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July 2001

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of
Vessels for Bulk Solids

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES


In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has
been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major
industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these
technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and
engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While
this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users,
individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take
precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and
particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering
situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The
use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of
preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the
same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All
Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and
regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines
should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or
regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or
acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and
will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn.
Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The


University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin,
Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice
for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any
kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written
authorization of PIP.

PIP will consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice. Instructions for
preparing inquiries are available on the PIP website at www.pip.org.

Not printed with State funds

July 2001

Process Industry Practices


Vessels

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of
Vessels for Bulk Solids
Table of Contents
1. Introduction .................................. 3

4.11 Documentation Provided by


Supplier............................................ 11

1.1 Purpose ............................................. 3


1.2 Scope................................................. 3
1.3 Alternative Design Proposals............. 4

5. Selection and Design


Guidelines................................. 12

2. References ................................... 4
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

Process Industry Practices ................ 4


Industry Codes and Standards .......... 5
Other Codes ...................................... 6
Other References .............................. 6
Government Regulations ................... 7

3. Definitions .................................... 7
4. General ......................................... 8
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10

Applicable PIP Documents ................ 8


Exemptions ........................................ 8
Jurisdictional Compliance .................. 9
Units of Measurement ....................... 9
Language........................................... 9
Purchasers Responsibilities.............. 9
Suppliers Responsibilities ................. 9
Disclaimers ...................................... 10
Conflicts ........................................... 10
Documentation Provided by the
Purchaser ........................................ 10

Process Industry Practices

5.1 Solids Flow Properties ..................... 12


5.2 Flow Regimes .................................. 13
5.3 Cylindrical Versus Polygonal
Selections ........................................ 16
5.4 Bottom Hopper Selection................. 16
5.5 Discharge Aids................................. 19
5.6 Fluidized Material............................. 20
5.7 Bin Inserts........................................ 20
5.8 Blender Selection............................. 21
5.9 Internals Design Guidelines............. 22
5.10 Support Selection ............................ 22
5.11 Methods for Determining
Bulk Solids Design Loads ................ 23
5.12 Materials .......................................... 23
5.13 Pressure Venting and Relief ............ 23

6. Design ........................................ 24
6.1 Geometric Configurations................ 24
6.2 Design Pressure and Temperature . 24
6.3 MAWP and Coincident Maximum
Temperature .................................... 25
6.4 Minimum Design Metal Temperature
(MDMT) and Coincident Pressure ... 26
6.5 Venting and Relief Protection .......... 26

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

6.6 Design Loads and Load


Combinations ...................................26
6.7 Vessel Support Systems ..................34
6.8 Top Head..........................................36
6.9 Shell .................................................37
6.10 Bottom ..............................................37
6.11 Shell-to-Bottom Joint (Skirt Ring).....38
6.12 Vessel Connections..........................38
6.13 Gaskets ............................................41
6.14 Internal Components ........................42
6.15 Corrosion Allowance ........................42
6.16 Compartment Vessels......................42
6.17 Minimum Thickness .........................42
6.18 Anchor Bolting ..................................43
6.19 Lifting Lugs .......................................43
6.20 Structural ..........................................44

7. Materials......................................44
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5

Allowable Stress Values...................44


Carbon Steel ....................................44
Stainless Steel..................................44
Clad Material ....................................44
Prohibited Materials..........................45

July 2001

APPENDIX A - Quality Overview


Plan for Vessels for Solids
APPENDIX B - Documentation
Schedule and Supplier's Data
Package
APPENDIX C - Flanged Pressure
Boundary Joint Assembly
APPENDIX D - Suppliers Drawing
Information
APPENDIX E - Equivalent Pressure
Formulas for Bending Moment
and Axial Tensile Load
APPENDIX F - Standard Details

8. Fabrication..................................45
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6

General.............................................45
Welding ............................................45
Flanges.............................................46
Prohibited Construction ....................47
Tolerances .......................................47
Linings ..............................................47

9. Inspection and Testing ..............49


9.1 Inspection .........................................49
9.2 Testing, General...............................50

10. Shipping....................................51
10.1 General.............................................51
10.2 Cleaning and Painting ......................52
10.3 Preparation for Shipment .................52

11. Instrumentation.........................53
11.1 General.............................................53
11.2 Side-Entry Instrumentation...............53

12. Nameplates and Stampings .....53


12.1 Nameplates ......................................53
12.2 Stampings ........................................53

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

1.

Introduction
1.1

Purpose
This Practice describes the materials, design, fabrication, inspection, testing, and
documentation requirements for the construction of atmospheric and low-pressure,
welded, shop- and field-fabricated dry bulk solids bins, hoppers, silos, and gravity
blenders for various chemical facilities. These bulk solids bins, hoppers, silos, and
blenders generally meet the philosophy and requirements of Section VIII, Division 1,
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, henceforth referred to as the Code;
however, Code inspection and stamping are not required.

1.2

Scope
In addition to any limitations stated in this Practice, the provisions of this Practice do
not address the following:

Mechanically fastened shell or head courses with or without seal welding

Non-metallic material requirements, including design issues

Design and fabrication of fluidized beds

Design and fabrication of non-cylindrical shells

Requirements associated with vessels mechanically agitated by motor-driven


blade impellers

Portable transport containers

1.2.1

This Practice designates requirements for the design and construction of


welded, cylindrical shell, single-wall vessels having internal design
pressures not exceeding 15 psig and/or full vacuum external pressure at the
top of the vessel in its normal operating position. Data sheet PIP VEDBI003
is required to define options covered herein and other specific requirements
applicable to the particular vessel under consideration for service (startup,
normal operation, upset, shutdown), location, maintenance, etc.

1.2.2

For bulk solids vessels having internal and/or external pressures exceeding
the 15-psig limit, use this Practice for solids-handling issues, and use
PIP VECV1001, PIP VESV1002, and PIP VEDV1003 for pressure vessel
issues.

1.2.3

Unless approved by Purchaser, this Practice is not intended for vessels


containing lethal substances defined as poisonous gases, liquids, or solids
of such nature that a very small amount of the gas, liquid, or solid mixed or
unmixed with air is dangerous to life when inhaled or when contacting skin.
PIP VECV1001, PIP VESV1002, and PIP VEDV1003 apply for vessels that
are classified for lethal service, as defined by Code paragraph UW-2, or for
other highly hazardous chemical services. These Practices shall be used in
conjunction with this Practice.

1.2.4

Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction


practices are included herein. However, in light of the many diverse service

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

applications of low-pressure vessels, these practices must be employed with


sound engineering judgment and supplemented as appropriate with
requirements related to specific materials of construction, service fluids,
operating environments, and vessel geometry. Accordingly, it shall be
understood that provisions of this document may be overridden or
supplemented by an overlay specification. (See Section 3 for definition.)
1.2.5

1.3

The intent of this Practice is to provide enough information to design and


construct a complete vessel. Any part necessary to make the vessel complete
shall be provided by the Supplier. The equipment manufacturer is
responsible for any licensing and licensing fees associated with the design,
fabrication, and/or use of the equipment. Any auxiliary components required
are to be identified in the bid and included in the quotation.

Alternative Design Proposals


The base bid shall be provided in full compliance with the purchase requisition. An
alternative design may be submitted if economy and/or improved schedule can be
realized without reducing the capability or shortening the anticipated life of the
vessel. The following requirements must be met when submitting an alternate bid:
a. Alternative design quotations shall be accompanied by the base quotation and
be clearly noted as an alternative.
b. Alternative designs shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by
sketches or drawings. Specific exceptions shall be identified as such.
c. An alternative design shall not be used unless approved in writing by the User.

2.

References
The documents listed in this section are only those specifically referenced in this Practice.
Laws or regulations issued by any applicable local, county, state, or federal authorities
covering low-pressure vessels shall be reviewed before the initiation of design work, because
the requirements may be different or more restrictive than the requirements covered in this
Practice.
2.1

Process Industry Practices (PIP)


The latest edition issued at the date of the contract award shall be used.
PIP CTSE1000 - Application of External Coatings
PIP VECV1001 - Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Design Criteria ASME Code
Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
PIP VEDBI003 - Vessels for Bulk Solids Data Sheet
PIP VEFV 1100 - Vessel/S&T Standard Heat Exchanger Details [Applicable
details are listed below:]
PIP VEFV1101 - Vessel Nameplate Bracket
PIP VEFV1102 - Vessel Tolerances (2 pages)
PIP VEFV1103 - Vessel Grounding Lug

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

PIP VEFV1116 - Vessel Manway Hinges


PIP VEFV1117 - Vessel Manway Vertical Davit
PIP VEFV1118 - Vessel Manway Horizontal Davit
PIP VEFV1128 - Skirt Attachment Details (in process)
PIP VESV1002 - Vessel/S&T Heat Exchanger Fabrication Specification
ASME Code Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
PIP STF05501 - Fixed Ladders and Cages
PIP STF05520 - Pipe Railing for Walking and Working Surfaces Details
PIP STF05521 - Angle Railing for Walking and Working Surfaces Details
PIP STF05535 - Vessel Platform Details
2.2

Industry Codes and Standards


The latest edition/revision of the following industry standards and specifications
shall be considered an integral part of this Practice where applicable:
American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
AISC Allowable Stress Design (ASD) - Manual of Steel Construction

American Petroleum Institute (API)


API 650 - Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage

American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)


ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section II - Materials, Parts A, B, C, D
Section VIII - Pressure Vessels, Division 1 (hereinafter noted as Code)
Section IX - Welding and Brazing Qualifications
ASME B1.1 - Unified Inch Screw Threads, UN and UNR Thread Form
ASME B16.5 - Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings
ASME B16.9 - Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings
ASME B16.21 - Nonmetallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
ASME B16.47 - Large Diameter Steel Flanges (NPS 26NPS 60)
ASME B46.1 - Surface Texture, Surface Roughness, Waviness and Lay
ASME PCC-1- Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint
Assembly (in process)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
D6128 - Standard Shear Cell Testing Method for Bulk Solids Using the Jenike
Shear Cell
American Welding Society (AWS)
AWS A2.4 - Standard Symbols for Welding, Brazing, and Non-Destructive
Examination

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)


ASCE 7 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures
Standard Association of Australia
AS 3774 and Supplements 1 and 2 - Loads on Bulk Solids Containers
British Standards Institute and the British Materials Handling Board
Silos: Draft Design Code for Silos, Bins, Bunkers, and Hoppers
Deutsches Institut fur Normung (DIN)
DIN 1055, Part 6 - Design Loads for Buildings, Loads in Silo Bins [German
Standard]
International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO)
Uniform Building Code (UBC)
Manufacturers Standardization Society (MSS)
MSS SP-6 - Standard Finishes for Contact Faces of Pipe Flanges and
Connecting End Flanges of Valves and Fittings
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
NACE RP0178 - Standard Recommended Practice - Fabrication Details,
Surface Finish Requirements and Proper Design Considerations for Tanks and
Vessels to Be Lined for Immersion Service
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
NFPA 68 - Guide for Venting and Deflagrations
NFPA 69 - Standard on Explosion Prevention Systems
Welding Research Council (WRC)
WRC Bulletin 107 - Local Stresses in Spherical and Cylindrical Shells Due to
External Loads
WRC Bulletin 297 - Local Stresses in Nozzles in Spherical and Cylindrical
Shells Due to External Loads (A supplement to WRC Bulletin 107)
2.3

Other Codes
Requirements for solids vessels, constructed in accordance with rules other than
those specified in the ASME Pressure Vessel Code in Section 2, shall be by written
agreement between Purchaser and Supplier(s).

2.4

Other References
ANSI/AIIM, Microrecording of Engineering Source Documents on 35-mm
Microfilm, M32
ASCE Task Committee on Wind-Induced Forces, Wind Loads and Anchor
Bolt Design for Petrochemical Facilities [ISBN-0-7844-0262-0]

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Buzek, J. R., Useful Information on the Design of Steel Bins and Silos,
American Iron and Steel Institute and Steel Plate Fabricators Association, Inc.,
1989
Galletly, G. D., Design Equations for Preventing Buckling in Fabricated
Torispherical Shells Subjected to Internal Pressure, Proceedings, Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, London, Vol. 200, No A2, pp. 127-139, 1986
Process Equipment Design, Brownell and Young, Wiley and Sons Publishers,
1959
Jenike, A. W., Johanson, J. R., and Carson, J. W., Journal of Engineering for
Industry, Transaction ASME, Series B Vol. 95, No. 1, Feb. 1973, pp. 1-16
Vellozzi, Joseph, Dynamic Response to Wind Loading, U.S. Dept. of Standards
2.5

Government Regulations
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA)
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.106(b)(5)(ii) - Flammable and Combustible Liquids
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.119 - Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous
Chemicals
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.146, (K)(3)(ii) - Permit-Required Confined Spaces for
General Industry

3.

Definitions
For the purposes of this Practice, the following definitions apply:
Angle of Repose (Poured): The slope of the surface of bulk solids when formed as a pile by
pouring solids onto a horizontal plane. The angle is measured from the horizontal plane. This
angle is not a flow property.
Angle of Repose (Drained): The slope of the top surface of bulk solids when formed by
discharging a container that holds the bulk solid. This angle is not a flow property.
Arching: A no-flow condition in which the bulk solid forms a stable arch across a vessel.
Typically, this arch forms at the bottom outlet opening, but may form at a higher location in
the hopper or bin. At a sufficiently large discharge opening, a stable arch cannot be
sustained. The terms bridge and dome are also used to describe this condition.
Bulk Density: Weight per unit volume of a material including voids within the particle
structure and also including voids between individual particle masses. The bulk density of a
material can vary, depending on over-pressurization, vibration, time consolidation, etc.
Code: The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII, Division 1

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials, design, fabrication, examination,


inspection, and testing
Designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design
requirements consistent with the User criteria for use by the Supplier(s). The Designer is
typically an engineering contractor but could be the User, Purchaser, third-party consultant,
or the Supplier(s).
Fabrication: The actual making and assembling of the vessel and vessel components from
specified materials and in accordance with the purchase order
Fluidization: The use of gas flow to permeate the interstitial spaces in bulk solids, making
some bulk solids act more like a liquid
Operating Load: Includes the weight of the stored product, based on the maximum bulk
density of the product, and internal pressure, if any
Overlay Specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of
this document, such as a User Specification or a project specification
Purchaser: The party actually placing the order with the Supplier for the vessel or vessel
components and can also be the Designer. The Purchaser is required to assure that all User
requirements are fulfilled. The User may be the User or the Users designated agent.
Supplier: The party entering into a contract with the Purchaser to construct a vessel in
accordance with the purchase order
User: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with the
philosophy and service hazards of this Practice as described in Section 1 of this Practice.
User refers to the owner and/or operator of the equipment.
User Specification: A term that shall be understood to include any drawings, specifications,
or service-specific data designated by the Purchaser for a particular bulk solids bin, hopper,
silo, or blender or group of such. See PIP VEDBI003 for data sheet and instructions.
Vessel: A non-specific reference to a bulk solids bin, hopper, silo, or blender

4.

