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ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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ME 425 Space Cooling Load Calculations Keith E. Elder, P.E.
ME
425
Space Cooling Load Calculations
Keith E. Elder, P.E.
Cooling Load vs. Heat Gain Space Heat Gain The instantaneous rate at which heat enters
Cooling Load
vs.
Heat
Gain
Space Heat Gain
The
instantaneous rate at which heat enters
into and/or is
generated within
a space
at
a given
instant.
Space Cooling
Load
The
rate
at which heat
must be removed from the space to
maintain
a constant
space air temperature.
Heat
Extraction
The
actual heat removed
from
the space taking account
that space air temperature does not
remain constant, but
experiences
minor, cyclic
variations.

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Solar Heat Gain (July) 300 East Horzontal 250 West 200 150 South 100 50 North
Solar
Heat
Gain
(July)
300
East
Horzontal
250
West
200
150
South
100
50
North
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 1213 14
1516 17 18 1920 21 2223
24
Hour
Btu/hr/SF
Solar Cooling Load vs. Heat Gain July oriented West – 48° N. Lat. 250 Gain
Solar
Cooling
Load
vs.
Heat
Gain
July
oriented West – 48°
N. Lat.
250
Gain
200
Load
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324
Hour
Btu/hr/SF

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Calculation Techniques TETD/TA Method Originally Developed by Willis Carrier Widely used but sources not
Calculation
Techniques
TETD/TA Method
Originally
Developed
by Willis Carrier
Widely
used
but sources not
well-documented
Transfer
Function
Method (TFM)
Rigorous & Complex
Requires Computer
1989 CLTD/CLF Method
Hand Calculation Method
Simplified
Factors
based on TFM (above)
Radiant Time
Series
(RTS)
Method
Based on
Heat
Balance
Method
(exact solution)
Requires Computer-Based
Solution Techniques
CLTD/CLF Method
Formulas
Glass
cooling
load is calculated:
q=A(SC)(SHGF)(CLF)
for radiation
q=UA(CLTD) for conduction
Opaque surface cooling load
is
calculated:
q = UA(CLTD)
Internal loads are calculated:
CLF
q cooling load = q heat gain x

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Opaque Surface Cooling Load q = UA(CLTD corrected ) U = Assembly U-factor A =
Opaque
Surface Cooling
Load
q
=
UA(CLTD corrected )
U = Assembly
U-factor
A = Opaque
Surface Area
CLTD
=
Cooling Load
Temperature
Difference
Based
on latitude
Time-of-day
Thermal
storage
in
materials used
R-value of component
Presence of suspended ceiling
(for roofs only)
Opaque
Surface Calculation
Use
Table 31
(89F26.36) for Wall
Calculations
Use
Table 29
(89F26.34) for
Roof Calculations
Select Wall/Roof Type
Look up uncorrected
CLTD
Correct CLTD
= (CLTD +
LM)k +
(78 - t room ) +
(t m -
85)
CLTD corrected
LM
=
Latitude/Month Correction Factor
(Table 32 -
89F26.37)
k
=
Color
Correction (Dark = 1.0,
Med = 0.83, Light =
0.65)
t room = design
indoor space temperature
= average temperature
on
the design day
t m
= max.outdoor temperature -
(daily range) /
2

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Wall CLTD Tables
Wall
CLTD
Tables
Roof CLTD Tables
Roof CLTD
Tables

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Opaque Adjustment Factors
Opaque
Adjustment
Factors
ASHRAE Table 1B-Cooling Daily Range
ASHRAE
Table
1B-Cooling
Daily
Range

