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ENTERPRISE 7.

0
Training Guide

ASSET
UMTS FDD Tool User
E109

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes
only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is
intended for the use of AIRCOM International's customers only for the purposes of
the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be
reproduced or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission
of AIRCOM International. The document has been prepared to be used by
professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full
responsibility when using it. AIRCOM International welcomes customer comments as
part of the process of continuous development and improvement of the
documentation.
The information or statements given in this document concerning the suitability,
capacity, or performance of the mentioned hardware or software products cannot be
considered binding but shall be defined in the agreement made between AIRCOM
International and the customer. However, AIRCOM International has made all
reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in the document are
adequate and free of material errors and omissions. AIRCOM International will, if
necessary, explain issues, which may not be covered by the document.
AIRCOM International's liability for any errors in the document is limited to the
documentary correction of errors. AIRCOM International WILL NOT BE
RESPONSIBLE IN ANY EVENT FOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENT OR FOR ANY
DAMAGES, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL (INCLUDING MONETARY
LOSSES), that might arise from the use of this document or the information in it.
This document and the product it describes are considered protected by copyright
according to the applicable laws.
ASSET is a registered trademark of AIRCOM International.
Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their
respective companies, and they are mentioned for identification purposes only.
Copyright AIRCOM International 2010. All rights reserved.

Contents
1

Introduction to the ASSET Training Course 13


1.1

Overview of the ASSET UMTS Training Course ..................................... 13

1.2

Course Objectives .................................................................................. 14

Introduction to ENTERPRISE 15
2.1

Objectives of this Session ....................................................................... 15

2.2

The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite ............................................................... 15

2.3

Obtaining User Assistance...................................................................... 16

2.3.1
2.3.2

2.4

The ENTERPRISE Database ................................................................. 20

2.4.1

Database Contents ........................................................................................ 20

2.5

The Two-Stage Commit Process ............................................................ 21

2.6

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................... 22

Setting Up the Project

23

3.1

Objectives of this Session ....................................................................... 23

3.2

Starting ENTERPRISE ........................................................................... 23

3.3

Logging into a Database ......................................................................... 24

3.4

Creating a New Project ........................................................................... 25

3.4.1
3.4.2

Obtaining Support .......................................................................................... 17


Obtaining Further Information and Services .................................................. 19

Using Shared Data ........................................................................................ 26


About the Modify Project Dialog Box ............................................................. 27

3.5

Setting the Required Technology for your Project ................................... 32

3.6

Viewing Settings for the Current Project ................................................. 33

3.7

Message Log Window ............................................................................ 33

3.8

Exercise: Starting a Project..................................................................... 34

3.9

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................... 35

Using the GIS and Other Visual Tools 37


4.1

Objectives of this Session ....................................................................... 37

4.2

Introduction ............................................................................................. 37

4.3

Opening the 2D View Window ................................................................ 37

4.4

Using the 2D View Window..................................................................... 39

4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
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About the Map View Toolbar ......................................................................... 39


Using GIS Export ........................................................................................... 56
Displaying Map Data...................................................................................... 40
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4.4.4
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
4.4.8
4.4.9
4.4.10
4.4.11

4.5

Moving Around the Map .......................................................................... 53

4.5.1
4.5.2
4.5.3
4.5.4
4.5.5
4.5.6

4.6

Exercise: Using the 2D View and Favourites .......................................... 61

4.9

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................... 62

Vectors and Polygons

63

5.1

Objectives of this Session ....................................................................... 63

5.2

Overview ................................................................................................ 63

5.3

Creating Your Own Vector File Features ................................................ 64


Defining Attributes for a Vector File Feature ................................................. 68
Editing Lines and Polygons ........................................................................... 69
Managing Vector File Features ..................................................................... 70
Creating Holes or Islands for Polygons ......................................................... 74
Saving and Exporting Vectors ....................................................................... 77

5.4

Importing Vector File Data ...................................................................... 78

5.5

Classifying User Vector Files .................................................................. 79

5.6

Exercise: Creating and Displaying Vectors ............................................. 81

5.7

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................... 82

Setting up a UMTS Network

83

6.1

Objectives of this Session ....................................................................... 83

6.2

Importing Antennas................................................................................. 83

6.3

Setting Up Propagation Models .............................................................. 86

6.3.1
6.3.2

About the Enhanced Macrocell Model ........................................................... 86


Adding an Enhanced Macrocell Model .......................................................... 87

6.4

Using XML Exports and Imports ............................................................. 91

6.5

About UMTS Resources and Node Types .............................................. 93

6.5.1
Page 6

Customising Page Layout for Printing Maps ................................................. 58


Printing the Map............................................................................................. 60
Printing a Specific Area of the Map View Window ........................................ 60

4.8

5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5

Editing and Deleting Favourite Views ............................................................ 56

Printing Maps.......................................................................................... 58

4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.3

Zooming In on the Map .................................................................................. 53


Zooming Out on the Map ............................................................................... 54
Saving a Favourite Zoomed View .................................................................. 54
Shortcut Keys for Zooming ............................................................................ 54
Repositioning the Map ................................................................................... 55
Redrawing the Map........................................................................................ 55

Saving a Favourite Map View ................................................................. 55

4.6.1

4.7

Ordering the Data Shown on the Map ........................................................... 42


Selecting Items on the Map ........................................................................... 44
Selection Expert Toolbox ............................................................................... 44
2D View Context Menu .................................................................................. 44
Viewing Attribute Data on the Map as a Screentip ........................................ 45
Searching the Map View Window with the Quick Finder ............................... 47
Map View Gadgets Window ........................................................................ 50
About the Master View................................................................................. 52

Defining UMTS Resources ............................................................................ 94


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6.5.2

6.6

About UMTS Carriers ............................................................................. 95

6.6.1

6.7

Defining Node Types ..................................................................................... 94


Defining Carriers for UMTS ........................................................................... 95

About Templates .................................................................................... 96

6.7.1

Adding a Template for a Site or Node ........................................................... 97

6.8

Adding Sites or Nodes Using the Map View ............................................ 98

6.9

Setting UMTS Parameters in the Site Database ..................................... 99

6.9.1
6.9.2
6.9.3

Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for a Node ............................... 99
About the Cell Params Tab for UMTS Cells ................................................ 100
Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS Cells ............................................... 103

6.10 Viewing and Editing Antenna Configurations ....................................... 104


6.10.1
6.10.2
6.10.3

Using Instance IDs to Distinguish Antennas ............................................. 104


Moving Antennas in the Map View ............................................................ 106
Reorientating Antennas in the Map View .................................................. 107

6.11 Quickly Viewing and Editing Site or Cell Information ........................... 108
6.12 Viewing and Editing Carried Traffic Data ............................................. 110
6.12.1

About the Carried Traffic Tab .................................................................... 110

6.13 Session Summary Checklist ................................................................ 116

Fields, Filters and Visualisers 117


7.1

Objectives of this Session ..................................................................... 117

7.2

Using Fields in ENTERPRISE .............................................................. 117

7.2.1
7.2.2

7.3

Using Filters in ENTERPRISE .............................................................. 121

7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3
7.3.4
7.3.5
7.3.6
7.3.7

7.4

Purpose and Uses of Filters ........................................................................ 122


Creating a Dynamic Filter using the Filter Wizard ....................................... 123
Creating a Static Filter using the Filter Wizard ............................................ 128
Adding a Filter Using the Selection Expert .................................................. 129
Editing and Deleting Filters .......................................................................... 134
Exporting Filters using XML Export ............................................................. 135
Making Your Dynamic Filters More Efficient ............................................... 136

Using Visualisers .................................................................................. 137

7.4.1
7.4.2
7.4.3
7.4.4

7.5

Examples of Field Definitions ...................................................................... 118


Viewing and Editing Fields for Network Elements ....................................... 119

Adding Visualisers ....................................................................................... 138


Changing the Display Properties of Visualisers .......................................... 138
Copying and Resetting Display Properties of Visualisers ........................... 139
Exporting and Importing Display Properties of Visualisers ......................... 139

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................. 140

Predicting Pathloss and Displaying Coverage

141

8.1

Objectives of this Session ..................................................................... 141

8.2

Predicting Pathloss ............................................................................... 141

8.2.1
8.2.2

About Primary and Secondary Predictions .................................................. 142


Using the Pathloss Prediction Generator .................................................... 145

8.3

Creating Signal Coverage Arrays (UMTS) ............................................ 147

8.4

Displaying Coverage Arrays ................................................................. 148

8.4.1
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Example of Best RSCP Array ...................................................................... 148


Page 7

8.4.2
8.4.3

8.5

Producing Coverage Reports/Statistics................................................. 153

8.6

Using the Array Manager ...................................................................... 154

8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.6.4

8.7

Loading a Specific Array .............................................................................. 155


Saving Arrays .............................................................................................. 156
Deleting Arrays ............................................................................................ 156
About the Array Clipboard ........................................................................... 157

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................. 158

Traffic Planning on a UMTS Network 159


9.1

Objectives of this Session ..................................................................... 159

9.2

Configuring Traffic Parameters ............................................................. 159

9.3

About Bearers....................................................................................... 160

9.3.1

9.4

Adding UMTS Bearers ................................................................................. 160

About Services ..................................................................................... 162

9.4.1
9.4.2
9.4.3

Adding a UMTS Service .............................................................................. 162


Adding a UMTS HSPA Service ................................................................... 164
Setting the Packet Switched Parameters for a Service ............................... 165

9.5

Setting UMTS Clutter Parameters......................................................... 167

9.6

About Terminal Types........................................................................... 168

9.6.1
9.6.2

9.7

9.8

About Vector Attribute Traffic Rasters ......................................................... 174


About Distributional Statistics ...................................................................... 175
About the Traffic Units ................................................................................. 175

Creating a Traffic Raster ....................................................................... 176

9.8.1
9.8.2
9.8.3

9.9

Adding a Terminal Type for UMTS .............................................................. 168


Determining the Distribution of Traffic ......................................................... 170

About Traffic Rasters ............................................................................ 174

9.7.1
9.7.2
9.7.3

10

Example of Best DL Cell by RSCP Array .................................................... 149


Customising the Array Display Properties ................................................... 149

Creating a Traffic Raster with Specified Values .......................................... 177


Creating a Vector Attribute Traffic Raster.................................................... 178
Displaying Traffic Rasters ............................................................................ 179

Session Summary Checklist ................................................................. 180

Planning Neighbours

181

10.1 Objectives of this Session ................................................................... 181


10.2 About Neighbours in ASSET ............................................................... 181
10.3 Creating Neighbours ........................................................................... 182
10.3.1
10.3.2

Creating Neighbours in the Map View ....................................................... 182


Creating Neighbours in the Site Database ................................................ 182

10.4 Using a Simple CSV File to Add or Remove Neighbours ..................... 185
10.5 About the Neighbour Planning Wizards ............................................... 186
10.5.1
10.5.2

Using the Prediction-based Neighbour Wizard ......................................... 187


Setting the Prediction-based Neighbour Plan Parameters ........................ 188

10.6 About the Neighbour Analysis ............................................................. 190


10.6.1

Performing a Neighbour Analysis .............................................................. 191

10.7 Displaying Neighbours......................................................................... 199


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10.7.1
10.7.2
10.7.3

Displaying All Neighbours .......................................................................... 199


Displaying Neighbours for an Individual Cell ............................................. 200
Cross-referencing the Neighbour Analysis with the Map View ................. 201

10.8 Committing All First Order Neighbours of a Cell .................................. 202


10.9 Converting Inward/Outward Neighbours to Mutual .............................. 202
10.9.1
10.9.2

Converting Neighbours in the Site Database ............................................ 202


Converting Neighbours using the Neighbour Analysis .............................. 203

10.10 Session Summary Checklist .............................................................. 204

11

Simulating Network Performance

205

11.1 Objectives of this Session ................................................................... 205


11.2 About Monte Carlo-based Simulation .................................................. 205
11.2.1
11.2.2

About the Static Simulation Method .......................................................... 206


About the Static Analysis Method .............................................................. 207

11.3 About the Simulator in ASSET............................................................. 208


11.4 Prerequisites for Running a Simulation ................................................ 208
11.4.1
11.4.2
11.4.3

Running a Simulation with Specified Cell Load Levels ............................. 209


Selecting the Terminal Types for the Simulation ....................................... 209
Setting Options for the Simulator ............................................................... 209

11.5 Using the Simulator Wizard for UMTS ................................................. 210


11.5.1

About the Simulation Parameters for UMTS ............................................. 213

11.6 Specifying Array Definitions for the Simulator Outputs......................... 215


11.6.1
11.6.2

Using the Simplified Auto Setup Option .................................................... 215


Specifying Customised Array Definitions................................................... 217

11.7 Running Simulation Snapshots............................................................ 221


11.7.1
11.7.2

What Happens Within a Snapshot?........................................................... 222


What Failure Conditions Are Tested For? ................................................. 223

11.8 Viewing and Controlling the Progress of a Simulation ......................... 224


11.8.1

Pausing and Restarting a Simulation ........................................................ 225

11.9 Viewing Simulation Results in Arrays and Reports .............................. 226


11.9.1
11.9.2

Example of Pilot Ec/Io Array ...................................................................... 226


Example of Output Reports ....................................................................... 227

11.10 Writing Cell Loading Parameters to the Database ............................. 227


11.11 Writing Carried Traffic Data to the Database ..................................... 228
11.12 Saving and Loading Simulation Data ................................................. 229
11.13 About the Pixel Analyser ................................................................... 230
11.13.1

Using the Pixel Analyser to View Information .......................................... 231

11.14 Session Summary Checklist .............................................................. 240

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12

Generating Reports

241

12.1 Objectives of this Session ................................................................... 241


12.2 Generating Reports and Statistics ....................................................... 241
12.3 Generating Statistical Reports for Arrays ............................................. 242
12.3.1

Results of the Statistical Reports for Arrays .............................................. 243

12.4 Generating Simulation Reports............................................................ 246


12.4.1
12.4.2
12.4.3
12.4.4
12.4.5
12.4.6

UMTS Composite Reports ......................................................................... 247


UMTS Cell Failure Report ......................................................................... 247
UMTS Downlink Performance Reports...................................................... 248
UMTS Cell Handover Reports ................................................................... 249
Throughput Reports ................................................................................... 249
Uplink Performance Reports ..................................................................... 249

12.5 Generating Site/Node Reports............................................................. 250


12.6 Generating Reports of Uncommitted Changes .................................... 251
12.7 Session Summary Checklist ................................................................ 253

13

Planning Scrambling Codes

255

13.1 Objectives of this Session ................................................................... 255


13.2 About Scrambling Codes ..................................................................... 255
13.3 Planning Scrambling Codes for UMTS ................................................ 256
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3

Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas ...................................................... 256


Running the Scrambling Code Planner ..................................................... 258
About the Scrambling Code Report Dialog Box ........................................ 260

13.4 Session Summary Checklist ................................................................ 264

14

Configuring HSPA

265

14.1 Objectives of this Session ................................................................... 265


14.2 Configuring HSPA Support .................................................................. 265
14.3 Defining UMTS Resources .................................................................. 266
14.4 Defining Node Types ........................................................................... 266
14.5 Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for a Node ...................... 267
14.6 Using AAS Support for UMTS or HSPA ............................................... 268
14.6.1
14.6.2

How the UMTS/HSPA AAS Look-Up Tables Are Used............................. 269


Setting Clutter-specific Adjustments to the AAS Parameters .................... 270

14.7 Assigning Antennas to UMTS Cells ..................................................... 271


14.8 Enabling HSPA Support for UMTS Cells ............................................. 272
14.9 Setting the HSPA Parameters on the Cell Params Tab ....................... 273
14.10 Setting the Cell Load Levels on the Cell Params Tab ........................ 274
14.11 Using CQI Tables for HSDPA ............................................................ 274
14.12 Adding HSDPA Bearers .................................................................... 276
14.12.1
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About HSDPA Bearer Parameters .......................................................... 277


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14.13 Adding HSUPA Bearers .................................................................... 278


14.14 Adding a UMTS HSPA Service .......................................................... 280
14.15 Adding a Terminal Type for UMTS with HSPA .................................. 281
14.16 Using the Simulator for UMTS with HSPA ......................................... 283
14.17 HSPA Array Outputs ......................................................................... 283
14.18 Session Summary Checklist .............................................................. 284

15

What's New in ASSET 7.0?

