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1. What name is given to a sequence of gradual changes over millions of year in which new
species are produced.
2. Which are the two processes, sexual reproduction or asexual reproduction brings about marked
variations in the offspring?
3. In which gametes are present X and Y chromosomes? 4. Name two processes which change the
frequency of certain genes over generation in a population.
5. Explain with examples how characteristics of a population changes over the years for the
following situations. a. To gain survival advantage b. due to accidental survival c. Temporary
change of characteristics
6. How will you substantiate the statement that heredity and its concepts were known to the
ancient civilisations.
7. How many autosomes are present in a human sperm?
8. What are cross breed plants known as?
9. What does letter F represent in heredity?
10. How will you conclude that birds are closely related to reptiles?
11. Where did the earliest members of human beings live?
12. Which organ in man suggest that he is a descendent of herbivorous animals?
13. Why is appendix in human considered as vestigial?
14. Why offsprings differ from parents in certain characters?
15. What is meant by expression TT and Tt in Mendelian terms?
16. How is sex determined in human beings?
17. Why are flippers of whales and wings of birds are considered as homologous organs?
18. On the basis of the possibilities of combination of the sex chromosomes, what percentage
probability does a couple have of having a son or a daughter. Show the same by making a cross.
19. Explain why evolution cant be said to progress from lower forms to higher forms.
20. How do Mendels experiments show that traits may be dominant or recessive?
21. Explain with an example how variation took place due to inheritance?
22. Explain Urey and Millers experiment showing evidence of the theory of origin of life.
23. How does the study of fossils provide evidence in favour of organic evolution.
24. Can the wing of a butterfly and the wing of a bat be considered homologous organs? Why or
why not?
25. What do you understand by reproductive isolation? How is this mechanism responsible for
26. Though eyes are found in many organisms why can they not be grouped together?
27. Why can two sub-populations of a species not reproduce with each other? State two reasons.
What will be the outcome of such a situation?
1. Write the atomic numbers of two elements X and Y having electronic configurations 2, 8,
2 and 2, 8, 6 respectively.
2. What is heredity ?
3. List two items which can be easily recycled, but we generally throw them in the dust-bins.
4. The chromosomal number of the sexually producing parents and their offspring is the
same. Justify this statement.
5. (a) List the parts of the human eye that control the amount of light entering into it. Explain
how they perform this function. (b) Write the function of retina in human eye. (c) Do you

know that the corneal-impairment can be cured by replacing the defective cornea with the
cornea of the donated eye ? How and why should we organise groups to motivate the
community members to donate their eyes after death ?
6. Explain the following terms related to spherical lenses : (a) Centres of curvature (b)
Principal axis (c) Optical centre (d) Principal focus At what distance from a concave lens of
focal length 20 cm, should a 6 cm tall object be placed so that it forms an image at 15 cm
from the lens ? Also determine the size of the image formed.
7. Elements forming ionic compounds attain noble gas configuration by either gaining or
losing electrons from their outermost shells. Give reason to explain why carbon cannot
attain noble gas configuration in this manner to form its compounds. Name the type of
bonds formed in ionic compounds and in the compounds formed by carbon. Also give
reason why carbon compounds are generally poor conductors of electricity.
8. (a) Draw a sectional view of human female reproductive system and label the part where (i)
eggs develop. (ii) fertilisation take place. (iii) fertilised egg gets implanted. (b) Describe, in
brief, the changes the uterus undergoes (i) to receive the zygote. (ii) if zygote is not formed.
9. List four methods of contraception used by humans. Justify the following statement : The
use of contraceptive methods has a direct effect on the health and prosperity of a family.
10. It is a matter of chance whether a couple will give birth to a male child or a female child.
Justify this statement with the help of a flow chart showing the fusion of sex chromosomes.
11. A trait may be inherited, but may not be expressed. Justify this statement with the help
of a suitable example.
12. What is meant by group in the modern periodic table ? How do the following change on
moving from top to bottom in a group ? (i) Number of valence electrons (ii) Number of
occupied shells (iii) Size of atoms (iv) Metallic character of elements (v) Effective nuclear
charge experienced by valence electrons