocol steps must be carried out in a consistent order that is the same on every
computer in the network. In the sending computer, these steps must be executed from the
top down. In the receiving computer, these steps must be carried out from the bottom up.

The Sending Computer

Protocols at the sending computer:

1. Break the data into smaller sections, called packets, that the protocol can handle.
2. Add addressing information to the packets so that the destination computer on the
network can determine that the data belongs to it.
3. Prepare the data for transmission through the NIC and out onto the network cable.

The Receiving Computer

Protocols at the receiving computer carry out the same series of steps in reverse order.

1. Take the data packets off the cable.

2. Bring the data packets into the computer through the NIC.
3. Strip the data packets of all the transmitting information that was added by the
sending computer.
4. Copy the data from the packets to a buffer for reassembly.
5. Pass the reassembled data to the application in a usable form.
Both sending and receiving computers need to perform each step in the same way so that
the data will have the same structure when it is received as it did when it was sent.

For example, two different protocols might each break data into packets and add on
various sequencing, timing, and error-checking information, but each will do it
differently. Therefore, a computer using one of these protocols will not be able to
communicate successfully with a computer that is using the other protocol.

Popular Network Protocols

Protocol Description
IP The TCP/IP protocol for packet-forwarding routing.
IPX NetWare's protocol for packet forwarding and routing.
NWLink The Microsoft implementation of the IPX/SPX protocol.
NetBEUI A transport protocol that provides data-transport services
for NetBIOS sessions and applications.
DDP (Datagram Delivery An AppleTalk data-transport protocol.


Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is an industry-standard suite

of protocols that provide communications in a heterogeneous (made up of dissimilar
elements) environment. In addition, TCP/IP provides a routable, enterprise networking
protocol and access to the Internet and its resources. Because of its popularity, TCP/IP
has become the de facto standard for what's known as internetworking, the
intercommunication in a network that's composed of smaller networks. This lesson
examines the TCP/IP protocol and its relationship to the OSI reference model.

Introduction to TCP/IP

TCP/IP has become the standard protocol used for interoperability among many different
types of computers. This interoperability is a primary advantage of TCP/IP. Most
networks support TCP/IP as a protocol. TCP/IP also supports routing and is commonly
used as an internetworking protocol.
Internet Protocol (IP)

Internet Protocol (IP) is a packet-switched protocol that performs addressing and route
selection. As a packet is transmitted, this protocol appends a header to the packet so that
it can be routed through the network using dynamic routing tables. IP is a connectionless
protocol and sends packets without expecting the receiving host to acknowledge receipt.
In addition, IP is responsible for packet assembly and disassembly as required by the
physical and data-link layers of the OSI reference model. Each IP packet is made up of a
source and a destination address, protocol identifier, checksum (a calculated value), and a
TTL (which stands for "time to live"). The TTL tells each router on the network between
the source and the destination how long the packet has to remain on the network. It works
like a countdown counter or clock. As the packet passes through the router, the router
deducts the larger of one unit (one second) or the time that the packet was queued for
delivery. For example, if a packet has a TTL of 128, it can stay on the network for 128
seconds or 128 hops (each stop, or router, along the way), or any combination of the two.
The purpose of the TTL is to prevent lost or damaged data packets (such as missing e-
mail messages) from endlessly wandering the network. When the TTL counts down to
zero, the packet is eliminated from the network.

Other protocols written specifically for the TCP/IP suite include:

• SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) E-mail.

• FTP (File Transfer Protocol) for exchanging files among computers running
• SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) for network management.

Designed to be routable, robust, and functionally efficient, TCP/IP was developed by the
United States Department of Defense as a set of wide area network (WAN) protocols. Its
purpose was to maintain communication links between sites in the event of nuclear war.
The responsibility for TCP/IP development now resides with the Internet community as a
whole. TCP/IP requires significant knowledge and experience on the user's part to install
and configure. Using TCP/IP offers several advantages; it:

• Is an industry standard As an industry standard, it is an open protocol. This

means it is not controlled by a single company, and is less subject to compatibility
issues. It is the de facto protocol of the Internet.
• Contains a set of utilities for connecting dissimilar operating systems
Connectivity from one computer to another does not depend on the network
operating system used on either computer.
• Uses scalable, cross-platform client-server architecture TCP/IP can expand (or
shrink) to meet future needs and circumstances. It uses sockets to make the
computer operating systems transparent to one another.

NetBEUI is the acronym for NetBIOS Extended User Interface. Originally, NetBIOS and
NetBEUI were tightly tied together and considered one protocol. However, several
network manufacturers separated out NetBIOS, the session-layer protocol, so that it could
be used with other routable transport protocols. NetBIOS (network basic input/output
system) is an IBM session-layer LAN interface that acts as an application interface to the
network. NetBIOS provides the tools for a program to establish a session with another
program over the network and, because so many application programs support it, it is
very popular.