285

15.1 LTE Support ........................................................................................ 285


15.2 Antenna Instance IDs .......................................................................... 286
15.3 Google Earth Support .......................................................................... 287
15.4 Extended Character Set Support ......................................................... 289
15.5 Licensing Configurations and Permissions .......................................... 290

Index

293

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SECTION 1

Introduction to the
ASSET Training Course
ASSET is a planning and analysis tool that provides a complete range of functionality
for the design and simulation of cellular networks. A wide range of technologies are
supported, including: GSM, GPRS, UMTS (FDD), joint GSM/UMTS, CDMA2000, EVDO, Fixed WiMAX and Mobile WiMAX, and LTE.
To create and use any of these networks, you need to have the appropriate technology
licence. In general, if required, multiple technologies can be used within the same
project.
Functionality includes hierarchical network planning, propagation modelling, service
definition, neighbour list definition, automatic frequency planning, analysis arrays,
detailed reporting, and simulation of network performance. In addition, measurement
data can be used for a variety of purposes.

1.1 Overview of the ASSET UMTS Training Course


This document provides notes and supporting material for the ASSET Version 7.0
User Training Course for the UMTS technology.
This course is intended for competent radio planners who want to understand how to
use the ASSET tool when planning UMTS networks. It is not intended to be any kind
of radio planning course (separate theory courses are available).
It is assumed that the tool has been installed and a suitable database configured by
the system administrator. Details of how to install ENTERPRISE and how to set up a
new database source are not covered by this course, but are covered by the
ENTERPRISE Administration Course.

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1.2 Course Objectives


The course is delivered in a sequence of sessions, enabling delegates to gain
confidence in using the ASSET tool. The course is intended to enable delegates to:
Have a basic understanding of the ENTERPRISE database
Define new projects or use existing projects
Understand how to use the Geographic Information System (GIS)
Create and use vectors and polygons
Set up a UMTS Network
Use fields, filters and visualisers
Perform coverage planning
Model and spread traffic
Perform neighbour planning
Use the Simulator
Generate reports
Plan scrambling codes
Configure HSPA in ASSET
Gain awareness of the new ASSET features in V7.0

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SECTION 2

Introduction to
ENTERPRISE
2.1 Objectives of this Session
During this session you will learn about:
The ENTERPRISE tools suite
The ENTERPRISE database and its contents
The two-stage Commit concept

2.2 The ENTERPRISE Tools Suite


The ENTERPRISE suite of products incorporates a range of advanced tools which
provide valuable integrated support in the areas of planning, optimisation and
performance management. As well as operating standalone, the tools can operate
seamlessly together, sharing critical information without duplication.
The ENTERPRISE products link to a common industry standard relational database
(RDBMS) where you can store all your network data. In addition, ENTERPRISE
products use the same user-friendly Geographical Information System (GIS) to give
you a common interface.
The ENTERPRISE products are:
Product

Description

Administrator

For specifying and configuring your database, projects and users

ADVANTAGE

For automatic cell planning and network optimisation

ARRAYWIZARD

Automated tool for pathloss predictions and coverage arrays

ASSET

Radio network planning and information management for cellular networks

CONNECT

Network transmission and microwave link planning software

DATASAFE

Configuration management solution

DIRECT

Transmission and core network capacity planning and dimensioning tool

AIRCOM OPTIMA

Network performance monitoring, reporting and management

OSSEXPERT

For automating optimisation tasks

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Product

Description

RANOPT

For efficiently finding faults in your network, and optimising and validating network
performance prior to commercial launch

WEBWIZARD

Web-based GIS and report distribution

ENTERPRISE can be 'run' in a number of configurations:


In an office environment over a Local Area Network (LAN)
Between offices using a Wide Area Network (WAN)
Standalone on a laptop computer in the office or field
The following diagram depicts the key functional elements of the system and their
interrelationships:

2.3 Obtaining User Assistance


Using Online Help
ENTERPRISE products come with a complete system of online Help which you can
access in three ways:
From the Help menu, click Help Contents. Scroll through the table of contents and
choose a relevant topic to display.
To search for something particular, from the Help menu, click Help Contents and
using the Index tab or Search tab, type in a letter or word to start searching for
relevant topics.
Press F1 in a dialog box to view context-sensitive help (available for most dialog
boxes).
If you are using ENTERPRISE within a CITRIX environment, to ensure that the
Help graphics are displayed, set your display settings to support more than 256
colours.
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Using ENTERPRISE User Reference Guides


If you prefer to read printed content, we also provide User Reference Guides. To view
or print these as PDFs (portable document format):
1

Ensure you have an appropriate PDF reader installed on your PC.

Click Start on the taskbar, point to Programs, then AIRCOM International, then
ENTERPRISE, then Docs.
- or Navigate to the Docs folder in the location where you installed the product.
If neither of these exists, please contact your administrator.

Double-click the PDF file that you want to view.

If you have a customer web account, you can also download the latest User
Reference Guides from our website.
Checking Release Notes
Each release of the ENTERPRISE software is accompanied by Release Notes, giving
important information on system requirements, installation, known issues, upgrades
and so on. You can download these notes from our website.
For any further documentation, such as application notes and extra reference
information, please email the support team at the address described in Obtaining
Support on page 17.

2.3.1 Obtaining Support


If you have a difficulty you cannot resolve yourself using the online Help or
Reference Guides, or you have found a possible fault in the software, you can log a
support request. You may also wish to contact us if you want to:
Register for a customer web account to access the Support area
Obtain further documentation, such as application notes and extra reference
information
Logging Support Requests Online
To log a support request online:
1

Go to the AIRCOM website, at www.aircominternational.com.

Click the link for Product Support Login.

Log in, using your customer web account username and password.

In the Technical Support pane, click Online Helpdesk.

Click Log New UTS Call.

Type the details of your request, and then click Submit.

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Contacting us by Telephone or Email


If you wish to contact us directly, here are the contact details of our regional offices:
Location

Regional Office

Contact Details

Europe

United Kingdom

Tel : +44 1932 442000


Fax :+44 1932 442005
support@aircominternational.com

Middle East, Africa and Central Asia

Belgium

support@aircominternational.be

France

support@aircominternational.fr

Germany

support@aircominternational.de

Italy

support@aircominternational.it

Sweden

support@aircominternational.se

United Arab Emirates

Tel : +971 4 391 2642


Fax :+971 4 391 8141
support@aircominternational.ae

South Africa

Tel : +27 11 745 1475


Fax : +27 11 465 1517
support@aircominternational.com

Americas

Mexico

support@aircominternational.com.mx

USA

Tel : +1 214 576 2700


Fax : +1 214 576 2794
support@aircominternational.us

Asia and Oceania

Brazil

support@aircominternational.com.br

Singapore

Tel: +65 6372 0548


Fax: +65 6372 0350
supportsg@aircominternational.com

China

Tel: +86 2162792779


Fax: +86 2162792855
supportsg@aircominternational.com

India

Tel: +91 124 4848200


Fax: +91 124 4517878
supportindia@aircominternational.com

When contacting us with a support query, it would help us if you:


Give us as much information as possible about the problem and the context in
which it occurred
State the version and build you are using
Have all the details of your query to hand
Are logged into the ENTERPRISE application
Can send extracts of your data sets if we need them to reproduce your problem

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2.3.2 Obtaining Further Information and Services


As well as comprehensive online Help and User Reference Guides and dedicated
Product Support, AIRCOM provides:
Online Knowledgebase of Articles
If you register for a customer web account, you can view our searchable technical
database in the Product Support section of the AIRCOM website. This
Knowledgebase contains articles created by our support professionals who have
resolved issues for our customers, and is constantly updated, expanded, and refined
to ensure that you have access to the very latest information and frequently asked
questions.
Power Tools
If you register for a customer web account, you can download from a selection of
useful power tools, such as file conversion utilities.
Latest Copies of the User Reference Guides
If you register for a customer web account, you can download the latest User
Reference Guides (PDFs) from our website. If you do this, please check the table in the
About this Manual section for additions or corrections.
Consultancy Services
AIRCOM also provide full radio consultancy services in Network Audits, Business
Planning Support, Licence Applications, Radio Network Planning,
Telecommunications Research and System Modelling and Propagation Analysis and
Modelling.
Training
There is a wide variety of courses run by AIRCOM. These courses range from tool
training to technology training. For details, contact Competence Development
Solutions (training@aircominternational.com).

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2.4 The ENTERPRISE Database


The ENTERPRISE database is common to all the tools. ENTERPRISE 7.0 supports
Oracle 10 and 11, and a number of Windows platforms, which are described in the
release notes supplied with the product.
The database typically resides on a dedicated server computer connected to your
network. The ENTERPRISE software is then installed and run from client
workstations connected to the same network. In an optional stand-alone
configuration, it is necessary to install the Oracle database on the same PC as the
ENTERPRISE client.

2.4.1 Database Contents


The ENTERPRISE database stores all of the parameters required to fully describe the
network being modelled. For ASSET this includes details of items such as (but not
limited to):
Project definition settings (such as map projections, directory settings, and so on)
Switching Equipment
Physical Locations
NodeBs
Cells
Carriers
Neighbours
Propagation Models
Antenna Radiation Patterns
Radio Equipment Details (for example, Feeders, Mast Head Amplifiers, and so on)
The full list of items is too large to present here but can be found in the database table
descriptions included in the Database Reference Guide.

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2.5 The Two-Stage Commit Process


Data is stored in the database in two types of tables:
1

The COMMIT Tables, which contain the master set of data accessible to all users.

The DIFFERENCE (DIFF) Tables, which contain provisional changes to the master
Committed tables, for each individual user.

When a user makes a change to the database, the change is first "APPLIED", which
means that the change is stored in that user's "DIFF" tables and can only be seen by
that user. When the user is satisfied that the change is correct and that all users should
be aware of the new network data, it can then be "COMMITTED" to the master tables
using the 'COMMIT' or 'COMMIT ALL' buttons.
The COMMIT button saves selected changes within an open window to the database,
whereas the COMMIT ALL button saves everything within that window to the
database.
This two-stage process for storing data in the database enables users to experiment
with new designs without affecting other users, until satisfied with that particular
change.
If a change has only been 'Applied' to the database it is possible to use the
RESTORE button in the Site or Link Database window to revert back to the previous
Committed state.

The two-stage Commit process

The changes committed to the database by one user will not be visible to another user
until the project is re-started (that is, after logging off and on again).

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2.6 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
The ENTERPRISE tools suite
The ENTERPRISE database and its contents
The two-stage Commit concept

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 3

Setting Up the Project


3.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn how to:
Start the ENTERPRISE suite application
Login to the ENTERPRISE database
Create a new project
Set up the project with the appropriate co-ordinates and map data directories
Set the required technology

3.2 Starting ENTERPRISE


Once your system administrator has set up the ENTERPRISE database and created a
user account for you, you can start ENTERPRISE and create a new project ready for
planning work.
To start ENTERPRISE, from the Windows Start Menu select:
Start>All Programs>AIRCOM International>ENTERPRISE V7.0>AIRCOM
ENTERPRISE Suite
Once you have started ENTERPRISE, the main toolbar will appear along the top of
the screen, with tabs corresponding to the different modules available. Which tabs
you see depends on which modules have been licensed.

Example of tabs - these correspond to the different modules that have been licensed and installed

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3.3 Logging into a Database


Before you can log in to a database, an administrator must have used the
ENTERPRISE Administrator program to set you up as an authorised user of a
database. For information on using this product, see the ENTERPRISE Installation
and Administration Guide.
To log in to a database:
1

Ensure the Database Login dialog box is open.


If it is not, from the File menu, click Login or click the Login button

The Database Login dialog box appears:

On the Database Login dialog box, ensure the correct database is shown in the
Data Source box.

Choose whether to log into ENTERPRISE:


By typing in a username and password as set up by your administrator.

Automatically, using authentication from the operating system (OS) where


you are connected automatically to the database if the server confirms that you
exist. This means you do not have to use a separate password here.

Click Login.

If you belong to the Administrators group, you have the additional choice of:

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Logging in as yourself.

Impersonating another user who is not already logged into the project. For
example, to create new objects on their behalf.

Select which user to log in as then click OK.

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3.4 Creating a New Project


When you have logged into a database, the Start Project dialog box appears, showing
any projects that are currently available within the database.
However, if you have permission to do so, you can also create a new project. To do
this:
1

In the Start Project dialog box, click Add.

If you have no existing projects, go to step 3. If you have existing projects, the
Table Selection dialog box appears:

Choose to:

Use new project data


- or -

Share existing project data

Only share data if your map data cannot be contained within a single
projection or zone as then you will need multiple projects to accurately model the
site co-ordinates. You cannot share projects whose project data is already shared.
For more information, see Using Shared Data on page 26.
3

If you choose to share project data, select the project whose data you want to share
from the drop down list.
This project will subsequently appear at the top level of the tree shown in the Start
Project dialog box with the new project shown underneath.

If ENTERPRISE has been set up with a settings database schema, the Project
Defaults field is enabled in the Table Selection dialog box. You can use the browse
button to select a .stt file containing user settings to be used as defaults in the new
project. For more information about the settings schema, see Database Settings
Management in the ENTERPRISE Installation and Administration Guide.

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In the Modify Project dialog box, set up your project including:

On the Map Data Directories tab, enter the locations that contain the various
index files for map data elements you are using. If your map data does not
contain a particular element, leave the box for that type of data blank.

On the User Data Directories tab, specify paths for certain user preferences,
such as favourite views. Also indicate if you want to load in all your own user
vectors, all the user vectors for the people in your group, or all user vectors.
For information on setting up groups, see the ENTERPRISE Installation and
Administration Guide.

More information about what to specify on all the tabs of the Modify Project
dialog box is given in the following sections.
6

When you have entered all the required information on the tabs, click OK.

3.4.1 Using Shared Data


Sharing data between projects in the same database is useful in countries where the
radio network spans more than one co-ordinate projection system. For example,
Australia could span seven different UTM projection zones, each requiring different
settings to obtain the correct co-ordinate conversion between spherical co-ordinates
(latitude/longitude) and Cartesian co-ordinates (grid).
In this case, it would be possible to set up seven different projects, one for each set of
map data but have them all connected to the same set of database tables containing
network data.

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You could also use shared data in conjunction with loading a region or sub-set of a
project. For example, you could have one project where all the sites are visible and a
number of sub-projects each with different load areas.
Shared projects are shown in the Start Project dialog box as a hierarchy, with the
project whose data is shared at the top level and the newer project as a sub-folder.
Only two levels are permitted:

Shared Projects Shown in the Start Project Dialog Box

If you have anything shared between projects, for example antennas, and you
export and re-import as a new project in the same database you will get a message
telling you that you are re-importing duplicate information. This message appears for
each data point on an antenna, so ideally, do not try and re-import items that are
shared between projects.

3.4.2 About the Modify Project Dialog Box


To access the Modify Project dialog box, in the Start Project dialog box, select the
required project and click Info.

3.4.2.1 Overriding Database Directory Settings


Your ENTERPRISE administrator should have configured the database directory
settings for all the projects stored in the database, so you will not usually want to
override database directory settings.
However, if you are working remotely with a copy of the database on a laptop and no
longer have a connection to the map data file server, you must override the global
settings by selecting the Override Database Directory checkbox, then setting these
directories to be your local ones:
Map data
Predictions
Preferences
Colour palette
You cannot override any other settings unless you have administrator privileges.
If you have created user vectors that you want to use on the laptop, you will need
to import the vector files to your new folder.

