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- Truss Solutions for Curved Roofs
- Steel Truss Design
- Es 23 Couples
- Outriggers
- SteelWise Joists Facts
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- Truss Frame v1
- Bridge Set Report Final
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- SOM Lecture 02
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- hurricane_andrew_article.pdf
- Truss Upto 12m
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more members attached together at points called

"joints" to from a rigid body. The joints are

assumed to be frictionless pin joints that can't

exert torques on the members.

Thus only compressive or tensile forces act along

members of the truss.

Members, loads, and reactions lie in the same

plane. The weight of each member is negligible

compared to the loads. The width of a member is

ignored. Load act only at the joints.

Simple Trusses

A simple truss is that, which is composed of

members just sufficient to keep it in equilibrium,

when loaded, without any change in its shape.

The simplest simple truss is a triangle, which

contains three members and three joints as

shown in figure.

triangular truss by successively adding a pair of

new members to existing joints and also, by

connecting the two new members at a new joint.

Thus a simple truss will always have an odd

number of members.

The number of members, in a simple truss

expressed by the following relation :

m=2 j3

number of joints.

Stresses

When a body is acted upon by a force, the

internal force which is transmitted through the

body is known as stress.

There are two types of stresses. The simplest

case to consider a metal bar of constant crosssection, loaded at its ends by a pair of oppositely

directed collinear forces coinciding with the

longitudinal axis of the bar and acting through

the centroid of each cross-section. For static

equilibrium the magnitudes of the forces must be

equal. If the forces are directed away from the

bar, the bar is said to be in tension; if they are

directed toward the bar, a state of compression

exists as shown in figure.

finding out the forces in the members of a simple

truss :

1. All the members are pin-jointed.

2. The truss is loaded only at the joints.

3. The weight of member is regarded as

negligible in comparison with the other

external forces or loads acting on the truss.

Bow's Notation

Each region or field inside and outside the truss

is assigned an upper case letter. The joints are

designated by numbers.

Each joint is designated by naming clockwise the

fields surrounding it.

Methods of solving the trusses

The following are the methods for finding out the

forces, in the members of a simple truss :

1.Analytical method :

a) Method of joints.

b)Method of sections.

2.Graphical method.

Analytical method

a)

Method of joints:

separately as a free body in equilibrium. The

unknown forces are then determined by

equilibrium equations i.e.,

F x=0, F y =0

i.e., the sum of all the vertical forces as well as

the horizontal forces is equated to zero.

In this method the joint should not contain more

than two members, in which the forces are

unknown.

We can assume that the direction of all the forces

is upwards from every joint, then resolving the

forces vertically and horizontally. If the result give

a minus sign for any number means that the

direction assumed is wrong and it should have

been downwards instead of upwards.

The result are tabulated showing the members,

the magnitudes of forces and their nature.

Sometimes, tensile forces is represented with a

+ve sign and compressive force with a ve sign.

Example :

The truss shown in Fig. has a span of 5 meters. It

carrying a load of 10 tones at its apex. Find the

forces un the members AB, AC and BC.

- Solution

load of tones is acting at a distance 1.25 m from

the left hand support B. Taking moments about

B,

R2 5=10 1.25=12.5

R 2=2.5 T

R1=102.5=7.5 T

and FBC assumed as shown in Fig.

F AB sin 60=7.5

F AB=8.66 T =8.66 T ( compression )

F BC =F AB cos 60=4.33 T (tension)

assumed as in Fig.

F x =0 ,i . e . , F AC sin 30=2.5

F AC =5 T=5T ( comp. )

Memb

er

Force

AB

AC

BC

a)

8.6

6

-5

4.3

3

Method of section :

forces in a few members of a truss are required

to be determined.

The force in selected members of a truss is

determined by cutting through the member

whose force is sought and through no more than

three other members required to section the

truss. The resulting section is in equilibrium and,

therefore is treated as a free body. The unknown

forces are then determined by the application of

equilibrium conditions of statics.

Example:

A truss of span 10 meters is loaded as shown in

fig. Find the reactions and forces in the members

of the truss.

