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UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILLITERACY AS CONTRIBUTOTY FACTORS

TO THE INCREASE OF CRIME IN MAJAYJAY, LAGUNA

A Thesis
Presented to
the College of Criminology
UNION COLLEGE
Santa Cruz, Laguna

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Criminology

By

CHARLENE A. VILLARMIL
JERIK JEZZER A. PANCHACOLA
KENNETH L. FABULA
October 2014

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction
Social scientists conceived crimes as menace to social, economic and political stability of
nations and thus ultimately cause people to suffer from fears, insecurities, life miseries, and
misfortunes. More than ever, crimes vary from one social group to another and their root causes
in most cases may be traced to societal general conditions.
As disclosed by Lemert (2013) societal general conditions as indicative of urbanization,
rapid population rate, poverty, unemployment, no access to equal educational opportunities
among the populace, migration from the rural to urban, and corruptions of politicians directly
and indirectly, contribute to the incidence of crimes of any form.
By and large, social scientists have had classified criminal activity according to the
discernible behavior systems of those who engage in it.

In most cases, illiteracy equates

unemployment and therefore correlated to commission of crimes for survival or eventually


sustenance of vices of those who commit it.
In the local scenario as reported by Police Supt. Sindac (2014),the PNP Spokesman,
290,000 number of crimes were committed in the country for year 2014, and these were
attributed to various causes though thirty percent (30%) of which were solved and still in
progress for their resolutions, with ninety percent (90%) satisfaction rating, in favor among the
rank and file of the police organization.

It was therefore apparent for the researchers to conduct a study on unemployment and
illiteracy as contributory factors to crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna with the end in view that
the findings of this study may merit lawmakers, educators, local public officials, police
authorities, citizens and future researchers.
Background of the Study
The old town of Majayjay in the Province of Laguna offers a magnificent St. Gregory
Church built in 1575 has ultimately preserved the antique relief statues of saints brought by the
Spaniards and historical sites, together with the warm hospitality of people thus making the
municipality a second home away from home among the local and foreign tourists who happened
to come and visit the place for quite sometimes.
Majayjay standing on the western foot of Mt. Banahaw, has a climatic condition second
to Tagaytay and accessible by land transportation by a matter of minutes from the adjacent towns
of Magdalena, Liliw, Nagcarlan, Luisiana and Lucban in the north, south and east directions
respectively, with agriculture as major means of peoples livelihood.
However, the serenity of the place has been awakened by incidence of crimes involving
public order commonly known as crimes without victims, such as drunkenness, vagrancy, sex
offenses, gambling, and drug addiction; as well as conventional crimes comprising robbery,
larceny, burglary, and youth offenses.
Anchored on the above scenario, it was imperative for the researchers to conduct an
actual study of this nature in order to establish significant linkages of unemployment and
illiteracy with the said crimes committed in various degrees in selected barangays in Majayjay,
Laguna.

Theoretical Framework
Selected theories stipulated hereunder offered deeper insight for the present researchers to
formulate a conceptual frame of reference which helped them resolve the problem areas
investigated with finality.
As theorized by Noori (2014) in todays era of high needs and technology, it is true that
unemployment is growing fast and people are getting frustrated and the commission of crime is
definitely an option for survival.
The foregoing theory is sustained further by Ali (2014) that there is a link between and
among unemployment, illiteracy and crimes wherein the former are correlates to the latter. In
other words, in the community where unemployment and illiteracy rates are high, the incidence
of crimes is also high. The positive relationships between and among the foregoing variables are
prevalent in developing countries where agricultural activities on the subsistent or hand-to-mouth
level are the major means of occupation. Added insult to injury, the corruption of public officials
is a blunder to bringing to the doorsteps of impoverish citizens access to free quality educational
and employment opportunities, and thus the latter are motivated to commit crimes for their
survival.
The above theories served as masker keys in designing a conceptual framework for the
present researchers to develop proper psychological and associational perspectives within which
their problem areas of investigation lie.

Conceptual Framework
The foregoing theoretical citations served as the basis in designing a skeleton model in a
form of research paradigm as shown in Figure 1.
The said paradigm is an application of system analysis to research where it provides a
holistic approach in analyzing as to whether or not unemployment and illiteracy are factors
which contribute to increases in crime rates in Majayjay, Laguna.
Independent Variables
Variables
Input
Personal Profile:

Gender
Age
Educational
Attainment
Monthly
Income
Frame 1

Intervening Variables
Throughput
Degree of Crimes
Committed:

crime
against
public order
conventional
crime
occasional
property
crime

Dependent
Output
Extensiveness of
Crime

Increases as
Contributed:
unemployme
nt
illiteracy

Figure 1: Research Paradigm


In Frame 1, it includes the independent variables fused as input or load, such as personal
profile of the respondents in terms gender, age, educational attainment, and monthly income.
The inclusion of these variables is significant in determining most probably if the respondents
are illiterate and unemployed.

As reflected in Frame 2, it covers the intervening variables in terms of the degree of


crimes committed by the respondents as to crime of public order, conventional crime, and
occasional property crime deciphered as throughput, the transformation process wherein input is
transformed into output. In other words without throughput, input can never be transformed into
output, and therefore the objectives advanced in this study have no chance to be achieved.
Toward this end, the dependent variables are capsulated in Frame 3 as output or simply
the outcome in order to gauge out if unemployment and illiteracy are contributory factors to
crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna.
As such therefore, if the correlational level between unemployment and illiteracy as
contributory factors and the increases of crime rate in the said municipality is positively high,
then the null hypothesis is rejected, while the working hypothesis is supported at five percent
(5%) level of significance.
Statement of the Problem
This study is focused on unemployment and illiteracy as contributory factors to crime
increases in Majayjay, Laguna.
Specifically, it seeks answers to the following problems:
1. What is the personal profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1. gender,
1.2. age,
1.3. educational attainment,

1.4. employment, and


1.5. monthly income?
2. What degree of crimes has been committed by the respondents as to:
2.1. crimes against property,
2.2. crimes against person, and
2.3. crimes that is usually committed?
3. To what extent do crime increases in Majayjay are significantly contributed by the
given factors with respect to:
3.1. unemployment, and
3.2. illiteracy?
Statement of Hypotheses
Hypotheses in null and working forms are hereby drawn for acceptance or support at five
percent (5%) level of significance:
Null (Ho1-3) There is no significant difference in the personal profile of the respondents,
the degree of crimes they had committed, and no extensiveness of crime increases in Majayjay as
significantly contributed by factors with respect to unemployment and illiteracy.
Working (H1-3) The higher is the personal profile of the respondents, the lesser or zero
degree of crimes they had committed, and therefore unemployment and illiteracy are
insignificant factors to extensiveness of crime increases in Majayjay.

There is a work relationship established between the null and working hypotheses for
simple reason that once the former is rejected, the latter is supported relative to the foregoing
problem areas investigated.
Objectives of the Study
The following objectives are hereby drawn:
1. To know the personal profile of the respondents in terms of gender, age, educational
attainment, employment and monthly income;
2. To determine the degree of crimes committed by the respondents as to crime of public
order, conventional crime, and occasional property crime; and
3. To establish the relationship between unemployment and illiteracy as contributory
factors, and crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna.

Scope and Limitation of the Study


This study covered sixty (60) respondents representing DSWD officials, PNP officers and
personnel, municipal officials, barangay officials, citizens and law offenders in Majayjay,
Laguna, year duration 2014.
It is limited to three (3) areas of investigation, namely: 1.) the personal profile of the
respondents in terms of gender, age, educational attainment, employment, and monthly income;
2.) the degree of crimes committed by the respondents as to crime of crime against property,

crimes against person, and other crimes that is usually committed in Majayjay as significantly
contributed by the given factors with respect to unemployment and illiteracy.
It is further limited to the use of descriptive method in gathering and treating the data for
the above problem areas investigated with stratified random sampling for proportional
representation of the actual respondents coming from different sectors in the said municipality.
Importance of the Study
The findings of this study may merit the following:
Lawmakers. They will be motivated to give more teeth to laws governing minors who
commit crimes involving public order and conventional crimes separating the same from that of
adult offenders, as well as parents who will be liable to answer of their neglect of the legal duties
to educate their children for their welfare.
DepEd Officials. Upon knowing that illiteracy is contributory factor to commission of
crimes most particularly among minors, they will be forced to allot more budget in putting up
more schools in every barangay in the urban and rural areas in the country.
CHED and TESDA Officials. They will see to it that four and short term college
courses are related to the needs of the industries so that graduates will not join the big army of
jobless citizens and thus will not remain as liabilities but rather responsible citizens who have
active share in building their respective families and communities in particular, and the country
in general toward the global arena.
Local Public Officials. They will lead into self-examination of their legal duties as
public servants and thus they are enjoined to serve their respective offices with the highest

degree of responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency in the delivery of basic services to their
respective areas of jurisdiction so their constituents will enjoy quality life in the midst of natural
and manmade calamities.
PNP Officers and Personnel. Their police work being essentially a civilian function
which shall be non-military and civilian in character under the administration and control of a
civilian agency such the case of local executives be given authority and responsibility among the
former in the maintenance of peace and order, protection of lives and properties and enforcement
of the law.
Citizens. As members of democratic community who enjoy full civil and political rights,
they will realize that achievement of peace and order does not exist in a vacuum and therefore
demands utmost cooperation and support to their local and national leaders in order to make their
respective communities in particular, and their country in general, a better place to live and work.
Future Researchers. The findings of this study may serve as data bank for future
researchers to conduct studies of similar nature and thus strengthened further the findings of this
present investigation.
Definition of Terms
For a better understanding of this study, the following terms are defined:
Contributory Factors. These are unemployment and illiteracy which jointly ignite the
commission of crimes against property and person as criminal activities in Majayjay, Laguna.
Crime Increases. These refer to enlargement or expansion of crimes committed due to
unemployment and illiteracy of the offenders presumed to be their option for survival.

Crimes against Person. This involves physical injury and destruction of life.
Crimes against Property. This involves theft, malicious mischief and arson and other
crimes involving destruction.
Illiteracy. A public offender who has little or no education at all and eventually unable to
read and write serving as a contributory factor to crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna.
Majayjay. A third class municipality in Laguna rationalized by the researchers as the
venue of the study due to proximity to their respective domiciles in order to minimize financial
and time constraints during the actual gathering of data for their thesis.
Personal Profile. This applies to private characteristics of the respondents in terms of
gender, age, educational attainment, employment and monthly income as one of the basic
questions raised in this.
Unemployment. It is one of the variables included in this study believed to be as a
contributory factor to crime increases in Majayjay due to the fact that the public offender is not
engaged in a gainful occupation or no work at all as means for survival.