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Glass Cooling Load, Radiation q=A(SC)(SHGF)(CLF) A = glass area SC = Shading Coefficient SHGF =
Glass
Cooling
Load,
Radiation
q=A(SC)(SHGF)(CLF)
A
=
glass area
SC
=
Shading Coefficient
SHGF
=
Solar Heat
Gain Factor, tabulated
by
Latitude
Month
Orientation
CLF = Cooling
Load Factor, tabulated
by
Time-of-day
Building
Mass
Floor Treatment
(Optional)
Solar Heat Gain Factors (Table 34-89F26.40)
Solar Heat
Gain Factors
(Table
34-89F26.40)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Shading Coefficient
Shading
Coefficient
Shading Coefficients (Table 11- ’97F29.25-26)
Shading
Coefficients
(Table 11- ’97F29.25-26)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Shading Coefficients (Table 19-05F31.48) (SC=1.15 x SHGC)
Shading Coefficients (Table
19-05F31.48)
(SC=1.15 x SHGC)
Cooling Load Factors (CLF) (Table 36-89F26.41)
Cooling
Load
Factors (CLF) (Table 36-89F26.41)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Cooling Load Factors (CLF) (Table 39-89F26.43)
Cooling
Load
Factors (CLF) (Table 39-89F26.43)
Factors Affecting Reflectivity All Solar radiation values in all tables and software have a “surrounding
Factors Affecting
Reflectivity
All Solar radiation
values in all tables
and software
have
a “surrounding
reflectivity”
assumption built in
to them.

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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“Elliott Bay Phenomenon”
“Elliott
Bay Phenomenon”
Infiltration Load = 1.10 CFM ( t out - t in ) q sensible CFM
Infiltration
Load
= 1.10 CFM ( t out
- t in )
q sensible
CFM
(
- W in )
q latent = 4840
W out
Requires
psychrometric
chart in most cases

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Internal Loads = No. x Heat Gain x CLF q people-sensible = No. x Heat
Internal
Loads
=
No.
x
Heat Gain x CLF
q people-sensible
=
No.
x
Heat Gain
q people-latent
=
Heat Gain x CLF
q lighting
=
Heat Gain x CLF
q equipment
Use
CLF = 1.0 unless
HVAC runs
24 hours
Lighting
Gain
(Use
Energy
Code)
TABLE 15-1
Unit Lighting Power Allowance (LPA)
Use 1
LPA 2 (W/ft 2 )
Police and fire stations 8
1.20
Painting, welding, carpentry, machine shops
2.30
Atria (atriums)
1.00
Barber shops, beauty shops
2.00
Assembly spaces 9 , auditoriums,
gymnasia 9 ,
theaters
1.00
Hotel banquet/conference/exhibition hall 3,4
2.00
Group R-1 common areas
1.00
Laboratories
2.00
Process
plants
1.00
Aircraft repair hangars
1.50
Restaurants/bars 5
1.00
Cafeterias,
fast food establishments 5
1.50
Factories, workshops, handling areas
1.50
Locker and/or shower facilities
0.80
Gas
stations, auto repair shops 6
1.50
Warehouses 11 , storage areas
0.50
Institutions
1.50
Libraries 5
1.50
Aircraft storage hangars
0.40
Nursing homes and hotel/motel guest
rooms
1.50
Parking
garages
See Section
Retail 10 , retail banking
1.50
1532
Wholesale
stores
(pallet
rack shelving)
1.50
Plans Submitted for Common Areas Only 7
Mall concourses
1.40
Main floor building
lobbies 3 (except mall concourses)
1.20
School buildings (Group E occupancy only,
school
1.35
Common areas, corridors, toilet
facilities and washrooms,
0.80
classrooms, day care centers
elevator lobbies
Laundries
1.30
Office buildings,
office/administrative areas
in facilities of
1.20
other use types (including but not limited to
institutions, museums, banks, churches) 5,7,11
schools, hospitals,

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Gain vs. Load - Lighting Example
Gain
vs. Load -
Lighting
Example
Lighting - Load Not in Space
Lighting
- Load
Not
in
Space

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People Heat Gain
People
Heat Gain
Office Equipment Heat Gain
Office
Equipment
Heat
Gain

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Projected Office Equip. Wattage
Projected Office
Equip.
Wattage
In-Class Cooling Load Exercise What is the July cooling load at 5:00 pm for the
In-Class
Cooling
Load
Exercise
What
is
the
July cooling load
at 5:00
pm
for
the
Seattle office
space described in the
heat loss
example.
78 o F and
Assume an
indoor design
condition of
40% Relative
Humidity.
N
50’
12’
10’
12’