General
4.1

Applicable PIP Documents


All vessels shall be designed in accordance with this Practice and with those vessel
standard details specified in Section 2 and with other standard details as applicable.

4.2

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Exemptions
4.2.1

This Practice is not applicable to vessels with nominal 2-feet diameters or


less.

4.2.2

This Practice is not applicable to vessels with less than 100-cubic-feet


volume.

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

4.3

4.4

Jurisdictional Compliance
4.3.1

All aspects of the work shall comply with any applicable local, county, state,
and federal rules and regulations, including but not limited to the rules and
standards established by EPA and OSHA, if applicable.

4.3.2

Site-specific laws, rules, and regulations shall be considered for all criteria
and shall be noted on data sheets, in engineering notes, or in specific site
specifications.

4.3.3

It is acceptable to replace all references to EPA and OSHA with whatever


national equivalent applies at the site.

Units of Measurement
U.S. customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard; metric (SI units) may
be included for reference only and shall not be interpreted as a precise conversion.

4.5

Language
All documents shall either be in English or shall show the English translation.

4.6

Purchasers Responsibilities
The Purchaser shall furnish a User Specification, which shall set forth the intended
operating conditions of the vessel to provide a basis for design and fabrication. The
User Specification shall also identify the external environment to which the vessel is
exposed, the intended function of the vessel, the mechanical loads imposed on the
vessel, the specific installation requirements, and the specific codes and laws
applicable where the vessel will be installed.

4.7

4.6.1

The Purchaser shall provide the minimum and maximum bulk densities of
the product. The values of the minimum and maximum bulk densities shall
be shown on data sheets, sketches, or drawings that are part of the User
Specification.

4.6.2

The strength and flow properties of the contained product shall be provided
by the Purchaser and shall be determined by testing a representative sample
of the product.

Suppliers Responsibilities
4.7.1

The Supplier is responsible for the construction of all bins, hoppers, and
silos and associated chutes; supports; and internal/external assemblies as
identified in or required by this Practice and the documents referenced
herein. Review by the Purchaser or User of documentation provided (e.g.,
fabrication drawings or weld procedures) does not alter this responsibility.
4.7.1.1 Supports (design, fabrication, and installation) for attaching
platforms, ladders, railings, and/or fire protection supports shall be
provided if indicated on the data sheet(s). Platform details shall be
provided to the Supplier.
4.7.1.2 The Supplier shall provide and install grounding clip(s) in
accordance with PIP VEFV1103.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

4.8

4.9

July 2001

4.7.2

The Supplier shall guarantee that the equipment supplied, when operated
under the conditions specified by this Practice and the documents referenced
herein, shall maintain structural integrity and meet all operating and
structural requirements outlined in these documents and in the purchase
order.

4.7.3

Bins, hoppers, and silos and associated chutes, supports, and internal
assemblies shall be identified and labeled in accordance with the Purchasers
designations.

4.7.4

Any alternative design(s) shall not be used unless approved in writing by the
Purchaser.

4.7.5

Subcontracted fabrication work: Approval must be obtained from Purchaser


before any welding or preparation for welding is subcontracted to another
shop or Supplier. Such approval shall require knowledge by Purchaser of the
qualifications of the subcontractor who is performing the work. The
Supplier(s) retains accountability for the subcontracted fabrication work.

Disclaimers
4.8.1

Specified design: When a vessel or vessel component design is specified on


the Purchasers data sheets, sketches, or drawings, the Supplier(s) is in no
way relieved of obligations and/or responsibilities to comply with the
purchase specifications.

4.8.2

Welding: Welded fabrication shall not be sublet without prior approval of


the Purchaser.

4.8.3

Inspection: Release for shipment by Purchasers or Users inspector does not


relieve the Supplier(s) of any responsibility for complying with the
specifications and/or drawings.

Conflicts
If a conflict is identified between this Specification, the design drawings, or data
sheet, referenced codes and standards, or any supplementary specification, the party
having identified the conflict shall obtain written clarification from the Purchaser
before proceeding with any work.

4.10

Documentation Provided by the Purchaser


The following information shall be provided with the purchasing inquiry:
4.10.1 Completed data sheet PIP VEDBI003 with additional drawings and/or details
as necessary
4.10.2 Quality Overview Plan, as shown in Appendix A
4.10.3 Documentation Schedule and selected areas of Suppliers Data Package as
shown in Appendix B
4.10.4 User Specification

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

4.11

Documentation Provided by Supplier


The following information shall be provided to the Purchaser in addition to
documentation provided in accordance with the purchase order and the
Documentation Schedule in Appendix B.
4.11.1 Any deviation from these specifications introduced by the Supplier shall be
indicated in the original quotation as an exception.
4.11.2 Alternative design quotations shall be accompanied by the base quotation
and shall be clearly noted as an alternative design.
4.11.3 Alternative designs shall be fully and clearly described and substantiated by
sketches or drawings. Specific exceptions to the Vessel Specifications or this
Practice shall be identified as such.
4.11.4 Reproducible materials shall be of suitable quality to be microfilmed or
scanned (ANSI/AIIM MS32).
4.11.5 Instructions shall be provided for removal of any hidden or non-apparent
materials used for protection during shipment.
4.11.6 Fabrication drawings shall be in accordance with Appendix D, Suppliers
Drawing Information.
4.11.7 Design calculations shall include references to relevant resources for
formulas and calculated results. For a computer program performing
calculations, a program description shall be given that includes the program
name and version. If the program is not commercially available to industry,
program documentation shall be maintained and shall be provided upon
request.
Design calculations associated with all components shall be provided,
including but not limited to the following:

Wind and seismic, as applicable

Support(s)

Lifting and erection of the vessel

Nozzle load(s) analysis for local and gross effect, when required

Design of internal and external attachments

Specified design loads and load combinations

Fatigue analyses as applicable for fatigue services

Design loads induced by mechanical means (vibrators, air pulsation,


agitators, flow aids, dischargers, etc.)

4.11.8 Fabrication data package shall include the documents listed in Appendices A
and B and shall be provided to the Purchaser in accordance with quantities
and dates indicated on the Documentation Schedule in Appendix B. The
final fabrication data package shall be printed on 8-1/2-inch x 11-inch paper
(or folded to 8-1/2 inches x 11 inches) and bound in data books.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Requirements for providing the fabrication data package in electronic form


shall be specified by the Purchaser in the purchase order.

5.

Selection and Design Guidelines


This section provides guidelines and other tutorial information intended to assist the
Designer in selecting and specifying bulk solids bins, silos, hoppers, and blenders.
5.1

Solids Flow Properties


5.1.1

It is important to ascertain properly the solids flow properties of a material


when designing a bin, hopper, silo, or gravity blender. Flow properties that
should be considered when designing a vessel for solids handling are as
follows:

Arching and rathole critical dimensions (cohesive strength test,


ASTM D6128)

Mass flow critical wall angle (Wall Friction Test, ASTM D6128)

Bulk density variation (compressibility test)

Flow rate limitations (permeability tests)

Minimum angle of chute for reliable flow (chute test)

Gas quantity and pressure for effective fluidization (fluidization test)

Independent laboratories may perform these tests, or the test equipment may
be purchased and the tests performed by the Purchaser or Supplier.
Certain material and/or environmental conditions may affect results from the
above-listed tests. It is important that the following parameters are
considered and that tests are run over the complete range of parameter values
that are expected in the solids-handling process:

Page 12 of 71

Temperature

Pressure

Mechanical overpressure

Moisture

Consolidation (storage) time

Particle size

Particle size distribution

Particle shape

Pattern of material structure (crystallinity, etc.)

Hopper wall material of construction

Reactivity with other chemicals that may be present

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.2

Flow Regimes
Graphical representations of the four major symmetrical flow regimes are shown in
Figure1. Descriptions of each of these flow regimes follow. Symmetrical flow
describes the flow pattern achieved from a center-discharge nozzle where no
obstructions exist that might cause preferential flow from one side of the outlet or
from one side of the vessel. This Practice covers only symmetrical flow from vessels
for solids.
Off-center or side-discharge outlets will cause eccentric flow patterns. Eccentric
flow patterns can also be caused by improper discharge methods. For example,
eccentric flow patterns may be induced by improperly designed discharge
equipment, such as non-mass flow screw feeders, and by partly opened discharge
valves. The effects of eccentric flow patterns on structural loads necessitate
implementation of proper discharge practices to ensure symmetric flow. If eccentric
flow is required, it is important to perform proper analysis to verify that the vessel
design can accommodate loads created by eccentric flow.

Process Industry Practices

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Type 1
Mass Flow

Type 2
Funnel Flow

Flow Zone

Primary Flow
Zone

Flow Along Walls

Secondary Flow Zones


Type 3
Rathole
(Pipe Flow)

Type 4
Expanded Flow

Flow Region

Secondary Flow
Zones
Stagnant Regions

Figure 1 Types of Flow Regimes

Page 14 of 71

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.2.1

Description of Mass Flow (Type 1, Figure 1)


Mass flow is characterized by having no stagnant regions in the product as it
discharges from the vessel. A mass flow pattern theoretically allows for firstin, first-out flow from the vessel. However some product will flow slower at
the wall, which will hinder the ability to obtain ideal mass flow. Mass flow
bins generally have uniform discharge rates with products having more
consistent bulk densities. Mass flow ensures uniform residence time in a
vessel, and it promotes de-aeration of the product. Mass flow is enabled by a
combination of a sufficiently steep hopper angle and sufficiently smooth
walls. Marginal designs may lead to slip-stick flow, where product flow may
be unsteady. Slip-stick flow may lead to induced vibrations, which may be
severe at times.
Discharge outlets for mass flow hoppers must be designed to avoid arching.
The geometry of the hopper must create stresses in the product that
overcomes the strength of the product, thus breaking potential arches.
Minimum outlet diameters for prevention of arching vary with product and
may be determined only by testing the product in a shear cell tester
according to ASTM D6128.

5.2.2

Description of Funnel Flow (Type 2, Figure 1)


A dynamic product flow channel surrounded by stagnant product
characterizes funnel flow. This flow pattern is caused by (1) a combination
of an insufficient hopper angle and insufficient surface smoothness or (2) a
discharge outlet that is not fully effective.
The latter situation can be caused by improper placement of components in
the discharge line, partly closed valves, poorly designed discharge
equipment, etc. Funnel flow is generally acceptable for coarse, free-flowing
materials that do not require first-in, first-out flow. However, funnel flow
can be problematic for the following:

Fluidizable materials where preferential flow channels may form

Materials where segregation is a concern

Cohesive materials where arching and ratholing are more likely

Products that require first-in, first-out flow

Products that degrade over time

Situations where dependable control over the discharge rate is desired

Discharge outlet diameters for funnel flow hoppers must be designed to


prevent ratholing. The outlet must be sufficiently large to prevent ratholes
from stabilizing. Minimum outlet diameters for prevention of ratholing vary
with product and may be determined only by testing the product in a shear
cell tester according to ASTM D6128.
5.2.3

Description of Rathole (Pipe Flow) (Type 3, Figure 1)


Poor flow design can lead to a situation in which large amounts of material
lie static within a silo, bin, or hopper. A hole will form in this stagnant

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

material (thus the name rathole) from the discharge up to the top of the
vessel through which new material placed in the vessel may flow. The
stagnant material may significantly reduce the effective inventory of a
vessel. Ratholes may be avoided by designing the vessel outlet large enough
to overcome the internal strength of the product being stored.
5.2.4

Description of Expanded Flow (Type 4, Figure 1)


Expanded flow is a combination of mass flow and funnel flow, characterized
by mass flow in the hopper section and funnel flow in the upper section.
This design aids in the prevention of rathole development in funnel flow bins
by allowing for a switch to a mass flow hopper at diameters less than the
minimum rathole diameter for the product being stored. This design may be
particularly useful in multiple hopper outlets, where mass flow hoppers are
placed next to one another to create a combined flow channel that is larger
than the minimum rathole diameter.

5.3

Cylindrical Versus Polygonal Selections


Cylindrical shell designs are generally favored because they can achieve a
higher pressure rating at a lower cost than can polygonal designs, which
require extra reinforcement for corners and flat sides. Mass flow is also more
easily achievable in cylindrical vessels because of the lack of flow
restrictions in the cylindrical design.
Polygonal designs are best used in applications for which funnel flow is
desirable, headroom is a concern, and low operating pressures will be seen.
This Practice addresses only the design and fabrication of cylindrical shell
designs.

5.4

Bottom Hopper Selection


Various types of bottom hoppers may be used on cylindrical shell vessels. Care
should be taken in selecting the type of bottom hopper to ensure the selection best
fits the application.
5.4.1

Conical Center-Discharge
A conical hopper with a center discharge is a standard, single outlet, cone
hopper design to which many types of feeders are easily adapted. Conical
hoppers may also be designed with dual angles (angle from the hopper outlet
to inlet varies) and with eccentric outlets. Design to achieve mass flow
includes the following:

Page 16 of 71

Walls must be sufficiently smooth.

The hopper angle(s) must be steeper than the critical hopper angle for
mass flow for a given application.

Discharge from the outlet must be uniform across the width of the
outlet.

The outlet diameter must be larger than the minimum arching diameter
for a given application.

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.4.2

Flat Bottom
Flat bottoms are generally a good choice for configurations in which fully
fluidized blending and/or discharging will be used and for large-quantity
storage vessels where complete emptying is not required. The use of a flat
bottom vessel for mass flow applications is often not practical because of the
size of the feeder required. Design to achieve mass flow includes the
following:

5.4.3

Walls must be sufficiently smooth.

The outlet diameter must equal the cylinder shell diameter.

Discharge from the outlet must be uniform across the width of the
outlet.

The outlet diameter (and thus the cylinder shell diameter) must be
larger than the minimum arching diameter for a given application.

Chisel (Wedge)
A chisel hopper has a slotted discharge outlet with a length equal to the
diameter of the cylindrical shell. The slotted outlet is suitable for use with,
for example, auger, screw, and belt feeders. Wedge shape (and transition
hoppers as described below) may be advantageous to the standard conical
hopper for the following reasons:

Less steep hopper angles (10 to 12 less steep than cylindrical cones
and still have mass flow, which is more forgiving)

Smaller outlet sizes (one-half the diameter of cone in width of wedge


is necessary for flow; thus, cones typically require larger, more
expensive feeders)

Higher flow rates

Less headroom required (important in retrofits)

Capital cost that may favor a wedge or transition hopper, depending on


the situation (consider less expensive headroom requirements versus
more expensive feeder and gate)

The design of a wedge hopper may require more in-depth load analysis than
does the standard cone design. Design to achieve mass flow includes the
following:

Process Industry Practices

Walls must be sufficiently smooth.

The hopper angle must be steeper than the critical cone hopper angle
for mass flow for a given application.

Discharge from the outlet must be uniform across the width of the
outlet (care must be taken to design a proper feeder to achieve this).

Page 17 of 71

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

5.4.4

July 2001

The outlet width must be larger than the minimum arching width for a
given application.