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURES AND STUDIES

Selected literatures and studies included hereunder by the foreign and local authors and
research personalities were found with direct similarity and significant bearing to the present
study. Their readings served as guide for the present researchers to attack with deeper insight
and with more complete knowledge on how their own problem areas investigated were resolved
with lesser difficulty and finality.
Related Literatures
Foreign
As claimed by Mueller (2013), unemployment and illiteracy are terms in tandem as
correlates to one another rooted from Latin words an and implicare meaning no and fold
for the former which generally connotes a person not engaged in a gainful occupation; and
illiteratus denoting unable to read or write for the latter respectively. In other words, if a
person is illiterate, chances are no leeway for him to be employed under an employer, however
he has access to be self employed by using his muscular strength in order to earn for a living.
But at the end day, a persons earnings through the use of muscles are on the subsistent or handto-mouth level and therefore could not consistently support and sustain the basic household
needs of the family and thus deprived children of quality education for their welfare. However,
such scenario is only true in countries where there is abundance of labor supply hence the work
of the hands is very cheap. But on other hand, the use of muscles or simply manual labor as
means for a living is of great demand in highly developed and affluent countries and the income
is definitely high than the white collar jobs. It is within this context that a person with hand-to-

mouth income would find other means by committing crimes for survival just in case he is a
family man with many children to support of their basic household, nutritional and educational
needs.
The above viewpoints are strengthened further by Schaefer (2013) that illiteracy
sustained the unemployment status of the individual and therefore partners in the impoverished
conditions of the family. In this case, if a person is illiterate, he has no access to employment
opportunities and therefore tantamount to resulting into other means by committing crimes at
extreme cases, for survival.
The same line of thinking has been advocated by Jackson (2013) that unemployment and
illiteracy are social conditions as offshoots of very weak leadership combined with corruptions as
veritable industry of some politicians taking shape in poor countries. With this dilemma, people
have no access to better educational and employment opportunities the fact that budgetary
allotment for schools and industries went into the pocket of their leaders, hence the former, other
than their sufferings from natural calamities, they suffered much from manmade calamities as
offshoots of the latters nefarious activities which tantamount to their life decadence and
miseries. With this at hand, victims of such malady who are then illiterates and unemployed
have to find ways and means by committing crimes in order to eat four square meals a day, and
thus sacrificing the educational needs of their children.

Local
By and large in the local scenario, as former Senator Magsaysay (2010) declared it that
the nations progress is no swifter than its progress in education. More than ever, the entire
country is counting on the educational system and the educators to lead this nation towards the
realization of social and economic goals. The Filipinos therefore have always subscribed to the
principle that the youth is the hope of the nation, for they will one day become the citizens and
leaders of this country. And thus, a neglect of budget allocations for educational opportunities
among youth will eventually drag them to illiteracy which is tantamount to unemployment as
they will become liabilities rather than assets to society. With this situation, illiteracy and
unemployment are the common denominators of crimes in the respective communities in
particular, and by placing the country at large, as crime capital before the eyes of the global
village.
On the same vein, former Senator Angara (2011) rectified that in order to zero down
illiteracy and unemployment in the country, education must be at work. More than ever, budget
priority for education is a constitutional mandate, wherefore a neglect of which is a threat to the
welfare of the youth. It is at this point that the youth cannot be the hope of the fatherland as they
are illiterates and no work as means for a living and therefore, they do not have active share in
building their respective communities in particular, and the country in general, and thus they do
not have a competitive edge with their counterpart in the global arena.
Accordingly, Rimando (2010) strongly pointed out that schools are means to eradicate
illiteracy rate in the country as means for employment opportunities among the greatest number.
It is for this reason that budget allocation for school buildings, modern facilities and equipment

side by side with deployment of more teachers and increases of their salaries in the first city to
the last barrio of the country, will redound to uplift the quality of life the citizens on the local and
national spheres. With this situation, the citizens are liberated from the bondage of ignorance,
poverty and criminality.
The above foreign and local literatures though not necessarily identical but somehow
collateral to the present investigation relative to unemployment and illiteracy as contributory
factors to crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna. And thus, their advocacies helped the present
researchers in farming out unexplored areas for them to elicit answers to the basic questions
raised in the study.
Related Studies
Foreign
An institutional study was launched by Greene (2010) along illiteracy as indicator of
unemployment in enhancing crime rate in the slum areas of the urban metropolis in New York.
He employed a field study in gathering and treating the data for the basic problems raised
utilizing purposive sampling of around sixty (60) actual respondents from the population
parameter of one-hundred fifty (150). His findings among others, revealed that 30 or 60 percent
finished high school; whereas, 20 or 40 percent were elementary graduates wherein the former
were absorbed as blue collar workers in the factory, and the latter remained jobless.
The foregoing findings tend to point out those jobless were the ones involved in occasional
property crimes such as shoplifting and vandalism; and those who finished high school with blue
collar jobs seldom were involved in conventional or occasional property crime but at extreme
cases were dragged to crime involving public order such as drunkenness.

A parallel study was conducted by Newman (2011) on illiteracy and unemployment as


correlates to crime incidence in Idaho. Of the one-hundred fifty (150) randomly selected
respondents, 80 or 53.33 percent were college graduates and with white collar jobs; whereas 70
or 46.67 percent finished high school and landed as blue collar workers as janitors and janitress
in hotels and resorts. Based on the findings of the study, it was therefore inferred that the higher
is the educational attainment of the respondents, the better is the job and no crime of any kind
inflicted by them.
Graf (2012) in his study revealed that illiteracy and unemployment served as enhancers
of criminal behavior among inmates in Indiana District Jail. Anchored on the foregoing findings,
he inferred that the higher is the degree of illiteracy among inmates, the lesser is their chance for
employment opportunities and the more they are susceptible to criminal behavior and later
landed up in jail.
Local
A group research conducted by Guevarra, et. al. (2014) along the effectiveness of
correctional education program in San Pablo City District Jail, their findings revealed that
majority of inmates around 90 percent were on the grade level; and 10 percent were illiterates.
Such the case, grade level and illiterate inmates were prone to commit crimes involving public
order, conventional and occasional property offenses. They revealed further that the lower is the
educational attainment of inmates, the higher is their susceptibility to commit crimes, and the
more they become adaptable to prison cell for their security and safety as no leeway for survival
in a free society due to their unemployment status. Based on the foregoing findings, they
recommended that inmates should be motivated to finish high school and acquire vocational and

technical courses while in jail in preparation for life anew in society, subsequent to serving their
sentence in jail.
A study by Catapang, et. al.(2014), strengthened further the findings of the foregoing
studies with bearing on factors affecting the increase of female inmates in Correctional
Institution for Women in Mandaluyong City. They utilized a descriptive design with locally
constructed questionnaire of five-Likert scale in gathering and treating the data in order to elicit
answers to the basic questions raised in the study. Among others, their findings revealed that
illiteracy and unemployment were contributory factors to the increase of female inmates in the
said correctional institution. They recommended that these inmates be given access to finish
high school and college for their professional growth, in order to live their life anew when they
served their sentence for considerable number of years.
An institutional research of similar nature was spearheaded by Perez (2011) on illiteracy
and unemployment as correlates to incidence of crimes in the selected urban areas. He utilized a
field research by immersion with inmates in the selected city jails in the metropolis. His findings
among others, revealed a positive correlation between illiteracy and unemployment, and
incidence of crimes in the selected urban areas. In other words, the higher is the illiteracy and
unemployment rate, the greater is the incidence of crimes in the metropolis, and the more
inmates are locked up in city jails. In the light of the aforementioned findings, he recommended
that more access to educational opportunities be made among unemployed individuals in order to
minimize if not to totally zero down incidence of crimes in the city, and thus lessen the number
of inmates in the city jail.

Apparently, though the above studies are not exactly identical in venue and time frame
with the present research undertaking, yet both are peripheral in the problem areas investigated
most probably along unemployment and illiteracy as contributory factors to crime increases in
Majayjay, Laguna.

Chapter 3

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This portion gives careful consideration on research design, population and sampling
technique, research instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data in order
to elicit answers to the foregoing problem areas advanced in this study.
Research Design
The researchers employed the descriptive survey method in gathering and treating the
data for the above problem investigated. In the employment of the said design, the researchers
observed the following: the population for the study was carefully chosen, clearly defined, and
specifically limit on the topic concerned and precise parameters for ensuring the discreteness to
safeguard the data were systematically organized so that valid and accurate conclusions may be
drawn.
Thus from the procedure discussed above, the researchers believed that descriptive
survey method is rationalize as essential for this study.
Population and Sampling Technique
Stratified randomized sampling was employed in this study. This kind of sampling
consists of heterogeneous population from different sectors representing the actual respondents
of this study. A total of fifty (43) actual respondents were selected: Ten (11) DSWD officials:
Ten (11) PNP officers and personnel: Ten (10) municipal officials: Ten (11) inmates.

In order to assure the validity and reliability of the actual sample, Slovens sampling
formula was employed.
Sampling formula:
n=N
1 +Ne2
Where:
n=sample size
N= population size
e2=error of estimate squared
Research Instrument
Three (3) sets of questionnaire were issued to the actual respondents of this study. The
items in the questionnaire were based on the problem areas investigated for objectivity,
relevance, suitability to the basic questions raised and probability of favorable reception and
return from the said respondents.
Thus, the researchers were guided by several important considerations in questionnaire
construction, such as: be courteous an occasional request beginning; simplify by making the
instrument as simple to read and to respond to as possible; think of other fellow by putting
oneself in the place of the respondent; concentrate on the universal by trying to address questions
to universals rather than specifics; make it brief by making the questionnaire as brief as possible
and should solicit only those data essential to the progress of the research project; and check for

consistency by dealing with debatable or opinion-sensitive issues or in situations where the


respondent may give answers that seem prudent in certain cases.
The tentative draft of the questionnaire was submitted to the thesis adviser for judgmental
corrections after which three (3) authorities representing panel of experts were consulted to
improve further its organization and contents. The improved draft was then tried out on ten (10)
dry-run subjects who were not included as actual respondents of this study using the Spearmans
(Rho) formula to ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire.
Rho formula:
R=1-6ED2
N(N2-1)
where:
R=Rho value
ED2=sum of square difference between ranks
N=number of pairs of measurement
With the R value of one (1), the questionnaire was declared valid and reliable.
In order to avoid guesswork and obtain one-hundred percent (100%) responses from the
actual respondents, a five-Likert scale type of optional answers was reflected with equivalent
weight and verbal interpretation given below.

Scale

Weight

Verbal Interpretation

4.21-5.00

3.41-4.20

2.61-3.40

Sometimes

1.81-2.60

Seldom

1.00-1.80

Never

Always
Often

Data Gathering Procedure


As everything was in place coupled with the validity and reliability of the major
instrument with notation from the thesis adviser, letters addressed to the PNP,DSWD, and local
government officials were prepared requesting permission to issue a set of questionnaire to the
actual respondents included in their respective areas of jurisdiction.
The distribution and retrieval of the three (3) sets of questionnaire were done personally
by the researchers in order to clarify questions which were found highly technical in nature by
the said respondents.