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3.4.2.2 About the Coord System Tab


The map co-ordinate system is used to translate between geographic co-ordinates and
Cartesian co-ordinates based on the projection system which the mapping data uses.
It is important to set this correctly because mapping data is only valid for the
particular co-ordinate system to which it relates.
ENTERPRISE is designed to work with one (and only one) projection/ellipsoid
combination per project. The projection/ellipsoid settings for the project MUST match
the settings for the map data that will be used since the map data is stored in
Cartesian not spherical co-ordinates.
On the Coord System tab of the Modify Project dialog box, you can set which coordinate system group, co-ordinate system, datum and unit of measurement are used.
You can also set the Co-ordinate System data values for a visualisation co-ordinate
system which enables you to specify geographic co-ordinates using a different datum
to that specified by the map co-ordinate system. You might use this so that
geographic co-ordinates reported by a GPS receiver could be entered directly into
ENTERPRISE, regardless of the map co-ordinate system.
Do not set a visualisation co-ordinate system if you have already created sites as
they will shift locations.
On this tab, you can also:
Create and edit datums and ellipsoids
Select which MapInfo projection setting will be used for MapInfo vectors data in
the project
Import and export your settings

3.4.2.3 About the Map Data Directories Tab


On the Map Data Directories tab of the Modify Project dialog box, enter the locations
that contain the various index files for the map data categories you are using (for
example, clutter, heights and so on). You can either use the Browse option to find the
directory, or type in the pathname.
It is essential that you set up your map data directories to point to the correct
folders. If your map data does not contain a particular category, leave the box for that
type of data blank.
In the Backdrops box, specify a path to a folder that can contain map backdrops
and aerial photos as sub-folders. For example:

An index file and data file(s) should exist in each of the sub-directories.

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3.4.2.4 About the User Data Directories Tab


On the User Data Directories tab of the Modify Project dialog box, you can specify
directory paths for certain categories of user data. You can do this either by typing the
path, or using the Browse option.
Important :
It is strongly recommended that you do not share the same directory paths
between different databases
It is also recommended that you set these directory paths to be unique per project
(rather than shared between projects), and enter paths to directories that are
currently empty
The above advice is especially applicable to the Prediction directory, because it
simplifies the management of prediction files.
To specify the directory paths:
1

Specify a path for User preferences, to store your favourite views.

Specify a Prediction directory where all your pathloss predictions will be stored.
You can also view any prediction folders already known to the database, using the
drop-down box.
You should ensure that all users of this project have adequate read/write
permissions for the files and folders in the specified directory.

Specify a value that represents the maximum disk space you want to reserve for
the storage of prediction files.
For information on specifying this value, see About the Prediction File
Caching System on page 30.

In the colour palette box, specify a path to a text file that details the RGB values for
the 253 colours that are used in your project.

Specify a path for coverage or interference arrays that you may want to save.

Specify a path where you will store your user vectors (lines, polygons or points),
and indicate if you want to load:

Your own user vectors only

The user vectors for everyone in your Group

All user vectors that exist in the database

This depends whether the paths to other people's user vectors are shared. If the
user vector folder is shared between users, you should be aware that any folder
deletion will impact other users trying to use that folder until they restart that
project.
If you want to edit other people's user vectors, you will need the correct permissions,
which are set by your administrator.

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About the Prediction File Caching System


Prediction files contain data that can be freshly regenerated at any time, but, as this
process takes time, it is more efficient to store the files on the disk every time they are
created, and manage them as a cache of precalculated data.
Therefore, in ENTERPRISE, the concept behind the storage of the prediction files is
that they are stored on disk and remain stored, even if they become 'invalid' due to
changes to the cell parameters or locations. The major benefit of this is that they can
be reused whenever they become 'valid' again.
It is evident from the above approach that, on some occasions, the disk might become
full and consist of many unwanted prediction files.
For this reason, these files are automatically managed within ENTERPRISE by a
caching algorithm, which can dispose of unwanted files on the basis of specific
criteria.
As a vital input to this algorithm, you need to specify the maximum disk space for the
storage of these files, on a per prediction folder basis. This limit must be specified on
the User Data Directories tab of the Modify Project dialog box.

Example of Setting Maximum Disk Space for Prediction File Storage in the Modify Project dialog box

Notes :
The default value, if selected, represents 80% of the free disk space on the drive
where the prediction folder exists.
The specified settings for maximum disk space are stored in a configuration file in
the root of the prediction folder.
The concept of the Prediction File Caching System is also described in the Predicting
Pathloss and Displaying Coverage section of the ASSET User Reference Guide,
including the speed, efficiency and benefits involved in the creation and loading of
prediction files.
The caching algorithm is described in the ASSET Technical Reference Guide.

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3.4.2.5 About the Map Data Extents Tab


On the Map Data Extents tab of the Modify Project dialog box, click Calculate for
ENTERPRISE to read the map data and set the grid co-ordinates so that the whole of
the mapped area can be viewed. An automatic border of 5% is included.
This means that when the map is first opened, it will display the correct part of the
World.
If the extents look incorrect, it is likely that erroneous points exist in one of the
map data index files.
If you require only a part of the mapped area, then these can be set manually to cover
a smaller area, by entering the grid co-ordinates of the extent of the map that you
want to be visible in the Map View window.

3.4.2.6 About the Region Load Tab


Use the Region Load tab of the Modify Project dialog box to load only sites or nodes
in a specified region, which can be either a polygon or rectangle. By loading a sub-set
of site data, ENTERPRISE can run faster.
You can create a polygon within an open project, with your sites and required
map layers visible on the Map View. Then, after closing the project, you can use that
polygon to define the region.
After selecting to use a region load, when you open the project, the title bar indicates
that you have a region loaded. The project will contain:
All 'Committed' network elements (sites, nodes, links, repeaters and so on) that
are inside the region you have chosen
All 'Applied-only' network elements (sites, nodes, links, repeaters and so on)
relating to the individual user, regardless of the chosen region
All hierarchy-related MSCs and BSCs, WMSCs, RNCs, SGSNs, CDMA MSCs,
CDMA BSCs and the Properties they are on, regardless of the chosen region

3.4.2.7 About the Info Tab


Use the Info tab of the Modify Project dialog box to add supplementary information
about your project.
This tab displays the time and date when the project was created and when it was last
modified.
If required, you can enter a brief description of the project and any further comments
related to it.

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3.5 Setting the Required Technology for your


Project
Setting up your preferences is the next step after you have set up and opened a
project, and before you begin planning a network.
It is essential that the correct technology is activated for your project.
To do this:
1

From the File menu, click Preferences.

In the Preferences dialog box, click the Technology tab.

Select the technology type(s) you require.

Click OK.
Notes:
The technology options are always dependent on what licences you have.
In general, multiple technology modes can be used within the same project. Only
the 2g technologies are mutually exclusive.

This picture shows an example of the Technology tab in the Preferences dialog box:

Preferences Dialog Box - Technology Tab

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3.6 Viewing Settings for the Current Project


Once a project is open, you can view its settings:
From the File menu, click View Project Settings.
You cannot modify the settings in this dialog box. If you want to modify them:
1

Close the current project by clicking Close Project on the File menu.

Again from the File menu, click Open Project and select Info>>.

Edit as needed.

3.7 Message Log Window


The message log window opens automatically when a project is started and contains
confirmation Messages, Warnings and other types of messages. This is very useful for
troubleshooting purposes.

Message Log window

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3.8 Exercise: Starting a Project


This exercise will enable you to set up a new project prior to commencing Radio
Planning.
1

Launch the ENTERPRISE suite from the Windows Start Menu.

Select the correct data source, login to the database with the appropriate user
name and password:
Data Source
User Name
Password

In the Start Project dialog box, click on the Add button.

In the Table Selection dialog box, select the New Project data option, then click
Continue.

In the Modify Project dialog box, name your new project JerseyCom.

On the Co-ordinate System tab, click the Change button and choose the following
settings:
Group

Universal Transverse Mercator

System

Zone 30N (6W to 0W)

Datum

WGS84

Linear Unit

METERS

On the Map data directories tab, define all available mapping data for the project.

On the User data directories tab, complete all settings.

On the Map Data Extents tab, click the Calculate button.

10 In the Modify Project dialog box, click OK.


11 In the Start Project dialog box, select your newly-created "JerseyCom project and
click Start.

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3.9 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
Start the ENTERPRISE suite application
Login to the ENTERPRISE database
Create a new project
Set up the project with the appropriate co-ordinates and map data directories
Set the required technology

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 4

Using the GIS and Other


Visual Tools
4.1 Objectives of this Session
During this session you will learn about:
Opening a new 2D View window
Using the 2D View window
Using the Zoom and Panning functions
Saving Favourite Views
Printing from the 2D View

4.2 Introduction
The GIS is a fundamental part of the ENTERPRISE suite in which you can view the
different data available within ENTERPRISE including site data, connectivity and
mapping data. The GIS is also referred to as the Map View or 2D View.
The Map View and Site Database window are fully synchronised so that changes
made in one window are reflected in the other. Similarly, when you click on a
network element or property in the Map View, an open Site Database window will
update dynamically to display the selected item.

4.3 Opening the 2D View Window


The Map View window is a fundamental part of the ENTERPRISE suite in which you
can view all the different elements of your network including site data, connectivity
and mapping data.
As with all windows, the Map View window and Site Database window are
synchronised so that changes you make in one are reflected in the other. For example,
when you click something in the map, the Site Database window updates
dynamically. You can have more than one Map View window open to view different
areas of the network.

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To open a Map View window:


On the main toolbar, click the New 2D View button

or
From the View menu, click New 2D View.
A blank Map View window opens.
If you want the Map View window to stay always on top of other windows on
your desktop, right-click the window title and click Always On Top.
This picture shows an example Map View window:

Map View window

There are many buttons included in the 2D View, which are arranged into toolbars
with different functions. We will now look at each of these toolbars in turn and
discuss their functions.
You open multiple 2D View windows to display different kinds of data
simultaneously.

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4.4 Using the 2D View Window


There are many ways in which you can use the 2D View to display, select and search
geo-data and network data.

4.4.1 About the Map View Toolbar


This toolbar is always shown on the Map View window:

The Map View toolbar

The toolbars and buttons that you see are always dependent on the products you
have installed. For specific information, see the relevant User Reference Guide.
This table describes the tools available on the Map View toolbar:
Tool

Description
Select object. This button is also useful for deactivating any previously selected options (such as Pan or Zoom).
Selection Filter toolbox. For more information, see Adding to the Selection Filter Using the Map View Window on
page 130.
Clear Selection Filter.
Zoom around the centre of the Map View.
Zoom to the extent of a rectangle that you draw on the Map View.
Pan around the Map View.
Quick finder.
Jump to location.
Display site tips.
Key legend.
Show data types for display.
Favourite views.
Create new vector.
Vector manager.
Hot track mode.
Pixel select mode.

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4.4.2 Displaying Map Data


To see what available data types can be displayed on a map:
In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button

or
Use the Data Types tab of the Map Information and Control dialog box, available
by clicking the Key/Legend button

Here is an example of the available data types:

The data types available for display include vectors, text, backdrops, height data,
clutter data, site filters, cell information, network connections and coverage.
Before you display anything else, display some standard line data, such as
coastline, then zoom to the area you are interested in. This will ensure you do not
slow down your PC by trying to display rasters, such as heights and clutter data, for
whole areas that you are not interested in.

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To expand a category and see the data types beneath it:


Click the + sign.
To display a data type on the map:
Ensure you have selected the checkbox next to the type:

Selecting Data Types

For User Vectors and Measurements, WFS Services, and Clutter Data, you can select a
category or sub-category and all items within that category are automatically selected
and will be displayed:

Similarly, clearing the checkbox for the whole category will mean all items are no
longer selected.
If you are using the Data Types dialog box, to return to the Map View window click
OK & Redraw.
To change the display style of any data category:
1

In the Data Types dialog box, double-click the category name.

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The appropriate Display Properties dialog box appears, enabling you to change
the properties of the displayed data.

The different properties shown will depend on the item selected.


3

To save the changes, click OK, and then click OK & Redraw to display the change.
After you have customised the colours and styles for each item these will be
automatically saved for future sessions.

If you want to display 'rasterised' data such as heights or clutter, ensure that you
are not zoomed out too far. This kind of data can require a large amount of RAM to
display - the amount being a function of the area being displayed divided by the area
of a single pixel of the rasterised data (resolution).
If the area you have selected requires more physical RAM than your PC has available
the drawing process will be VERY slow. Therefore, it is recommended to draw some
vector data first in order to navigate to the required view area (this requires much less
RAM) before displaying the heights or clutter data.

4.4.3 Ordering the Data Shown on the Map


If you have many items displayed simultaneously on the Map View window, you
may want to manage the order in which they are displayed, so that one thing is not
hidden by another.
To select the order in which the selected data types are displayed:

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Click the Key/Legend button

In the Map Information and Control dialog box that appears, click the Layer Order
tab.

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This tab shows the currently selected data types in the order they are displayed on
the map, with the highest item in the list being the last one to be displayed on the
map.

To select more data types for display, use the Data Types tab of this dialog box.
3

To move a data type up or down in the order, select the required layer and click
the up or down arrow buttons as required then click Redraw to automatically
redraw the Map View window with your changes.

To delete data layers, select the data layer(s) that you want to delete, then click the
Remove Selected button. You can also click Remove All. Both these buttons are the
equivalent of clearing the checkboxes in the list of data types.

Double-clicking an item on the Layer Order tab brings up the display properties
dialog box in which you can change how items are displayed in the usual way.

You can also use the Map Information and Control dialog box for:
Displaying and changing items in the legend.
Selecting data types for display.

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4.4.4 Selecting Items on the Map


To select items in the Map View window, click the Select button

This is selected by default. If you have performed another function, for example,
moving sites, you may need to click the Select button to return to Select mode.

4.4.5 Selection Expert Toolbox


The various buttons contained within the Selection Expert toolbox allows for easy
selection of elements to be placed into a 'Selection' filter. The selected elements will
then appear in the Selection Expert where they then can be saved or exported as a
filter.

This functionality will be covered in the Session on Filters and Fields.

4.4.6 2D View Context Menu


You can open the 2D View Context menu by right-clicking in the display area of the
2D View window. This is a versatile menu that contains some of the most useful
display control features, which are described in this table:
Item

Description

Redraw

Refreshes the screen after manipulating data.


This is also linked to the Key/Legend window to update all listed data.

Mouse Zoom

Zooms into a desired location by defining the required areas with a resizable box.

Menu Zoom

In contrast to the above, this function zooms to:


A set multiplication factor (x_)
A set window size (_km)
The previous view (Last)
A defined home view (Home)
The current view will determine whether zooming in or out will occur.

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Item

Description

Add to Favourites

Stores frequently used Map Views, which includes remembering both the visual layers displayed
as well as the exact region, zoom level and resolution selected.
To quickly toggle between the different favourite views, use the Favourites drop-down list on the
Map View Toolbar:

These can be stored, and optionally shared amongst other users.


Organise Favourites

Offers a way of renaming or removing existing favourites.

Set Home

Sets the Home view and specifies the zoom level with which any new 2D View window initially
opens.

4.4.7 Viewing Attribute Data on the Map as a Screentip


In ENTERPRISE, you can display network element data in the Map View window as
screentips, which appear as you hover over cells/repeaters in your network. This
picture shows an example for UMTS, where the cell ID, azimuth, carrier and
scrambling code are displayed as screentips for the closest cell:

Viewing attributes on a site as screentips

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To do this:
1

On the Map View toolbar, click the Display Site Tips button

The Site Tip Attributes dialog box appears:

In the Available Attributes pane, expand the required network element, and
either:

Click the name of the attribute that you want to display on the Map View, and
click the right arrow button
- or -

Select the checkboxes of the attribute(s) that you want to display on the Map
View

The attributes are added to the Selected Attributes pane.


Tips:

If you want to remove an attribute from the Selected Attributes pane, select the
required attribute and click the left arrow button

If you want to re-order the way that the attributes will be displayed, click the
up
and down
arrow buttons to change the position. The attribute at
the top of the list is displayed first and the attribute at the end of the list is
displayed last.

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When you have selected all of the required attributes, click OK.
The chosen attributes are then available as screentips when you hover the mouse
over the cell.
Your chosen attributes are saved for future use. However, if you close and reopen

the Map View, you will need to click the Display Site Tips button
Site Tips.

again to see the

4.4.8 Searching the Map View Window with the Quick Finder
You can search the Map View window using the Quick finder dialog box. This
enables you to locate items such as a location, Property, link or piece of text or
attributes such as carried traffic. This picture shows an example where any Property
ID containing the number 56 is listed in the Quick Finder dialog box and highlighted
with an arrow in the Map View window:

Using the Quick Finder with the Map View

If the Quick finder dialog box has not been used before, you will need to set it up. For
more information see Setting Up the Quick Finder on page 49.