- Solution

From the geometry of the figure, we find that the

load of 5KN is acting at a distance of 2.5 meters

and the load of 6KN at a distance of 6.25 meters

from the left hand side.

R1 + R2=5+6=11

M =0 )

R2 10=5 2.5+6 6.25=50

R 2=5 KN , then R1=115=6 KN

and ED.

Consider the equilibrium for the left part of the

truss and assume the direction as shown in fig.

only),

F AE 10 sin 606 10=0

F AE=6.928 KN =6.928 KN (comp .)

part only),

F ED 2.5 tan 60=6 2.5

F ED =3.464 KN (tension)

and ED.

Consider the equilibrium for the left part of the

truss and assume the direction of FBF and FEF as

shown in fig.

F BF 2.56 5+ 5 2.5=0

F BF =7 KN =7 KN (comp .)

F EF 8.66 sin 306 10+5 7.5=0

F EF =5.196 KN (tension)

and GD.

Consider the equilibrium of the right part of the

truss and assume the directions of FFG and FGD as

shown in fig.

F GD 4.33sin 30+5 3.75=0

F GD=8.66 KN ( tension )

F FG 4.33+ 6 3.75=0

F GD=5.169 KN =5.169 KN ( comp . )

DG.

Consider the equilibrium of the right part of the

truss and assume the direction of FGC as shown in

fig.

FGC 5 sin 30+5 5=0

F GD=10 KN =10 KN ( comp . )

Memb

er

Force

AE

ED

-6.928

3.46

4

B

F

-7

EF

GD

FG

GC

5.16

9

8.6

8

5.196

10

Cantilever Trusses

A truss, which is connected to a wall or a column

at one end, and free at the other is known as a

cantilever truss.

For the other kinds of trusses, the determinations

of supported reactions is very important to start

the solution. But for the cantilever trusses

determination of supported reactions is not

will begin from the free end of the cantilever.

Example :

A braced support of 3 meters span is loaded as

shown in fig. Find the forces in the various

members of the framed truss using the method

of joints.

- Solution

For the joint A, let the directions of FAB and FAD as

shown in fig.

F AB sin 60=500

F AB=577 kg (tension)

F ADF AB cos 6 o=0

F AD=288.5 kg=288.5 kg( comp.)

shown in fig.

F BD sin 60F AB sin 6 o=0

F BD =577 kg=577 kg( comp.)

F BC =F AB cos 6 o+ F BD cos 60=577 kg(tension)

Memb

er

Force

AB

AD

BD

BC

577

-288.5

-577

577

Graphical Method

in the members of trusses is very simple. To

apply this method, consider the following steps.

1. Find all support reactions for the truss.

2. Draw the space diagram for the truss along

with loads and reactions.

3. Name the various members and forces

according to Bow's notation.

4. Draw the forces polygon, and for a joint, care

should be taken that the joint doesn't

contain more than two members whose

forces are unknown. If the joint contain more

than two members forces are unknown, then

some other joint which doesn't contain more

than two unknown force members should be

considered for drawing the forces polygon.

If we can't draw at a joint, then we must

determine the forces at such a joint by other

method of section.

5. Tabulate the forces in the members of the

truss.

If in the forces polygon, any two points

coincide, then the force in the member

represented by the two letters will be zero.

Example:

A truss of 32 meters span is loaded as shown in

fig. Find the magnitude and the nature of forces

in all the members of the truss by graphical

method.

- Solution

1. Taking the moments about the left end

support,

R2 32=1 8+ 4 16 +2 24+3 8+144

R 2=4.5 KN , R1 =5.5 KN

members according to Bow's notation as

shown in Fig.

polygon.

5. Tabulate all results as shown in the following

tableau.

Member

AG

BI

CJ

DL

EL

Magintude of force

in KN

5.5

7

7

4.5

6.3

Nature of

foce

Comp.

Comp.

Comp.

Comp.

Tension

EK

HE

FG

HG

HI

IJ

JK

KL

4.5

5.5

7.6

2.5

0

4

3.5

4.5

Tension

Tension

Tension

Comp.

Tension

Comp.

Tension

Comp.

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