Statistical Treatment of Data


The responses of the actual respondents were tallied and tabulated in order to determine
the frequencies and equivalent percentages using the given formula.
Percentage formula:

%=Ef
N
where:
%=percent
Ef=sum of frequencies
N=number of cases
Chi-square test formula to test null hypotheses 1 and 2 relative to the significant
differences in the personal profile of the respondents and the degree of crimes committed by the
offenders at five percent (5%) significant level.
X2=E(0-E)2
E
where:
X2=chi-square value
O=observed frequency
E=expected frequency
Weighted mean formula designed to know the weight of the responses of the respondents
to the basic questions raised.
WM=Esf
N

where:
WM=weighted mean
Esf=sum of scale and frequency
N=number of cases
Product-moment formula intended to establish relationship between independent and
dependent variables such the cases of unemployment and illiteracy as contributory factors to
crime increases in the said municipality respectively.
R=Exy
V(Ex2)(Ey2)
where:
R=correlation value
x=independent variables
y=dependent variables
T-ratio formula to test null hypothesis 3 in determining as to whether or not
unemployment and illiteracy can contribute to crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna at five
percent (5%) level of significance.
T = r Vn-2
V1-r2
where:
T= t-ratio

r=computed r between x and y


n=number of paired data

BIBLIOGRAPHY
A. Books
Angara, Edgardo (2011). Making Education At Work. Quezon City: Agenda for Reform
Constantino, Renato (2013). Problems of Global Competitiveness: Social Science and
Multiculturalism. Manila: ASSERT.
Jackson, Richard M. (2013). The Machinery of Justice in England. London: Justice
Journal.
Lemert, Edwin M. (2013). Human Deviance, Social Problems and Social Control. New
York: NY Publications.
Magsaysay, Ramon Jr. (2010). Talking Points on Trends, Issues and Challenges of the
21st Century: Implications to Quality Education. Manila: ASSERT.
Mueller, Gerhard O. (2013). The American Series of Foreign Penal Codes. New Jersey:
Manual for System of Justice.
Rimando, Tony (2010). Schools for the Future. Manila: Manila Bulletin
Publications.
Schaefer, Walter C. (2013). The Suspect and Society. Ill.: South Hackened Evanston
Press.
B. Published and Unpublished Researches
Catapang, Bing Carla (2013). Factors Affecting the Increase of Female Inmates in
Correctional Institution for Women in Mandaluyong City. A Thesis, College of
Criminal Justice Education, LSPU Santa Cruz Main Campus.
Graf, Max (2012).Illiteracy and Unemployment as Enhancers of Criminal
Behavior.Indiana: A Position Paper.
Greene, Theodore M. (2010).Illiteracy as Indicator of Unemployment in Enhancing
Crime Rate in the Slum Areas of the Urban metropolis. New York: Institutional
Study for Book publications.
Guevarra, Arjay; Marfori, Ralph Marvin; and Reyes, Zette Rudly (2013).Effectiveness
of
Correctional Education Program in San Pablo City Jail. A thesis, College of
Criminology, LSPU San Pablo City Campus.
Newman, Ernest A. (2011). Illiteracy and Unemployment as Correlates to Crime
Incidence in Idaho. An Institutional Research for Sociological Publications.

Perez, Robert T. (2011). Illiteracy and Unemployment as Correlates to Incidence of


Crimes in the Selected Urban Areas. Manila: An Institutional Research for
Sociology Journal.

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents the data gathered from 43 respondents


representing PNP officers and personnel, inmates, DSWD officials and
municipal officials of Majayjay, Laguna by means of questionnaire of fiveoptional answers. The data are presented in pie graphs and tables according
to frequency counts and equivalent percentages weighted mean with verbal
interpretation of always, often, sometimes or never, to correlation and
subjected to nonparametric and parametric tests by means of chi-square and
T-test formulas respectively for empirical testing of null hypotheses at five
(5) percent level of significance as basis for analysis and interpretation of
data relative to the unemployment and illiteracy as contributory factors to
the increase of crimes in Majayjay, Laguna. The pie graphs and tables appear
based on the logical sequence of the basic problem areas investigated.
Personal Profile of the Respondents
The personal profile of the respondents is presented hereunder in order
to provide background information of their gender, age, present position,
civil status, educational attainment and unemployment as presented in pie
graphs in gauging out the validity and reliability of data for the above areas
investigated.

PNP officers and Personnel


Gender of the total of 11 PNP officers and personnel of Majayjay Police
District, 8 or 72.73 percent were males as against the female counterpart of
only 3 or 27.27 percent in their rank and file as shown in Pie Graph I.

Pie Graph I: Gender of PNP officers and Personnel

MALE
3 or
27.27%

FEMALE

The chi-square (x2) value of 2.2728 which is lesser than the critical
value (cv) of 3.841 with the degree of freedom (df) of one (1), registers no
significant difference in the gender representation between male and female
PNP officers and personnel at the time this study was

conducted. The findings tend to show of the equal representation of both


male and female officers and personnel from PNP in Majayjay, Laguna.

Age
Majority of the PNP officers and personnel were at the age bracket of
20-39 years old as declared by 11 or 100 percent in their rank and file. The
findings point out that they belonged to early adulthood, a period of
adjustments to new patterns of life and new social expectations as
significantly attested of the chi-square (x2) value of 11 which is indeed
greater than the

Pie Graph 2: Age of PNP officers and Personnel

20-39 years old

critical value of 3.841 with the degree of freedom of one (1). The said
findings reveal that they are in the productive age in preparation for
parenthood which is basically the most important roles in the lives of these
young PNP officers and personnel in Majayjay Police District.

Present Position of PNP officers and Personnel


Present position of the total of 11 PNP officers and personnel who were
asked of this query, 3 or 27.27 percent belonged to WCPD and operation; 2
or 18.18 percent claimed that their work assignment is in the investigation
and traffic; whereas only 1 or 9.09 percent was deployed in the intelligence
section as reflected in Pie Graph 3.

Pie Graph 3: Present Position of PNP officers and Personnel

2 or
18.18%

WCPD
operation
intelligence
traffic

2 or
18.18%

investigation
3 or

1 or
9.09%

An analysis of the chi-square value of 1.2727 which is lesser than the


critical value of 9.488 with the degree of freedom 4 registers no significant
difference in their present position of the said police district in Majayjay.

Inmates
Gender of 11 inmates at Majayjay Municipal Jail, 9 or 81.82 percent
were males and only 18.18 percent were females as reported in Pie Graph 4.
The findings show the dominance of male inmates at the said jail as
registered by the chi-square (x2) value of 2.2728 which is lesser than the
critical value of 3.841 with the degree of freedom of one (1).

Pie Graph 4: Gender of Inmates

2 or
18.18%

female
male

9 or 81.82%

The foregoing findings tend to imply that males were prone to commit
crime due to their aggressive and masculine behavior than their female
counterpart who belonged to the weaker sex.

Age
As reported in Pie Graph 5, the age bracket of inmates ranged from 18
to 59 years old. The youngest were at the age bracket of 18-39 years old
declared by 8 or 72.73 percent; whereas the oldest were at the ages from 40
to 59 years old as disclosed by 3 or 27.27 percent leaving behind their
average age of 29 years old.

Pie Graph 5: Age of Inmates

3 or 27.27%

40-59 years old


18-39 years old

8 or 72.73%

The foregoing findings tend to show that the greatest number of


inmates were in their early adulthood, categorized as productive and
problem age due to parenthood preparation who were totally unprepared to
face it respectively as evidenced by the chi-square value of 2.2728 which is
lesser than the critical value of 3.841 with the degree of freedom of one (1).

Civil Status
The civil status of inmates at Majayjay district jail reported in Pie Graph
6.

The said inmates are predominantly married as registered by 5 or


45.45 percent; followed by 4 or 36.36 percent who claimed that they are
single since no family to support; whereas only I or 9.09 percent revealed
that they are separated and widower.

Pie Graph 6: Civil Status of Inmates

1 or
9.09%
1 or
9.09%

married
single
widower
separated
5 or
454.45%

4 or
36.36%

The chi-square value of 57.165 which is greater than the critical value
of 11.070 with the degree of freedom of 5, registers a significant difference
in the civil status of inmates as the greater number have their own families
to help maintain and support and committing crimes by robbing or stealing
someones property, the only means to support the basic household needs of
their children.

Number of children
As shown in Pie Graph 7, the inmates of the said jail have only 1 child
as reported by 6 or 54.54 percent, and 1 or 9.09 percent has 5, 4, 3 and 2
children in the family, and of the same percentage is childless.
An analysis of the chi-square value of 57.165 which is found greater
than the critical

Pie Graph 7: Number of Children of Inmates

1 or
9.09%

1 or
9.09%

zero

1 or

one
two

1 or
9.09%

three
four

1 or

five
6 or 54.54%

value of 11.070 with the degree of freedom 5, confirmed a significant


difference in the number of children of inmates of Majayjay district jail in
Laguna.

From the said findings, it is inferred that inmates of the said jail have
only one child in the family and being in jail could be attributed to the wards
they presently support.

Educational Attainment
As shown in Pie Graph 8, the inmates educational attainment ranged
from kindergarten to college graduates.
Majority of inmates are dominantly graduates of elementary grades as
claimed by 8 or 72.73 percent; and only one (1) or 9.09 percent finished
kindergarten; high school and of the same percentage has a self-imposed
professional growth as he finished college degree.
No significant difference in the distribution of the level of educational
attainment of the

Pie Graph 8: Educational Attainment of Inmates

1 or
1 or
9.09%

elementary graduates
high school graduate

1 or

college graduate
kindergarten garduate
8 or
72.73%

inmates can be observed as evidenced by the chi-square value of 13.3635


which is greater than the critical value of 7.815 with the degree of freedom
of 3. The said findings tend to show a big gap difference in the educational
attainment among inmates of the said jail in Majayjay, Laguna.
It is therefore inferred that through the greatest number finished
elementary grades. This cannot serve as a passport for better future in life;
hence they landed up in jail upon reaching their early adulthood.
Employment
The employment of inmates prior to their incarceration is registered in
Pie Graph 9. Dominantly, 6 or 54.54 percent were farmers; whereas 2 or
18.18 percent were laundry woman; farmer and the remaining percentage of

9.09 percent as claimed by one (1) disclosed that they were former barber,
carpenter, and fisherman.
Pie Graph 9: Employment of Inmates
1 or
9.09%
1 or

farmers
laundrywoman
fisherman

1 or
9.09%

carpenter
barber

2 or

6 or

However, they were practically unanimous in their employment as they


were deployed as blue collar workers in their own line of occupation before
they were incarcerated in jail as their second have away from home as
attested by the chi-square value of 8.5453 which is lesser than the critical
value of 9.488 with the degree of freedom of 4.
Monthly Income
As shown in Pie Graph 10, the monthly income of inmates prior to their
incarceration ranged from 900 and below to 6,000.
Of the total of 11 who were asked of this matter, 8 or 72.73 percent
claimed that their income bracket ranged from 1,000 to 3,000; whereas 2

or 18.18 percent disclosed of having a monthly income 900 and below;


while only 1 or 9.09 percent declared that this monthly earning bracket was
4,000-6,000 before he was jailed leaving behind their average monthly
income of 1,996.67 in their rank and file.
Pie Graph 10: Monthly Income Of Inmates

2 or

P1000-P3000
P4000-P6000

1 or

P900 & Below

8 or

A cursory analysis of the chi-square value of 7.8111 which is lower


than the critical value of 7.815 with the degree of freedom of 2 reveals no
significant difference in the monthly income of inmates before they were
arrested and jailed at the municipal district jail in Majayjay, Laguna.
The foregoing findings tend to point out that the said inmates had a
subsistent or a hand-to-mouth monthly income, the reason why they were
motivated to rob or steal for the sustenance of the household needs of the
family.
DSWD Officers and Personnel

Gender
Pie Graph 11 presents the personal profile of DSWD officers and
personnel in Majayjay, Laguna in terms of gender.
Of the total of 11 DSWD officers and personnel, 8 or 72.73 percent
were females as against their male counterpart of only 3 or 27.27 percent in
their rank and file.
Pie Graph 11: Gender of DSWD Officers and Personnel

Female

3 or
27.27%

Male

8 or
72.73%

No greater discrimination in the rank and file of DSWD officers and


personnel as reported by the chi-square value of 2.2728 which is lesser than
the critical value of 3.841 with the degree of freedom one (1).
The foregoing findings tend to point out of equal representation
between female and male officers and personnel at the local office of the
DSWD in Majayjay, Laguna.