The length of the discharge opening must be at least three times the
width of the discharge opening.

Transition Hoppers
A transition hopper is used for the change from a cylindrical shell to a
slotted discharge outlet. The slotted outlet is suitable for use with auger,
screw, and belt feeders as examples. (See above comparison of wedge and
transition hoppers to conical hoppers.) The design may require more indepth load analysis than does the standard cone design. Design to achieve
mass flow includes the following:

5.4.5

Walls must be sufficiently smooth.

The hopper end-wall angle must be steeper than the critical cone
hopper angle for mass flow for a given application.

The hopper side-wall angle must be steeper then the wedge (chisel)
angle for mass flow for a given application.

The discharge outlet width must be greater than the minimum arching
width.

The discharge outlet length must be three times greater than the
discharge outlet width.

Discharge from the outlet must be uniform across the width of the
outlet.

Multiple Dischargers
Hoppers with more than one outlet may be designed in various fashions
depending on the particular need. Design to achieve mass flow includes the
following:

Page 18 of 71

Walls must be sufficiently smooth.

The discharge outlet width must be greater than the minimum arching
width.

The hopper end-wall angle must be steeper than the critical cone
hopper angle for mass flow for a given application.

The hopper side-wall angle must be steeper then the wedge (chisel)
angle for mass flow for a given application.

For chisel discharge outlets, the width must be greater than the
minimum arching width.

For chisel discharge outlets, length must be three times greater than
the discharge outlet width.

For conical discharge outlets, the outlet diameter must be greater than
the minimum arching diameter.

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.5

Discharge from the outlets must be uniform across the width of chisel
outlets, and material must be drawn from all outlets simultaneously.

Discharge Aids
Discharge aids are used to promote flow of bulk solids from vessels that have design
characteristics such that none of the bulk solid flows from the vessel or such that the
bulk solids flows at rates less than required. The following describes such aids:
5.5.1

Fluidization and aeration devices - These devices are used for bulk solids
where gas easily permeates interstitial spaces in the bulk solid, thus reducing
internal cohesive forces and wall friction forces and aiding flow.
Fluidization is effective in promoting flow and in increasing flow rates from
a vessel holding fluidizable material. Fluidization devices can be designed
into a vessel or can often be retrofit into an existing vessel. Fluidization or
aeration may be introduced through nozzles or pads in the vessel or through
internal fluidizing media (for example, perforated or sintered metal).

5.5.2

Agitation - Agitation is effective on many types of bulk solids and can be


used to mechanically assist material flow. Screws and augers can be used to
promote and meter flow simultaneously. Proper design of screws and augers
to ensure uniform solids flow is critical when discharging from a mass flow
bin. Caution must be used when considering agitation devices on solids that
fluidize easily (the material may flush through the screw or auger), that cake,
or that have a low melting temperature (heat may build up at motors,
bearings, etc.) Wear, maintenance, and power consumption are also of
concern with these devices.

5.5.3

Compressed gas devices (air cannons or air blasters) - Compressed gas (air
or nitrogen) is often used as a means to create a shock wave in a vessel. The
shock wave acts over a localized area and is intended to overcome the
stresses that enable a stable arch or rathole to form. Limited effectiveness
may be seen when using air cannons on ratholes or caked material because
only localized areas can be cleared. Best results will be achieved when the
size, number, and placement of air cannons are properly determined. When
using these devices, consideration must be given to the reaction forces and
localized pressure zones created in the vessel wall as the device discharges
compressed gas. Consideration must also be given to fatigue effects in the
vessel wall, especially with aluminum vessels.

5.5.4

Sonic horn - Similar to compressed gas devices, sonic horns use sound
waves to promote material movement.

5.5.5

Vibration devices - Air-driven or electric-driven vibrators use highamplitude, low-frequency vibrations or low-amplitude, high-frequency
vibrations to promote flow. Externally mounted vibrators are generally easy
to retrofit by means of a mounting bracket that should be full-penetration
welded onto a vessel. Because of maintenance and contamination concerns,
internal vibration devices should be used only after careful consideration and
then only according to strict adherence to the Suppliers recommendations.
Consideration should be given to fatigue effects, use with pressure-sensitive
materials, and the number and location of vibrators used.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

5.6

July 2001

5.5.6

Vibrating and oscillating dischargers - Vibrating dischargers (live bottoms)


use vibration in either a vertical or horizontal direction to initiate flow from
a vessel. Consideration should be given to dead load weights and fatigue
effects on the vessel to discharger interface. These devices may not be
appropriate for pressure-sensitive materials or in applications where mass
flow is needed or segregation is not acceptable. Oscillating dischargers move
either internal cones or internal plates or screens to promote flow.
Maintenance of vibrating and oscillating dischargers can be difficult because
the vessel has to be emptied to replace some components.

5.5.7

Forced extraction - Mechanical devices are used to move material, typically


along a vessel wall or bottom, toward the discharge of a vessel. The device is
inside the vessel and may or may not be covered by a head of material as it
operates. Consideration should be given to maintenance requirements, power
consumption, and deformation and wear of the device.

5.5.8

Flexible wall - Flexible walls in a hopper allow for the stresses to be relieved
in a material that would normally build, thus promoting flow. Flexible walls
can be used in conjunction with external mechanical devices that massage
the flexible wall, thus agitating the material. In this mode of operation, care
must be taken not to overly compact the material. In general, maintaining a
flexible wall hopper is of concern because of the wear on the liner and the
inaccessibility of the liner if it fails while in use.

5.5.9

Chemical flow aids - Chemical flow aids may be added to a material to


enhance flow properties. Chemical flow aids typically work by (1)
physically separating particles, (2) competing for adsorbed water, (3)
canceling electrostatic charges/molecular forces, or (4) modifying crystalline
lattices.

Fluidized Material
In designing for fluidization in general, the following items shall be considered:

5.7

Permeability of the solid to be fluidized (i.e., fluidization appropriate for the


material of concern)

Stresses on the bin from both fluidized and non-fluidized material being held
and discharged from the bin

Design of the vessel and/or its relief devices to meet available maximum
pressure from the gas header

Design of the vessel and/or its discharge devices and/or its relief devices to
meet required gas flow and its discharge from the vessel

Bin Inserts
Flow, mass flow, or blending of certain products may require internal cones or other
internal flow aids.
5.7.1

Page 20 of 71

Bin inserts are generally used to expand the flow channel in a funnel flow
bin or to convert a funnel flow bin to mass flow. These types of inserts are
typically inverted cones or pyramids or hopper(s) inside a hopper designs.

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.8

5.7.2

The design of the bin insert must account for the stresses created by the
product that the insert will experience in both static and discharging modes.

5.7.3

Bin inserts must be designed to avoid ledges or other obstructions that might
hinder or block product flow.

5.7.4

All parts on the insert that come in contact with the product must be
compatible with the product.

5.7.5

The design of the vessel and connection members to the insert (bolts,
flanges, welds, etc.) must account for the dead load of the bin insert as well
as any live loads or fatigue loads created by use of the insert (e.g., vibrating
bottoms).

Blender Selection
Many types of blenders are available for various applications, from large-scale,
continuous blending to small-scale, batch blending. This Practice focuses on
blending applications that utilize vessels in the blending process.
5.8.1

Gravity Tube Blenders


In a gravity tube blend vessel, product is sampled at various heights within
the vessel bed through the use of internal or external tubes. Product from
each of the tubes is mixed in a blend chamber at the bottom of the vessel,
and blended product is discharged from the blend chamber.
If internal tubes are used, the tubes are run vertically along the inside of the
vessel (the tubes may penetrate the vessel wall and enter the blend chamber
externally). Each tube has inlets (usually multiple inlets at varying heights
along the tube length) through which product may enter the tube to be
carried to the blending chamber at the bottom of the blend vessel.

5.8.2

Gravity tube blend vessels are generally good for granular and
pelletized materials.

Ensure that blend tube design provides for adequate cleaning.

Ensure that the vessel wall thickness and blend tube piping and
supports are adequate for the eccentric loads created by discharging
material into the blend tubes.

Velocity Gradient Gravity Blenders


A velocity gradient gravity blender mixes material by inducing different
velocities within the flow channel. In simple terms, material with less
residence time in the blender flows at a faster velocity and blends with
material having a longer residence time that flows at a slower velocity. This
method of blending reduces some of the fabrication complexity required for
the internals in some gravity tube blenders.

5.8.3

Other Solids Blending Methods


Many methods are available for blending solids, including static mixers,
mechanical blenders (tumble blenders, ribbon blenders, paddle mixers, etc.),

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

and fluidized blenders. This Practice does not cover blending design
considerations related to these types of blenders and mixers.
5.9

Internals Design Guidelines


5.9.1

5.10

Consideration shall be given to the following forces that may act on


supports, blend tubes, etc.:

Increased radial forces from product flow (i.e., increased


circumferential stresses) produced by any change in cross-sectional
area, such as the presence of internal cones, blend tubes, and shell-tobottom transitions

Lateral forces produced from product flow within a vessel area caused
by the presence of a gravity blend tube system. These lateral forces
impact both the system and the system-to-shell/cone intersection.
Consideration shall be given to provide additional reinforcement at the
tube-to-wall intersection and blend tube support areas.

Shear forces produced from eccentric outlets. If internal members exist


within a vessel having one or more eccentric outlets, the internal
members and member support designs need to take into account
additional shear force(s) produced from product flow through these
outlets.

5.9.2

Avoid areas on internal components that allow product build-up or hang-up.


Specifically, the top edges of supports need to be sloped to promote free
flow of material around supports, and areas where blend tubes penetrate the
cone need to have a sloped deflector on the upstream side between the tube
and the cone. See Figure F-1 in Appendix F.

5.9.3

Be cautious of effects of internal components on flow regimes (mass flow


versus funnel flow) or flow reliability (bridging, ratholing, etc.).

5.9.4

Avoid moving parts or other maintenance items within vessel. Remember


that these parts may need to be repaired at inopportune times, for instance
when the vessel is full of solids.

5.9.5

Be aware of cleaning needs when designing (for example, provide adequate


access to blend tube interior walls for cleaning).

5.9.6

Consideration shall be given to the design of non-metallic seals at wall


penetration points. It is especially important to consider limited seal life
applications such as seals where movable internal components are actuated
externally.

Support Selection
5.10.1 Smaller vessels (less than 200,000 lbs. operating weight) can be supported
from three or four support points.
5.10.2 Supporting larger vessels (more than 200,000 lbs. operating weight) may be
impractical from three to four support points. Multiple support points, skirts,
or double rings may be required.

Page 22 of 71

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

5.11

Methods for Determining Bulk Solids Design Loads


5.11.1 Several methods for determining stress profiles along vessel walls exist and
are acceptable for determining stress values to use in designing solids
vessels. Acceptable methods for determining these stress profiles can be
found in DIN 1055, AS 3774, A.W. Jenike, et al. (ASME Engineering
Journal for Industry), and British Standards Institute and the British
Materials Handling Board.
5.11.2 A comparison of these methods can be found in Buzek (1989).

5.12

Materials
The Designer shall select materials, coatings, liners, and surface finishes that shall be
tested with the contained product to determine which is most favorable for the
product and shall identify these choices in data sheets, drawings, or other documents.

5.13

Pressure Venting and Relief


A means of venting gas (into and out of the vessel) under normal operating
conditions must be included in the design of the vessel. Likewise, a means for
relieving pressure under abnormal operating conditions must also be supplied.
Venting gases under normal operating conditions can be handled in various ways,
depending on the application. Regardless of the means of venting chosen, the design
must consider situations, whether intentional or induced, that may require gas flow
into or out of the vessel. Some examples of situations that must be considered
include:

Gas displaced while filling a vessel

Gas required to fill void spaces when discharging from a vessel

Gas introduced into a vessel by gas cannons, aeration pads, aeration cones, bin
vents, fluidization media, gas purges, etc.

Gas introduced and gas displaced when pneumatically conveying material into
a vessel

Leakage gas on valves attached to the vessel (especially rotary airlocks)

Gas flow induced by temperature changes inside the vessel (can be induced by
temperature changes outside the vessel)

Condensation of vapor or vaporization of liquids, whether during operation or


during cleaning

For more information on venting for deflagrations (relief devices) and for explosion
prevention systems, refer to NFPA 68 and NFPA 69, respectively.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

6.

July 2001

Design
6.1

6.2

Geometric Configurations
6.1.1

The design volume and equipment dimensions shall be based on the design
storage capacity and the minimum bulk density of the contained product.

6.1.2

When the geometric configuration and critical dimensions are not provided
by the Purchaser, the Designer shall ascertain the relevant strength and flow
properties of the bulk solid to be contained by the bin, hopper, or silo. These
shall be the properties at the worst-case conditions that are likely to occur in
practice. This shall include factors such as the minimum particle size,
highest moisture content, temperature range, and maximum storage time at
rest.

6.1.3

Where the contained product is a well-known commodity, having wellknown flow characteristics, the User may choose to select the geometric
configuration and critical dimensions on the basis of previous experience
with that product.

6.1.4

Where the discharge opening must be much larger (to avoid an arching or
ratholing) than is required to attain the desired discharge rate, the use of a
feeder to control flow without affecting the desired flow pattern is indicated.
The Designer shall select a hopper configuration and corresponding
discharge shape and dimensions in conjunction with a practical discharge
device, subject to the Users approval.

6.1.5

When the geometric configuration and critical dimensions to assure flow are
provided by the User, the Designer shall assure that the structural design will
sustain the loads caused by internal and external factors without deformation
of the bin, hopper, or silo walls.

Design Pressure and Temperature


6.2.1

Page 24 of 71

The design pressure (internal and external) and coincident maximum


temperature shall be determined by the Designer, carefully considering all
operating phases that the bin, silo, hopper, or blender may experience during
the specified project life, such as the following:

Initial startup

Normal operations

Temporary operations

Emergency shutdown

Emergency operations

Normal shutdown

Startup following a turnaround or emergency shutdown

Cleaning, steam out, and decontamination

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

6.2.2
6.3

Upset conditions

Environmental restraints on relief venting

The maximum and minimum operating pressures and temperatures (Design


Pressures and Temperatures) shall be specified on the data sheet.

MAWP and Coincident Maximum Temperature


The maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) (internal and external) to be
marked on the nameplate is defined as the maximum gauge pressure permissible at
the top of the completed vessel in its normal operating position while at the
designated coincident maximum design temperature for that pressure. This MAWP
shall be determined from calculations based on the specified nominal component
thickness (but reduced by any specified liner thickness).
6.3.1

Purchaser-specified Design Pressures (internal and external) are minimums.