NetBEUI is a small, fast, and efficient transport-layer protocol that is supplied with all
Microsoft network products. It has been available since the mid-1980s and was supplied
with the first networking product from Microsoft: MS-NET.

Advantages of NetBEUI include its small stack size (important for computers running
MS-DOS), its speed of data transfer on the network medium, and its compatibility with
all Microsoft-based networks.

The major disadvantage of NetBEUI is that it does not support routing. It is also limited
to Microsoft-based networks. NetBEUI is a good and economical solution for a small
peer-to-peer network where all workstations use Microsoft operating systems

What is OSI Model and functions of layers?

Introduction to OSI Model

• The early development of networks was disorganized in many ways. The early
1980s saw tremendous increases in the number and size of networks. As
companies realized the advantages of using networking technology, networks
were added or expanded almost as rapidly as new network technologies were
• By the mid-1980s, these companies began to experience problems from the rapid
expansion. Just as people who do not speak the same language have difficulty
communicating with each other, it was difficult for networks that used different
specifications and implementations to exchange information. The same problem
occurred with the companies that developed private or proprietary networking
technologies. Proprietary means that one or a small group of companies controls
all usage of the technology. Networking technologies strictly following
proprietary rules could not communicate with technologies that followed different
proprietary rules
• The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model released in 1984 was
the descriptive network model that the ISO created. It provided vendors with a set
of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability among various
network technologies produced by companies around the world.

Dividing the network into seven layers provides the following advantages:
• It breaks network communication into smaller, more manageable parts.
• It standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and
• It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with
each other.
• It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers.
• It divides network communication into smaller parts to make learning it easier to

OSI Model Reference

• Layer 7: Application
• Layer 6: Presentation
• Layer 5: Session
• Layer 4: Transport
• Layer 3: Network
• Layer 2: Data link
• Layer 1: Physical

Host layers: Provide
accurate data delivery
between computers

Media layers: Control

Physical delivery of messages
over the network

Functions of Layers: 7 Applicat

Application Layer

6 Presenta
Layer 7, the topmost layer of the OSI reference model, is the application layer. This layer
relates to the services that directly support user applications, such as software for file
transfers, database access, and e-mail. In other words, it serves as a window through
which application processes can access network services. A message to be sent across the
network enters the OSI reference model at this point and exits the OSI reference model's

5 Session
application layer on the receiving computer. Application-layer protocols can be programs
in themselves, such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP), or they can be used by other
programs, such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), used by most e-mail
programs, to redirect data to the network. The lower layers support the tasks that are
performed at the application layer. These tasks include general network access, flow
control, and error recovery.

Presentation layer

Layer 6, the presentation layer, defines the format used to exchange data among
networked computers. Think of it as the network's translator. When computers from
dissimilar systems—such as IBM, Apple, and Sun—need to communicate, a certain
amount of translation and byte reordering must be done. Within the sending computer,
the presentation layer translates data from the format sent down from the application
layer into a commonly recognized, intermediary format. At the receiving computer, this
layer translates the intermediary format into a format that can be useful to that computer's
application layer. The presentation layer is responsible for converting protocols,
translating the data, encrypting the data, changing or converting the character set, and
expanding graphics commands. The presentation layer also manages data compression to
reduce the number of bits that need to be transmitted. The redirector, which redirects
input/output (I/O) operations to resources on a server, operates at this layer.

Session layer

Layer 5, the session layer, allows two applications on different computers to open, use,
and close a connection called a session. (A session is a highly structured dialog between
two workstations.) The session layer is responsible for managing this dialog. It performs
name-recognition and other functions, such as security, that are needed to allow two
applications to communicate over the network.

The session layer synchronizes user tasks by placing checkpoints in the data stream. The
checkpoints break the data into smaller groups for error detection. This way, if the
network fails, only the data after the last checkpoint has to be retransmitted. This layer
also implements dialog control between communicating processes, such as regulating
which side transmits, when, and for how long.
Transport layer

Layer 4, the transport layer, provides an additional connection level beneath the session
layer. The transport layer ensures that packets are delivered error free, in sequence, and
without losses or duplications. At the sending computer, this layer repackages messages,
dividing long messages into several packets and collecting small packets together in one
package. This process ensures that packets are transmitted efficiently over the network.
At the receiving computer, the transport layer opens the packets, reassembles the original
messages, and, typically, sends an acknowledgment that the message was received. If a
duplicate packet arrives, this layer will recognize the duplicate and discard it.

The transport layer provides flow control and error handling, and participates in solving
problems concerned with the transmission and reception of packets. Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) and Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX) are examples of
transport-layer protocols.