Age
The age of the DSWD officers and personnel ranged from 20 to 59
years old as presented in Pie Graph 12.
Of the total of 11 who were asked of this matter, 7 or 63.64 percent
declared that their age bracket was 20-39 years old; and only 4 or 36.36
percent belonged to the age range of 40-59 years old.
Pie Graph 12: Age of DSWD officers and Personnel

4 or 36.36%

20-39 years old


40-59 years old
7 or 63.63%

The said officers and personnel at the DSWD were the same in their
age distribution as evidenced by the chi-square value of .8182 which is
lesser than the critical value of 3.841 within the parameter of the degree of
freedom of one (1). The foregoing findings tend to point out of no generation
gap taking shape at the local DSWD in Majayjay, Laguna as both the early
adulthood and middle adulthood worked hand-in-hand in the delivery of

social services to the citizens of the municipality most particularly minor


inmates at the municipal district jail.
Present Position
With respect to the present position of the DSWD officers and
personnel, Pie Graph 13, present the data.
Of the 11 DSWD officers and personnel 5 or 45.45 percent are social
worker volunteers, 2 or 18.18 percent are administrative officers and of the
same percentage disclosed that they are Public Relations officers; whereas
only 1 or 9.09 percent revealed of their position as secretary and treasurer at
the said local office.
Pie Graph 13: Present Position of DSWD officers and Personnel

social worker
adm. Officers

5 or

PRO
Secretary
treasurer

Looking deeper into the chi-square value of 4.909 which is lesser than
the degree of freedom of 4, registers no significant difference in the number

of present positions occupied by the said officers and personnel at the DSWD
local office in Majayjay, Laguna.
In other words, no dominance of superiority over subordinates at the
said local office of DSWD as they discharged their respective functions based
on their job description.
Local Government Officials
As reported in Pie Graph 14, majority of municipal officials in Majayjay,
Laguna who were consulted of this query were females as declared by 7 or
70 percent as against their male counterpart of 3 or 30 percent.
Pie Graph 14: Gender of Municipal Officials

Female

3 or 30%

Male

7 or 70%

No significant difference in the gender representation between the


rank and file of female and male officials in the municipality of Majayjay as

attested by the chi-square value of 1.6 which is lesser than the critical value
of 3.84 within the parameter of the degree of freedom of one (1).
With the above value, both male and female municipal officials in
Majayjay were equally represented during the actual gathering of data by the
researches.
The Dominance of Crimes Prevalent In Majayjay, Laguna
The degree of crimes committed in terms of crimes against property,
person and public order is presented in the following tables.

Crimes against Property


As reported in Table I, when crimes against property were asked among
PNP officers and personnel, the claimed that theft was sometimes committed
in their areas of jurisdiction as evidenced by the weighted mean of 3.18
verbally interpreted as sometimes.
TABLE 1
Crimes Against Property
Crimes
against
Property

PNP

Inmates

DSWD

Municipal
Officials

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

3.1
8

Sometimes

1.7
3

never

2.9
1

sometimes

3.1

sometimes

Malicious
Mischief

2.4
5

Seldom

1.1
8

Never

1.9
1

Seldom

2.5

Seldom

Arson &
Destructi
on

Never

Never

1.0
9

Never

1.4

Never

Average

2.2
1

Seldom

1.3
0

Never

1.9
7

Seldom

2.3
3

Seldom

Theft

X2

43.2897

6.9695

22.622

23.7624

Cv

12.592

12.592

12.592

15.507

Df

Ho1

rejected

accepted

rejected

rejected

Legend:
Range

Verbal Interpretation

4.21-5.00
3.41-4.20
2.61-3.40
1.81-2.60
1.00-1.80

always
often
sometimes
seldom
never

Seldom as they disclosed that malicious mischief was made by law


violators as revealed by the weighted mean of 2.45 verbally described as
seldom.
Apparently, as reported by PNP officers and personnel, arson and
destruction to property were never made by the criminal elements in
Majayjay as evidenced by the weighted mean of I with verbal interpretation
of never.
On the average crimes against property as stipulated above were
seldom committed in the said municipality as indicated by the overall
weighted mean of 2.21 with verbal description of seldom.
A cursory analysis of the chi-square (x2) of 43.2897 which is greater
than the critical value (cv) of 12.592 with the degree of freedom of 6,
registers a significant difference in the assessment of the PNP officers and
personnel regarding the degree of crimes against property as prevalent in
Majayjay, Laguna. With this value, null hypothesis which states that there is
no significant difference in the degree of crimes against property is rejected
at five percent (5%) level of significance; whereas its working hypothesis
which stipulates that the lower is the educational attainment of the inmates

and no work opportunities given on their behalf, the more they commit
crimes against property is supported at the said level of significance.
When this matter was asked among the inmates themselves, the same
table registers the data.
The weighted means of 1.73, 1.18 and 1 claimed that they never
committed crimes against property as to theft, malicious mischief, arson and
destruction respectively as sustained further by the average weighted mean
of 1.30 verbally interpreted as never.
The chi-square value of 6.9695 which is lower than the critical value
(cv) of 15.592 with the degree of freedom (df) of 6 revealed that the inmates
at the municipal jail in Majayjay were the same in their disclosure that they
never committed crimes against property. With said chi-square value, null
hypothesis is therefore accepted at five percent level of significance.
When similar questions was propounded among the DSWD officers and
personnel, Table I reports the data. The weighted mean of 2.91 reveals that
theft was sometimes reported to their office as the occasional crime made by
minors. However, seldom crime on malicious mischief was made by minors
as evidenced by the weighted mean of 1.91 and sustained further the
average weighted mean of 1.97 verbally interpreted as seldom.
The said officers and personnel of the local, the DSWD claimed that
arson and destruction of private or public property was never committed by
minors as shown by the weighted mean of 1.09 with verbal description of
never.

When the same query was consulted among municipal officials of


Majayjay, theft was sometimes made as indicated by the weighted mean of
3.1 malicious mischief was seldom done at the time this study was
conducted as strengthened further by the average weighted mean of 2.33
with verbal interpretation of seldom; whereas arson and destruction of
private and public property was never done by offenders as attested by the
weighted mean of 1.4 verbally interested as never.
Analyzing the chi-square value of 23.7624 which is greater than the
critical value of 15.507 with the degree of freedom (df) of 8, confirmed that
the municipal officials were significantly different from one another in their
assessment regarding the dominance of crimes against property as prevalent
in the said municipality. With the foregoing findings, null hypothesis is
rejected while its alternative working hypothesis is supported or proven true
at five percent (5%) level of significance.
It is therefore inferred that the lower is the educational attainment of
inmates as they have no employment opportunities, the more they are prone
to commit crimes involving property such as theft to speak.
Crimes against Person
When this matter was asked among PNP officers and personnel in
Majayjay Police Station on crimes against person, their responses are shown
in Table 2.
TABLE 2
Crimes Against Person

Crimes
against
Person

PNP

Inmates

DSWD

Municipal
Officials

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

4.2
7

always

1.6
4

sometimes

3.2
7

sometimes

2.5

sometimes

Destructi
on Of
Life

2.6
4

Sometimes

1.0
9

Never

1.2
7

never

1.8

never

Average

3.4
6

Often

1.3
6

Never

2.2
7

Seldom

2.1
5

Seldom

Physical
Injury

X2

18.4444

4.2222

13.0

3.2190

Cv

9.488

7.815

9.488

5.991

Df

Ho1

rejected

accepted

rejected

accepted

Legend:
Range
4.21-5.00
3.41-4.20
2.61-3.40
1.81-2.60
1.00-1.80

Verbal Interpretation
always
often
sometimes
seldom
never

Apparently, physical injury was always the common scenario as


reported by the PNP as divulged by the weighted mean of 4.27 verbally
interpreted as always. However, destruction of life which as murder was

done occasionally as reported by the weighted mean of 2. 64 verbally


interpreted as sometimes.
On the overall, as assessed by the PNP in Majayjay Police Station,
crimes against person were often committed by criminal elements as
evidenced by the average weighted mean of 3.46 verbally interpreted as
often.
An analysis of the chi-square value of 18.4444 which is greater when
compared to the critical value (cv) of 9.488 with the degree of 4, rejects the
null hypothesis advanced in this study which states that there is no
significant difference in the crimes against person at five percent (5%) level
of significance while the working hypothesis is proven true signifying among
others that the lower is the educational attainment of the inmates as they
have no access to work opportunities, the more they are prone to commit
crimes against person.
When this aspect was counterchecked among inmates, the same table
registers the data. Of the eleven (11) inmates who were issued one set of
structured interview questionnaire physical injury was sometimes committed
by them as indicated by the weighted mean of 1.64; while they claimed that
they had never committed destruction to life or murder as presented by the
weighted mean of 1.09 and sustained further by the average weighted mean
of 1.36 with verbal interpretation of never.
The chi-square value of 4.2222 which is lesser than the critical value
(cv) of 7.815 with degree of freedom 3 reveals that the inmates were