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To search the map using the Quick finder:


1

Click the Quick finder button

In the first drop-down field select the item that you wish to search for.

In the second drop-down field, if applicable, refine your search by selecting a


parameter to search for. The item and parameter that you have chosen are shown
in "Look for" field.

If you have selected a parameter at step 3, click the button by the "Where" field.
"Where" in this context is used to mean for example, find all cells where the cell ID
includes the text "site."
You can specify an expression to be applied to the search of your chosen item and
parameter by selecting an operator and a value.
The operators available depend on the parameter selected and can include
regular expressions.
You can also select the Not option to locate items that do not match the expression
or value chosen.

Optionally click the button by the "Search in" field. For all items except text a
drop-down list enables you to choose whether to search in a filter, a view, or in
existing search results.
If you choose to search in:

A filter, specify which filter

A view, use the Click View button to select one

Existing results, a subset of these that match your refined search criteria will
appear in the "Results" field after you click the Find button

For text items a drop-down field enables you to choose whether to search all text
or just the text currently displayed in the Map View window.
6

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Optionally click on the button by the "Highlight on view" field. You can use this
to determine how your search results are to be identified in the Map View
window. You can choose:

An arrow or a target symbol to highlight the item

The colour of the arrow or target

The colour of the surround (halo) around the arrow or target

The colour of the symbol (dot) representing the item

Whether or not text identifying the item is displayed

The colour of the text used

The size and transparency of the arrow or target used

Click Find. Your search results are shown in the Map View window and listed in
the Quick finder dialog box under the "Results" field.

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You can select the Append option if you want the current search results to be
retained and appended to the results of your next search. This table shows the
options available if you right-click on any of the results listed:
Select This Option

To Do This

Select All

Select all the items in the search results list and highlight all the associated features in
the Map View window.

Re-centre in view

For single selected items, position the item in the centre of the Map View window.

Re-centre and zoom in view

For single selected items, position the item in the centre of the Map View window and
zoom in to 5km.

Quick Edit

Change the parameters associated with a GSM or UMTS item.

Generate report

Create a report including all the items shown in the list of search results.

Save as selection filter

Create a selection filter that can subsequently be used to display the items identified
by the search in the Map View window. For more information on filters, see Using
Filters in ENTERPRISE on page 121.

4.4.8.1 Setting Up the Quick Finder


If the Quick finder dialog box has not been used before, you will need to set it up by
selecting the criteria, such as network elements and parameters, that you want to have
available to choose from when searching.
To set up the Quick finder dialog box:
1

Click the Quick finder button


picture shows an example:

. The Quick finder dialog box appears. This

Click

Choose the items that you want to have available for selection in the drop-down
list. You can do this by clicking on individual items or you can right-click and
choose to Select All or Deselect All.

Click OK. Your chosen items are listed in the drop-down list. They will continue to
be listed there whenever the Quick finder dialog box is opened for this project,
unless you subsequently change your choice of listed items by the same method.

In the first drop-down field, select the first item.

by the first drop-down list to open the Select/Deselect Items dialog box.

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Click
by the second drop-down list to open the Select/Deselect Parameters
dialog box.

If applicable, choose the parameters associated with this item that you want to
have available for selection in the drop-down field. You can do this by clicking on
individual parameters or you can right-click and choose to Select All or Deselect
All.

Click OK. Your chosen parameters for this item are listed in the drop-down field.
They will continue to be listed there whenever the Quick finder dialog box is
opened for this project, unless you subsequently change your choice of listed
parameters for this item by the same method.

To choose parameters for other search items, in the first drop-down list, select the
next item and then repeat steps 6 to 8 until you have chosen parameters for all
applicable items.

4.4.9 Map View Gadgets Window


The Map View Gadgets window provides information about a particular pixel/point
on the 2D View. The Gadgets window can be either attached and detached at the
bottom of the 2D View.
1

In the 2D View, from the View menu, click Show Map View Gadgets.

The Gadgets window opens:

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You can choose which information will be displayed in the Gadgets window by
clicking the Edit Map Information button

Add items as required (for example, Building Height, Visibility, and so on) by
selecting the item in the 'Available items' pane and clicking the Add button to
move them to the 'Selected items' pane.
Similarly, to remove items, select the item in the 'Selected items' pane, and then
click Remove to return the item to the 'Available items' pane.

You can change how the location is displayed and the building heights are
calculated by double-clicking the item in Gadgets window.
To begin with, the Gadgets window is attached to the bottom of the 2D View window,
but it can be detached and then moved to any location (including another 2D View
window is more than one is open).
To do this, from the View menu click Pin Map View Gadgets. Clicking this option
again will re-attach the window to the bottom of the 2D View.

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4.4.10

About the Master View

The Master View window is a small-scale map, which indicates with a rectangle the
position of any currently opened map view.
To open the Master View window:
From the View menu, click Master View.

To choose what data is displayed on the Master View:


1

On the Master View, right-click and from the menu that appears, click Properties.

In the Data Types dialog box, select the data you require:

You can edit the display properties of a data type by double-clicking it.
3

Click OK & Redraw.

You can scroll your Map View using the Master View window. To do this, drag
the rectangle to the required position.

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4.5 Moving Around the Map


There are several ways of zooming in and out on the map.
While in Zoom mode, you can hold down Shift to change temporarily to Pan
mode. This is useful for zooming and then scrolling and zooming again.

4.5.1 Zooming In on the Map


This table describes how you can zoom in:
To Zoom In
On a particular place

Do This
Click the Zoom button

and click on the map where you want the centre of the zoom to be.

or
Click the Zoom button
and click and hold the left mouse button down while dragging the
mouse downwards on the map.
Using the mouse to select
a boxed area
(method one)

Using the mouse to select


a boxed area
(method two)

Click the Zoom Box button


.
Click and hold down the left mouse button on the map where the centre of the box will be
and drag the mouse to create a box.
Release the mouse button.
The Map View window redraws to display only the area selected. The aspect ratio of the region
will match that of the current map view.
Click the Zoom button
then hold down Alt.
Click where you want the upper left of your area to be and drag the mouse towards the
lower right area to create a rectangle.
The Map View window redraws to display only the area selected. The aspect ratio of the region
will match that of the current map view.

To a set width (km)

Right-click anywhere on the Map View window, and point to Menu Zoom then click the required
width.

To a set magnification

Right-click anywhere on the Map View window, and point to Menu Zoom then click the required
magnification (for example, x5)..

To a previous or defined
Home view

Right-click anywhere on the Map View window, and point to Menu Zoom then click Last or
Home.

To stop zooming, either click another button, the Select Arrow button or the Display
Data Types button.

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4.5.2 Zooming Out on the Map


Zoom out by doing one of these:
Click the Zoom button
of the zoom to be.

, and right-click on the map where you want the centre

Click the Zoom button


, hold down Ctrl and click on the map where you want
the centre of the zoom to be.
Click the Zoom button
and click and hold the left mouse button down while
dragging the mouse upwards on the map.
While using either of the above you are in Zoom mode. You can hold down
Shift to change temporarily to Pan mode. This is useful for zooming and then
scrolling and zooming again.
Right-click on the map, and point to Menu Zoom then click the required zoom, for
example, x0.5.
To stop zooming, either click another button, the Select Arrow button or the Display
Data Types button.

4.5.3 Saving a Favourite Zoomed View


You can temporarily set a level of zoom as your Home and return to it during the
current session of ENTERPRISE. To do this:
1

In the Map View window, right-click and from the menu that appears click Set
Home.

To return to this level of zoom, right-click, point to Mouse Zoom then click Home.
For information on setting up permanent favourite views, see Saving a Favourite
Map View on page 55.

4.5.4 Shortcut Keys for Zooming


This table shows the shortcut keys that you can press when in different modes. You
have to press these keys after selecting the mode and before clicking the map:

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Mode

Ctrl

Alt

Shift

Zoom

Zoom Out

Mouse Zoom

Pan

Zoom Box

Mouse Zoom

Zoom

Pan

Zoom

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4.5.5 Repositioning the Map


To reposition the displayed data:
1

Click the Pan button

The cursor changes to a hand shape.


2

Click and hold down the left mouse button and drag the data to the required
location.
You can continue to drag until you are happy with the displayed data.

To cancel the panning function, click another toolbar button.

4.5.6 Redrawing the Map


When you have added or removed display items, you may need to redraw or refresh
the information shown in the Map View window.
To do this:
In the Map View window, right-click and, from the menu that appears, select
Redraw.

4.6 Saving a Favourite Map View


You can save a map view as a favourite. This means you can easily return to a
predefined working environment which includes the screen position of the Map View
on your desktop, display attributes and coverage, interference and traffic arrays, the
resolution of height, building heights and clutter arrays. You can also store favourites,
and share them among other users.
To save a favourite map view:
1

In the Map View window, right-click.

From the menu that appears, point to Favourites and click Save.

In the dialog box that appears, type a name for the favourite and choose what
optional information to store with it.
If you have run any coverage or interference arrays, or traffic rasters, you can
save them all now by selecting the appropriate checkbox(es).
The favourite is stored in the Preferences folder that you have defined on the User
Data Directories tab of the Modify Project dialog box.

To access a favourite view:


Select the name of the view on the toolbar:

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4.6.1 Editing and Deleting Favourite Views


To edit or delete a saved favourite:
1

In the Map View window, from the View menu, point to Favourites and click
Organise.

In the dialog box that appears, select the favourite you wish to edit or delete then
click the appropriate button, Edit or Delete.

If you selected Edit, edit the favourite and click OK.

Click Close.

4.7 Using GIS Export


You can export map information for use with:

MapInfo

Google Earth

To export map information to MapInfo format, it is recommended that you have


MapInfo software installed on either your computer, or a computer within your
network. Information held in the Map View labels is translated into MapInfo
attributes or Google Earth extended data.
Vector layers are already in MapInfo format.
There is an example of exporting data to Google Earth on page 287.
To run the GIS export:
1

For items that you want to export, in the Map View window, double-click the item
in the list of Data Types, and either:

In the Display Properties dialog box that appears, click the MapInfo Export
tab.
- or -

For the All filter, in the Display Properties dialog box that appears, click the
General icon

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at the top of the list.

Choose to export your data as a raster image, rectangle, polygon or as symbol


points. If you select raster image, also choose the type of output file. If you intend
to use your output with Google Earth Pro, select one of the GeoTIFF output file
types. This table describes the options available:
Option

Description

Output files

Raster Image

Usual image format where each pixel of an item is given a colour.

As selected in the list of Data


Types in the Map View.

The colour white is marked as the 'transparent colour', which


improves the usability of the export in MapInfo format (especially
when exporting multiple layers).

Also accompanied by a TAB file.

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Option

Description

Output files

RLE
Rectangles

Contains run-length encoded rectangles. This scans the coverage


array and encodes consecutive pixels with the same value into
rectangles in the MapInfo output. So you have multiple small
rectangles representing the coverage area rather than one larger
polygon.

MID/MIF file pair


- or TAB/DAT file pair

Benefits : Fast method, and MapInfo software handles the results


more easily.
Drawbacks : The file size is larger and may prevent analysis in
MapInfo.
Polygons

Creates a true polygon for each coverage area but requires more
processing time.

MID/MIF file pair


- or TAB/DAT file pair

Symbol points Exports display filters as scalable font symbols. These are set for
each filter and for each visualiser. Symbol points are only available
on filters and visualisers and are not available on other MapInfo
property pages.

MID/MIF file pair


- or TAB/DAT file pair

Due to MapInfo software and font limitations the export may not
reproduce the exact appearance of the Map View.

In the Map View window, from the File menu, click GIS Export.
If you do not have MapInfo software installed then you will be prompted to
browse for a file called MAPINFOW.PRJ. If you do not have this file, then in the
Open dialog box, click Cancel and then OK.
If you do not browse for the MAPINFOW.PRJ file, then a Non-Earth projection
will be used when producing the exported map information.

In the GIS Export dialog box, either:

Type the name of a folder to which you want to export the output files, and
then add a filename prefix
- or -

Click the Browse button


, locate the folder to which you want to export the
output files, and then enter a filename prefix

If you are exporting image files, choose whether or not to include a TAB file.
If you are exporting polygons or rectangles, choose to generate either TAB/DAT
or MID/MIF files (and which version).
If you are exporting symbol points, choose to generate either TAB/DAT or
MID/MIF files unless you are exporting for Google Earth, in which case choose
KML files. If you choose KML files you can also choose to have your KML file
opened in Google Earth automatically on export.

If you are exporting a large array, it is recommended to split the output array into
tiles. To do this, select the 'Split the export' option, and then select the required
number of tiles.

Select a projection from the list of projections (unless you are exporting symbol
points for Google Earth in which case a projection is not required).

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The MapInfo CoordSys pane will be empty and greyed out when using NonEarth projection.

Click OK. A progress bar will appear and ENTERPRISE proceeds to export all
selected layers to the selected formats. A different file is created for each layer.

4.8 Printing Maps


In ENTERPRISE, you can print the whole contents of a Map View window, or specific
areas of it. You can also choose to print on paper, or to a file for archiving, including
in reports and so on.

4.8.1 Customising Page Layout for Printing Maps


To set up how the contents of the Map View window will print:
1

On the Map View window, from the File menu, point to Print Setup and click
Printer and Page Layout.
The Page Setup dialog box appears; the settings default to those assigned by the
Windows printer driver.

Specify the page size, source and orientation and change the printer as required
then click OK.
Do not change the margins here as these are not used by ENTERPRISE.

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From the File menu, point to Print Setup and click Legend and Title and specify
any title, copyright and comments that you require. The default title is Untitled or
the last used title of the current session.

Also choose whether to print the default logo or a different one. As this is a raster
format, you may need to experiment with various image sizes to obtain the best
image on the hard copy printout. Any number of colours can be used
(monochrome to 24-bit colour).

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Select the Print to Scale checkbox if you want to scale your mapping data
appropriately. For example, if a 1:100000 scale is used on the output, every
centimetre on the printout will represent 1 kilometre. The midpoints of the current
view are used as the centre of this printout.

Click OK.

From the File menu, click the Print Preview button to see what the printout will
look like and to choose where on the page you want the key, the map and the
scale. For example:

When you are satisfied, either:

Print the whole map as shown in the Map View window

Print a defined area of the map

Print the map or area of map to file

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4.8.2 Printing the Map


To print the whole contents as shown in the Map View window:
1

Set up the page layout as required.

From the File menu, click Print.

4.8.3 Printing a Specific Area of the Map View Window


To print a specific area of map rather than the whole contents of the Map View
window:
1

Set up the page layout as required.

On the Map View window, from the File menu, click Print Area.

Using the cursor, click and drag to select an area of map that you want to print.
The Print Preview dialog box appears so you can check the map before printing.
Note that:

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The scale used is that found in the current view

The region displayed may vary so that the scale may be maintained, based on
paper size, layout and so on

If you select the Print to Scale option in the Print Legend, only the centre point
of the area selected is used and also depending on paper size and the layout of
the print, the region will most likely be resized to maintain scale

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4.9 Exercise: Using the 2D View and Favourites


This exercise will show you how to display and capture different types of mapping
data through the 2D View window.
In your JerseyCom project, open a 2D View window and display the following data
types, before saving each as a favourite:
'Main View' Favourite
1

Display:

Coastline (Colour - Black, Width - 1)

Main-roads (Colour - Grey)

Streets (Colour - Brown)

Save as a favourite and name it 'Main View'.

'Height Block Data' Favourite


1

Display:

Coastline (Colour - Black, Width - 1)

Block Height data (Colour - Green, Min 0, Interval 5, Resolution 50m, Min
Height Colour - White)

Save as a favourite and name it 'Height Block Data'.

'Airport' Favourite
1

Display:

Coastline (Colour - Black, Width - 1)

Map Backdrop/AirPhoto Backdrop (Display Coloured)

Use the 'Jump to Location' button


(5451026).

, to search for Easting (558579) and Northing

Use the Zoom facility to display the Airport Runway.

Save as a favourite and name it 'Airport'.

