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ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

1

ME
425
Keith E. Elder, P.E.
vs.
Heat
Gain
Space Heat Gain
The
instantaneous rate at which heat enters
into and/or is
generated within
a space
at
a given
instant.
Space Cooling
The
rate
at which heat
must be removed from the space to
maintain
a constant
space air temperature.
Heat
Extraction
The
actual heat removed
from
the space taking account
that space air temperature does not
remain constant, but
experiences
minor, cyclic
variations.

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

2

Solar
Heat
Gain
(July)
300
East
Horzontal
250
West
200
150
South
100
50
North
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11 1213 14
1516 17 18 1920 21 2223
24
Hour
Btu/hr/SF
Solar
Cooling
vs.
Heat
Gain
July
oriented West – 48°
N. Lat.
250
Gain
200
150
100
50
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7 8 9 101112131415161718192021222324
Hour
Btu/hr/SF

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

3

Calculation
Techniques
TETD/TA Method
Originally
Developed
by Willis Carrier
Widely
used
but sources not
well-documented
Transfer
Function
Method (TFM)
Rigorous & Complex
Requires Computer
1989 CLTD/CLF Method
Hand Calculation Method
Simplified
Factors
based on TFM (above)
Series
(RTS)
Method
Based on
Heat
Balance
Method
(exact solution)
Requires Computer-Based
Solution Techniques
CLTD/CLF Method
Formulas
Glass
cooling
q=A(SC)(SHGF)(CLF)
q=UA(CLTD) for conduction
is
calculated:
q = UA(CLTD)
CLF
q cooling load = q heat gain x

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

4

Opaque
Surface Cooling
q
=
UA(CLTD corrected )
U = Assembly
U-factor
A = Opaque
Surface Area
CLTD
=
Temperature
Difference
Based
on latitude
Time-of-day
Thermal
storage
in
materials used
R-value of component
Presence of suspended ceiling
(for roofs only)
Opaque
Surface Calculation
Use
Table 31
(89F26.36) for Wall
Calculations
Use
Table 29
(89F26.34) for
Roof Calculations
Select Wall/Roof Type
Look up uncorrected
CLTD
Correct CLTD
= (CLTD +
LM)k +
(78 - t room ) +
(t m -
85)
CLTD corrected
LM
=
Latitude/Month Correction Factor
(Table 32 -
89F26.37)
k
=
Color
Correction (Dark = 1.0,
Med = 0.83, Light =
0.65)
t room = design
indoor space temperature
= average temperature
on
the design day
t m
= max.outdoor temperature -
(daily range) /
2

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

5

Wall
CLTD
Tables
Roof CLTD
Tables

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

6

Opaque
Factors
ASHRAE
Table
1B-Cooling
Daily
Range

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

7

Glass
Cooling
q=A(SC)(SHGF)(CLF)
A
=
glass area
SC
=
SHGF
=
Solar Heat
Gain Factor, tabulated
by
Latitude
Month
Orientation
CLF = Cooling
by
Time-of-day
Building
Mass
Floor Treatment
(Optional)
Solar Heat
Gain Factors
(Table
34-89F26.40)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

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Coefficient
Coefficients
(Table 11- ’97F29.25-26)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

9

19-05F31.48)
(SC=1.15 x SHGC)
Cooling
Factors (CLF) (Table 36-89F26.41)

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

10

Cooling
Factors (CLF) (Table 39-89F26.43)
Factors Affecting
Reflectivity
values in all tables
and software
have
a “surrounding
reflectivity”
assumption built in
to them.

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

11

“Elliott
Bay Phenomenon”
Infiltration
= 1.10 CFM ( t out
- t in )
q sensible
CFM
(
- W in )
q latent = 4840
W out
Requires
psychrometric
chart in most cases

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

12

Internal
=
No.
x
Heat Gain x CLF
q people-sensible
=
No.
x
Heat Gain
q people-latent
=
Heat Gain x CLF
q lighting
=
Heat Gain x CLF
q equipment
Use
CLF = 1.0 unless
HVAC runs
24 hours
Lighting
Gain
(Use
Energy
Code)
TABLE 15-1
Unit Lighting Power Allowance (LPA)
Use 1
LPA 2 (W/ft 2 )
Police and fire stations 8
1.20
Painting, welding, carpentry, machine shops
2.30
Atria (atriums)
1.00
Barber shops, beauty shops
2.00
Assembly spaces 9 , auditoriums,
gymnasia 9 ,
theaters
1.00
Hotel banquet/conference/exhibition hall 3,4
2.00
Group R-1 common areas
1.00
Laboratories
2.00
Process
plants
1.00
Aircraft repair hangars
1.50
Restaurants/bars 5
1.00
Cafeterias,
fast food establishments 5
1.50
Factories, workshops, handling areas
1.50
Locker and/or shower facilities
0.80
Gas
stations, auto repair shops 6
1.50
Warehouses 11 , storage areas
0.50
Institutions
1.50
Libraries 5
1.50
Aircraft storage hangars
0.40
Nursing homes and hotel/motel guest
rooms
1.50
Parking
garages
See Section
Retail 10 , retail banking
1.50
1532
Wholesale
stores
(pallet
rack shelving)
1.50
Plans Submitted for Common Areas Only 7
Mall concourses
1.40
Main floor building
lobbies 3 (except mall concourses)
1.20
School buildings (Group E occupancy only,
school
1.35
Common areas, corridors, toilet
facilities and washrooms,
0.80
classrooms, day care centers
elevator lobbies
Laundries
1.30
Office buildings,
in facilities of
1.20
other use types (including but not limited to
institutions, museums, banks, churches) 5,7,11
schools, hospitals,

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

13

Gain
Lighting
Example
Lighting
Not
in
Space

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

14

People
Heat Gain
Office
Equipment
Heat
Gain

ME 425 - Space Cooling Load

15

Projected Office
Equip.
Wattage
In-Class
Cooling
Exercise
What
is
the
at 5:00
pm
for
the
Seattle office
space described in the
heat loss
example.
78 o F and
Assume an
indoor design
condition of
40% Relative
Humidity.
N
50’
12’
10’
12’