Network layer

Layer 3, the network layer, is responsible for addressing messages and translating logical
addresses and names into physical addresses. This layer also determines the route from
the source to the destination computer. It determines which path the data should take
based on network conditions, priority of service, and other factors. It also manages traffic
problems on the network, such as switching and routing of packets and controlling the
congestion of data.

If the network adapter on the router cannot transmit a data chunk as large as the source
computer sends, the network layer on the router compensates by breaking the data into
smaller units. At the destination end, the network layer reassembles the data. Internet
Protocol (IP) and Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) are examples of network-layer

Data link

Layer 2, the data-link layer, sends data frames from the network layer to the physical
layer. It controls the electrical impulses that enter and leave the network cable. On the
receiving end, the data-link layer packages raw bits from the physical layer into data
frames. (A data frame is an organized, logical structure in which data can be placed.
The electrical representation of the data (bit patterns, encoding methods, and tokens) is
known to this layer only.

Sender ID represents the address of the computer that is sending the information; the
destination ID represents the address of the computer to which the information is being
sent. The control information is used for frame type, routing, and segmentation
information. The data is the information itself. The cyclical redundancy check (CRC)
provides error correction and verification information to ensure that the data frame is
received correctly.

The data-link layer is responsible for providing error-free transfer of these frames from
one computer to another through the physical layer. This allows the network layer to
anticipate virtually error-free transmission over the network connection.

Usually, when the data-link layer sends a frame, it waits for an acknowledgment from the
recipient. The recipient data-link layer detects any problems with the frame that might
have occurred during transmission. Frames that were damaged during transmission or
were not acknowledged are then re-sent.

Physical layer

Layer 1, the bottom layer of the OSI reference model, is the physical layer. This layer
transmits the unstructured, raw bit stream over a physical medium (such as the network
cable). The physical layer is totally hardware-oriented and deals with all aspects of
establishing and maintaining a physical link between communicating computers. The
physical layer also carries the signals that transmit data generated by each of the higher

This layer defines how the cable is attached to the NIC. For example, it defines how
many pins the connector has and the function of each. It also defines which transmission
technique will be used to send data over the network cable.

This layer provides data encoding and bit synchronization. The physical layer is
responsible for transmitting bits (zeros and ones) from one computer to another, ensuring
that when a transmitting host sends a 1 bit, it is received as a 1 bit, not a 0 bit. Because
different types of media physically transmit bits (light or electrical signals) differently,
the physical layer also defines the duration of each impulse and how each bit is translated
into the appropriate electrical or optical impulse for the network cable.

This layer is often referred to as the "hardware layer." Although the rest of the layers can
be implemented as firmware (chip-level functions on the NIC), rather than actual
software, the other layers are software in relation to this first layer.

All People Seem To Need Data Processing

7. Different types of internetworking hardware and why are they used.

4. Router

Router is the first device that you will work with that is at the OSI network layer,
or otherwise known as layer 3.
Routers make decisions based on groups of network addresses (classes) as
opposed to individual layer 2 MAC addresses.
Because of their ability to route packets based on layer 3 information, routers
have become the backbone of the internet, running the IP protocol.
Routers have all the capabilities listed above. Routers can regenerate signals,
concentrate multiple connections, convert data transmission formats, and manage
data transfers. They can also connect to a WAN, which allows them to connect
LANs that are separated by great distances. None of the other devices can provide
this type connection.

5. Bridge

There are times when it is necessary to break up a large LAN into smaller, more
easily managed segments. This decreases the amount of traffic on a single LAN
and can extend the geographical area past what a single LAN can support. The
devices that are used to connect network segments together include bridges,
switches, routers, and gateways. Switches and bridges operate at the Data Link
layer of the OSI model. The function of the bridge is to make intelligent decisions
about whether or not to pass signals on to the next segment of a network.
When a bridge receives a frame on the network, the destination MAC address is
looked up in the bridge table to determine whether to filter, flood, or copy the
frame onto another segment

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Corporate Intranet
Segment 1 Segment 2


The purpose of a repeater is regenerate and retimes network signals at the bit level
to allow them to travel a longer distance on the media.
A repeater receives a signal, regenerates it, and passes it on. It can regenerate and
retime network signals at the bit level to allow them to travel a longer distance on
the media. The Four Repeater Rule for 10-Mbps Ethernet should be used as a
standard when extending LAN segments. This rule states that no more than four
repeaters can be used between hosts on a LAN. This rule is used to limit latency
added to frame travel by each repeater. Too much latency on the LAN increases
the number of late collisions and makes the LAN less efficient.
8. Communication over Wide Area Network.

9. Wide Area Network Connectivity.