Now, click the drop-down list at the top of the 2D View, and review the favourites
that you have created and verify that they were saved correctly:

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4.10 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Opening a new 2D View window
Using the 2D View window
Using the Zoom and Panning functions
Saving Favourite Views
Printing from the 2D View

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 5

Vectors and Polygons


5.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Creating user polygons and other vector file features - lines, points and text
Adding features to a vector
Adding attributes to a polygon
Viewing attributes
Importing vector/polygon data
Classifying vectors

5.2 Overview
You can create and display your own vector file features, which are saved with the
project.
There are a number of different types of vector file feature, which are described in the
following table:
Feature Type

Description

Polygon

A set of points connected by lines that form a closed shape.

Line

Two or more points connected by lines that form an unclosed shape.

Point

A geometric element that has no dimensions, and whose position is based on its
coordinates.

Text

A set of words or letters.

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This picture shows an example vector file feature (displayed in red):

Example polygons

5.3 Creating Your Own Vector File Features


To create your own vector file features:
1

Ensure you have specified a system vector folder and user vector folder in your
project. For more information, see About the Map Data Directories Tab on page 28
and About the User Data Directories Tab on page 29.
It is recommended that you set these directory paths to be unique per project
(if you have multiple projects). If the user vector folder is shared between users,
you should be aware that any folder deletion will impact other users trying to use
that folder until they restart that project.

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Ensure you have a Map View window open with the required area displayed.

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From the Map View window toolbar, click the Create new vector button

-or Press Ctrl + E.


The Vector Manager appears:

The vector file features are organised in separate sub-folders (for example
Buildings, Transportation Routes and so on).
When you use the Create new vector button
, the new vector file feature is
added to the uppermost sub-folder folder that has its classification set as
'Unclassified'. If no such sub-folder exists, then a New Folder is automatically
created.
You can also create a new vector directly in the Vector Manager. To do this,
from the Options menu, click:

Add Vector, if you want to create a new vector and store the tab file in the
folder defined for User (line) vector data on the User data directories tab of the
Project Settings dialog box. For more information, see About the User Data
Directories Tab on page 29.

Add Vector to Folder, if you want to create a new vector and store the tab file
in a different folder.

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In the Vector Structure Editor, type a name for the new vector.

Click Add to add an initial attribute to the vector:

Enter an attribute name, for example Population

Choose whether you want the value to be a float, integer or string

Click OK

For a full description of attributes, see Defining Attributes for a Vector File Feature
on page 68.
6

If you selected the Add Vector to Folder option, then in the Browse for Folder
dialog box that appears, select the folder in which you want to store the vector:

- or If you clicked the Create new vector button


or the Add Vector menu option
(or you click Cancel in the Browse for Folder dialog box), the tab file is stored in
the folder defined for User (line) vector data on the User data directories tab of the
Project Settings dialog box. For more information, see About the User Data
Directories Tab on page 29.
A new blank vector tab file with its own sub-folder in the User Vectors folder is
automatically created.
7

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To rename the folder, right-click and select Rename, type the required name and
then click OK.

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To create the new vector file feature, for example the path of a new road or an area
that you want to define, select the new vector tab file and select the required
button, depending on what you want to create. The following table describes the
available options:
Click this button

To create
A line, or set of lines, in a vector.
A polygon (a closed shape).
A point.
A text item.

In the Map View window, follow the appropriate instructions depending on


which feature you are creating:
If you are creating a

Do this

Line

1. Click the start point and all the subsequent points, as required.
2. Double-click the final point to complete the line.

Polygon

1. Click the start point and all the subsequent points.


2. Double-click the final point to complete the polygon.

Point

Click the location at which you want to add the point.

Text item

1. Click the location on the Map View window at which you want to add the text.
2. In the dialog box that appears, type the required text.
3. Click OK.

10 You can now add attributes to the vector or polygon. For more information on
how to do this, see Defining Attributes for a Vector File Feature on page 68.
In the Vector Manager, you can save your vector file feature changes. To do this:
From the Options menu, click Save All.
For more information on saving and exporting vectors, see Saving and Exporting
Vectors on page 77.
In the Vector Manager, you can also delete vectors. To do this:
1

Select the vector that you want to delete.

From the Options menu, click Remove Vector.

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5.3.1 Defining Attributes for a Vector File Feature


When you are creating a vector file feature, you can add attributes to it. Attributes can
include such information as salary, quality of area, population data and so on, that
you can assign a value to.
If your vector file feature contains more than one feature (for example, two polygons),
they will share the same attributes.
To add an attribute:
1

In the Vector Manager, right-click the required vector file feature and click
Structure.

In the Vector Structure Editor dialog box, click Add.

In the dialog box that appears:

Enter an attribute name, for example Population

Choose whether you want the value to be a float, integer or string

Click OK and the attribute is added to the list.

To specify which columns are used in statistics reports, in the Attribute name
columns pane, type the required row numbers, each separated by a comma. In this
example, only CountyName will be displayed in statistics reports:

For more information about setting values for the attributes, see Managing Vector File
Features on page 70.

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5.3.2 Editing Lines and Polygons


In the Vector Manager, you can edit lines and polygons in a number of ways:
To move a particular point in the line/polygon to another location, click the Move
Point button
location

, click the point that you want to move, and then click the new

To move an entire line/polygon (including any holes or islands) to another


location, select the line/polygon that you want to move (using the Select Shape
button

), click the Move Shape button

and then click the new location

To delete a particular point in the line/polygon, click the Delete Point button
and click the point that you want to delete
To delete a line/polygon, select the polygon/line using the Select Shape button
, and then click the Delete Shape button

To append an existing line with another line:

Select the line using the Select Shape button

Click the Append Existing Vector button

Add the new line as required.

To add a point to an existing line/polygon:

Select the line/polygon using the Select Shape button

Click the Insert a Point within a Shape button

Add the new point as required.

For information on how to save your changes, see Saving and Exporting Vectors on
page 77.
- or If you do not want to save your changes, right-click the required vector and click
Undo All Changes.
You can also create holes in polygons, or islands (two or more separate shapes that
are still treated as the same polygon). For more information on how to do this, see
Creating Holes or Islands For Polygons on page 74.

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5.3.3 Managing Vector File Features


After you have created vector file features, and defined attributes for them, you can
manage them in the Table Browser, by:
Setting values for the attributes
Highlighting specific features within a vector in the Map View window
Searching for details of specific features within a vector
To do this:

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Right-click the required vector file.

From the menu that appears, click Table Browser:

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The Table Browser dialog box appears. This picture shows an example:

The top pane lists all of the features (polygons, appended polygons, lines, points and
so on) that belong to the vector file feature. Each feature is individually numbered (in
the Feature# column) based on its sequence of creation within the vector file feature.
The associated attribute columns correspond to the attributes already defined for the
vector file feature.
To set the attribute values:
1

In the top pane, select the required feature, and double-click the attribute value
that you want to edit.

Type the required value and press Return.

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This picture shows an example:

To highlight specific features in the Map View window:


1

In the Display selection pane, choose whether you want to have the selected
feature:

Highlighted in the Map View window


- or -

Highlighted and focused in the centre of the Map View window

In the top pane, select the required feature from the list.
The selected feature is highlighted (and if applicable, centred) in the Map View
window:

To search for specific details of features:


1

In the Search pane, select the item(s) on which you want to search - you can search
on the feature 'number', and/or any number of the attributes.

To define the search criteria for one of the items, double-click the corresponding
Expression row, and in the dialog box that appears, select the required options
and click OK.
If you are searching based on more than one item, you should do this for each
item.

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Click Search.

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The Table Browser highlights the features and attribute values that match the
chosen search criteria. This picture shows an example:

Tips :

If you just want to display the search results, select the Display search results
only checkbox.

To highlight each of the search results in order, click the arrow buttons

To create a new vector containing a sub-set of the features displayed in the search
results:

Ensure that the Display search results only checkbox is selected.

Select the checkboxes for the required features under the Feature# column:

Click Create vector.

A new vector is created in the Vector Manager, and its name is displayed in the
Message Log.
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5.3.4 Creating Holes or Islands for Polygons


After you have created a polygon, you can add a hole to represent a sub-section
within it. For example, your polygon may encompass the whole of a city, but you may
want to have a centre section representing the densely-populated city centre, with the
outer section representing the less densely-populated suburbs:

Example Hole in Polygon

In this way, you can, for example, generate population statistics based on the suburbs
only or the centre only, and plan separate strategies accordingly.
Alternatively, you may want to represent certain sub-sections of one area, but not the
area as a whole. To model this, you can create separate islands for a main polygon.
For example, blocks of flats spread across a wide area:

Example Island for a Polygon

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To add a hole or island to a polygon:


1

Ensure you have a Map View window open with the required area displayed.

From the Tools menu of the Map View window, click Vector Editor.
- or From the Map View window toolbar, click the Vector Manager button

- or Press Ctrl + R.
The Vector Manager appears:

Click the Select Shape button


, and in the Map View window, select the
polygon to which you want to add the hole or island.

From the Vector Manager toolbar, click the Append Existing Polygon

In the Map View window, click the start point and all subsequent points of the
polygon, either inside an existing one (which would make it a hole) or somewhere
else on the Map View (which would make it an island).

button.

All points of the hole must be within the same polygon.


6

To link up the two ends of the polygon, double-click.

To save the polygon, from the Options menu, click Save.


For more information on how vectors can be saved, see Saving and Exporting
Vectors on page 77.
When you select the hole or island, the main polygon should be selected too, and
vice versa.

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This picture shows a polygon with a smaller island to its right:

You can add extra lines to existing lines or sets of lines in a similar way:

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Click the Select Shape button


, and in the Map View window select the line or
set of lines that you want to add an extra line to.

From the Vector Manager toolbar, click the Append Existing Vector button.

In the Map View window, click the start point and all subsequent points of the
line.

To finish the line, double-click.

To add the line to the database, from the Options menu, click Save.

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5.3.5 Saving and Exporting Vectors


After you have created or edited the vectors in your project, you can save them in a
number of ways. You can:
Save them locally with the current MapInfo projection setting included, so that
you can use the vector data in other tools, for example, MapInfo.
Save them to the default vector folder.
To check where this is, from the File menu, click View Project Settings. On the
Map data directories tab, the default vector folder is defined as the Line (Vector)
Data folder.
Export them locally, without the current MapInfo projection setting.
Saving Vectors Locally
To save vectors to a local folder:
1

In the Vector Manager, select:

The vector name, if you want to save a vector and all of its associated files

The individual vector file, if you want to save a single file as a vector

Right-click, and from the menu that appears, click Save Copy As.

In the dialog box that appears, browse to the folder in which you want to save the
vector file feature.
If you are saving an individual vector file, you must also specify the TAB filename.

Click OK.
The selected file(s) are saved to the chosen location, using the MapInfo projection
setting defined in the project settings.

Saving Vectors to the Default Vector Folder


To save vectors to the default vector folder:
In the Vector Manager:

Right-click the required vector name and from the menu that appears, click
Save
- or -

Select the required vector, and from the Options menu, click Save

The selected vector is saved to the default vector folder.


If you want to save all of the vectors that you have created, from the Options
menu, click Save All.

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Exporting Vectors
To export vectors to a local folder, which saves an exact copy of the original file
without including the current MapInfo projection setting:
1

In the Vector Manager, select:

The vector name, if you want to export a vector and all of its associated files

The individual vector file, if you want to export a single file as a vector

Right-click, and from the menu that appears, click Export.

In the dialog box that appears, browse to the folder in which you want to export
the vector file feature.
If you are exporting an individual vector file, you must also specify the TAB
filename.

Click OK.
The selected file(s) are exported to the chosen location.

5.4 Importing Vector File Data


You can import selected vector file data from MapInfo format TAB files into the
database at any time.
To import vector file data:
1

In the Vector Manager, right-click a folder or top level node and from the menu
that appears, click Import Vector File:

A new vector file feature is created and the vector data file is imported. If the
vector file feature consists of a single TAB file, the import is complete.
2

If the vector file feature is made up of multiple TAB files, you should now rightclick the new vector file feature name and from the menu that appears, click
Import Vector File.
The vector file feature is updated with the additional TAB file.

3
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Continue to add TAB files, until all of the files have been imported.
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If the vector file feature has any missing files, it is still loaded and the missing
files marked with a red cross.

5.5 Classifying User Vector Files


You can classify your user vectors so that you can subsequently search for and
display only those vectors that belong to the classification you are currently interested
in. This is achieved by assigning classifications to sub-folders in the Vector Manager
and then moving vectors into the appropriate sub-folders.
The ability to classify user vectors can be particularly beneficial when using the
following items in ENTERPRISE:
Map Information & Control / Data Types (Map View window)
Select Vectors dialog box (Statistics dialog box)
Select Exclusion Polygons dialog box (Measurements Toolbox)
Vector Attribute Gadget Properties (Map Information pane, from Map View
Gadgets)
This table shows the available classifications and the vectors that should be associated
with them:
Use This Classification

For Sub-folders Containing Vectors That

Building
Line
Measurement

Point

Polygon
Postal Code

Text
Unclassified

specify building heights


display only polygon properties
contain only lines
display only line properties
are non editable
contain only point features
display only point properties (the display variable is preset to show
power)
display x and y coordinates, and power, in the Table Browser
contain only point features
display only point properties
display x and y coordinates in the Table Browser
contain only polygons
display only polygon properties
specify postal codes
display only point properties
display x and y coordinates in the Table Browser
contain only text
display only text properties
do not fit any other classification

To create a sub-folder in which to place, for example, all your Roads vectors:
1

In the Map View window, from the Tools menu, select Vector Manager.

Right-click on User Vectors and Measurements.

Click on Add Folder. A new folder called New Folder 1 appears on the vector tree.

Right-click on New Folder 1.

Click on Rename and type an appropriate name such as Roads.

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You should ideally have sub-folders for each of the classifications shown in the table,
ensuring that each one has the appropriate classification.
To assign a classification to a sub-folder:
1

In the Vector Manager, right-click on the sub-folder in the vector tree to which a
classification is to be assigned.

Click on Classifications. A submenu appears. This picture shows an example:

Click on the required classification. The classification is assigned to the sub-folder


such that any vectors placed in that sub-folder belong to the sub-folder's
classification.

To re-classify a user vector file:

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In the Vector Manager, right-click on the vector file to be re-classified.

Click Cut.

Right-click on the sub-folder representing the classification to which you want the
vector to belong.

Click Paste. The vector file appears under the chosen sub-folder in the vector tree
and inherits the classification assigned to that sub-folder.

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For an example of how useful the vector classifications can be, here is a picture of the
Select Vectors dialog box that is displayed when you are producing a Statistics Report
for an array, and wish to restrict the statistics to one of more vectors. Notice how you
can use the Advanced pane to limit the types (classifications) of vector that are listed
for selection:

Example of Select Vectors dialog box

5.6 Exercise: Creating and Displaying Vectors


This exercise will show you how to create and display vectors in the 2D View.
1

In your JerseyCom project, open a 2D View window and display the 'urban'
clutter regions.

Open the Vector Manager.

Create a user polygon called 'Urban Polygon' consisting of two features - two
polygons around each of the Urban clutter regions.

Display the Urban Polygon in the 2D View.

Change the display properties, filling the polygons in red.

Save the view as a favourite called Urban Polygon.

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5.7 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this Session:
Creating user polygons and other vector file features - lines, points and text
Adding features to a vector
Adding attributes to a polygon
Viewing attributes
Importing vector/polygon data
Classifying vectors

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 6

Setting up a UMTS
Network
6.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Importing and committing antennas into the database
Setting up an appropriate propagation model
Using XML exports and imports
Defining carriers
Defining resources
How to define a site template
Setting the cell parameters in the Site Database
Adding sites in the Map View
Editing antenna configurations

6.2 Importing Antennas


The database stores detailed information regarding the antenna types you will use in
your network. In particular it stores the horizontal and vertical radiation patterns (or
masks) used when calculating the coverage from a particular cell.
The simplest way of entering this data into the tool is to import it from a file supplied
by the antenna manufacturer. ENTERPRISE supports various formats, including
PlaNet/EET and XML.
The steps described here relate to the PlaNet format:
1

From the File menu, point to Import, then Project Data, and click the PlaNet/EET
option.

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Click the Antennas tab and select the checkbox at the top left to enable the import.