After selecting a design that meets these Design Pressures, the MAWP
(internal and external) that can be obtained with the materials, components,
and geometry selected at the maximum design metal temperature in the
corroded condition shall be determined. Calculations shall reflect the
MAWP (internal and external). The vessel nameplate and drawing(s) shall
indicate the MAWP (internal and external). The design calculations and
drawing(s) shall clearly indicate the component(s) limiting the MAWP
(internal and external). The vessel drawing(s) shall indicate the minimum
required thickness for MAWP of the top head, shell, and bottom head.
6.3.1.1 The external MAWP shall be provided even when not specifically
requested by the Purchaser.
6.3.1.2 Code-required stiffening rings for shells under external pressure
shall be placed on the outside of the vessel, have a thickness not less
than 3/8 inch, and have a ring width-to-thickness ratio no greater
than 10. Stiffening rings shall be attached per the Code (paragraph
UG-30).

6.3.2

See Code paragraph UG-20(a) for rules relative to determining the


coincident maximum Design Temperature to be stamped on the nameplate.
A suitable margin consistent with the uncertainties with which the true
maximum mean metal temperature can be determined shall be included. The
maximum design temperature rating shall be increased to the highest
temperature possible without affecting the thickness of the shell or heads and
without changing the pressure class for the nozzle flanges. The maximum
design temperature shall not be less than 150F.

6.3.3

Vessels shall be designed to withstand the specified design pressures plus


any additional loads (e.g., wind and seismic loads) at both the maximum and
minimum design metal temperatures.

6.3.4

The MAWP for internal pressure shall not exceed 15 psig at the top of the
vessel.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

6.3.5

6.4

6.5

6.6

July 2001

The vessel shall be designed so that any component in a corroded condition


will withstand the test conditions defined in Section 9.2 without exceeding
the allowable stress levels defined in Code Section II, Part D.

Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) and Coincident Pressure


6.4.1

The MDMT and coincident pressure to be marked on the nameplate shall be


selected by the Designer in consideration of the operating phases such as
those listed in Section 6.1 of this Practice and of the Code rules in paragraph
UG-20(b). The minimum design temperature shall be given on the User
Specification. When ambient temperatures govern the temperature during
startup or normal operations, the lowest 1-day mean ambient temperature at
the installation site shall be the MDMT value provided that value does not
exceed 30F. Figure 2-2 of API 650 shall be used to establish the lowest
1-day mean temperature insofar as applicable. The mean metal temperature
during shop and future field pressure testing shall also be considered during
the vessel design stage. During the pressure test, the pressure-resisting
components and attachments that, when welded to pressure-retaining
components are judged to be essential to the vessels structural integrity,
shall have a temperature not less than the MDMT to be stamped on the
nameplate.

6.4.2

The MAWP shall be based on the maximum design temperature and shall
not be limited by the MDMT. The MAWP shall be marked on the vessel
nameplate and vessel drawing(s).

Venting and Relief Protection


6.5.1

Vessel vent systems shall be sized such that the MAWP, both internal and
vacuum (external pressure), and the relief protection pressure setting are not
exceeded.

6.5.2

All vessels shall be provided with relief protection for both internal pressure
and vacuum.

6.5.3

Actions of the relief device shall not exceed the MAWP (internal pressure
and vacuum) rating of the vessel.

6.5.4

NFPA 68 and NFPA 69 shall be used in sizing deflagration venting systems


and for selecting explosion prevention systems where applicable.

6.5.5

If deflagration is possible, it must be incorporated in the Pressure Load in


Section 6.6.3 of this Practice. See Code paragraph UG-22(i).

Design Loads and Load Combinations


The Supplier shall assure that the structural design of the vessel and vessel
support(s) will sustain the loads caused by internal and external factors without
exceeding the allowable stress values for the following:
6.6.1

Dead Load (L1)


Dead load is the installed weight of the vessel, including internals, platforms,
insulation, fireproofing, piping, and other permanent attachments.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

6.6.2

Operating Load (L2)


Operating load is the weight of the bulk solid at the maximum operating
level, including that on or in any vessel internal structures. The maximum
weight of the contained product shall be calculated on the basis of the
equipment dimensions, the angle of repose of the contained product, and the
maximum bulk density of the contained product. Where possible collapse of
bridged (arched) product could impact the hopper and supporting
structure, the equipment shall be able to sustain these loads as follows:
6.6.2.1 Impact loads resulting from collapse of arching shall be considered
separately from the operating load.
6.6.2.2. Impact loads are additive to the equipment dead load. Wind and
seismic loads shall not be considered to act concurrently with impact
loads.

6.6.3

Pressure Load (L3)


Pressure load is the MAWP (internal or external at the coincident
temperature), including the pressure drop through the vessel. For vessels
with more than one independent chamber, see Code paragraph UG-19(a).
6.6.3.1 Where fluidization is a possibility, the equipment shall sustain the
hydrostatic pressures caused by the contained product. The
computation of pressures shall be based on the effective hydrostatic
head of the product.
6.6.3.2 Overpressure situations, such as deflagration, relief pressure,
pressure testing, etc., must be considered.

6.6.4

Thermal Load (L4)


Thermal loads are forces caused by the restraint of thermal
expansion/interaction of the vessel and/or its supports.

6.6.5

Wind Load (L5)


User selections are from ASCE 7 (citations are to ASCE 7-95, unless
otherwise specified).
Note: Local codes or regulations may require compliance with UBC or
other rules for wind load design.
Wind load design requirements that shall be used for U.S. locations are
covered in ASCE 7; however, simply specifying wind loads in accordance
with ASCE 7 is an incomplete specification because choices exist within
ASCE 7 that the Designer must make. The vessel, vessel supports, and
anchor bolting shall be designed for wind load effects, and evidence shall be
provided to document that the designs satisfy applicable wind load
requirements. Satisfactory evidence shall be design calculations or other
documented proof of compliance.
Ladders, platforms, handrails, piping, insulation, etc., shall be in the
projected area calculations for determining the wind-induced forces on
vessels. ASCE 7 does not provide the complete methodology needed to

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account for wind-induced forces on common appurtenances to vessels such


as these. ASCE (ISBN-0-7844-0262-0) provides guidelines and examples for
determining the total wind-induced forces on vessels, including those from
appurtenances. The Detailed Method described in this ASCE report shall be
used for the vessel design when such appurtenances are present.
The Designer shall determine and specify on the data sheet, PIP VESBI003,
the following items:
6.6.5.1 Classification Category (from ASCE 7-95 Table 1-1)

There are four classification categories. This selection allows the


Designer to determine the Importance Factor, I, from Table 6-2 of
ASCE 7-95. The Importance Factor is needed to determine the
velocity pressure. Category II (formerly Category I in previous
ASCE 7 editions) has been the industry standard; however, in some
cases it may be appropriate to select the current Category III.
6.6.5.2 Basic Wind Speed (from ASCE 7-95 Table 6.1)

The Designer shall make basic wind speed determination relevant to


the geographic location of the equipments point of installation.
Different units of measurement for wind speed must be recognized
for design. The basic wind speed in ASCE 7-95 is in terms of a 3second gust. This is the mean wind speed averaged over 3 seconds.
All American codes written before ASCE 7-95 use wind speed in
terms of the fastest mile. These wind speed numbers cannot be used
interchangeably in design. Interchanging these wind speed values
can produce results that may be 40% or more in error.
6.6.5.3 Exposure Category (from ASCE 7-95 Paragraph 6.5.3)

There are four Exposure Categories from which to select. Velocity


pressure coefficients, Kz, are provided in Table 6-3 as a function of
the selected Exposure Category. Exposure Category C should be
selected for most Gulf Coast sites. For non-coastal plant sites,
Exposure Category B is often selected. The Designer shall make this
determination relevant to the geographic location of the equipments
point of installation.
6.6.5.4 Topographic Factor, Kzt (from ASCE 7-95 Paragraph 6.5.5 and
Figure 6-2)

Wind speed-up over isolated hills and escarpments must be


considered for Exposure Category B, C, or D where the upwind
terrain is free of such topographic features for a distance of 1 mile or
50 times the height of the hill or escarpment, whichever is less.
Wind speed-up over isolated hills and escarpments must also be
considered for structures situated on the upper half of hills or near
the edge of escarpments. For Exposure Categories B and C, wind
speed-up does not need to be considered when the height of hills or
escarpments is less than 30 feet and 60 feet, respectively, which is
typical for the Gulf Coast region.

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July 2001

6.6.5.5 Gust Response Factor, Gf

For flexible structures such as a tall vertical process vessel, a gust


response factor, Gf, is another essential variable needed to determine
the wind forces involved. The instructions in ASCE 7-95 in this
regard are as follows:

Gust response factors for main wind-force-resisting systems


of flexible buildings and other structures shall be calculated
by a rational analysis that incorporates the dynamic
properties of the main wind-force-resisting system.

For flexible vertical vessels, defined as vessels with a


fundamental (natural) frequency of vibration less than
1 hertz (including vessels with a height-to-diameter [h/D]
ratio greater than 4, where h is the total height of the vessel
and D is the vessel diameter measured to the mid-thickness
of the vessel wall), the recommendation is that Gf be
determined using either the analysis method given in
paragraph 6.6 of the Commentary Section of ASCE 7 or
some other rational analysis method that incorporates the
dynamic properties of the main wind-force-resisting system.
When employing equation C6-9 in ASCE 7-95
paragraph 6.6, use 0.01 as the damping ratio, , for steel
construction.

6.6.5.6 Force Coefficients

Force coefficients, Cf, formerly called shape factors, are also


needed to determine wind-induced forces acting on the vessel.
Typical factors are provided in ASCE 7-95 Table 6-7. The following
are recommendations for Cf to be used in design:
Condition
A. For all horizontal vessels and for vertical
vessels having a h/D ratio not greater
than 1

Cf
0.5

B. For vertical vessels having a h/D ratio


greater than 1 (applies to height of
vessel without spoilers)

See ASCE 7-95


Table 6-7 for
moderately smooth
surfaces

C. For portion of height of vertical vessels


provided with spoilers as recommended in
Section 6.5.5.7.2 of this Practice

See ASCE 7-95


Table 6-7 for very rough
surfaces

6.6.5.7 Wind-Induced Vibration of Vertical Vessels

Vertical vessels having a h/D ratio (not including insulation


thickness, but including skirt height) greater than 15 may vibrate
because of vortex-excited resonance unless sufficient external
appurtenances or wind spoilers are present to disrupt the airflow
over the vessel, thereby preventing the generation of the vortices

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with the undesirable predominant frequency. (In general, the


addition of spoilers is typically more feasible than changing the
natural frequency of the vessel or providing supplementary
damping.) In the case of cylindrical pressure vessels that have been
determined to be candidates for wind-induced vibration, it has been
found that spoilers are only required for the top third of the vessel
height and that normal attachments in this region (e.g., ladders and
piping) will be effective as spoilers provided that the maximum
circumferential distance between them is 108 degrees (30% of the
vessel circumference).
Vessels with an h/D ratio of 15 or greater that do not have a
significant number of effective attachments shall be investigated for
dynamic behavior from wind excitation as described by Vellozzi.
6.6.5.7.1 Vortex-shedding ranges - Vessels may vibrate in any of
three vortex-shedding ranges:
Lower periodic vortex-shedding range: If the
Reynolds number is less than 300,000 and the
Strouhal number is approximately 0.2, vibration
caused by periodic vortex shedding may occur with
tall, slender vessels that have very low fundamental
frequencies.
Random vortex-shedding range: If the Reynolds
number is between 300,000 and 3,500,000, random
vortex shedding occurs. If the Strouhal number is
approximately 0.2, the random vortex oscillations
may lock-in and become periodic, causing the vessel
to vibrate.
Upper periodic vortex-shedding range: If the
Reynolds number is higher than 3,500,000 and the
Strouhal number is approximately 0.2, self-excited
vibration will occur when the natural frequency of
the vessel corresponds with the frequency of vortex
shedding.
6.6.5.7.2 Corrective action - When it has been determined that a
vessel may vibrate and the attributes of the vessel (e.g.,
normal attachments) cannot be changed to a range where
vibration will not occur, wind spoilers shall be added to
the top third of the vessel in accordance with the
following:
Helical spoilers: Use a three-start system of spoilers
in a helical pattern on the top third of the vessel. An
optimum configuration consists of spoilers with an
exposed width beyond insulation of 0.09D and a
pitch of 5D, where D is the diameter of the vessel at

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the top. The spoiler system may be interrupted to


provide clearance at vessel appendages.
Short vertical spoilers: Use a three-start system of
short vertical spoilers arranged in a helical pattern
on the top third of the vessel. The exposed width
beyond insulation of the spoilers should be 0.09D,
and the pitch (height of one helical wrap) between
5D and 11D. There should be a minimum of eight
spoilers over the pitch distance (each complete
helical wrap) and a minimum of one and one-half
helical wraps over the top third of the vessel. The
spoiler system may be interrupted to provide
clearance at vessel appendages.
Projected area: When spoilers such as helical or
short vertical spoilers are used, the vessel-projected
area normal to wind, Af, and the corresponding force
coefficient, Cf, for the vessel height where spoilers
have been added shall be used when designing the
vessel and supporting structure to calculate the
overturning load. The vessel-projected area shall be
calculated using the projected diameter taken at the
outside edge of the spoilers multiplied by the height
of the section under consideration.
6.6.6

Seismic Loads (L6)


General requirements and data are from ASCE 7-95 unless otherwise
specified.
Note: Local codes or regulations may require compliance with UBC or
other rules for seismic design.
The seismic design requirements and the specification of criteria variables
for the calculation of seismic response loads for the design of vessels are in
ASCE 7. The calculation of seismic forces for vessels is governed by one of
two methods: vessels mounted on the ground and vessels mounted above
grade within a structure.
The first step in an analysis is to perform an eigenvalue analysis of the vessel
to calculate its first natural period (horizontal direction, in the installed
position). This is done by dividing the vessel into an appropriate number of
mass and stiffness elements per the theory of structural dynamics. For long
pieces of equipment, more elements are normally required for an accurate
analysis. A general rule is to use the diameter of the vessel as the minimum
longitudinal length of each element. For vertically oriented vessels, the mass
points are numbered starting at the first point above grade. For vessels that
can be shown to have uniform properties in mass and stiffness, the closed
form handbook solution for natural period may be used.

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July 2001

6.6.6.1 Seismic Loads for Ground-Supported Equipment

The governing equation for horizontal seismic base shear of groundsupported equipment is V = CsW, where
Cs = 1.2AvS/0.66RT.
However, CS (seismic design coefficient) need not be greater than
5.5Aa/R. (Av, Aa, S, and R are site-specific values. T is the first
natural period of the equipment to be calculated.)
W is the operating weight of the equipment.
The lateral horizontal seismic forces induced at the levels or mass
points of the equipment and in the direction causing the highest
stresses shall be determined from the rules in ASCE 7.
6.6.6.2 Seismic Loads for Structure-Mounted Equipment

For equipment mounted in a structure above grade, the governing


equation for seismic force is FP = AvCcPacWc, where
Av = (a site-specific value)
Cc (equipment seismic coefficient) = 5.0
P (performance criteria factor) = 1.0
ac = 1.0, except for flexible equipment such as tall slender vessels
and vessels on tall legs, springs, or other resilient supports. This
factor is then given as ac = 1.0 for Tc/T < 0.6 or Tc/T > 1.4; or
ac = 1.0 for Tc/T < 0.6 or Tc/T > 1.4, where Tc is the first
natural period of the equipment, and T is the first natural period
of the structure.
Wc is the operating weight of the equipment.
Fp is the horizontal seismic force applied at the center of gravity of
the equipment and in the direction causing the highest stresses.
6.6.6.3. Seismic Documentation

The Designer shall specify requirements for seismic design and the
site-specific design values on data sheet PIP VEDBI003. When
specified, the vessel and vessel supports shall be designed for
seismic effects, and evidence shall be provided to document that the
vessel and vessel supports satisfy applicable seismic requirements.
Satisfactory evidence shall be design calculations or other
documented proof of compliance. Seismic design criteria and factors
shall be included on Suppliers drawing. Analysis of additional shear
and bending moments imposed by the seismic loading along with the
operating conditions shall not lead to over stressing of foundation
supports.
6.6.7

Test Load (L7)


Test load is the weight of the test medium. Design basis shall consider that
the vessel will be tested in its normal operating position.

