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To determine the Resistance of the Ballistic

Galvanometer as well as the Logarithmic Decrement of


the Galvanometer Coil
Our aim is to measure the resistance of the ballistic galvanometer and the damping
constant of the galvanometer coil (logarithmic decrement).
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

IDENTIFY
1) A long black ballistic galvanometer standing against the wall.
2) A 2V electronic battery.
3) Three resistance boxes R0 (max resistance 10000), R1 (max resistance
10000) and RS (max resistance 10- acting as shunt placed parallel to the
galvanometer) which we would need to do the experiment.
4) A micro-ammeter
5) A tapping key parallel to the galvanometer.
6) A tapping key parallel to the resistance boxes R1.
7) A commutator.
8) A lamp and scale arrangement.

Theory:
If a current i passes in the main circuit and ig be the current passing through the
galvanometer, we have for the circuit shown in adjoining fig.

Now,
..(2)
Therefore,

Now if,

then,

Now, from equation (4) it is obvious that,


When,
, if
(say), then at

The steady deflection of the galvanometer is proportional to the current flowing


through it,
i.e.

Therefore, from the equation (4), at


, the deflection of the galvanometer is
exactly half of the deflection produced when
,
Thus the value of
at which the deflection is getting half is the resistance of the
galvanometer.
The working formula for log decrement,

Where n=11
Deflection of 1st and 11th count of the oscillation.

To find the resistance of the Ballistic Galvanometer


1) Check the light spot on the lamp and scale. It should be on the zero mark of
the scale.
2) Make R1=0, R0=10000.
3) Switch on the battery.
4) The light spot deflects either to the left or to the right and becomes stationary.
Note down the amount of deflection of the light spot on the scale.
5) Now change R1 to make deflection of the light spot half of the amount as in
step 4, and note down the resistance.
6) Increase R0 in steps of 2000 and repeat the 4 & 5 four times.
7) Now change the direction of the current by changing the position of the keys
in the commutator, and repeat the steps 4 to 6.
8) Take the mean readings of the value of R1 for half deflection.

Table 1: determination of the resistance of the galvanometer

R0
()

Deflection (cm) for R1=0

Direct
current

Reveres
current

R1, that produce half deflection, which is


=Rg()

Direct current

Reveres current

TO FIND THE VALUE OF THE LOGARITHMIC DECREMENT ( )


1) Make R0=10000 and R1=10000.
2) Close tapping key K3. and get the maximum deflection, now release(open) K3
and simultaneously take out a key from the commutator (in order to break the
primary circuit. The light spots start oscillating.
3) Measure the deflection for 1st throw as well as 11th throw.
4) Decrease R1 in steps of 1000, and repeat 2 & 3 four times.
5) Draw a graph of R1(X-axis) versus (Y-axis).
Table 2: Determination of log decrement ( )

R1()

d1

Direct current
d11

10000
9000
8000
7000
6000
5000

Maximum proportional error:

Where n=11,

=0.1cm,

d1

Reverse current
d11

Mean