If you do not select the Add to all projects checkbox, the antennas are available for
assignment to cells for the project you currently have open. If you select the
checkbox, they are available to all projects within the database.
3

Click the Add button.

The Explorer window appears.

Navigate to the location where your PlaNet format antenna files are stored on the
network. Select the antenna files you want to import and click Open.
The antennas are then added to the import list within the PlaNet Import dialog
box.

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Click Import.

The antennas now appear in the Cellular Antennas dialog box, which can be accessed
from the Equipment menu. This example shows the information stored under the
Mask tab:

Example of Cellular Antennas Dialog Box

If necessary, you can move antennas from one folder to another.


You should Commit the newly imported antennas to the database. The easiest way to
do this is to click the Commit All button.

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6.3 Setting Up Propagation Models


Propagation models are mathematical attempts to model the real radio environment
as closely as possible. Most propagation models need to be tuned (calibrated) by
being compared to measured propagation data, otherwise you will not be able to
obtain accurate pathloss predictions.
Carrier Wave measurements (survey data) help you produce an accurate propagation
model that functions correctly. No model could be applied with accuracy to every
situation, and the choice of model is not as important as the fine tuning that you do
according to the environment. Normally this calibration process is carried out by a
specialist.
For the purposes of this training course we will use the Enhanced Macrocell model,
which is has several advantages over the Standard Macrocell model.

6.3.1 About the Enhanced Macrocell Model


In addition to the Standard Macrocell models, there is an Enhanced Macrocell model.
Like the Standard models, it incorporates an optimal dual slope loss model with
respect to distance from the base station. It also incorporates algorithms for effective
base station heights, diffraction loss, and the effects of clutter.
The Enhanced Macrocell model has the following distinct characteristics compared to
the Standard Macrocell models:
On the pathloss calculation parameters for the model, you can specify the slope
and intercept model parameters (k1 and k2) independently for LOS and NLOS. The
appropriate parameters are used dynamically during propagation calculations by
identifying where there is LOS and NLOS.
On the effective antenna height for the model, an extra Knife-Edge based option is
available for selection.
On the diffraction options for the model, you can also specify a maximum number
of knife-edges to consider, and an extra option (Giovaneli) is available for
selection.
It is advantageous to use this model in environments containing hilly terrain.
The model tuning process for this particular model has been improved, and is
more user-friendly.

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For the above reasons, it is generally recommended that you use the Enhanced
Macrocell model rather than the Standard Macrocell models.
For the purposes of this model only, the definitions of LOS and NLOS are as
follows:
A point is considered to be LOS if there are no obstructions in the direct path
between the transmitter and receiver. However, it is still possible to have some
diffraction loss if any terrain falls within the first Fresnel zone of the transmitted
ray
A point is considered to be NLOS if it suffers any diffraction loss, that is, one or
more points along the transmit/receive path are inside the 1st Fresnel zone

6.3.2 Adding an Enhanced Macrocell Model


To add the Enhanced Macrocell Propagation Model:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Propagation Models.

In the dialog box that appears, click Add.

Choose Enhanced Macrocell, and click Add.

If, for this model, you want the prediction system to perform bilinear smoothing
on the height data when predictions are created, select the 'Smooth height data
when predicting' checkbox. This is useful if you sometimes predict at a resolution
for which height data is not available.

Click the

On the General tab, set up the general parameters, including the frequency and
effective earth radius.

button.

The Standard Deviation of Interference can be used when running the


Interference Table wizard (dynamic method), and also when using the Neighbour
Planner wizard. The default value is 7.5dB.
7

On the Path Loss tab, set the various model parameters. For suggested values, see
Recommended Starting Parameters for the Enhanced Macrocell Model on page 88.

On the Eff Ant Height tab, choose the effective site antenna height calculation
method to be used.

On the Diffraction tab, choose the diffraction loss calculation method to be used.
You can also set the knife-edge parameters.

10 On the Clutter tab, you can specify Correction values to allow for different
pathloss characteristics in different clutter environments. To do this, click and edit
the required values for each clutter category.
When specifying the Clutter options in your propagation models, it is
generally recommended that you only specify or edit the Offset-loss values. In
order to do this, ensure you leave the correction distance at 0.00, so that the
correction value is only considered at the pixel location of the mobile station.

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If required, you can specify a generic correction distance, which limits how far
from the mobile station the correction values are applicable. The total clutter loss
for a prediction point is calculated by examining the clutter lying between the
mobile station and the base station. Only points lying within the specified distance
from the mobile station contribute to the total clutter loss. You can choose either:

Distance Weighting: When calculating the total clutter loss, the individual
clutter losses are weighted in a similar way to through-loss in other models.
For more information, see About Through-Loss for Clutter on page 89.

Uniform Weighting: When calculating the total clutter loss, the individual
clutter losses are equally weighted.

11 Click OK.
12 Apply and commit your changes as required, then click Close.

6.3.2.1 Recommended Starting Parameters for the Enhanced Macrocell


Model
These tables provide suggested default parameters for the Enhanced Macrocell
model. These values need to be entered in the Propagation Models dialog box.
These values only represent typical starting values based on an urban
environment, and they may not be suitable for all types of map data. For your live
projects, you must tune (calibrate) the pathloss values in accordance with the real
environment.
Common Parameters
Mobile Rx Height

1.5

Earth Radius

8493

Effective Antenna Height (Heff)algorithm

Relative

Diffraction Loss algorithm

Giovaneli
Merge knife-edges closer than: 0.00
Maximum number of knife-edges: 10

Clutter parameters

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Leave unaltered (0.00)

K values

450 MHz

900 MHz

1800 MHz

2000 MHz

2500 MHz

3500 MHz

k1 for LOS

142.3

150.6

160.9

162.5

164.1

167

k2 for LOS

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

k1 (near) for LOS

129.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

k2 (near) for LOS

31.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

d < for LOS

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

k1 for NLOS

142.3

150.6

160.9

162.5

164.1

167

k2 for NLOS

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

44.9

k1 (near) for NLOS

129.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

k2 (near) for NLOS

31.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

d < for NLOS

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

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K values

450 MHz

900 MHz

1800 MHz

2000 MHz

2500 MHz

3500 MHz

k3

-2.22

-2.55

-2.88

-2.93

-3.04

-3.20

k4

-0.8

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

k5

-11.70

-13.82

-13.82

-13.82

-13.82

-13.82

k6

-4.30

-6.55

-6.55

-6.55

-6.55

-6.55

k7

0.4

0.7

0.8

0.8

0.8

0.8

If you are using frequencies that are not in the above tables, you can deduce the
starting values from those of the nearest frequency.

6.3.2.2 About Through-Loss for Clutter


Some of the supplied propagation models can be set up to use through-clutter loss
and through-loss distance.
For these model types, on the Clutter tab of the Propagation Models dialog box, each
clutter category may be given an associated through-clutter loss (dB/km). The total
through-clutter loss for a prediction point is calculated by examining the clutter lying
between the mobile station and the base station.
A through-loss distance (referred to as
) must also be set. Only points lying
within this distance from the mobile station contribute to the total through-clutter
loss.
This diagram shows an example:

Diagram showing through-loss distance

When calculating the total through-clutter loss, the individual through-clutter losses
are weighted so that the clutter nearest the mobile station has the highest effect. The
weighting is linear with a maximum weight of 1 (at the mobile station) and a
minimum weight of zero (for clutter at distances >=
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The formula is as follows:

Where:
is the distance of the clutter pixel (resolution-dependent) from the mobile station.
is the through-loss distance.
The formula ensures that when
zero.

is greater than

, the weight always becomes

In the case where the distance between the mobile and base station is less than
only the clutter lying between the mobile station and the base station is taken into
account.

6.3.2.3 Example of Path Loss tab for Enhanced Model

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6.4 Using XML Exports and Imports


In addition to importing antenna files using the PlaNet format, or setting up your
propagation models, it is also possible to use the XML import/export. This is a
powerful and flexible way of importing a wide variety of project elements,
configuration settings and templates. It is especially useful for exporting/importing
between projects.
To import XML data:
1

From the File menu, point to Import, and click XML.

Click the Browse

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button and locate the *.xml file(s) that you want to import.

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When you have located the folder containing the required files, select the Index
file and click Open'.

In the XML Import dialog box, on each tab, select the items you want to import.
On each tab, if required, you can use the Select All checkbox.

Select how you want conflicts to be handled during the import. You can be
prompted on an individual basis, or merge the data, or or leave the existing data
as it is, or replace the data in the project with the imported data.
For example, if you are importing items like Carrier Layers, Cell Layers, Antennas,
and so on, your current project may already have some of these. In this case, you
can choose Leave and it will only import those items which you do not have.
Another case is when you have some sites already, and you want to import the
same sites but with a different configuration. In this case, select Replace, and the
new settings will replace the old settings.

Click Import.

During the import, if there are any comments or problems, the message log will
display them. Depending on the problem, you will get different choices to make.
After the import has finished, you will need to Commit the imported items either
using individual commits or via the Global Commit All option under the Database
menu.
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Using XML Export


The export process is a simplified version of the import process, and is therefore not
described here. The main difference, of course, is that you need to specify a
destination folder for the saved files.

6.5 About UMTS Resources and Node Types


ASSET enables you to name up to six types of resources for your network. You can set
limits for these resources, which, if exceeded, can contribute as a reason for failure in
a simulation.
In order to assign these resources to network elements within the Site Database, you
need to set up one or more Node Types.
For each Node Type, up to three resources can be assigned, and the pooling method
for each resource can be designated as either Node, Carrier or Cell.
In summary, this is how you set up and assign resources in ASSET:
1

Define your UMTS Resources:

This is described in Defining UMTS Resources on page 94.


2

Define your Node Types:

This is described in Defining Node Types on page 94.


3

Assign and specify the resource limits in the Site Database. For information on
how to do this, see Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for a Node on page
99 and Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS Cells on page 103.

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6.5.1 Defining UMTS Resources


ASSET enables you to name up to 6 types of resources for your network. By default,
these types are set as: Channels, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4 and Type 5.
In any new project, the first resource (Channels) exists by default as a node resource
in the Site Database, but this can be modified if required. If required, one of the
resources can be designated for HSDPA.
To make changes to the UMTS resources:
1

From the Configuration menu, click UMTS Resources.

In the UMTS Resources dialog box, you can, optionally:

Rename any of the resources

Preset any resource as 'per Cell' by selecting the Air Interface option
(do not select this if you intend the resource to be 'per Node', or 'per Carrier')

Set a unique resource to be dedicated to HSDPA


If you are using HSDPA within your network, you must set up one of the
resources to represent HSDPA Codes.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

When you have defined your resources, you can set up Node Types. These enable you
to define different combinations of the resources for your network, and decide
whether they are per Node, per Cell or per Carrier.

6.5.2 Defining Node Types


When you have defined and named your resources, you can set up Node Types.
These enable you to define different combinations of the resources for your network,
and decide whether they are a node, cell or carrier resource.
A resource can be already fixed as 'per cell' in the UMTS Resources dialog box.
To define and edit Node Types:
1

Ensure you have defined the UMTS Resources.

From the Equipment menu, click Node Types.

In the Node Types dialog box that appears, click Add, or select a Node Type that
already exists.

On the General tab, you can name or rename the Node Type.

On the Resources Types tab, you can select up to three resources and set the
pooling method for each one as Node, Carrier or Cell.
This is preset as 'per Cell' if you selected the Air Interface option in the UMTS
Resources dialog box.

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On the Default Limits tab, you can set default limits for the resources.
If an HSDPA resource has been selected, only two of the limits are applicable,
with default limits of 15.

On the Load Control tab, you can enable overflow control limits (if you have more
than one carrier) and/or automatic calculation of Tx power limits. This enables
you to set these values on the Load&Power Ctrl tab of any cells in the Site
Database that are assigned with this Node Type.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

If you are implementing HSDPA in your network, you must ensure that at least
one of your Node Types is set up to include the HSDPA Code resources that you have
previously defined in the UMTS Resources dialog box. You must then ensure that the
parent node of HSDPA-supporting cells is set to use the correct Node Type. This is
essential to enable the Simulator to analyse the performance of HSDPA data services.
When you have set up one or more Node Types, you can set the resource limits in the
Site Database. For information on how to do this, see Setting the Node Type and
Resource Limits for a Node on page 99 and Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS
Cells on page 103.

6.6 About UMTS Carriers


Although UMTS and other 3rd generation technologies operate on a single cell
frequency re-use pattern, they do have multiple carrier capabilities. These carriers
give you the flexibility to set up:
Hot spot coverage
Microcell/macrocell layer networks
Using carriers in ASSET means that you can set up basic but generic radio resource
functionality. A number of carriers are available so that you can set up the Absolute
Radio Frequency Channel Numbers (ARFCNs). This is for export and network
configuration purposes.
UMTS network carriers have a bandwidth of 5 MHz.
Each cell in the Site Database must have a carrier assigned, in order to run the
coverage and simulation wizards.

6.6.1 Defining Carriers for UMTS


In ASSET, there are 32 carriers defined by default, but you only need to define the
carriers that exist in your network.
To define or edit a UMTS carrier:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Carriers.


(If you have more than one technology type activated, you may then need to click
UMTS.)

Select the carrier you wish to edit from the list of carriers.

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Edit the name and the Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number (ARFCN) for
the uplink and downlink channels as required.
The ARFCN defines the actual channel number being used for that carrier since
the UMTS standard allows operators to move the centre frequency of their carriers
on a 200 KHz raster if required.

If you are using adjacent carriers, the uplink and downlink attenuations are given
default values of 33 dB, which you can change.

Apply and Commit your changes as required, and then click Close.

6.7 About Templates


When planning a network, it is very likely that many sites or nodes will have the
same characteristics. Instead of setting the parameter values on each site individually,
you can create and define templates, then select one of these templates as a basis for
adding new sites. The new sites will then contain the default characteristics of the
template.
Although you can create as many templates as you want, only one template of each
network element type can be active at any one time.

Example of Templates dialog box (in this case, specific to GSM element types)

The element types appearing in this dialog box are dependent on the technology
you are using.
You cannot Commit templates, you can only Apply them. This means that they
are only visible to you, and cannot be shared directly with other users logged into the
same database. The only way to make them available to other users is by exporting
them as an XML file. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference
Guide.

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Project Defaults
In order to make an ASSET project easy to use right from the start, the following
default objects, with pre-set parameters, are provided:

Antenna default

Propagation model defaults (450, 900, 1800 and 2100MHz)

Template defaults (for each technology)

Terminal type default (for each technology)

These default objects represent the minimum parameters required to add/place sites
and generate coverage arrays. The default templates include sites (or nodes) and cells
(or sectors) that in turn make use of the default propagation models and antenna.
These defaults are only present when new projects are added in ENTERPRISE.
Existing projects will not have these defaults created.

6.7.1 Adding a Template for a Site or Node


To add a new template for a site or node:
1

From the Database menu, click Templates.


or
In the Site Database window, from the View menu, click Templates.

In the dialog box that appears, the tree pane lists the network element types
appropriate to your licensed technologies. Each element type already contains a
default template. You can either modify the default template or add a new one.

To add a new site or node template, right-click the appropriate element type.
Depending on the technology, this will be one of the following:

Cell Site

UMTS NodeB

CDMA BS

Fixed WiMAX Node

Mobile WiMAX Node

eNodeB

Click Add Template.

On the tabs, name the template and set the required parameters.

You can now add cells/sectors to the template. To do this:


1

Right-click the relevant site or node template and from the menu that appears,
click Add Cell (or Add CDMA Sector).

Continue doing this for each of the cells (or sectors) you want to add.

On the tabs, define the parameters as required.

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Ensure the checkbox of your new template is selected, if you want to activate it as
the current template. Here are two examples, for GSM and UMTS, respectively:

Click Apply to save the changes, then click Close.

For GSM, each cell also contains a sub-cell, which represents an instance of a cell
layer. (Initially, this is always the default cell layer. If you want a different layer, you
can right-click on the layer and delete it, then right-click on the cell and add a
different cell layer.) You should set the parameters for both the cell and the sub-cell.