unanimous in their answers to the crimes against person. With the said
value, null hypothesis is accepted at five percent (5%) level of significance.
The findings tend to show that the inmates were one thing in common
that they sometimes committed physical injury, the reason behind why they
are in jail but somehow never they had committed murder so to speak.
The DSWD officers and personnel were also consulted of the crimes
against person as committed by minors under their custody, and the data
are presented in Table 2.
The weighted means of 1.64 and 1.09 confirmed that minors
sometimes committed physical injury but never destruction of life such as
murder respectively, as sustained by the average weighted of 1.36 with
verbal interpretation of never.
A cursory analysis of the chi-square of 4.2222 which is indeed lesser
than the critical value (cv) of 7.815 with the degree of freedom (df) 3 reveals
that the DSWD officers and personnel were the same in their pronouncement
that minors under their custody occasionally committed physical injury but
never murder so to speak. With the said pronouncement, null hypothesis is
accepted at five percent (5%) level of significance.
When the same question was asked among the municipal officials of
Majayjay, physical injury was seldom committed by the residents in their
respective areas of jurisdiction, and never the destruction of life much as
murder as evidenced by the weighted means of 2.5 and 1.8 verbally

interpreted as seldom and never respectively and sustained further by


the average weighted mean of 2.15 with verbal interpretation of seldom.
The chi-square value of 3.2190 which is lesser when compared to the
critical value of 5.991 within the parameter of the degree of freedom of 2
registers that the municipal officials of Majayjay were practically the same in
their disclosure regarding the prevalence of crimes against person in their
respective areas jurisdiction.
Thus, with the above findings, null hypothesis which states that there
is no significant difference in the degree of crimes against person is
accepted at five percent (5%) significant level.
From the above disclosure, municipal officials of Majayjay in Laguna
were practically common or the same in their awareness of crimes against
person which they confirmed seldom or never at the time they assumed
public office.
Other Crimes that is usually committed
Table 3 reports the data on other crimes that is usually committed.
Of the 11 PNP officers and personnel who were consulted of this
matter, estafa was often committed in Majayjay as evidenced by the
weighted mean of 3.64 verbally interpreted as often; opium and prohibited
drugs were occasionally prevalent as evidenced by the weighted mean of
2.64 with verbal interpretation of sometimes and gambling a crime against
public order was seldom committed in the said municipality as indicated by

the weighted mean of 2 with an overall weighted mean of 2.76 verbally


interpreted as average.
The chi-square value of 30.6188 which is greater than the critical value
of 15.507 with the degree of freedom of 8 registers that there was significant
difference in the assessment made by PNP officers and personnel regarding
the degree of crimes against public order prevalent in Majayjay, Laguna.

TABLE 3
Other Crimes that is Usually Committed
Other
Crimes
that is
usually
committ
ed

PNP

Inmates

DSWD

Municipal
Officials

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

W
M

Verbal
Interpretati
on

3.6
4

often

1.1
8

never

Never

2.8

sometimes

Opium
and
prohibite
d drugs

2.6
4

Sometimes

1.2
7

Never

2.3
6

Sometimes

2.5

Seldom

Gamblin
g

Seldom

Never

3.0
9

sometimes

2.2

seldom

Estafa

Average

2.7
6

Sometimes

1.1
5

Never

2.1
5

Seldom

2.5

Seldom

X2

30.6188

3.2153

30.2123

10.8905

Cv

15.507

9.488

15.507

15.507

Df

Ho1

rejected

accepted

rejected

rejected

Legend:
Range
4.21-5.00
3.41-4.20
2.61-3.40
1.81-2.60
1.00-1.80

Verbal Interpretation
always
often
sometimes
seldom
never

With the above findings, null hypothesis is rejected while its alternative
working hypothesis is supported or proven true at five (5) percent level of
significance.
Within the above context, it is therefore implied that the lower is the
educational attainment of inmates, the more they are deprived of
employment opportunities which dragged them to commit crimes involving
public order as assessed by PNP in Majayjay Police Station.
When the same line of questioning was propounded among inmates,
their responses are reported in table 3. Accordingly, as these inmates
revealed, they never committed estafa, which taken optimum or prohibited
drugs and never involved in gambling as evidenced by the weighted means

of 1.18, 1.27 and 1 as sustained further by the average weighted means of


1.15 verbally interpreted as never.
The said inmates were practically the same in their assessments
relative to the crimes against public order as shown by the chi-square value
of 3.2153 which is lesser than the critical value of 9.488 around the degree
of freedom of 4. Thus, with the said findings, null hypothesis which states
that there is no significant difference in the prevalence of crimes against
public order in the said municipality is accepted at five (5) percent level of
significance.
When the same question was asked among the DSWD Officers and
personnel in their local office in Majayjay, gambling as well the use of opium
and prohibited drugs was occasionally dominant among minors as evidenced
by

the

weighted

means

of

3.09

and

2.36

verbally

interpreted

as

sometimes. However, estafa was never committed by minors prior to their


custody at DSWD as attested by the weighted mean of one (1) with the
verbal interpretation of never.
The chi-square (x2) value of 30.2123 which is greater than the critical
value (cv) of 15.507 with the degree of freedom (df) of 8, registers the
significant difference in the crimes against public order committed by minors
prior to their custody at the center so provided by the DSWD in Majayjay,
Laguna.
Anchored on the above findings, it is inferred that the lower is the
educational qualification of the percents of minors as no employment

opportunities accorded on their behalf the more susceptible their children to


gambling and the more prone to take opium or prohibited drugs.
At this juncture, null hypothesis is rejected, whereas the working
hypothesis posited in advance is supported or proven true at five (5) percent
level of significance.
Municipal officials in Majayjay were also consulted about the numeracy
of crimes against public order, and the same table reveals their responses.
Of the ten (10) who were issued questionnaire, the weighted mean of 2.8
confirms that estafa was sometimes prevalent. However, taking opium and
prohibited drugs as well as gambling was seldom committed as proven by
weighted means of 2.5 and 2.2 respectively and sustained further by the
average weighted mean of 2.5 verbally interpreted as seldom.
Public Officials from Majayjay were practically the same in their
assessment regarding the lesser than the critical value of 15.507 within the
parameter of the degree of freedom of 8.

UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILLITERACY AS CONTRIBUTORY


FACTORS TO THE INCREASE OF CRIME IN MAJAYJAY, LAGUNA
As gleamed from Table 4, the IR value of 27 shows that unemployment
and illiteracy have low correlation to crimes against property person and
public order as perceived by the PNP officers and personnel in Majayjay
Police Station as attested further by the t-value of .4857
TABLE 4
UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILLITERACY AS CORRELATES
TO CRIMES IN MAJAYJAY, LAGUNA
Contributo
ry
Factors

UNEMPLOYMENT AND ILLITERACY


R

Analysi
s

CV

df

Decisio
n

H03 at
5%

PNP
Perceptions
of Crimes

.27

low
correlati
on

.4857

2.353

not
signific
ant

accept
ed

Inmates
Perceptions
of Crimes

.04

.0693

2.353

not
signific
ant

accept
ed

DSWD
Perceptions
of Crimes

-.37

negligibl
e
correlati
on
negative
ly
low
correlati
on

.6898

2.353

not
signific
ant

accept
ed

negligibl
e
correlati
on

.1215

2.353

not
signific
ant

accept
ed

Public
Officials
Perceptions
of Crimes

.07

Legends:
Range

Analysis

.81-1.00
.51- .80
.41- .40
.81- .20
.81- .20

very high correlation


high correlation
substantial correlation
low correlation
negligible correlation

Which is lesser than the critical value (cv) 2.353 with the degree of
freedom (df) of 3 which redound to the acceptance of null hypothesis at five
percent (5%) level of significance. The findings tend to point out that
unemployment and illiteracy could not be an excuse for person to commit
crimes involving property, person and other crimes that is usually
committed.
A negligible correlation can also be observed an unemployment and
illiteracy as correlates to crimes against property, person and other crimes
that is usually committed as evidenced by the value of .04 as attested by the
T-value of .0693 which is lesser than the critical value of 2.353 with the
degree of freedom of 3 which ultimately accepted the null hypothesis at five
percent significant level from the viewpoints of the inmates.
As assessed by the DSWD officers and personnel were seemed to have
a negatively low correlation between unemployment as well as illiteracy and
numeracy of crimes against property, person and other crimes that is usually
committed as indicated by the R-value of. 37 and attested further by the Tvalue of .6898 which is lesser than the critical value of 3, which by all means
accepted the null hypothesis at five percent level of significance.

Among public officials of Majayjay, the R-value of .07 shows negligible


correlation between unemployment and illiteracy, and crimes against
property, person and other crimes that is usually committed as sustained
further by the T-value of .1215 which is found lesser than the critical value of
2.353 with the degree of freedom 3 which in all possibilities accepted the null
hypothesis at five percent level of significance.
From the above findings, it is therefore inferred that crimes committed
against property, person and other crimes that is usually committed cannot
be pounded an person for reason of unemployment and illiteracy.

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This study an unemployment and illiteracy as contributory factors to


crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna is descriptive method in design. It
involved 43 respondents representing PNP officers and personnel, and public
officials in the said municipality from whom the data shared by them
resolved the two (2) problem areas investigated namely: the degree of
crimes committed against property person and public; and unemployment
and illiteracy as correlates to crime increases in Majayjay, Laguna. Three (3)
sets of questionnaire were issued and retrieved from the above respondents
for resolution of the basic problems raised with finality.
Centrality and relation of data were computed by means of weighted
mean and r-correlation formulas and subjected to statistical testing by means
of nonparametric and parametric formulas through chi-square and T-test
respectively, as basis for empirical testing of null hypothesis at five percent
level of significance.
From the procedure summarized above, the basic problem areas were
answered.
Findings
The following are the salient findings of the study:
1. The PNP officers and personnel were dominantly males as declared
by 72.73% as against their female counterpart of only 3 or 27.27%
in their rank and file, in their age bracket of 20-39 old as disclosed
by 22 or 100% dominantly assigned in WCPD and operation;
whereas inmates were dominantly males of 18-39 years old as

disclosed by 8 or 72.73% predominantly married with 5 or 45.45%


with only one child in the family, finished elementary grades with 8
or 72.72% responses, 6 or 54.54% were farmers prior to their
incarceration, with monthly income bracket of P1000-P3000; the
DSWD officers and personnel were dominantly females with 8 or
72.73% responses as against their male counterpart of only 3 or
27.27% in their early adulthood with 7 or 63.64% responses and
dominantly social workers in their own right; whereas municipal
officials were dominantly females of around 7 or 70% against their
male counterpart of only 3 or 30% in their rank and file.
2. The dominance of crimes against property, person and other crimes
that is usually committed in Majayjay, Laguna were theft, physical
injury and estafa as attested by the weighted means of 3.18, 4.27
3.64 as sustained further by the chi-square values of 43.2897,
18.4444 and 30.6188 which rejected the null hypothesis at 5% level
of significance respectively.
3. Unemployment and illiteracy and illiteracy have low and negligible
correlations with crimes against property, person and other crimes
that is usually committed in Majayjay as evidenced by the R-values
of .27, .04, -.37, .07 as attested further by the T-value of .4857, .
0693, .6898 and .1215 which accepted the null hypothesis at 5%
level of significance.