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6.6.8

Piping and Superimposed Equipment Loads (L8)


Loads caused by piping (pneumatic conveying and other piping) other than
the dead load and those caused by superimposed equipment shall be
considered as applicable. The effect of these loads on all vessel components
must be considered.

6.6.9

Mechanical Loads (L9)


Mechanical loads are those caused by vibrators, air pulsation, agitators, flow
aids, dischargers, etc.

6.6.10 Lift Condition


6.6.10.1 Unless otherwise specified by the Purchaser, a minimum impact
factor of 1.5 shall be applied to the lift weight for designing lifting
devices. The basis for the lift weight must be established during
the design phase of the vessel so that the design of lifting devices
comprises all components to be included in the lift (e.g., trays,
ladders/platforms, insulation, additional piping with insulation,
etc.).
6.6.10.2 Bending stresses from loads imposed during the lift from the
horizontal to vertical position in the vessel shell/skirt shall be
checked in vessels having h/D ratios greater than 8 and weighing
more than 25,000 pounds. Calculated general primary membrane
tensile stress shall not exceed 80% of the materials specified
minimum yield strength at 100F. Calculated compressive stress
shall not exceed 1.2 times the B factor obtained from the Code.
Vessel lifts are recommended when wind speeds are less than 33%
of design wind velocity and the resulting wind load (at 33% design
wind velocity) is included in the consideration of the lift.
6.6.10.3 For the imposed loads, local stresses in the vessel
shell/head/skirt/base rings from the lifting attachments (e.g., lugs,
trunnions, etc.) shall be determined using local stress analysis
procedures such as WRC Bulletin 107 or other accepted local
stress analysis procedures (e.g., finite element analysis). For the
rigging condition, the allowable stresses are 1.5S for local primary
membrane stress and 3S for primary membrane plus secondary
bending stress. S shall be the Code-allowable stress at the design
temperature.
6.6.11.4 Shear stresses for fillet welds on the lifting attachments to the
vessel shell/head shall not exceed 0.55 times the Code-allowable
stress at 100F for the material selected.

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6.6.11 Load Combinations


The equipment and its supports shall be designed to meet the most severe of
the following load combinations:
1. L1+L5

Erected condition with full wind


load

2. L1+L2+L3+L4+L5+L8+L9

Design condition with full wind


load (include both full and zero
pressure conditions [L3] for check
of maximum longitudinal tensile
and compressive stress)

3. L1+L2+L3+L4+L6+L8+L9

Design condition with full seismic


load (include both full and zero
pressure conditions [L3] for check
of maximum longitudinal tensile
and compressive stress)

4. L1+ L3+(0.25) L5+L7

Initial (new uncorroded) test


condition and future (corroded) test
condition with vessel in normal
operating position and with 50% of
design wind velocity (25% of wind
load)
The general primary membrane
tensile stress in the corroded
condition (or when no corrosion
allowance is specified) under this
load combination shall not exceed
the following:

5. Lift Condition
6.7

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90% of the specified minimum


yield strength at 100F for
carbon and low-alloy steels

The specified, minimum yield


strength at 100F for austenitic
stainless steels and aluminum

See Section 6.5.10 of this Practice.

Vessel Support Systems


6.7.1

The type of vessel support (skirt, legs, lugs, rings) shall be as specified on
the data sheets, sketches, and/or drawings by the User.

6.7.2

Allowable design stresses for all vessel support components shall be as


specified in the Code for vessel pressure components. For supports outside
the scope of the Code, either Code-allowable stresses or, for structural
shapes, those in the AISC may be used.

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July 2001

6.7.3

For combinations of earthquake or wind loadings with other loadings listed


in Code paragraph UG-22, the allowable stresses may be increased as
permitted by Code paragraph UG-23(c). See Section 6.6.11 for load
combinations to be considered. See also Code Appendix G. For structuralshape support members in compression where slenderness ratio is a
controlling design consideration, no increase in the allowable compressive
stress is permitted.

6.7.4

Stresses resulting from direct bending in support and support ring base plates
shall not exceed 1.5 times the Code-allowable tensile values. Compressive
stresses in support rings and lug gussets and other compression members
shall not exceed 1.25 times the Code-allowable tensile stress values.

6.7.5

Support skirts attached to the bottom head shall have the skirt butted to the
outer portion of the head such that the outer diameter (OD) of the shell and
the OD of the skirt coincide. The attachment shall be by a continuous weld,
sized to accommodate the maximum imposed loads and in accordance with
PIP VEFV1128.

6.7.6

Support skirts created by extending the shell below the bottom head to shell
weld joint shall be in accordance with PIP VEFV1128.

6.7.7

Skirt diameter and height permitting, one or more 24-inch-diameter or larger


openings shall be provided to allow free access for inspection and/or
maintenance work inside the skirt. Where the supporting skirt encloses
auxiliary running equipment, the minimum opening shall be a door having
dimensions in accordance with site requirements. Other opening
configurations shall be only by agreement between the Purchaser and
Supplier.

6.7.8

Skirt supports shall be provided with a minimum of two 2-inch-diameter


vent openings.

6.7.9

Leg supports shall be limited to vessels that meet the following criteria:

Service is non-cyclic and non-pulsating.

Vessel height-to-diameter ratio (h/D) does not exceed 5. (Height is the


distance from base of support to top tangent line of the vessel. See
Note 1.)

Note 1: Caution is advised for leg-supported vessels that may be within


h/D 5 but could have excessive axial and/or bending loads on the legs
or an overstress condition in the vessel wall.
6.7.10 For bins, hoppers, silos, and blenders that are supported on load cells:
6.7.10.1 The load cell system shall utilize all the support lugs for vessels
supported by lugs.
6.7.10.2 Vessels shall be adequately guided to limit lateral movement to
meet the specified load cell system performance requirements.
6.7.10.3 Vessel support systems shall be designed to accommodate load
cell installation requirements.

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6.7.10.4 Attached piping shall be designed for sufficient flexibility not to


affect performance of the load cell system.
6.8

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Top Head
6.8.1

Shallow conical heads and dished-only heads, including compression rings,


that are identified within the scope of API 650 (including a maximum
pressure rating of 2.5 psig) shall be designed in accordance with API 650
and API 650 allowable stress values.

6.8.2

Head designs other than those identified within the scope of API 650 and
that exceed 2.5 psig pressure rating shall be in accordance with the Code and
its allowable stress values.

6.8.3

Roofs without operator platforms shall be designed for a minimum live load
of 25 pounds per square foot.

6.8.4

The product being handled can exert upward forces on the top head of the
vessel if overfilled and (1) the material is fluidized or (2) the top head has an
angle with the horizontal plane that is greater than the minimum angle of
repose for the product. Depending on the situation, the problem may be
avoided by the following actions:

Eliminating overfill excursions through tighter control schemes and


other such measures

Designing the top head to withstand the forces exerted by the product
(see Australian Code for force calculations)

Designing the head to incorporate an angle that is less than the


minimum angle of repose for the given material

6.8.5

The Designer shall consider additional concentrated roof loads resulting


from top-mounted equipment, such as bin vents, cyclones, relief devices, etc.

6.8.6

Use of standard flanged and dished heads is acceptable, if the following


conditions are met:

The inside crown radius is not greater than the outside diameter of the
straight flange.

The inside knuckle radius is not less than three times the minimum
specified head thickness after forming.

The minimum head thickness after forming is computed in accordance


with Code rules.

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July 2001

6.8.7

6.9

The use of torispherical heads is acceptable. For the prevention of internal


pressure-induced buckling of large diameter, thin (ratio of spherical or crown
radius-to-required head thickness greater than 300), formed (torispherical)
heads, a design check of the Code-required thickness shall be performed.
One acceptable method (among several that have been published) is listed by
Galletly. This check may reveal the need for a head thickness greater than
the Code-required minimum thickness.

Shell
6.9.1

Straight side heights-to-diameter ratios of 2:1 for silos and of 3.5:1 for
blenders are to be used for preliminary design layouts. Suppliers have the
option to vary slightly the diameter and straight side dimensions to better
utilize plate dimensions and available head diameters to provide more
economical fabrication.

6.9.2

Shell design shall include the wall pressure induced by mass flow or funnel
flow of solids on the basis of the flow test data in the Data Sheet. Shell
design shall also consider forces that may result from eccentric flow patterns
created by flow through blend tubes, side discharge nozzles, etc. The method
used to determine bulk loads for the purpose of vessel design shall be agreed
upon by the Supplier and Purchaser.

6.9.3

The equipment shall sustain the axial load on the shell and hopper walls
developed from vertical friction caused by the contained product. This
internal dead load is additive to other dead loads, such as the weight of the
containing walls and roof above the support point, and to external live loads,
such as wind and seismic load.

6.9.4

The total axial load shall be used to compute the tensile stress and buckling
resistance of the shell at the point of support and at other critical points such
as the bottom cone-shell intersection and all other discontinuities.

6.9.5

When designing for mass flow, the internal weld surfaces shall be specified
as follows:
6.9.5.1 All longitudinal weld surfaces shall be provided with a ground
smooth finish, and all circumferential weld surfaces shall be
provided with a ground smooth finish having a maximum crown
height the lesser of 1/8 inch or 25% of the wall thickness.
6.9.5.2 Weld surface finishes (i.e., ground smooth) shall be in accordance
with Appendix C of NACE RP0178.

6.9.6
6.10

Where walls of the vessel are of different thickness, a constant inside


diameter shall be maintained.

Bottom
6.10.1 Conical and toriconical head design shall be in accordance with the Code
and its allowable stress values.
6.10.2 Flat, chisel, and double cone bottoms, along with geometric transition
pieces, require special consideration in design. Accordingly, finite element

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July 2001

modeling or another type of in-depth analysis shall be used to design these


components as agreed upon by the Purchaser.
6.10.3 When designing for mass flow, all internal weld surfaces shall be specified
with either a ground flush or ground flush and smooth finish. The weld
surface finishes (e.g., ground flush) shall be in accordance with
Appendix C of NACE RP0178. The Designer shall identify the specific
surface finish(es) selected on the vessel data sheet.
6.10.4 The Designer shall consider the angle of friction of the selected hopper
material with the contained product, which will affect the selected hopper
wall slopes, in the design. The angle of friction shall be determined by test of
representative samples of hopper wall material and the contained product.
6.11

Shell-to-Bottom Joint (Skirt Ring)


The shell-to-bottom joint shall be designed in accordance with the Code and its
allowable stress values. Code paragraph 1-5 shall be used for the design of
reinforcement for internal pressure, and Code paragraph 1-8 shall be used for the
design of reinforcement for external pressure. This joint experiences a large internal
pressure spike caused by the behavior of the contained solids. This peak pressure
shall be used in the design of this joint and its reinforcement.

6.12

Vessel Connections
6.12.1 Flanges for nozzle and body sizes NPS 24 and smaller shall be in accordance
with ASME B16.5. If required, blind covers shall be in accordance with
ASME B16.5 or designed per the Code, paragraph UG-34. Gaskets shall be
in accordance with ASME B16.21. Flanges designed in accordance with the
Code, Appendix 2, are also acceptable if the bolting dimensions and pattern
are in accordance with ASME B16.5.
6.12.2 Flanges for nozzle and body sizes larger than NPS 24 shall be designed in
accordance with the Code, Appendix 2, with bolting dimensions and pattern
in accordance with ASME B16.47, Series B flanges. Minimum design
pressure for these flanges shall be 50 psig.
6.12.3 Flanged joints for stainless steel and nonferrous components may be of the
lap joint type with carbon or low-alloy steel flanges. Lap joint flanges
NPS 24 and smaller shall be furnished in strict accordance with
ASME B16.5. The nominal outside diameter of laps shall be the same as the
raised face diameter in ASME B16.5 standard flanges.
6.12.4 Flanges for manways shall be designed in accordance with the Code,
Appendix 2. Manway covers shall be blinds designed in accordance with the
Code, paragraph UG-34. Minimum design pressure for manway flanges and
covers shall be 50 psig. Side-entry manways shall be provided with flushed
plugs in accordance with Figure F-2 in Appendix F.
6.12.5 Minimum manway size shall be a nominal 24 inches, with a finished inside
diameter not less than 23 inches. Larger diameter manways should be used
to satisfy additional needs such as, but not limited to, installation of internal
parts, maintenance requirements, etc.