6.8 Adding Sites or Nodes Using the Map View


You can add network elements (such as sites or nodes) to your project in several
ways. For example, you can add elements directly in the Site Database window, or
you can import them from a file. Each of these methods is described in the
ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
Alternatively, you can add network elements by using the appropriate toolbox in the
site design toolbar of the Map View window.
You need the correct privileges to be able to add and modify network elements.
Contact your administrator if you do not have the correct permissions.
This picture shows the buttons available in the Add Network Elements toolbox,
which is part of the site design toolbar:

Add Network Element toolbox (part of Site Design toolbar)

The buttons available are dependent on the technologies you are using.
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You should consider pre-specifying the network parameters for new sites/nodes
by using templates. For information on how to do this, see About Templates on page
96.

6.9 Setting UMTS Parameters in the Site Database


The following sections describe the tabs shown in the Site Database window that
relate to UMTS network elements. Additional general information on how to use the
Site Database is included in the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
You can pre-set many of these parameters on the Templates dialog box. You can
also use the Global Editor to modify multiple elements.
Viewing the Site Database
To open and view the Site Database:
From the Database menu, click Sites.
- or On the main toolbar, click the Sites button

If the tabs on the right hand side of the Site Database window are not visible, click the
>> button. The tabs may vary depending on the type of network element that you are
designing.

6.9.1 Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for a Node
On the Resource tab for a node in the Site Database, you can assign a Node Type, and
specify the resource limits for the node.
To do this:
1

Ensure you have set up the resource details. For more information, see About
UMTS Resources and Node Types on page 93.

In the Site Database, select the appropriate Node, and then click the Resource tab.

From the Node Type drop-down box, select the Node Type you want to assign.
If this node is to support HSDPA, ensure you select a Node Type which has
been configured with HSDPA resources.

On the Limits sub-tab:

Set the required values for the resource limits


or

Use the default limits from the Node Type

On the Config Summary sub-tab, you can check your resource limits, by clicking
on the Cell ID or Carrier, as appropriate. The limits are displayed in the lower
pane of the tab.

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Apply and commit your changes as required.

If you want to set limits at the cell level, see Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS
Cells on page 103.
The above steps can be carried out for multiple cells by using the Global editor
(Node Config tab). They can also be pre-set in the Templates dialog box.
ACP Constraint
You can optionally set the Node Type as 'Fixed'. If you have ADVANTAGE installed,
this constraint can be used in automatic optimisations, enabling you to restrict the
types of changes that can be made when creating an optimised network plan. For
more information, see the ADVANTAGE User Reference Guide.
This constraint setting is only used by ADVANTAGE. It will not affect the
network in ASSET, and will not prevent you from changing the Node Type
(according to your permissions).

6.9.2 About the Cell Params Tab for UMTS Cells


On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
you can set various parameters. There are four categories of parameters on this tab:
Carrier Assignment
UMTS Parameters
HSPA Parameters
Cell Load Levels

6.9.2.1 Assigning the Carrier on the Cell Params Tab


On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
within the Carrier category, you can set the following:
Parameter

Description

Assigned Carrier

Select one of the available carriers from the drop-down list.


You must assign a carrier to each cell. Ensure you have made the relevant carrier(s)
available for the cells, by using the Carriers tab of the parent node.

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6.9.2.2 Setting the UMTS Parameters on the Cell Params Tab


On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
within the UMTS parameters category, you can set the following:
Parameter

Description

Noise Rise Limit

The maximum permissible noise rise at the cell.


If this is exceeded due to a high transmit power, a candidate terminal will be rejected during
the Simulation process.

Orthogonality Factor

The orthogonality between downlink traffic channels on the same cell. This figure (0 - 1)
represents the improved noise rejection. Zero represents no orthogonality; 1 represents
perfect orthogonality. Typical values are 0.6 for urban macrocells, and 0.9 for urban
microcells.
If you have specified values for orthogonality per clutter type in the UMTS Clutter
Parameters dialog box, you have the option to enable them to be used when you set up the
Simulation process. This would override the generic value set here on the cell.

Pilot Power

Pilot power is the power dedicated by the Base Station for the transmission of the Common
Pilot Channel (CPICH). The CPICH is used to facilitate channel estimation at the terminal
and provide a reference for the UE measurements.
You can also view the equivalent Antenna EiRP value here.

Max TX Power

If the Max TX Power is exceeded by the combined power of the Pilot Channel, Common
Control Channels and Sync Control Channels, the cell will be turned off (that is, its transmit
power will be set to zero).
You can also view the equivalent Antenna EiRP value here.

CCCH Powers relative to Pilot

Select NO if you do not want any of the six CCCH powers (see next rows) to correlate
directly with any future changes made to the Pilot Power.
Select YES if you want each of the six CCCH powers (see next rows) to correlate directly
with any future changes made to the Pilot Power, determined by their individual Pilot Power
Offset.

P-CCPCH Power

Primary Common Control Power Channel peak dedicated power.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this will not affect the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.

S-CCPCH Power

Secondary Common Control Power Channel peak dedicated power.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.
The Activity Factor is editable, and can be greater than 1, to model multiple channels.

P-SCH Power

Primary Synchronisation Control Channel peak dedicated power.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.

S-SCH Power

Secondary Synchronisation Control Channel dedicated peak power.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.

AICH

Acquisition Indicator Channel.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.
The Activity Factor is editable.

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Parameter

Description

PICH

Paging Indicator Channel.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an option to switch the channel completely OFF.
The Activity Factor is editable.

Soft Handover Window

This can be specified on a per cell basis and is one of the factors that determine which cells
are in a UE's active set, since the difference between the Ec/Io levels of primary and
handover cells can be no bigger than this handover window.
For example, if the UE's primary cell provides it with an Ec/Io level of -3 dB, and the
handover window for the cell is 6 dB, then all the handover cells must provide the mobile
with an Ec/Io level of at least -9 dB.

Noise Figure

The cell noise figure. This is used to calculate the background (thermal) noise for a cell.

Active Set Size

The maximum number of cells to which the UE may simultaneously be connected. Use this
to control radio resource allocations. If the active set size is 3, one of these will always be
the serving cell, and the other two will be handover cells.

Scrambling Code Schema

This drop-down box shows any schemas that have been defined in the Scrambling Code
Schemas dialog box. See Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas on page 256.

Scrambling Code and Scrambling


Code Group

The Scrambling Code Planner can be used to assign code groups and codes to individual
cells within a carrier. These parameters can also be set manually. The code range is 0-7
and the code group range is 0-63.
If you edit the scrambling code values such that they are not consistent with the
current schema on the cell, you will not be able to apply the changes.
If you want to only allow changes in the Site Database that do not cause neighbour
clashes, you can select the 'Prevent Manual Code Changes if Neighbour Clashes Arise'
checkbox on the Preferences Dialog box under the File menu.

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Scrambling Code ID

The primary scrambling code number (with a range of 0-511). It uniquely identifies the code
within the scrambling code space. The scrambling code ID is derived from the scrambling
code and code group.

Fixed Max TX Power


Fixed UMTS Channel Power

These constraint parameters only affect ADVANTAGE users. See the ADVANTAGE User
Reference Guide.

DL Splitter Loss

This parameter should be used when an OTSR configuration is used. It can also be utilised
as a general offset parameter for any configuration.

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6.9.2.3 Setting the Cell Load Levels on the Cell Params Tab
On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
there is a Cell Load Levels category, which can optionally be used when running a
simulation.
You can set the following:
Parameter

Description

Mean Achieved UL Noise Rise

Uplink noise rise on the cell.

Mean UMTS DL Traffic Power

Time-averaged UMTS downlink traffic power for the cell.


Excludes any HSDPA power.

Mean HSDPA DL Traffic Power

Time-averaged HSDPA downlink traffic power for the cell.


Only relevant if the cell supports HSDPA.

Mean HS-SCCH Power

Time-averaged HS-SCCH power for the cell.


Only relevant if the cell supports HSDPA.

These parameter values can either be set manually here on the Cell Params tab, or
they can be automatically populated after running a simulation. For more
information, see Writing Cell Loading Parameters to the Database on page 227.

6.9.3 Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS Cells


On the Resource tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database, you can specify the resource
limits for the cell.
To do this:
1

Ensure you have set up the resource details. For more information, see About
UMTS Resources and Node Types on page 93.

Ensure you have set up the Node Type and resource limits for the parent Node.
See Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for a Node on page 99.

In the Site Database, select the appropriate UMTS cell, and then click the Resource
tab.

Set the required values for the resource limits.


or
Use the default limits (from the Node Type).

Apply and commit your changes as required.

The above steps can be carried out for multiple cells by using the Global editor
(Node Config tab). They can also be pre-set in the Templates dialog box.

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6.10 Viewing and Editing Antenna Configurations


In ASSET, there are various antenna-related options available when using the Map
View or Height Profile window.

6.10.1

Using Instance IDs to Distinguish Antennas

If your network uses a distributed antenna system (DAS), where there are many
antennas assigned to a single cell (or any similar scenario), it may be useful to use the
Instance ID parameter.
This optional parameter (available on the Antennas tab for a cell in the Site Database)
enables you to give a unique identity to each antenna instance on such cells, which
helps to identify individual antennas in the following situations:
Map View

The Antenna Instance ID helps you to select the correct antenna, for example for
antenna re-orientation.
In the example picture above, the "NY_n" represents the Instance ID, and, if
applicable, the "[ ]" would contain the Shared Antenna ID. These are followed by
the antenna device name, pattern name and azimuth.

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Filters

You can create filters based on the Antenna Instance ID, and use the filter for its
normal variety of purposes, such as:

Limiting the list of network elements displayed in the Site Database, the Map
View or Site Reporter

Varying the customised appearance of different filters in the Map View

Controlling which items are to be included in the various wizards

Site/Node Reporter

You can include the Instance ID in the generated reports.


Site Quick Edit and Cell Quick Edit

The Antenna Instance ID helps you to select the correct antenna.

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6.10.2

Moving Antennas in the Map View

If you are moving an antenna that is shared between cells and technology types on
the same Property, any changes made will affect other antennas with the same shared
antenna identity. For information on shared antennas, see the ENTERPRISE User
Reference Guide.
To move antennas for a cell in the Map View window:
1

From the Move/Edit Network Element toolbox, click the Move Antenna button
.

Select the appropriate cell.

If a list of antennas appears, choose the required one.


The Antenna Instance ID parameter may be useful in specific situations. See
Using Instance IDs to Distinguish Antennas on page 104.

Click at the new location for the antenna.

This change will automatically be applied in the Site Database, on the Antennas tab.
The updated antenna location can be viewed in the Antenna Location pane:

This location can be viewed either relative to the Property location, or in absolute
terms.
You can either leave the change in the applied state, or commit it, or restore the last
committed settings.
If necessary, you can re-predict the site, and create a new coverage array.
Alternatively you can directly edit the values in the Site Database, and this would
be automatically reflected in the Map View.

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Setting Up Distributed Antennas


If more than one antenna exists at the cell then each one can be moved to a different
location. This, for example, enables you to locate two antennas at different ends of a
long rooftop.

6.10.3

Reorientating Antennas in the Map View

If you are reorientating an antenna that is shared between cells and technology
types on the same Property, any changes made will affect other antennas with the
same shared antenna identity. For information on shared antennas, see the
ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
To change the azimuth of a cell interactively in the Map View window:
1

From the Move/Edit Network Element toolbox, click the Reorientate Antenna
button

Select the appropriate cell.

If a list of antennas appears, choose the required one.


The Antenna Instance ID parameter may be useful in specific situations. See
Using Instance IDs to Distinguish Antennas on page 104.

Hold down the mouse button to move the antenna to the required position.
As you move the cursor, the azimuth of the antenna will be displayed in the topleft corner of the Map View:

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When satisfied, release the mouse button.

This change will automatically be applied in the Site Database, on the Antennas tab.
The updated azimuth can be viewed in the Antenna Properties pane:

You can either leave the change in the applied state, or commit it, or restore the last
committed settings.
If necessary, you can re-predict the site, and create a new coverage array.
Alternatively you can directly edit the values in the Site Database, and this would
be automatically reflected in the Map View.

6.11 Quickly Viewing and Editing Site or Cell


Information
You can quickly view and edit site or cell information in a summary dialog box in the
Map View window, rather than having to use the Site Database.
The Site Quick Edit enables you to view or edit any of the cells parented to a site or
node, whereas the Cell Quick Edit enables you to view or edit a specific cell.
This feature is available for GSM, UMTS, LTE and Mobile WiMAX.
In addition, after making any changes, coverage can be freshly calculated for the
selected site or cell.
To do this:
1

In the Map View window, from the Move/Edit Network Element toolbox, click
the Site Quick Edit button, or the Cell Quick Edit button:

Site Quick Edit

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Cell Quick Edit

On the Map View, click on or near the site/cell that you want to view or edit.

If there is more than one site/cell available at this location, from the list that
appears, click the required site/cell.

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The Quick Edit dialog box for this site/cell appears:

Depending which button you clicked, the dialog box shows all the site's cells, or
just one specific cell.
The Antenna Instance ID parameter (shown in the example Quick Edit dialog
box as 'NY_189') may be useful in specific situations. See Using Instance IDs to
Distinguish Antennas on page 104.
4

Edit the required parameters by clicking the current value and typing in the new
value or selecting the required option (for example, the antenna pattern) from the
drop-down list.
If the parameter value can be generated using a wizard (for example, GSM
BSICs or UMTS scrambling codes), you can click the Browse button
wizard from this dialog box.

to start the

You can only edit one shared antenna per site using this option.
5

If you also want to re-calculate the coverage based on these parameter changes,
select the Calculate coverage checkbox.

Click Apply to update the Site Database with the new parameter values.
If you have also chosen to freshly calculate the coverage, this takes place and the
Map View is re-drawn.

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6.12 Viewing and Editing Carried Traffic Data


You can choose to write the traffic values calculated by the Simulator to the cells in
the Site Database. This will enable you to use this information to:
Analyse and improve the network throughput, both on the cells and the parent
network elements
Identify network bottlenecks
Integrate this traffic information with the CONNECT tool for the purposes of
route planning and link capacity. For more information, see the CONNECT User
Reference Guide.
For more information on enabling this facility see Writing Carried Traffic to the Site
Database on page 228, and for more information on viewing/editing the traffic data,
see About the Carried Traffic Tab on page 110.

6.12.1

About the Carried Traffic Tab

The Carried Traffic Tab is available for all network elements except SGSNs, WMSCs
and AMPS network elements.
If you have chosen to write traffic generated by the simulator to the Site Database (for
more information see Writing Carried Traffic Data to the Database on page 228), you
can see this data on the Carried Traffic tab. The simulator generates traffic at the cell
level. At higher levels in the network hierarchy, the aggregated traffic of the
subordinate elements is shown (unless you specify that it should not be).
The information shown on the Carried Traffic tab depends on the technology type of
the network element selected, and the network hierarchy level of the selected element.
Consequently, the Carried Traffic tab appears as a variant of two basic layouts. These
are described under the following headings:
Using the Carried Traffic Tab at the Cell Level on page 111
Using the Carried Traffic Tab above the Cell Level on page 112

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6.12.1.1

Using the Carried Traffic Tab at the Cell Level

When you select a cell or sector in the Site Database, the Carried Traffic tab becomes
available.
This picture shows an example of the Carried Traffic tab for a cell:

Example of Carried Traffic Tab at the Cell Level

This table describes the details shown:


Using This

You Can

Signalling Overhead (%)

See and edit any traffic overhead that is carried in addition to the main user plane traffic.

Traffic Breakdown pane

Select to display throughput totals in the Traffic pane for:


all traffic at the cell level
circuit switched or packet switched traffic only at the service and terminal levels
You can also use the buttons at the bottom of the Traffic Breakdown pane to add or edit
throughput totals with the Carried Traffic Editor dialog box, or delete them. For more
information see Using the Carried Traffic Editor on page 114.

Item pane

See the service and the terminal to which the throughput totals shown in the Traffic pane
apply.

Traffic pane

See the uplink and downlink traffic throughput totals and the number of terminals in use at
the chosen level for the selected network element. For CDMA and UMTS only, the intra-site
and inter-site hand-over percentages are also shown.

Protected

See if the current data is protected from being overwritten by fresh data generated by the
simulator. For more information, see Using the Carried Traffic Editor on page 114 and Writing
Carried Traffic to the Database on page 228.