Conclusions
Based on the above findings, the following conclusions are
representing are hereby drawn.
1. The respondents representing the PNP personnel, inmates, DSWD and
public officials in Majayjay Laguna were credible in their assessment of
crimes against property, person and other crimes that is usually
committed in Majayjay.
2. The dominance of crimes against property, person and other crimes
that is usually committed in Majayjay, Laguna were theft, physical
injury and estafa which were often and always committed when
situation always committed when situation so warranted.
3. Unemployment and illiteracy have slight bearing in the increase of
crimes involving property, person and other crimes that is usually
committed in Majayjay, Laguna.
Recommendations
In the light of the above findings and conclusions, the following
recommendations are hereby offered:
1. Twenty-four hours round the clock should be made by the PNP officers
and personnel in coordination with DSWD and public officials in order
to minimize if not totally eradicate crimes against property, person and
other crimes that is usually committed in Majayjay, Laguna.
2. Controlling situations should be made possible by law enforcers
involving barangay and municipal officials in order not to warrant the

commission of crimes against person, property and other crimes that is


usually committed in Majayjay, Laguna.
3. A study of similar nature should be conducted in the other municipality
in order to establish a positive and high relation between
unemployment and illiteracy and crime increases so as to strengthen
further the findings of this research undertaking.

APPENDIX A
Letter of Request
October 17, 2014
PSInsp. Marcelito M. Marcial
COP, Majayjay Police Station

Sir:
Good Day! We are 4th year B.S. Criminology students of Union College, Sta.
Cruz Laguna. As part of the completion of our course the conduct of research
is required, wherein we are working on the thesis entitled Unemployment
and Illiteracy as Contributory Factors to the Increase of Crime in Majayjay
Laguna.
In lieu with said requirements, we are requesting that a set of questionnaires
be given and to be answered by your personnel as well as by
inmates/detainees in your custody.
It is assured that the information and data to be shared by them will be
treated with utmost confidentiality and be used only for the study under
consideration.
With gratitude, respect, and appreciation for the courtesy of your approval
relative to this request, without which, this study will not be made possible.

Very respectfully,
CHARLENE A. VILLARMIL
JERIK JEZZER A. PANCHOCOLA
KENNETH L. FABULA
Researchers

APPENDIX B
Questionnaire for PNP Officers and Personnel
Directions: Please check the blank (_) which reflects the item for your
answer.

A. Personal Profile
1.Gender:
___Male
___Female
2.Age:
___57 yrs. old (nearing retirement)
___40-56yrs. old (middle adulthood)
___20-39 yrs. old (early adulthood)
_______________Please, specify.
3. Present Position:
___Intelligence
___investigation
___WCPD
___Traffic
_________________Please, specify.
B. What degree of crimes did inmates in your jurisdiction commit as to
the following? Please check the blank (_) which reflects one (1) of the
five (5) options for your answer.

Options:
5-always
4-often
3-sometimes
2-seldom
1-never
1. Crimes
1
2
__ __
__ __
__ __

against property
3
4
5
__ __ __ 1. Theft
__ __ __ 2. Malicious Mischief
__ __ __ 3. Arson and other crimes involving destruction

2. Crimes against person


1
2
3
4
5
__ __
__
__
__1. Physical Injury
__ __
__
__
__2. Destruction of Life
3. Other crimes that usually committed
1
2
3
4
5
__ __ __
__
__1. Estafa
__ __ __
__
__2. Crimes relative to opium and prohibited drugs
__ __ __
__
__3. Gambling

Thank you very much


God Bless!!

Structured Interview Questionnaire for Inmates


(Palatanungan Para sa Mga Bilanggo)

Panuto: Lagyan ng tsek (_) ang puwang na tugma sa inaakala mo ay tama.


A.Personal na Salik
1.Kasarian:
__Lalaki
__Babae
2.Edad:
__60 taong gulang pataas (katandaang gulang)
__40-59 taong gulang (kagitnaang gulang)
__18-39 taong gulang (kabataang gulang)
3.Katayuang Sibil:
__Walang asawa
__May asawa
__Hiwalay
__Balo
______________Pakisulat ang wala sa itaas.
4.Bilang ng Mga Anak:
__5
__4
__3
__2
__1
______________Pakisulat ang wala sa itaas.

5.Antas ng Pinag-aralan:
__Tapos ng doktorado
__Tapos ng master

__Tapos ng kolehiyo
__Tapos ng high school
__Tapos ng elementarya
__Tapos ng kinder
_______________Pakisulat ang wala sa itaas.

6.Trabaho:
__Barbero
__Basurero(ra)
__Janitor
__Karpentero
__Labandera
__Magsasaka
__Mangingisda
_______________Pakisulat ang wala sa itaas.

7.Buwanang Kita:
__P10,000 pataas
__7,000-9,000
__4,000-6,000
__1,000-3,000
__P900 pababa
___________Pakisulat ang wala sa itaas.

B.Anong antas ng krimen ang iyong nagawa batay sa mga sumusunod?


Paki tsek ang puwang na tugma sa isang (1) tamang kasagutan sa
limang (5) pagpipilian.
Pagpipilian:

5-pinakamadalas
4-madalas
3-katamtaman
2-madalang
1-wala

1. Krimen laban sa ari-aian (Crimes against property)


1
2
3
4
5
__ __ __ __ __ 1. Pagnanakaw (Theft)
__ __ __ __ __ 2. Malicious Mischief
__ __ __ __ __ 3. Pagsunog ng ari-arian (Arson and other crimes
involving
destruction)
2. Krimen laban sa tao (Crimes against person)
1
2
3
4
5
__ __
__
__
__1. Pangkatawang pinsala (Physical Injury)
__ __
__
__
__2. pagpatay ( Destruction of Life)
3. Iba pang mga krimen na karaniwang nagagawa (Other crimes
that usually committed)
1
2
3
4
5
__ __ __
__
__1. Hindi pagbabayad ng utang (Estafa)
__ __ __
__
__2. Krimeng kaugnay sa droga at mga
ipinagbabawal na gamot
(Crimes relative to opium and
prohibited drugs)
__ __ __
__
__3.pagsusugal (Gambling)
Maraming salamat po

Questionnaire for DSWD Officers and Personnel


Directions: Please check the blank (_) which reflects the item for your
answer.

A.Personal Profile
1. Gender:
__Male
__Female

2.Age:
__60-65yrs. old (late adulthood)
__40-59yrs. old (middle adulthood)
__20-39yrs. old (early adulthood)
_____________Please, specify.
3.Present Position:
__Administrative Officer
__Secretary
__Treasurer
__PRO
______________Please, specify.
B.What degree of offenses do minors under your care commit as to the
following? Please check the blank__which reflects one (1) of the five
(5) options for your answer.
Options:
5-always
4-often
3-sometimes
2-seldome
1-never

1. Crimes
1
2
__ __
__ __
__ __

against property
3
4
5
__ __ __ 1. Theft
__ __ __ 2. Malicious Mischief
__ __ __ 3. Arson and other crimes involving destruction

2. Crimes against person


1
2
3
4
5
__ __
__
__
__1. Physical Injury

__ __

__

__

__2. Destruction of Life

3. Other crimes that usually committed


1
2
3
4
5
__ __ __
__
__1. Estafa
__ __ __
__
__2. Crimes relative to opium and prohibited drugs
__ __ __
__
__3. Gambling

Thank you very much


God Bless!!

Questionnaire for Local Government Officials and Citizens


Directions: Please check the blank (_) which reflects the item for your
answer.

A.Personal Profile
1. Gender:
__Male
__Female

2. Sector:
__Municipal Official
__Barangay Official
__Private Citizen

B.What degree of crimes is dominant or prevalent in your area as to the


following? Please check the blank (_) which reflects one (1) of the five (5)
options for your answer.
Options:
5-always
4-often
3-sometimes
2-seldom
1-never

1. Crimes
1
2
__ __
__ __
__ __

against property
3
4
5
__ __ __ 1. Theft
__ __ __ 2. Malicious Mischief
__ __ __ 3. Arson and other crimes involving destruction

2. Crimes against person


1
2
3
4
5
__ __
__
__
__1. Physical Injury
__ __
__
__
__2. Destruction of Life
3. Other crimes that usually committed

1
__
__
__

2
3
__ __
__
__ __
__
__ __
__

4
__1.
__2.
__3.

5
Estafa
Crimes relative to opium and prohibited drugs
Gambling

Thank you very much


God Bless!!

APPENDIX C
A. PNP officers and Personnel
A. Personal Profile
1. Gender
O
Male
8
Female
3
11

E
5.5
5.5

X2= (O-E)2
X2= (8-5.5)2 + (3-5.5)2
5.5
5.5
X2= 1.1364+1.1364
X2= 2.2728 <cv= 3.841 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
2. Age
O
E
40-56
0
5.5
20-39
11
5.5
11
X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (0-5.5)2 + (11-5.5)2
5.5
5.5
X2= 5.5+5.5
X2= 11 <cv= 3.841
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
3. Present Position
Intelligence
Investigation
WCPD
Traffic
Operation
X2= (O-E)2
E

O
1
2
3
2

2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
3

11

2.2

X2= (1-2.2)2 + (2-2.2)2 +(3-2.2)2 + (2-2.2)2+(3-2.2)2


2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
X2= .6545+.0812+.2909+.0182+.2909
X2= 1.2727 <cv= 9.488 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
5-1
Df= 4
H01= accepted

B. Degree of Crimes
1.1 Crimes against property
1. S f
sf
2. S f
5 0
0
50
4 3
12
4 0
3 7
21
3 5
2 1
2
2 6
1 0
0
1 0
11 35
11
27
Wta= 35
Wta= 27
11
11
Wta= 3.18
Wta= 2.45
O
3
7
1
0
11

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

O
0
5
6
0
11

sf
0
0
15
12
0

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

3. S
5
4
3
2
1
11
11
Wta= 11
11
Wta= 1

sf
0
0
0
0
11

O
0
0
0
11
11

total
3
12
7
11
33

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

sf
0
0
0
0
11

X2= (O-E)2
E
3.7)

X2= (3-1)2 + (7-4)2 +(1-2.3)2 + (0-3.7)2 +(3-1)2 + (5-4)2 +(6-2.3)2 + (01


3.7

2.3

3.7

+ (0-1)2 + (0-4)2 +(0-2.3)2 + (11-3.7)2


1
4
2.3
3.7

2.3

X2= 4+2.25+.7348+3.7= 10.6848


1+.25+5.9522+3.4= 10.9022
1+4+2.3+14.4027= 21.7027
43.2897
X2= 43.2897 <cv= 12.592
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (4-1)
Df= (2) (3)
Df= 6
H01= rejected
1.2
2. S
5
4
3
2
1

Crimes against person


f
sf
2. S f
sf
4
20
50
0
6
24
4 0
0
1
3
3 8
15
0
0
2 2
12
0
0
1 1
0
11
47
11
29
Wta= 47
Wta= 29
11
11
Wta= 4.27
Wta= 2.64
O
4
6
1
0
0
11