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6.12.6 Service requirements result in significant mechanical loads other than


pressure. The pressure-temperature ratings of both ASME B16.5 and
ASME B16.47 are based primarily on pressure loads, and accordingly, the
flanges may not be suitably designed for externally applied moment or axial
thrust loads, resulting in leak-tightness problems. See Appendix E for the
method usually employed for considering such significant mechanical loads.
6.12.7 Flange rigidity, when specified on the data sheets, shall be in accordance
with the Code, Appendix S.
6.12.8 Custom-designed flanges (Code Appendix 2) shall be designed using the
following minimum SA-193 Gr. B7 stud/bolt sizes:

3/4 inch for NPS 6 - NPS 16 flanges

7/8 inch for NPS 18 - NPS 36 flanges

1 inch for flanges larger than NPS 36

Note: 1-inch and larger bolts shall have 8 threads per inch.
Note: Bolts shall have rolled threads.
Note: The arc length between bolt centers on the bolt circle shall not
exceed inches for bolts 1-inch diameter and smaller. Total number of
bolts shall be divisible by 4 and shall straddle centerlines. Purchaser
approval shall be obtained to deviate from this requirement. See
Appendix E for the method usually employed for considering significant
mechanical loads other than pressure.
6.12.9 Minimum radial distance for wrench clearance for custom design flanges
shall be as follows:

1-1/8 inches for 3/4-inch-diameter bolts

1-1/4 inches for 7/8-inch-diameter bolts

1-3/8 inches for 1-inch-diameter bolts

1-1/2 inches for 1-1/8-inch-diameter bolts

1-3/4 inches for 1-1/4-inch-diameter bolts

6.12.10 Carbon or low-alloy steel lap joint-type flanges are acceptable for flanged
joints of stainless steel and nonferrous components. The nominal outside
diameter of laps shall be the same as the raised face diameter given in
ASME B16.5 for nozzle and body sizes NPS 24 and smaller. Minimum
finished thickness of custom-designed lap joint welding ring for flanged
connections shall not be less than the following:
6.12.10.1 The T dimension shall be as defined in ASME B16.9 for cylinder
sizes less than NPS 24.
6.12.10.2 The nominal thickness of the cylinder wall (to which it is attached)
shall be greater than 3/16 inch for cylinders NPS 24 and larger.
This thickness will allow possible future re-machining of the lap

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

and should be sufficient to allow the lap to be machined front and


back, if necessary, to maintain parallel surfaces after repair.
6.12.11 Stub ends produced by the vessel Supplier are not required to be marked per
ASME B16.9 as long as the stub ends meet the requirements of the Code. For
flanged connections NPS 24 and less, the dimensional requirements of
ASME B16.9 shall be met except the length may be changed to eliminate an
additional weld.
6.12.12 Standard flanges and factory-made stub ends shall have a surface finish in
accordance with ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47, as applicable. Standard
flanges in service requiring special consideration, custom flanges, and shopfabricated lap-joint stub ends require the gasket-bearing surface to be a
serrated concentric or serrated spiral (no radial tool marks or scratches
allowed) surface finish of 125250 Ra (roughness average, MSS SP-6). The
finish shall be judged by visual comparison with Ra Standards (see
ASME B46.1) and not by instruments having stylus tracers and electronic
amplification.
6.12.13 Applied metallic linings used on gasket-bearing surfaces are permitted only
after Purchaser approval. If proposed, the design and welding details shall be
submitted for Purchaser approval. Applied linings shall be a minimum
finished thickness of 3/16 inch.
6.12.14 Flange stops are required below loose flanges on vertically oriented nozzles
and vessel cylinders.
6.12.15 Studding pads (pad flanges) NPS 24 and smaller shall have standard
ASME B16.5 bolting dimensions, and studding pads greater than NPS 24
shall have standard ASME B16.47 Series B bolting dimensions.
6.12.16 The flange assembly data for gasketed joints and nozzles NPS 16 and larger
and gasketed body joints NPS 10 and larger shall be included on the Supplier
drawing(s). See ASME PCC-1 for flange assembly/bolt torque procedures.
6.12.17 Nozzles NPS 18 and larger and manways NPS 24 and larger with blind
covers shall be equipped with either a davit or hinge to facilitate handling of
the blind flange. Nozzles and manways with the nozzle neck axis oriented
horizontally shall be equipped with a hinge in accordance with
PIP VEFV1116 or a davit in accordance with PIP VEFV1117. Attach the
davit socket bracket to the nozzle neck when lap joint flanges are employed.
Nozzles and manways on top of vessels oriented with a vertical nozzle neck
axis shall be equipped with a davit in accordance with PIP VEFV1118.
6.12.18 Minimum nozzle projection shall be 6 inches for NPS 6 nozzles and smaller
and shall be 8 inches for NPS 8 nozzles and larger. Nozzle projection is
measured from vessel outside diameter (or jacket outside diameter) and
referenced from the normal vessel centerlines to the face of the nozzle
gasket-bearing surface and shall be indicated as such on the vessel
drawing(s). When insulation is required, a minimum clearance of 2 inches
between the outside of the insulation and the end of the flange studs is
required for wrench clearance.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

6.12.19 Static nozzle loads, other than agitators, shall be evaluated per
WRC Bulletin 107. Special nozzle loads such as dynamic and thermal
(identified by the Purchaser) will require a higher level of analysis. Such
analysis is subject to Purchaser approval.
6.12.20 The minimum size connection shall be 1-1/2 inch.
6.12.21 Nozzle and manway openings shall not be made in weld seams.
6.12.22 The Designer shall determine the need for reinforcement for all openings
larger than 2 inches, in accordance with the Code (paragraph UG-37).
6.13

Gaskets
6.13.1 The dimensional requirements of ASME B16.21 shall be considered standard
gaskets. Any deviation from these standard gaskets by the Supplier shall be
submitted for Purchaser approval. The data sheet will indicate the number of
spare gaskets to be furnished by the Supplier.
Exceptions to the standard dimensions of ASME B16.21 require User and/or
Purchaser approval.
6.13.2 Gasket type(s) and rating(s) shall be specified on the data sheet. Purchaserspecified gasket m and y design factors will be supplied on the data
sheet.
6.13.3 Minimum gasket width for custom sheet gaskets shall be as follows:
Nmin = (Ab)(Sb)/2(y)(G)
where
Ab = sum of cross sectional areas of basic minimum minor diameter of bolts,
inch2
Sb = bolt allowable stress, Psi
y = ASME Code y factor, Psi
G = mean diameter of gasket, inch
Note: Under no circumstance shall the actual custom gasket-seating width
used be less than the following:

5/8 inch for NPS 6NPS 20 flanges

3/4 inch for NPS 24NPS 36 flanges

1 inch for flanges larger than NPS 36

6.13.4 Gaskets shall be seamless, except metal gaskets made integral by welding
and non-metallic (e.g., Grafoil tape) gaskets with abutting ends suitably
joined are acceptable. Means shall be provided for positioning (centering)
the gasket during joint make-up.
6.13.5 No joint-sealing compound or lubricant shall be used unless specified by
Purchaser. A light dusting of 3-M 77 or equivalent spray adhesive may be
used if required to hold gasket in place during assembly.

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6.14

July 2001

Internal Components
6.14.1 Internal piping, attachments (blend tubes, well pipes, flow baffles, etc.), and
cones shall be adequately supported. Purchaser review and approval of
support bracket/attachment calculations is required.
6.14.2 Design of internal components shall consider forces resulting from eccentric
flow patterns that may be caused by discharge through blend tubes, side
discharge nozzles, etc.

6.15

Corrosion Allowance
The Designer shall evaluate the requirement for a corrosion allowance to be added to
all parts of the bin or hopper contacting the contained product. Unless otherwise
specified, the minimum nominal corrosion allowance for components in contact with
the service product shall be as follows:

6.16

0 inches - stainless steels and all non-ferrous alloys

1/16 inch - carbon and low-alloy steels

Compartment Vessels
Common component(s) of vessels having more than one compartment, shall be
designed for the most severe combinations of pressure, vacuum, temperature, and
other loads that may occur during operation and test conditions. Design on the basis
of simultaneous loading of internal pressure in adjacent compartments is not
acceptable.

6.17

Minimum Thickness
6.17.1 The minimum nominal material thickness exclusive of corrosion/erosion
allowance for pressure-retaining non-piping, non-tubing components shall be
as follows:

Carbon steel - 1/4 inch

Aluminum - 1/4 inch

Stainless steel and other high alloys - 3/16 inch

6.17.2 The minimum nominal material thickness exclusive of corrosion/erosion


allowance for pressure-retaining components (other than nozzles and tubing
components) when using piping components shall be as follows:

Carbon steel - standard weight

Aluminum - Schedule 10

Stainless steel and other high alloys - Schedule 10S

6.17.3 The minimum nominal thickness for nozzle necks shall be per Code
paragraph UG-45, except in no case shall the nominal thickness selected for
NPS 3 and smaller be thinner than the following:

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Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Carbon steel - Schedule 80

Aluminum - Schedule 80

Stainless steel and other high alloys - Schedule 40S

6.17.4 The minimum nominal thickness for all flanges is1/2 inch.
6.17.5 For tubular products, minimum thickness shall be 16 gauge, exclusive of
corrosion/erosion allowance.
6.18

Anchor Bolting
6.18.1 Design stresses - Anchor bolts shall not be smaller than 3/4 inch. Allowable
design tensile stresses for carbon steel anchor bolts, as calculated using the
tensile stress area of the threaded portion, shall be 20,000 psi.
6.18.2 Carbon steel anchor bolts shall have a 1/8-inch corrosion allowance,
minimum.
6.18.3 Spacing and location - Anchor bolts for vertical vessels shall be selected in
multiples of four bolts. Purchaser shall furnish orientation.

6.19

Lifting Lugs
6.19.1 Lifting lugs shall be installed as a permanent component of all vessels and
shall be capable of lifting and supporting the entire vessel and its
appurtenances. See data sheet(s) for lifting lug requirements. Lifting lugs for
vertical vessels shall be located near the top of the vessel and capable of
lifting and erecting the vessel from a horizontal position into the vertical
position. Tailing lugs are required for positioning the vessel unless otherwise
approved by the Purchaser. Lifting lug design calculations shall be provided
to the Purchaser for review.
6.19.1.1

A minimum impact factor of 1.5 shall be applied to the design lift


weight.

6.19.1.2

Two ear-type lugs spaced 180 degrees apart and welded to the
straight portion of the top of the shell and/or head are acceptable.

6.19.1.3

Welding across the bottom of the lug shall be interrupted to allow


drainage. A bead of room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone
sealant shall be used after painting to seal crevices between top of
lug and the surface to which the lug attaches.

6.19.1.4

Lifting lug and tailing lug design calculations shall be provided to


the Purchaser for review before lug fabrication and installation.

6.19.2 Removable vessel covers and manway covers shall be provided with suitable
lifting lugs. Davit requirements shall be specified on the Purchasers data
sheets, sketches, and/or drawings. See PIP VEFV1117 and PIP VEFV1118
for davit applications.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

6.20

July 2001

Structural
6.20.1 Roof platforms and platform framing and supports shall be designed
according to PIP STF05535.
6.20.2 Horizontal external stiffener members shall be oriented so as to minimize
build-up of material on the stiffeners. Channels and angles shall have
downward-turned flanges/legs, and beams, stiffeners, and tees shall have
drain holes.
6.20.3 All inside edges of nozzles, manways, and other connections shall be
rounded to a minimum 1/4-inch radius.

7.

Materials
All materials shall be in accordance with the Code.
7.1

Allowable Stress Values


Except as allowed in Section 6.7.1 of this Practice for top heads designed in
accordance with API-650, allowable stresses used in the design of all components
shall be in accordance with the Code. For combinations of earthquake or wind
loadings with other loadings listed in Code paragraph UG-22, the allowable stresses
may be increased as permitted by Code paragraph UG-23(c). See Section 6.6.11 for
load combinations to be considered. See also Code Appendix G.

7.2

Carbon Steel
Where carbon steel is the selected material, the following grades shall be used:

7.3

7.2.1

Flanges for aluminum lap joint stub ends shall be galvanized carbon steel.

7.2.2

Pressure bolting shall be SA-193, Grade B7 bolts with SA-194, Grade 2 or


2H heavy hex nuts.

Stainless Steel
When specified in the vessel specifications, all formed heads fabricated from
austenitic (type 304 and type 316 only, including low-carbon and stabilized grades)
or duplex stainless steel shall be solution annealed after forming in accordance with
ASME SA-480.

7.4

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Clad Material
7.4.1

All integrally clad plate, including explosion clad plate, conforming to


ASME SA-263, ASME SA-264, and ASME SA-265 shall be cold flattened, if
required, after final heat treatment and descaling.

7.4.2

Integrally clad plates for vessels designed for vacuum service and for vessels
for which design calculations include the cladding shall be examined per
ASME SA-578 Acceptance Standard - Level 1 and Supplementary
Requirement S6.

7.4.3

Sleeve liners shall not be used in lieu of providing clad or weld overlay.

Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

7.5

Prohibited Materials
The following materials are prohibited:

8.

Mercury-containing products

Cadmium-plated products

SA-515 and SA-414 (B-G) carbon steels unless toughness requirements of a


recognized industry standard are met

Fabrication
8.1

8.2

General
8.1.1

Bulk solids bins, hoppers, silos, and blenders shall be constructed so as to


present a smooth internal surface to the contained product.

8.1.2

Internal members shall be clearly noted with appropriate details on approval


drawings.

8.1.3

Any temporary internal fixtures (e.g., bracing, lifting lugs, clips, brackets,
etc.) required for fabrication, erection, and fit-up purposes shall be removed,
and the affected area shall be ground smooth. If the affected area is in the
cone of a mass flow silo, the area shall be ground smooth and flush (see
NACE RP0178 for definitions).

8.1.4

Nozzles intended for use with a safety relief device and nozzles serving as
vessel discharges shall be trimmed flush inside the vessel wall.

8.1.5

When a carbon steel attachment is welded to an alloy pressure-retaining


component, an alloy transition pad designed for the operating load and
compatible with the pressure-retaining component shall be welded between
the attachment and the component. A 1/4-inch-diameter weep hole in the pad
or a 1-inch gap in the weld is required.

Welding
8.2.1

All welds, including those attaching non-pressure parts to pressure parts,


shall be made by welders (or welding operators), following welding
procedures qualified under the provisions of Section IX of the Code.

8.2.2

Vessel shall be all-welded construction, except for cast or forged vessel parts
attached by bolting. Unless otherwise specified, all welding shall be full
penetration, double- or single-welded butt joint design, void of pit and
fissures. Lap joint seam welds are acceptable only for segmented domed top
heads and conical heads and shall have a combination of both inner and
outer continuous fillet welds. A combination of both inner and outer
continuous fillet welds is acceptable only for the following:

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Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

slip-on flange to nozzle neck connections

nozzle to top head connections

lap joint seam welds in segmented domed top heads

conical head seam welds

8.2.3

Longitudinal weld seams in adjoining shell sections shall be staggered a


minimum of 6 inches apart.

8.2.4

Non-butt joints connecting nozzles (includes manways, sight glasses, and


studding outlets) to vessel wall shall be full penetration welds extending
through the entire thickness of the vessel wall and through the inside edge of
reinforcing plates (when used). Nozzles designated to extend beyond the
inside surface of the vessel wall shall have an additional fillet weld at the
inside nozzle neck and vessel wall corner.

8.2.5

Welding on pressure-resisting components and grinding (including cosmetic


grinding) on pressure-resisting welds is not permitted after pressure testing
unless approved in writing by Purchaser.

8.2.6

When connecting tubing to form blend tubes for a gravity tube blender, the
diameter of the lower section of tubing in a joint shall have a larger diameter
than that of the upper section of tubing in the joint. This design prevents
material from collecting on the ledges in the joint.

8.2.7

Intermediate or skip welding is not acceptable except for external stiffeners.

8.2.8

Deposited weld metal shall be essentially of the same ductility and chemical
composition as the material joined.

8.2.9

Butt-welded joints in vessel support skirts shall meet the following


requirements: Welded joints shall be of Code Categories A and B, and, when
used, butt-type Category C shall be Type No. (1) of Code Table UW-12.

8.2.10 The minimum distance from the toe of fillet welds attaching supports, or
wear plates, to the centerline of either a longitudinal or circumferential shell
seam shall be Rt where R = shell inside radius and t = shell thickness, in
inches, exclusive of corrosion allowance.
8.3

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Flanges
8.3.1

Bolt holes in all fixed flanges and studding outlets shall straddle the natural
centerlines.

8.3.2

Bolt holes in flanges of nozzles in heads shall straddle centerlines parallel to


or coincident with the natural vessel centerlines.

8.3.3

Bolt holes in flanges shall be 1/8 inch larger than the diameter of the bolts.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

8.4

Prohibited Construction
The following are prohibited:

8.5

8.6

Lap-joint seam welds except as noted in Section 8.2.2 of this Practice

Single butt welds with backing material (strips, rings, etc.) that remain in place

Nozzle openings in weld seams, unless agreed to by the User

Weld joints on gasket-bearing surfaces not machined after welding

Single inner or outer fillet welds for any welded joint of pressure-retaining
components

Pinch rings (outer flange face rings) in flanged connections, unless specified
by Purchaser

Permanent weld-joint backing strips

Nozzles attached per the Code, Figures UW-16.1 (a), (a-1), (a-2), (a-3) and (b).
Exceptions to these requirements shall be defined in the quotation by the
Supplier and shall require Purchaser approval.

Weld joints covered by attachments such as reinforcement pads, unless agreed


to by the User.

Tolerances
8.5.1

All equipment shall meet the manufacturing tolerances as shown in the


purchase order or on the drawings. Tolerances on fabricated equipment as
shown on PIP VEFV1102 shall apply to the completed vessel after pressure
test.

8.5.2

The cutting of stainless steel shall be by mechanical methods, i.e., shearing,


sawing, or machining. If cutting is done by any thermal process (i.e., plasma
arc, air arc, etc.), an allowance shall be made for the removal of not less than
1/8 inch of metal (i.e., 1/4 inch in the diameter of an opening) by machining
or grinding to the finished dimensions. Special approval by the Purchaser is
required before thermal process cutting can be incorporated.

Linings
This section covers the additional requirements necessary for vessels that are to be
lined with an elastomeric, thermoplastic, reinforced thermoset plastic, phenolic, or
cured polymer system. These requirements are the responsibility of the vessel
Supplier to complete before the lining contractor installs the lining in the vessel. The
requirements for the lining system shall be given in a separate overlay specification
to this Practice.
Information in this section takes precedence over information elsewhere in this
document when a liner is applied.

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PIP VESBI002
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8.6.1

July 2001

General
8.6.1.1 Equipment shall be fabricated in accordance with this Practice and
shall meet the special requirements for surface quality of this
section.
8.6.1.2 All vessels with non-metallic linings shall have the following notice
painted on two sides of the shell and insulation covering, if present,
(and/or channel) in 3-inch-high letters visible in the shipping
position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

8.6.2

Weld Acceptance Standards


8.6.2.1 Sample preparation - The Supplier shall submit two representative
samples, each 6 inches long, for vessel bottom head welds, vertical
welds on the shell, horizontal welds on the shell, and top head welds.
The samples may be ground as required. The top head weld sample
is required only if overhead welding is used to fabricate the top
head.
8.6.2.2 Sample evaluation - The samples shall be submitted to Purchaser for
approval at the same time as the drawings are submitted for
approval. After evaluation by the Purchaser/User, one set of samples
will be returned to the Supplier for Suppliers use and the other set
will be given to the Purchasers inspector for use as an inspection
standard. If the samples are not approved, a detailed explanation
shall be given to the Supplier and new samples must then be
submitted for approval.

8.6.3

Design and Fabrication Requirements


8.6.3.1 Joints - All joints in shell and heads shall be butt welded. Lap
welded bottoms or roofs are not allowed. Interior butt-welded joints
shall be ground smooth, and the inside corner weld at the shell to
bottom joint of flat bottom vessels shall be ground concave to a
minimum radius of 1/4 inch. The top head to shell joint on API type
vessel top heads shall be constructed so that no internal crevice is
formed. Details a, d, e, g, h, and i of API 650 Figure F-1 shall be
used. The inside surface of the weld joint shall then be ground
concave to a minimum radius of 1/4 inch.
8.6.3.2 Nozzles - All nozzles shall be flanged. Threaded- or screwed-type
couplings and fittings are not permitted. All nozzles shall be
installed flush with the inside of the vessel, and the inside
attachment weld shall be ground smooth to a 1/8-inch minimum
radius. Minimum nozzle size shall be 2 inch, and slip-on flanges
shall be used for all nozzles smaller than 6 inches. The inside corner
at the face of the flange shall be ground smooth to a 1/8-inch
minimum radius. To facilitate ventilation and heat curing, vertical
vessels shall have at least one 12-inch-diameter or larger nozzle (or

Page 48 of 71

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

manway) in the top head in addition to a shell manway. If two


manways are located on the shell, they shall be 180 degrees apart.
8.6.3.3 Internal components - All sharp corners and edges of internal
structural members shall be rounded to a radius of 1/8-inch
minimum, and all fillet welds shall be rounded to a 1/8-inch
minimum radius. If internal components cannot be lined, they shall
be made of a corrosion resistant material. Bolted joints shall be
avoided. If bolted joints are necessary, they shall be made using
corrosion resistant bolting, and the mating surfaces shall be lined
before assembly. The sealing surfaces of the nuts and bolts shall
have gaskets to protect the lining. Dissimilar metal shall be
electrically insulated from the vessel surface. Bolts shall be insulated
by the use of a sleeve. Structural reinforcing members shall be
installed on the equipment's exterior. Reinforcement pads and
members shall be installed externally.
8.6.3.4 Welding - All welding shall be of the continuous type. Intermittent
and spot welding is not permitted. All welding processes shall
produce a smooth weld surface with a minimum of weld splatter that
minimizes the grinding of the finished weld.
8.6.3.5 Surface finish - Vessel surfaces to be lined shall contain no gouges,
handling marks, deep scratches, metal stamp marks, slivered steel, or
other surface flaws. All flaws repaired shall be by welding and
grinding. All rough welds shall be ground to remove sharp edges,
undercuts, pinholes (these shall be filled with weld metal), and other
such irregularities. All weld splatter must be removed. Chipping can
be used to remove sharp edges if followed by grinding or use of
abrasive disc.

9.

Inspection and Testing


9.1

Inspection
9.1.1

Vessel inspection by the Purchaser or Purchasers designated agent is


required at the Suppliers shop and the Users plant site. Inspection witness
points shall be established before fabrication. All Supplier welding and
quality assurance procedures shall be made available to the Purchaser or
Purchasers representative upon request.

9.1.2

The Purchaser shall be allowed to make dye penetrant or other tests at any
location selected by the Purchaser to determine that all specifications,
welding procedures, and welding performance requirements have been
satisfied.

9.1.3

All work found not in conformance with this Practice and attachments made
a part of this Practice shall be re-worked to the satisfaction of the Purchaser,
at the Suppliers expense.

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9.2

Page 50 of 71

July 2001

9.1.4

All assemblies that become damaged (dented, kinked, or distorted) during


fabrication, handling, or shipment shall be replaced or repaired to the
satisfaction of the Purchaser, at the Suppliers expense.

9.1.5

All shell and head butt welds shall be inspected with a minimum spot
radiography in accordance with Code paragraph UW-52.

9.1.6

Finished surfaces of welded pressure joints that will be inaccessible after


assembly shall be examined by the liquid penetrant method in accordance
with Appendix 8 of the Code and repaired as required before painting.

9.1.7

Formed heads shall be seamless, or, if welded, the flat plate from which a
head is to be made shall be radiographed per Code paragraph UW-51 in the
knuckle region of the head, including the straight flange and 2 inches into
the spherical portion, before forming.

Testing, General
9.2.1

All vessels shall be neither painted nor shot-peened before the pressure test.

9.2.2

For atmospheric vessels with a total volume <500 ft3 and an h/D ratio <3.0,
the vessel shall be filled with water while in the operating position by the
Supplier in the Suppliers shop. Test water level shall be no higher than the
top head to shell joint. Exceptions to the type of test and/or test location
shall be by agreement between the Supplier and the Purchaser.

9.2.3

For vessels with a total volume 500 ft3, with an h/D ratio 3.0, and
constructed for pressures exceeding atmospheric and 15 PSIG, a
combination air-over-water pressure test shall be performed on the vessel in
the operating position by the Supplier in the Suppliers shop. The test
pressure shall be equal to and not exceeding the MAWP for the vessel. Test
water level shall be no higher than the top head to shell joint. Exceptions to
the type of test or test location shall be by agreement between the Supplier
and the Purchaser.

9.2.4

For vessels with a total volume > 500 ft3 or with an h/D ratio > 3.0 and
constructed for pressures 15 PSIG, a combination air-over-water pressure
test shall be performed on the vessel in the operating position by the
Supplier at the Suppliers shop or the Users operating site. This pressure
test shall be performed at a pressure equal to and not exceeding the MAWP
of the vessel. The weight of the water used during testing shall not exceed
the expected operating weight of the solids in the vessel. The level of water
shall not exceed the top head to shell joint. This pressure test is intended to
represent as closely as practical the operating static loads experienced by the
vessel and the vessel support system without exceeding the allowable
stresses for the shell, bottom head, and related joints and connections. The
Purchaser shall provide guidelines for the test procedure and/or approve test
procedures proposed by the Supplier. Exceptions to the type of test or test
location shall be by agreement between the Supplier and the Purchaser.

9.2.5

Gas leak test pressures shall not exceed the MAWP of the vessel and shall be
performed before any hydrotest.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

9.2.6

Test pressures shall be maintained for a minimum of 1 hour. Following the


application of the test pressure, an inspection shall be made of all joints and
connections. The inspection shall be made at a pressure not less than 2/3 of
the test pressure.

9.2.7

For vessels that consist of two or more compartments, each compartment


shall be given a separate and individual test with atmospheric pressure in the
adjacent compartments.

9.2.8

When testing vessels with water, the test water shall be clean and free of
debris. Only potable water with a chlorine ion concentration not exceeding
50 ppm shall be used when testing stainless steel vessels.

9.2.9

Vessels shall be field tested for leaks after installation. Supplier(s) shall be
responsible for repairs to vessels if leaks are detected. Tests will be by air
pressure.

9.2.10 The vessel metal temperature, for the entire duration of the test, shall not be
colder than 30F above the minimum design metal temperature (MDMT, see
Section 6.4) and not hotter than 120F.
9.2.11 The Supplier(s) shall furnish all blind flanges, gaskets, and bolting (or other
types of blanking covers as may be required) necessary for testing. For
connections not specified to be furnished with blind flanges, the blind
flanges and bolting (or other type covers) may be removed after testing and
remain the property of the Supplier.
9.2.12 Test gaskets - Any flanged joint for which the Supplier is to furnish the
service gasket and for which disassembly will not occur after testing shall be
tested with the specified service gasket identified in the data sheets. If the
joint is to be disassembled after testing and employs flanges per
ASME B16.5, the Supplier may select the test gasket subject to any
limitations identified in the purchase requisition. The Purchaser must
approve the test gasket to be used if the joint is to be disassembled after test,
employs non-standard flanges (other than ASME B16.5), and/or the service
gasket is not specified.
9.2.13 Repairs to eliminate imperfections revealed during testing, which resulted in
test failure, shall be tested at the Suppliers expense by reapplying the
original test(s).
9.2.14 Body flanges, manways, and nozzles specified to be furnished with blind
flanges shall be left undisturbed and assembled after testing if practical.

10.

Shipping
10.1

General
10.1.1 The Purchaser shall be notified if the completely assembled and insulated
vessel sections, including attachments, exceed 20,000 pounds, are greater
than 60 feet in overall length, are wider than 12 feet, or are taller than 13 feet
6 inches projected diameter.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

10.1.2 Welding attachments to vessels for shipping purposes is not permitted.


10.1.3 At least one of the vessel connections shall be used to vent the vessel during
shipping. The connection used for venting shall be covered with a breathable
fabric secured with tape at the edges of the fabric.
10.1.4 The Supplier shall take all necessary precautions in loading, blocking, and
bracing the vessel and any internals to prevent damage during shipment.
10.1.5 The exterior of the vessel shall be protected such that the vessel is not
damaged.
10.1.6 The Supplier shall identify all separately packaged parts in accordance with
the purchase requisition.
10.1.7 See data sheet for any additional shipping requirements.
10.2

Cleaning and Painting


10.2.1 The Supplier shall completely drain, thoroughly dry, and remove all dirt,
grease, oil, weld scale (carbon steel), weld splatter, trash, debris, and any
other foreign matter from inside and outside the vessel after testing and
before shipment or after fabrication and testing if field-fabricated at the
Users plant site. Any additional cleaning requirements shall be provided in
the purchase order.
10.2.2 Vessels shall be completely dry, and all openings (except one vent) shall be
securely sealed before shipment.
10.2.3 All temporary identification markings shall be removed from inside the
vessel.
10.2.4 Preparation and painting of the exterior of all fabricated equipment and
related attachments shall be in accordance with PIP CTSE1000. Painting
shall be performed after pressure tests except on surfaces specified to be
painted that will be inaccessible after assembly (e.g., mating surfaces
between lap-joint flanges and nozzle necks, shells, lap rings or stub ends,
bolt holes, and welded joints). These surfaces shall be painted before
assembly and testing.

10.3

Preparation for Shipment


10.3.1 Assembled Machined Surfaces
Body joints, manways, blind-flanged nozzles, plugged couplings, and other
connections specified to be furnished with service covers shall be shipped
assembled if practical. If testing gaskets are shipped in the assembled vessel,
the vessel shall be tagged indicating this fact. If necessary to disassemble for
shipping, draining, or other purposes, new service gaskets and other joint
components shall be suitably packaged and shipped with the vessel.
10.3.2 Exposed Surfaces
10.3.2.1 For carbon and low-alloy steels, all machined or threaded surfaces
shall be cleaned with solvent and coated with temporary rust
preventive grease. The following products are acceptable: Ashland

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Oil-Tectyl 858C, Sanchem No-Ox-Id-A, Exxon-Beacon 325,


Houghton-Rust Veto Heavy; other equivalent products are
acceptable.
10.3.2.2 All flange faces (except one for venting purposes) shall be covered
with 1/2-inch-thick plywood no smaller than the flange outer
diameter and secured with a minimum 25% complement of carbon
steel bolts, but no fewer than four, and wrapped with tape around
flange circumference. Pre-fabricated plastic flange covers are also
acceptable.
10.3.2.3 Nozzle necks without flanges beveled for welded connections
shall be provided with bevel protectors.
10.3.2.4 Threaded connections shall be capped or plugged with bar stock or
plastic material.

11.

Instrumentation
11.1

General
The Designer shall evaluate the need for instrumentation, such as pressure,
temperature, level, and weight indicators.

11.2

Side-Entry Instrumentation
Level indicators shall be installed in accordance with manufacturers instructions
and detail drawings provided with the instrumentation. A protective covering (pup
tent) shall be provided by the vessel Supplier in accordance with the
instrumentation manufacturers instructions as required for specific mounting
configurations.

12.

Nameplates and Stampings


12.1

Nameplates
The Supplier shall be responsible for assuring installation of a nameplate that
provides the as-built fabrication and construction conditions as follows:

12.2

Required nameplate markings shall not be stamped directly on the vessel.