E
2
3
4.5
1
.5

O
0
0
8
2
1
11

E
2
3
4.5
1
.5

total
4
6
9
2
1
22

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (4-2)2 + (6-3)2 +(1-4.5)2 + (0-1)2 +(0-.5)2 + (0-2)2 + (0-3)2 +(84.5)2 + (2-1)2 + (1-.5)2
1
4
2.3
3.7
2
2
3
4.5
1
.5

X2= 2+3+2.7222+1+.5= 9.2222


2+3+2.7222+1+.5= 9.2222
18.4444
X2= 18.4444 <cv= 9.488 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(2-1) (5-1)
Df= (1) (4)
Df= 4
H01= rejected
1.3
3. S
5
4
3
2
1

Other crimes
f
sf
2. S f
sf
3. S
1
0
50
0
5
5
12
4 0
0
4
5
21
3 8
24
3
0
2
2 2
4
2
0
0
1 1
1
1
11 35
11
29
11
Wta= 40
Wta= 29
Wta= 22
11
11
11
Wta= 3.64
Wta= 2.64
Wta= 2
O
1
5
5
0
0
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
31.3

O
0
0
8
2
1
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3

O
1
0
0
7
3
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3

sf
1
0
0
7
3
22

sf
5
0
0
14
3

total
2
5
13
9
4
33

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.7)2 + (5-1.7)2 +(5-4.3)2 + (0-3)2 +(0-1.3)2 + (0-.7)2 +(0-21.7)2 +
(8-4.3)2
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3
.7
1.7
4.3
+ (2-3)2 + (1-1.3)2 +(1-.7)2 + (0-1.7)2 + (0-4.3)2+(7-3)2+(3-1.3)2

1.3

.7

1.7

4.3

X2= .1286+6.4059+.1140+3+1.3
= 10.9476
.7+1.7+3.1837+.3333+.0692 = 5.9862
.1286+1.7+4.3+5.3333+2.2231= 21.7027
30.6188
X2= 30.6188 <cv= 15.507 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (5-1)
Df= (2) (4)
Df= 8
H01= rejected
B.Inmates
A. Personal Profile
1. Gender:
Male
9
Female
11

E
5.5

5.5

X2= (O-E)2
X2= (9-5.5)2 + (2-5.5)2
5.5
5.5

2. Age
40-59
18-39

X2= 2.2273+2.2273
X2= 4.4546<cv= 3.841 significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= rejected
O
E
3
5.5
8
5.5
11
X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (3-5.5)2 + (8-5.5)2

1.3

5.5

5.5

X2= 1.1364+1.1364
X2=2.2728 <cv= 3.841not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
3. Civil status
O
E
Single
4
2.75
Married
5
2.75
Separated
1
2.75
widower
1
2.75
11
X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (4-2.75)2 + (5-2.75)2 +(1-2.75)2 + (1-2.75)2
2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
X2= .5682+1.8409+1.1136+1.1136
X2=4.6363 <cv= 9.488 - not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
4-1
Df= 3
H01= accepted
4. Number of Child O
E
5
1
.54
4
1
.54
3
1
.54
2
1
.54
1
6
.54
No child
1
.54
11
X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.54)2 + (1-.54)2 +(1-.54)2 + (1-.54)2+(6-.54)2 (1-.54)2
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
.54
X2= .3918+.3918+.3918+.3918+55.2067+.3918
X2= 57.165 <cv= 11.070 significant at 5%
Df= N-1
6-1
Df= 5
H01= rejected

5. Educational Attainment
College graduate
High school graduate
Elementary graduate
Kindergarten graduate

O
1

E
2.75
1
8

1
11

X2= (O-E)2
E

2.75
2.75
2.75

X2= (1-2.75)2 + (1-2.75)2 +(8-2.75)2 + (1-2.75)2


2.75
2.75
2.75
2.75
X2= 1.1136+1.1136+10.0227+1.1136
X2= 13.3635 <cv= 7.815
Df= N-1
4-1
Df= 3
H01= accepted

6. employment
barber
carpenter
laundrywoma
farmer
fisherman

O
1
2

1
11
X2= (O-E)2
E

E
2.2
2.2

2
6

2.2
2.2
2.2

X2= (1-2.2)2 + (1-2.2)2 +(2-2.2)2 + (6-2.2)2+(1-2.2)2


2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
X2= .6545+.6545+.0182+6.5636+.6545
X2= 8.5453 <cv= 9.488 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
5-1
Df= 4
H01= accepted
7. monthly income
O
E
P4,000-P6,000
1
3.67
P1,000-P3,000
8
3.67
P900 and below
2
3.67
11
X2= (O-E)2

E
X2= (1-3.67)2 + (8-3.67)2+(2-3.67)2
3.67
3.67 3.67
X2= 1.9425+5.1087+.7599
X2=7.8111<cv= 7.815 - not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
3-1
Df= 2
H01= accepted
B. Degree of Crimes
1. Crimes against property
4. S f
sf
2. S f
sf
3. S
5 0
0
50
0
5
4 1
4
4 0
0
4
3 2
6
3 1
3
3
2 1
2
2 0
0
2
1 7
7
1 10
10
1 11
11
19
11
13
11
Wta= 19
Wta= 13
Wta= 11
11
11
11
Wta= 1.73
Wta= 1.18
Wta= 1
O
1
2
1
7
11

E
.33
1
.33
9.33

O
0
1
0
10
11

E
.33
1
.33
9.33

O
0
0
0
11
11

E
.33
1
.33
9.33

sf
0
0
0
0
11
11

sf
0
0
0
0

total
1
3
1
28
33

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.33)2 + (2-1)2 +(1-.33)2 + (7-3.9.33)2 +(0-.33)2 + (1-1)2 +(0-.33)2
+ (10-9.33)2
.33
1
.33
9.33
.33
1
.33
9.33
+ (0-.33)2 + (0-1)2 +(0-.33)2 + (11-9.33)2
.33
1
.33
.33
X2= 1.3603+1+1.3603+.5819 = 4.3025
.33+0+.33+.0481
= .7081
.33+1+.33+.2989
= 1.9589
6.9695

X2= 6.9695 <cv= 12.592 not significant at 5%


Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (4-1)
Df= (2) (3)
Df= 6
H01= accepted
2. Crimes against person
1.

Sf
sf
5 0
0
4 1
4
3 2
6
2 0
0
1
8
8
11
18
Wta= 18
11
Wta= 1.64

2. S f
sf
50
0
4 0
0
3 0
0
2 1
2
1 10 10
11
12
Wta= 12
11
Wta= 1.09

O
1
2
0
8
11

O
0
0
1
10
11

E
.5
1
.5
9

E
.5
1
.5
9

total
1
2
1
18
22

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.5)2 + (2-1)2 +(0-.5)2 + (8-9)2 +(0-.5)2 + (0-1)2 + (1-.5)2 +(10-9)2
.5
1
.5
9
.5
1
.5
9
X2=.5+1+.5+.1111 = 2.1111
.5+1+.5+.1111 = 2.1111
4.2222
X2 = 4.2222 <cv= 7.815 not significant at 5%

Df= (c-1) (R-1)


(2-1) (4-1)
Df= (1) (3)
Df= 3
H01= raccepted
c. Other crimes
1. S f
sf
5 0
0
4 0
0
3 1
3
2 0
0
2 10 10
11 13
Wta= 13
11
Wta= 1.18
O
1
0
10
11

E
.67
.33
10

2. S
5
4
3
2
1

sf
3. S
0
5
0
4
3
3
2
2
9
1
11
14
11
Wta= 14
Wta= 11
11
11
Wta= 1.27
Wta= 1

sf
0
0
0
0
11
11

O
1
1
9
11

total
2
9
30
33

E
.67
.33
10

f
0
0
1
1
9

O
0
0
11
11

E
.67
.33
10

sf
0
0
0
0
11

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.67)2 + (0-.33)2 +(10-10)2 + (1-.67)2 +(1-.33)2 + (9-10)2
+(0-.67)2 + (0-.33)2 + (11-10)2
.67
.33
10
.67
.33
10
.67
.33
10
X2= .1625+.33+0
= .4925
.1625+1.3603+.1= 1.6228
.67+.33+.1
= 1.1
3.2153
X2= 3.2153 <cv= 9.488 not significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)

(3-1) (3-1)
Df= (2) (2)
Df= 4
H01= accepted
C. DSWD officers and personnel
1. Personal Profile
A. Gender
O
Male
3
Female
8
11

E
5.5
5.5

X2= (O-E)2
X2= (3-5.5)2 + (8-5.5)2
5.5
5.5
X2= 1.1364+1.1364
X2= 2.2728 <cv= 3.841 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
4. Age
O
E
40-56
4
5.5
20-39
7
5.5
11
X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (4-5.5)2 + (7-5.5)2
5.5
5.5
X2= .4091+.4091
X2= .8182<cv= 3.841 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
5. Present Position
Adm. officers
secretary
treasurer

O
2

E
2.2

1
1

2.2
2.2

PRO
Social worker

2
5
11

X2= (O-E)2
E

2.2
2.2

X2= (2-2.2)2 + (1-2.2)2 +(1-2.2)2 + (2-2.2)2+(5-2.2)2


2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
2.2
X2= .0182+.6545+.6545+.0182+3.5656
X2= 4.909 <cv= 9.488 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
5-1
Df= 4
H01= accepted

B. Degree of Crimes
1.4 Crimes against property
1. S f
sf
2. S f
5 0
0
50
4 5
20
4 1
3 3
9
3 1
2 0
0
2 5
1 3
3
1 4
11 32
11
Wta= 32
Wta= 21
11
11
Wta= 2.91
Wta= 1.91
O
5
3
0
3
11

E
2
1.3
2
5.7

O
1
1
5
4
11

E
2
1.3
2
5.7

sf
0
4
3
10
4
21

3. S
5
4
3
2
1
11
Wta= 12
11
Wta= 1.09

sf
0
0
0
1
10
12

O
0
0
1
10
11

total
6
4
6
17
33

E
2
1.3
2
5.7

sf
0
0
0
2
10

X2= (O-E)2
E
5.7)2

X2= (5-2)2 + (3-1.3)2 +(0-2)2 + (3-5.7)2 +(1-2)2 + (1-1.3)2 +(5-2)2 + (42


5.7

1.3

5.7

1.3

+ (0-2)2 + (0-1.3)2 +(1-2)2 + (10-5.7)2


2
1.3
2
5.7
X2= 4.5+2.2231+2+1.2789 = 10.002
.5+.0692+4.5+.5070 = 5.5762
2+1.3+.5+3.2438
= 7.0438
22.622
X2= 22.622 <cv= 12.592 SIGNIFICANT AT 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (4-1)
Df= (2) (3)
Df= 6
H01= rejected
1.5
f
sf
1
5
7
28
0
0
0
0
3
3
11
36
Wta= 36
11
Wta= 3.27

Crimes against person


2. S f
sf
50
0
4 0
0
3 1
3
2 1
2
1 9
9
11
14
Wta= 14
11
Wta= 1.27

O
1
7
0
0
3
11

O
0
0
1
1
9
11

1. S
5
4
3
2
2

X2= (O-E)2
E

E
.5
3.5
.5
.5
6

E
.5
3.5
.5
.5
6

total
1
7
1
1
12
22

X2= (1-.5)2 + (7-3.5)2 +(0-.5)2 + (0-.5)2 +(3-6)2 + (0-.5)2 + (0-3.5)2


+(1-.5)2 + (1-.5)2 + (9-6)2
.5
3.5
.5
.5
6
.5
3.5
.5
6
X2= .5+3.5+.5+.5+1.5 = 6.5
.5+3.5+.5+.5+1.5= 6.5
13
X2= 13.0 <cv= 9.488 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(2-1) (5-1)
Df= (1) (4)
Df= 4
H01= rejected
a. Other crimes
S
5
4
3
2
1

f
0
0
0
0
11
11
Wta= 11
11
Wta= 1
O
0
0
0
0
11
11
X2= (O-E)2
E

E
.33
1.67
3
.33
5.67

sf
0
0
0
0
11
11

2. S f
50
4 0
3 7
2 1
1 3

sf
3. S
0
5
0
4
21
3
2
2
3
1
11 26
Wta= 26
Wta= 34
11
11
Wta= 2.36
Wta= 3.09

sf
1
5
2
0
3
11

O
0
0
7
1
3
11

total
1
5
9
1
17
33

E
.33
1.67
3
.33
5.67

O
1
5
2
0
3
11

E
.33
1.67
43
.33
5.67

sf
5
20
6
0
3
34

.5

X2= (0-.33)2 + (0-1.67)2 +(0-3)2 + (0-.33)2 +(11-5.67)2 + (0-.33)2 +(01.67)2 + (7-3)2


.33
1.67
3
.33
5.67
.33
1.67 3
+ (1-.33)2 + (3-5.67)2 +(1-.33)2 + (5-1.67)2 + (2-3)2+(0-33)2+(35.67)2
.33
5.67
.33
1.67
3
.33
5.67
X2= .33+1.67+3+.33+5.0104
= 10.3404
.33+1.67+5.3333+1.3603+1.2573 = 9.9509
1.3603+6.6401+.3333+.33+1.2973= 9.921
30.6188
X2= 30.2123 <cv= 15.507 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (5-1)
Df= (2) (4)
Df= 8
H01= rejected
D. Local Government officials
1. Gender
O
E
Male
3
5
Female
7
5
10
X2= (O-E)2
X2= (3-5)2 + (7-5)2
5
5
X2= .8+.8
X2= 1.6 <cv= 3.841 not significant at 5%
Df= N-1
2-1
Df= 1
H01= accepted
2. Sector
O
E
Municipal officials
10
3.3
Brgy. officials
0
3.3
Private citizen
0
3.3

X = (O-E)
E

10

X2= (10-3.3)2 + (0-3.3)2+(0-3.3)2


3.3
3.3
3.3
X2= 13.6030+3.3+3.3
X2=20.203<cv= 5.991 - significant at 5%
Df= N-1
3-1
Df= 2
H01= accepted
B.Degree of Crimes
1.1
Crimes against property
1. S f
sf
2. S f
sf
3. S
5 0
0
50
0
5
4 3
12
4 0
0
4
3 7
21
3 5
15
3
2 1
2
2 6
12
2
1 0
0
1 0
0
1
12 35
11
27
11
11
Wta= 35
Wta= 27
Wta= 11
11
11
11
Wta= 3.18
Wta= 2.45
Wta= 1
O
3
7
1
0
11

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

O
0
5
6
0
11

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

O
0
0
0
11
11

E
1
4
2.3
3.7

sf
0
0
0
0
11

sf
0
0
0
0
11

total
3
12
7
11
33

X2= (O-E)2
E
3.7)

X2= (3-1)2 + (7-4)2 +(1-2.3)2 + (0-3.7)2 +(3-1)2 + (5-4)2 +(6-2.3)2 + (01


3.7

2.3

3.7

+ (0-1)2 + (0-4)2 +(0-2.3)2 + (11-3.7)2


1
4
2.3
3.7

2.3

X2= 4+2.25+.7348+3.7= 10.6848


1+.25+5.9522+3.4= 10.9022
1+4+2.3+14.4027= 21.7027
43.2897
X2= 43.2897 <cv= 12.592
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (4-1)
Df= (2) (3)
Df= 6
H01= rejected
1.2
5. S
5
4
3
2
3

Crimes against person


f
sf
2. S f
sf
4
20
50
0
6
24
4 0
0
1
3
3 8
15
0
0
2 2
12
0
0
1 1
0
11
47
11
29
Wta= 47
Wta= 29
11
11
Wta= 4.27
Wta= 2.64
O
4
6
1
0
0
11

E
2
3
4.5
1
.5

O
0
0
8
2
1
11

E
2
3
4.5
1
.5

total
4
6
9
2
1
22

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (4-2)2 + (6-3)2 +(1-4.5)2 + (0-1)2 +(0-.5)2 + (0-2)2 + (0-3)2 +(84.5)2 + (2-1)2 + (1-.5)2
1
4
2.3
3.7
2
2
3
4.5
1
.5

X2= 2+3+2.7222+1+.5= 9.2222


2+3+2.7222+1+.5= 9.2222
18.4444
X2= 18.4444 <cv= 9.488 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(2-1) (5-1)
Df= (1) (4)
Df= 4
H01= rejected
1.5
6. S
5
4
3
2
3

Other crimes
f
sf
2. S f
sf
3. S
1
0
50
0
5
5
12
4 0
0
4
5
21
3 8
24
3
0
2
2 2
4
2
0
0
1 1
1
1
11 35
11
29
11
Wta= 40
Wta= 29
Wta= 22
11
11
11
Wta= 3.64
Wta= 2.64
Wta= 2
O
1
5
5
0
0
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
31.3

O
0
0
8
2
1
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3

O
1
0
0
7
3
11

E
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3

sf
1
0
0
7
3
22

sf
5
0
0
14
3

total
2
5
13
9
4
33

X2= (O-E)2
E
X2= (1-.7)2 + (5-1.7)2 +(5-4.3)2 + (0-3)2 +(0-1.3)2 + (0-.7)2 +(0-21.7)2 +
(8-4.3)2
.7
1.7
4.3
3
1.3
.7
1.7
4.3
+ (2-3)2 + (1-1.3)2 +(1-.7)2 + (0-1.7)2 + (0-4.3)2+(7-3)2+(3-1.3)2

1.3

.7

1.7

4.3

1.3

X2= .1286+6.4059+.1140+3+1.3
= 10.9476
.7+1.7+3.1837+.3333+.0692 = 5.9862
.1286+1.7+4.3+5.3333+2.2231= 21.7027
30.6188
X2= 30.6188 <cv= 15.507 significant at 5%
Df= (c-1) (R-1)
(3-1) (5-1)
Df= (2) (4)
Df= 8
H01= rejected
Educational Attainment and
Unemployment
x
x-x
x
5
16 2.56
3
-.4
.16
2
-1.4 1.96
6
2.6 6.76
1
-2.4 5.76
17/5 x = 17.2
x=3.4 SD = 17.2
5
SD = 3.44
SD = 1.85
r = xy
(x)(y)
r = 2.028
(17.2)(3.2374)
r = 2.028
55.68328
r = 2.028
7.46212302

r = .27

Police Perceptors of Degree of


Crimes
y
y - y y
xy
2.21 - .81 .6561 -1.296
4.27 1.25 1.5625
.5
2.64 - .38 .1444 .532
3.64
.62 .3844 1.612
2.32 - . 7 .49
1.68
15.08/5 x =
3.2374
2.028
SD =
3.2374
5
y = 3.02

SD =
SD =

T = r N - 2
1 - r
T = .27 5 2
1 (.27)
T = .27x 3
1 - .0729
T = .27x1.7320508

.64748
.80

xy =

T = .467653716
.9271
T = .467653716
.962860322
T = .4857 < CV = 2.353 not
equivalent at 5%
df = N 2
52
df = 3
Ho = accepted

Educational Attainment and


Unemployment

x
1.6
- .4
-1.4
2.6
-2.4

Inmates Perceptors of Degree


of Crimes
y
y y y
xy
1.73 .39 .1521
1.09 - .25 .0625
1.64
.3
.09 -.42
1.09 - .25 .0625
1.15 - .19 .0361
6.7/5 y = .4032
y = 1.34 SD = .4032
5
T=rN-2 SD = .0806
1-r
SD = .28

.624
.1
-.65
.456
xy = .11

T= .045-2
1-(.04)
T= .043
1-.0016
x = 17.2
SD = 1.85

r = xy
(x)(y)
r = .11
(17.2)(.4032)
r = .11
6.93504
r = .11
r = .11
2.63344641
r = .04

T = .04x1.7320508

.9984
T = .069282032
.999199679
T = .0693< CV = 2.353 not
significant
df = N 2
df = 5 2
df = 3

Educational Attainment and


Unemployment
x
1.6
- .4
-1.4
2.6
-2.4
x = 17.2
SD = 1.85

r = xy
(x)(y)
r = -2.17
(17.2)(2.021)
r = -2.17
34.7612
r = -2.17
5.89586295
r = - .37

DSWD Perceptors of Degree of


Crimes
y
y y y
xy
2.91 .62 .3844
1.5
- .79 .6241
2.27 - .02 .0004
1.68 - .61 .3721
3.09
.8 .64
-1.92
11.45/5 y =
2.021
2.17
y = 2.29 SD = 2.021
5
SD = .4042
SD = .64
T = r N 2
1 - r
T = -.37 5 2
1- (- . 37)
T = .37 3
1 - .1369
T = .37x1.7320508
1
T = - .640858796
.8631
T = - .640858796
.929031754
T = .6898 < CV = 2.353
df = N 2
52
df = 3
Ho 3 = accepted

.992
.316
.028
-1.586
xy = -

Educational Attainment and


Unemployment

Public Officials Perceptors of


Degree of Crimes

x
1.6
- .4
-1.4
2.6
-2.4
x = 17.2
SD = 1.85

y
3.1
1.95
2.5
2.15
2.5
12.2/5
= .27
2.44

r = xy
(x)(y)
r = .27
(17.2)(.7637)
r = .27
13.13564
r = .27
3.62431234
r = .07

yy
.66
-.49
.06
-.29
.06

y
xy
.4356
1.056
.2401
.196
.0003
-.084
.0841
-.754
.0036
-.144
y = .7637
xy

SD = .7637
5
SD = .15274
SD = .39

T = r N 2
1 - r
T = .07 5 2
1 (.07)
T = .07 3
1 - .0049
T = .07x1.7320508
.9951
T = .121243556
.997546991
T = .1215 < CV = 2.353
df = N 2
df = 3
Ho = accepted

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