The nameplate shall be made either of a 300 series stainless steel or of a nickel
alloy or equivalent and shall be attached securely on a support bracket.

The Supplier shall install a nameplate support bracket on the shell in an


accessible location in accordance with PIP VEFV1101. The bracket and
nameplate location shall be shown on the dimensional outline drawing.

Stampings
The following information shall be stamped on the nameplate in addition to
information that may be required elsewhere in this Practice or the purchase order:

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

Page 54 of 71

Users equipment item number

Initial test pressures

Purchase order number

Vessel weight

MAWP (see Section 6.2)

MDMT (see Section 6.3)

Design maximum bulk density

Design minimum bulk density

Radiography inspection level (i.e., RT 1, 2, 3, 4)

July 2001

Process Industry Practices

July 2001

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

APPENDIX A
Quality Overview Plan for
Vessels for Solids

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX A
Quality Overview Plan for
Vessels for Solids
Equip. No. ______________________ P. O. No.
Equip. Description
Project Engineer
Inspection Contact

S. O. No.
Phone No.
Phone No.

Activities checked apply to the above item (see Quality Overview Notes). In most cases, the User/Purchaser representative will require
five (5) days notification to make arrangements for hold point inspections.
References are either to Division 1 Code paragraphs
or to applicable referenced standards. All additional
requirements covered by the purchase specifications
also apply.

No.
1.
2.

QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY


DOCUMENTATION
REVIEW

WITNESS

INSPECT

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

HOLD POINT
Yes

No

REQUIRED
Yes

No

Material Receipt (before Fab)


MTR's/Certificate of Compliance (before Fab)
(UG-93)

3.

Positive Material Identification (PMI)

4.

Impact Test Values

5.

Lap-Joint Flange (ASME B16.5)

6.

Machined Surfaces (before Assembly)

7.

WPS/Welder/Welding Operator Qualifications


(UW-28 & UW-29 )

8.

Weld Map

9.

Inside Nozzle Corners Rounded UG-36(a)(2)

10.

Welded Joint Fit-Up (UW-33, UG-76, and


UG-77)

11.

Initial Welding (UW-32, UW-37)

12.

Final Welding (UW-35, UW-36, and UW-37)

13.

Machined Surfaces (After Assembly and


Welding)

14.

Magnetic Particle Examination (MT) (App. 6)

15.

Liquid Penetrant Examination (PT) (App. 8)

16.

Radiographic Examination (RT) (UW-11)

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

References are either to Division 1 Code paragraphs


or to referenced standards. All additional
requirements covered by the purchase specifications
also apply.

No.
17.

Ultrasonic Examination (UT) (App. 12)

18.

Other NDE

19.

Material Repairs (UG-78)

20.

Weld Repairs (UW-38)

21.

Out-of-Roundness (UG-80)

22.

Peaked Seam UG-79(b)

23.

Weld Reinforcement/Weld Contour (UW-35)

24.

Dimensional Check

25.

Installation of Internals

26.

Internal Inspection (before Pressure Test)

27.

PWHT (UW-40)

28.

NDE (after PWHT, When Required)

29.

Machined Surfaces (after PWHT)

30.

Gasket/Gasket Installation/Bolted Joint


Assembly

31.

Nameplate Bracket

32.

Pressure Test (Section 9.3 of PIP VESBI002)

33.

Gas Leak Test

34.

Formed Head Knuckle (after Pressure Test)

35.

Internal Inspection (after Pressure Test)

36.

Coating/Lining Inspection

37.

Final Dimensional Check

38.

Description of Nonconformance(s)

39.

Preparation for Shipment

QUALITY OVERVIEW ACTIVITY


DOCUMENTATION
REVIEW

WITNESS

INSPECT

Yes

Yes

Yes

No

No

No

HOLD POINT
Yes

No

REQUIRED
Yes

No

40.
41.
42.
43.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Quality Overview Plan for Vessels for Solids


NOTES:

1. The Purchaser will provide the Supplier with a completed Quality Overview Plan.
2. The Supplier shall provide the Purchaser with the documents for review, witness/hold
point activity notification, and inspection opportunity as indicated by the Purchaser on
the Plan, as follows:
2.1 Review: Supplier shall provide documentation, the review of which will allow
the Purchaser to verify that the referenced construction activity has been
performed as specified. Other construction requirements may be verified/audited.
2.2 Witness: Supplier shall notify Purchaser not later than five (5) days before
performing the referenced construction activity so that the Purchaser may
exercise the option to observe. Other construction requirements may be
verified/audited.
2.3 Inspect: Supplier shall provide Purchaser access to physically conduct
internal/external inspection of the referenced item. Other construction
requirements may be verified/audited.
2.4 Hold Point: Supplier must notify Purchaser not later than five (5) days before
performing the referenced construction activity and must receive authorization
from the Purchaser before performing the activity. Other construction
requirements may be verified/audited.
3. Some of the items in this Quality Overview Plan for Vessels for Solids are covered
elsewhere in this Practice.
4. If a work item is not checked, then documentation or notification to the Purchaser is not
required. However, the work item itself is still required to be performed if specified
elsewhere in this Practice, the data sheet, the purchase order, the Code, etc.

Page 58 of 71

Process Industry Practices

July 2001

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

APPENDIX B
Documentation Schedule and
Suppliers Data Package

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX B
Documentation Schedule
Equip. No. _________________________ P.O. No. ________________________ S.O. No. ________________________________
Equip. Description _________________________________________________________________________________________________
Project Engineer __________________________________________ Phone No. ________________________________________

WKS
P
T

Column = Number of Weeks Required from P.O. Date


Column = Number of Legible Prints Required
Column = Number of Transparencies Required
WITH
BID

ITEM

FOR
APPROVAL
WKS
FROM
PO

FINAL (2)
CERTIFIED

WKS
FROM
PO

DATA (3)
BOOKS

WKS
FROM
PO

WITH
EQUIP

ALLOW FOR
USER
APPROVAL
WEEKS FROM
DATE OF DATA
RECEIPT

Completed Data Sheets


Vessel Dimension Outlines
Vessel Details
Vessel Structural Attachments for
Ladders, Platforms, etc.
Internals and Their Support Details
Weld Procedures with Weld Maps
Nondestructive Examination and
PWHT Procedures
Design Calculations
Shipping Diagram and Rigging
Instructions
Supplier's Data Package
(See Page B-2)
Fabrication Sequence and
Schedule
Sub-Supplier List
Progress Report (Monthly)

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

Suppliers Data Package


NOTES:

1. Drawings and data are to be mailed to __________________________________________


unless submitted with quotation.
2. Final certified drawings are to be submitted within two (2) weeks of receipt of Approved or
Approved As Noted prints.
3. All data must be supplied before submission of final invoice.
4. All questions of a technical nature shall be directed to _____________________________.
5. Sepias and original film drawings shall not be folded for mailing.
6. Each copy of all data (e.g., drawings, manuals) must be certified by Supplier, and equipment
or instrument tag number and purchase order number shall be written or typed on the face
of each copy.
The Suppliers Data Package shall include the following:

1. Final certified fabrication drawings per PIP VESBI002, as shown on the following sheets
2. Suppliers design calculations
3. Cast and plate material (mill) test reports and/or certificates of compliance (provide index
when appropriate) for all materials in pressure-containing parts of the vessel. Use a liquid
penetrant test to obtain 90% quality factor for castings.
4. Impact test values including production weld test results
5. Heat treatment charts (time/temperature record)
6. Pressure test charts (time/pressure/water temperature record)
7. Nondestructive examination records and reports (PT, MT, RT, BHN, PMI chemistry)
8. Nameplate facsimile
9. If requested, welding procedures and qualifications in accordance with Section IX of the
ASME Code, and welding maps.
10. Description of non-conformities accepted by the User, if any
11. Required bolted joint assembly procedures including bolt preload for custom flanges
12. Any other documentation required on Appendix A
13. Operating instructions, performance data, and parts list (when applicable)

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX C
Flanged Pressure Boundary Joint Assembly

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX C
Flanged Pressure Boundary Joint Assembly
For blinding before hydrotest or for final joint assembly, all bolted joints shall be assembled and
tightened in accordance with the following:
1. All working surfaces must be cleaned and inspected before assembly is started.
a. Clean gasket-seating surfaces to remove all grease and dirt. Gasket-seating
surfaces shall be free from any scratches, nicks, burrs, weld spatter, or similar
defects.
b. External and internal threaded surfaces shall be inspected for damage. Replace
questionable parts.
c. Inspect nut-bearing surfaces for scores, burrs, etc. Remove protrusions; spot face
if required.
2. Install new gasket.
a. Handle gaskets carefully to avoid damage. Do not remove any gasketshipping/handling protector until ready to use the gasket.
b. Examine gasket for defects or damage.
c. Place new gasket in position. Make sure that the gasket is in proper alignment
with the gasket surfaces on the flanges or lap-joint stub ends.
d. Use a light dusting of 3M 77, or equivalent, spray adhesive if required to hold
gasket in place during assembly.
3. Liberally coat all external and internal threaded surfaces of fasteners (bolts, nuts, and
threaded holes, as applicable) with the lubricant specified on the vessel data sheet,
PIP VEDBI003. Lubrication is not required for new PTFE-coated bolts. If the lubricant is
not specified on the vessel data sheet, the lubricant shall be approved by Purchaser.
4. Align flange or stub end faces carefully before bolting up. Fasteners shall fit loosely in
bolt holes. Do not use fasteners to spring flanges for alignment.
5. Install fasteners with nuts hand tightened, then snug up at 10 to 20 ft-lbs.
6. Tighten bolts carefully to specified torque level using a cross-bolting technique and stepwise tightening to increase loading about 1/4 to 1/3 of total preload per step.

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX D
Suppliers Drawing Information

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX D
Suppliers Drawing Information
Supplier shall provide certified, as-built assembly and working drawings for all vessels for bulk
solids. These drawings shall incorporate the drawing requirements specified throughout this Practice.
In addition, these drawings shall be complete and shall include, but not necessarily be limited to, the
following information:
1. Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) and coincident maximum design
temperature (see Section 6.3) (internal and external if applicable)
2. Minimum design metal temperature and coincident maximum allowable working
pressure (see Section 6.4)
3. Design bulk density (minimum and maximum), maximum fill level, and other operating
loads
4. Reference to all applicable codes, standards, practices, and specifications, including date
of issue. References shall include any applicable Supplier standards. When reference is
made to Suppliers own standards, copies of such standards shall be included with the
submitted working drawings.
5. Special service notes, e.g., for cyclic service followed by a description of the cyclic
loads and number of cycles used in the design
6. Applicable Code paragraphs for impact test exemption, e.g., UG-20(f), UCS-66(a),
UCS-66(b), UCS-66(c), or for impact test requirements, e.g., UHA-51 or UHT-6
7. ASME material specifications for all pressure-resisting components and all attachments
to pressure-resisting components; full identification of all other materials
8. Wind/seismic design criteria
9. Corrosion allowance
10. Weld details. All welds shall be either detailed or identified by use of the standard
welding symbols of ANS/AWS A2.4.
11. Nondestructive examination requirements of welded pressure joints
13. Nondestructive examination of non-pressure-resisting welds
14. Postweld heat treatment requirements
15. Test pressures, as applicable:
a. Shop test in operating position (referenced to top of vessel)
b. Field test in operating position (referenced to top of vessel) (in the corroded
condition for vessels having a corrosion allowance)
16. Minimum permissible metal temperature during hydrostatic testing
17. Gas leak tests, if any
18. Minimum thickness required and nominal thickness used of all components (minimum
thickness required after forming [includes corrosion allowance] for formed heads)

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

19. Datum line information for all pertinent dimensions shall be used, including location of
primary weld seams, location, and projection of nozzles, location of vessel and insulation
supports, and any other information necessary for a complete description of the vessel.
The datum line used shall be clearly identified. Normal vessel centerlines may be used as
the datum line to locate projections of nozzles, supports, etc.
20. Suppliers drawings shall have the same designation for nozzles, manways, and skirt
openings as shown on Purchasers drawings.
21. Complete description of all vessel flanges (including both standard and custom design),
bolting, bolt torques, and gaskets
23. Vessel support details
24. Surface preparation and painting or other protective coating specifications
25. Weight of vessel: empty, operating, full of solids, and shipping
26. Capacity of vessel (or each compartment), in cubic feet
27. Facsimiles of Suppliers nameplate with as-built information
28 Purchasers vessel identification number(s) and purchase order number
29 Information on any installed accessories (include Supplier, model number, etc.)
SPECIAL NOTES

Suppliers drawings shall also include the following notes as applicable:


1. All vessels - the following note: Substances containing chlorine or those that will
decompose to hydrogen chloride (e.g., coatings to prevent adhesion of weld spatter) shall
not be applied to any part of the vessel.
2. Stainless steel or nickel-alloy vessels - the following notes: Zinc-coated (galvanized or
painted) components shall not be in contact (welded, bolted, or loose) with any alloy
parts of the vessel. and Substances containing sulfur (e.g., lubricants to aid machining)
shall not be applied to alloy parts of the vessel.
4. Clad-steel vessels - Drawing notes shall specify whether or not the thickness of cladding
metal has been included in the design calculations for strength.
5. All PWHT vessels shall have the following notice painted on two sides of the shell and
insulation covering, if present, (and/or channel) in 3-inch-high letters visible in the
shipping position from grade:
POSTWELD HEAT TREATED - DO NOT BURN OR WELD
6. All vessels with non-metallic linings shall have the following notice painted on two sides
of the shell and insulation covering, if present, (and/or channel) in 3-inch-high letters
visible in the shipping position from grade:
LINED VESSEL - DO NOT BURN OR WELD

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Process Industry Practices

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX E
Equivalent Pressure Formulas for
Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load

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PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

July 2001

APPENDIX E
Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load
When sustained bending moments or axial thrust loads are applied to the flanged joint during
operation in sufficient magnitude to warrant consideration in the flange design. The design pressure,
P, used in the calculation of total hydrostatic end load, H, in the flange design calculations shall be
replaced by the following design pressure:
PFLG = P + PEQ

The equivalent pressure PEQ is determined as follows:


PEQ =

16M

4F

G2

where
M = Sustained bending moment applied across full section at flange during the design
condition, inch-lb
F = Sustained axial tensile force applied at flange, lb
G = Diameter at location of gasket load reaction, inch (See Appendix 2 of the Code for full
definition.)
Note: Experience has shown that axial tensile forces resulting from a properly designed piping
system have no significant effect on the flange design and hence are typically not included in the
PEQ determination.
Therefore, the hydrostatic end load, H, used in the flange calculations is determined as follows:
2

H = 0.785 G PFLG

Dynamic bending moment is determined as follows:


PEQ =

8M

G3

where
M = Bending moment, as defined above, but including dynamic bending moment (e.g., seismic
moment) applied across full section at flange during the design condition, inch-lb
Other terms = Same as above

Page 68 of 71

Process Industry Practices

July 2001

PIP VESBI002
Design and Specification of Vessels for Bulk Solids

APPENDIX F
Standard Details

Process Industry Practices

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