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6.12.1.2

Using the Carried Traffic Tab above the Cell Level

When you select a network element above the cell level in the Site Database, the
Carried Traffic tab becomes available. Examples of such elements are: Property, MSC,
BSC, RNC, site or node.
This picture shows an example of the Carried Traffic tab for a node:

Example of Carried Traffic Tab above the Cell Level (in this case at the Site/Node Level)

Notes:
For RNCs, MSCs and BSCs, the Capacity Status pane is not shown.
For RNCs, 2-Way HO (%) and 3-Way HO (%) fields appear next to the Signalling
Overhead (%) field.
For LTE eNodeBs, a Handover Percentage (%) field appears next to the Signalling
Overhead (%) field.
For Properties, only the Total Traffic, PS Traffic and CS Traffic panes are shown.
For LTE, on the General tab in the Site Database, you can nominate an eNodeB as
a Serving Gateway (S-GW). This may be useful if you also have the CONNECT
tool installed.

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This table describes the details shown:


Using This

You Can

Signalling Overhead (%)

See and edit any traffic overhead that is carried in addition to the main user plane traffic.

2-Way HO (%)

Set 2-way and 3-way inter-site handover percentages for RNCs. This models the amount
of traffic carried by the RNC where the call is served by two or three nodes
(respectively).

3-Way HO (%)
Handover Percentage (%)

Set a handover percentage for LTE eNodeBs, which models the amount of downlink
traffic allocated for handovers between two eNodeBs.

Total Traffic pane

See the overall uplink and downlink traffic throughput totals and the number of terminals
in use for the selected network element. For CDMA and UMTS only, the inter-site handover percentages are also shown. These totals are the sum of the totals in the PS and
CS Traffic panes and cannot be edited directly.

Capacity Status pane

Specify the required transmission capacity. If this is exceeded by the aggregated total
traffic throughput shown in the Total Traffic pane, a warning that the transmission
capacity is insufficient is displayed.

PS Traffic pane

See and edit the packet switched uplink and downlink traffic throughput totals and the
number of terminals in use for the selected network element. For CDMA and UMTS only,
the inter-site handover percentages also appear.
If you select Auto Aggregate, the traffic totals in this pane are aggregated from the totals
that have been generated by the Simulator or that you have entered manually for
subordinate elements in the network. If you de-select Auto Aggregate you can manually
add traffic figures at this level.
For CDMA sectors and UMTS cells, auto-aggregation involves an averaging
algorithm to account for the handover traffic. For other technologies a simple summation
occurs.

CS Traffic pane

Where applicable (not for LTE or WiMAX) see and edit the circuit switched uplink and
downlink traffic throughput totals and the number of terminals in use for the selected
network element. For CDMA and UMTS only, the inter-site handover percentages also
appear.
If you select Auto Aggregate, the traffic totals in this pane are aggregated from the totals
that have been generated by the Simulator or that you have entered manually for
subordinate elements in the network. If you de-select Auto Aggregate you can manually
add traffic figures at this level.
For CDMA sectors and UMTS cells, auto-aggregation involves an averaging
algorithm. For other technologies a simple summation occurs.

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6.12.1.3

Using the Carried Traffic Editor

When you have a cell or a sector selected in the Site Database and you have selected
the Carried Traffic tab, you can click the Add or Edit buttons in the Traffic Breakdown
pane to open the Carried Traffic Editor. This allows you to add traffic, or edit any
existing traffic values, for the selected cell or sector.
This picture shows an example of the Carried Traffic Editor:

Carried Traffic Editor

To add traffic:
1

Click the Add button.


The Carried Traffic Editor appears.

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From the Service drop-down in the Item pane, select a service.

From the Terminal drop-down in the item pane, select a terminal type.

In the Total Downlink and Total Uplink fields, type the required traffic
throughput figures. If you have selected a CDMA sector or a UMTS cell you can
also add Intra-Site and Inter-Site Handover percentages.

In the Terminals field, type the number of terminals.

If you want the data you have provided to be protected from being overwritten by
traffic subsequently generated by the Simulator, select Protected.

Click OK.

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To edit traffic:
1

Select the appropriate traffic entry (the terminal type) in the Traffic Breakdown
pane.

Click the Edit button (or just double-click the item).


The Carried Traffic Editor appears.

In the Total Downlink and Total Uplink fields, amend the traffic throughput
figures as required.

In the Terminals field, amend the number of terminals as required.

If you want the data you have provided to be protected from being overwritten by
traffic subsequently generated by the Simulator, select Protected.

Click OK.

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6.13 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Importing and committing antennas into the database
Setting up an appropriate propagation model
Using XML exports and imports
Defining carriers
Defining resources
How to define a site template
Setting the cell parameters in the Site Database
Adding sites in the Map View
Editing antenna configurations

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 7

Fields, Filters and


Visualisers
7.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
The purpose and uses of fields
How to assign field options to network elements
The purpose and uses of filters
How to create and define dynamic filters
How to create and define static filters
How to use the selection expert
The purpose of visualisers
How to create visualisers

7.2 Using Fields in ENTERPRISE


Status fields are primarily used to enable project managers to manage and oversee the
network engineering cycle, from initial design to the rollout phase.
ENTERPRISE enables you to set up any number of fields in your project, so that they
can provide information about individual network elements (such as sites, cells or
microwave links) in the Site Database. Fields may be used for a variety of reasons, for
example, to track the rollout phase of a site, or record its equipment, or its region, or
perhaps the name of the planner in charge.
Fields can serve as a useful way of creating filters. This means that you can, for
example, display "In Build" sites in the Map View, or generate a coverage array for
"On Air" cells, or generate an interference analysis for microwave links which are
"Live", and so on.
At the initial stage of setting up these fields, they must be associated with specific
network element types. After this has been done, the fields appear on the associated
network elements in the Site Database. This enables you to assign the appropriate
field option for individual network element types (such as site, cell, link or Property).
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You define status fields within the ENTERPRISE Administrator module, in the
Field Definer dialog box. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE Installation and
Administration Guide.
It is generally advised that fields be set up as early in the project as possible, so that
they are available for the planner to assign the relevant option to the relevant network
elements in the Site or Link Database, or in the Templates.
This picture shows an example of the Field Definer:

Example Field Definer

7.2.1 Examples of Field Definitions


Some examples of fields that could be created are:
Field

Type

Options

Rollout Phase

Picklist

unset, Planned, Acquired, In-Build, On-Air

Vendor Equipment

Picklist

unset, Nokia, Ericsson, Siemens

Region

Picklist

unset, North, South, East, West

Equipment Costs

Float

any decimal number

Planner's Name

String

any text

Visit Due

Boolean

True or False

Phase Number

Integer

0,1,2,3,4...

When defining fields, it is important that you associate each field with the
appropriate network element(s) (such as Properties, sites, cells or microwave links).
For picklists, it is strongly recommended that the first option in each group is
named unset, or similar, so that this can be the default when no particular option
has yet been assigned.

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7.2.2 Viewing and Editing Fields for Network Elements


When the fields have been defined in the ENTERPRISE Administrator module and
committed to the database, you can view and edit the fields within the Status tabs of
the Site Database, listed against the relevant network elements, and, in the case of the
Link Database, against each link.
You can also view the status of the parent elements on this tab.
To do this:
1

In the Site Database window, in the tree pane, click the required element.

Click the Status tab to see a list of the fields for this network element, and for any
parent elements that it may have.
Fields displayed in grey are read-only - you do not have permissions to edit
these. The group permissions for the currently selected field are displayed in a
panel at the bottom of the status tab.

To change an associated field, click in the field value column and select the
required value from the drop-down list as shown here:

Any fields that you have edited - but not yet Applied - are displayed in bold.
In the case of the Link Database, you can find the Status tab under the General tab for
a microwave link.

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7.2.2.1 Examples of Fields in the Site Database


This example shows the five possible types of field that can be defined (Picklist, Float,
String, Boolean, Integer):

Example of all types of field

This next example shows the Picklist options expanded, so that one of them can be
selected:

Example of the Picklist field type

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7.3 Using Filters in ENTERPRISE


Filters provide a logical grouping of network elements according to their
characteristics or functions. They enable you to sub-divide the network into more
manageable sections for analysis, diagnosis and display, and they therefore represent
a powerful way of selecting a subset of items such as Properties, sites, links or cells,
from the ENTERPRISE database.
You can create your filters according to many different criteria, including element
type, hierarchy, fields and polygons, as well as attributes such as antenna type,
frequency band, carried traffic, and so on. For example, you could create a filter to
display all operational sites within a geographical region which are using a particular
vendors equipment.
Filters can be defined as either Static or Dynamic, and there is an additional Selection
Expert filter. This table summarises each type:
Filter Type

Description

Static Filters

These are static lists of objects specified by the user. These filters can only be changed by the user
adding or deleting objects from the list.
There are various ways of adding and removing objects.

Dynamic Filters

The lists of objects in dynamic filters will constantly update as the network evolves. These filters
select network elements based on criteria such as:
Object type (for example, BSC, Site, Cell, Link)
Status Flag assignment
Cell Layers assigned
Parenting
Geographical Location (for example, within a polygon)
These filters are 'dynamic' because the inclusion list will automatically be updated whenever a
change is made to any of the parameters forming the filter definition criteria.

Selection Expert

There is also an 'on-the-spot' memory filter which can swiftly and powerfully select items from the 2D
View or Site/Link Database. Also, the memory filter can optionally be saved as a static filter for
future use.

In the Filters Database, static filters always appear as RED, and dynamic filters
always appear as BLUE. This helps you to quickly identify the filter type.

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7.3.1 Purpose and Uses of Filters


Filters represent a highly important feature in ENTERPRISE.
You can use filters to:
Limit the list of network elements displayed in the Site Database
Determine which combination of network elements appear in the Map View
Vary the customised appearance of different filters in the Map View
Control which items are to be included in the various wizards
Limit which items will be included in any global edits in the Site Database
Limit which items to include in the various reports
On the Filters tab of the Preferences dialog box under the File menu, you can
choose from a variety of options to determine which user filter folders to display.
This picture shows selecting a filter in the Site Database window:

Selecting a filter in the Site Database

Created filters can either be stored in a System folder (for everyone to use) or in
the User folder, which means that they are not available to other users (unless they
expressly choose to 'show all user filters' on the Filters tab of the Preferences dialog
box under the File menu). The Apply and Commit principles are the same as for any
other object saved to the database.
The general recommendation is to make sensible usage of the system and (personal)
user folders, and only commit filters that are essential to all users.
On the Filters tab of the Preferences dialog box under the File menu, you can
make various choices of which user filter folders to display.

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7.3.2 Creating a Dynamic Filter using the Filter Wizard


To create a dynamic filter:
1

From the Database menu, click Filters:

The Filter Database appears, displaying any folders and filters which have already
been set up:

The Selection Filter is a special filter which is used by the Selection Expert, and
is described in a subsequent section.
3

Select the folder in which you want to store the new filter and then click Add. This
will launch the Filter Wizard, which guides you through the creation process.
You can create sub-folders, if required, by right-clicking on the System folder
or on your individual User folder.

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Step 1 of the Filter Wizard prompts you to give the filter a meaningful name (this
can be modified later if required):

If your new filter has similar selection criteria as an existing filter, you can choose
the option to use an existing filter as a template and select it from the drop-down
menu.
Click Next.
5

Step 2 of the Filter Wizard displays a list of Available Attributes. Move each
required element type to the Selected Attributes pane by double-clicking it,
dragging it, or selecting it and using the right arrow button. This will define which
objects are to be considered in the filter.
For example, one method would be to expand one of the items in the Available
Attributes pane to reveal the selection of fields already set up for the project in
ENTERPRISE Administrator. The required field can then be selected as an
attribute for the filtering criteria.
Polygons represent another way in which network elements can be filtered. All
available polygons can be displayed by expanding the Property element in the
Available Attributes pane.
In this example, the Cell Site element has been expanded, and the 'Rollout Phase'
field has been selected as an attribute to be considered in the filtering process:

You can specify the logical operators by right-clicking on them to toggle between
the two types:

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If you choose OR, a value will be returned if any of the attributes are present

If you choose AND, a value will be returned only if all the attributes are
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It is also easy to modify these operators on the next screen, and to dynamically
preview the resulting item selection. (In this particular example, this will make no
difference, since there is only one attribute selected.)
You can group attributes together with their own logical operator, and create
rules within rules. The easiest way to do this is to drag and drop the attributes into
their logical groupings. The Selection Rules will be activated from top to bottom,
branching where specified. For some ideas on how to create 'faster' filters, see
Making Your Dynamic Filters More Efficient on page 136.
When you have all the element types and criteria that you want to filter on, click
Next.
6

Step 3 of the Filter Wizard prompts you to set the definitive rules and criteria for
the filter and enables you to modify the logical operators using the associated
radio buttons.
On this screen, you must click on each of the selected attributes to ensure that
the appropriate options appear on the right-hand side.

Define the exact rule for each element type or criterion by selecting it in the
'Selected Attributes' pane, and:

Selecting a rule definition (for example, 'Equals'). You can also reverse the rule
definition (for example, 'Not Equal To') by selecting the 'Not' checkbox.

Typing a value in the box or, if applicable, clicking the 'Values' button to select
the value(s) that you are interested in (for example, when selecting Field
values).

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In this example, click the 'Values' button, and tick the ON AIR option:

Then click OK.


You can click Preview to see a list of all the elements that are included in the filter
according to your latest definitions. This will help you to refine the filter further if
necessary.
When satisfied with your criteria, click Next.
7

Step 4 of the Filter Wizard displays the list of elements currently included in your
filter. The filter will be 'Dynamic' (unless you now decide to switch it to 'Static' but if you want to create a static filter, it is easier to carry out the steps in the
following section).

In this example, we have used the simple approach of using only the Field
attribute; notice that all items associated with the filtered sites are also included in
the filter, in other words, their related objects, such as Properties, MSC, BSC, cells,
and so on. If we had selected the cell site AND its field attribute in Step 2, we
would only have the cell sites in the filter, and not the related objects.

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Step 5 of the Filter Wizard enables you to set up the customised display settings
for the items which are included in your filter. If you selected the Use existing
filter as template option in Step 1, this screen will default to those settings. You
can also easily modify these later in the Map View.

Step 6 of the Filter Wizard (the final step) enables you to modify the name of the
filter, and also to establish which other users, if any, will be able to modify this
filter in the future (assuming it is committed, and assuming they have the
appropriate permissions).

10 When satisfied, click the Finish button to complete the Filter creation process.
The newly created filter appears in the Filters Database, in the folder you selected at
the start of the process. As a Dynamic filter, it will appear with a BLUE symbol, as in
this example:

Example of Dynamic Filter

In the Filters Database, any of the filters may be committed, modified or removed,
and also moved or copied between folders.
If you want this filter to be available for use by other users, you can Commit the filter.
Otherwise, it will only be available locally on your machine.
All created filters are available for use in various parts of ENTERPRISE, such as the
Site Database, Link Database, Map View, Coverage Arrays, Wizards, Reports, and so
on.

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7.3.3 Creating a Static Filter using the Filter Wizard


The process to create static filters is exactly the same as for dynamic filters, except
that:
You ignore Steps 2 and 3, by clicking Next each time
In Step 4, you need to select the Static option
You can now manually select whichever elements you require by using the methods
described in this table:
This table describes what you can do on the tabs that appear:
Tab

Description

Identifier

Use exact matches or


regular expressions

How to Add Items to the Filter


Select the element type that you want to add.
Type the element ID, either defining an exact match or defining the match with
a regular expression. You can make this case-sensitive by selecting the
Match case option.
Click Add, and all of the elements matching this identifier will be displayed in
the Active Elements box.
You can also remove items from the filter. To do this, in the Active Element
pane, right-click the elements(s) and from the menu that appears, click Remove.
You can also select the item(s) in the Active Element pane and then click the
Remove button that appears in the Identifier tab.

File List

Browse to a text file


listing the identifiers on
separate lines

Filters

Use a combination of
chosen filter and
element types

Map View

Choose selected or All


elements in a particular
Map View

Select the element type that you want to add.


Type in a file name or click the Browse button and locate the correct file.
The file format of this text file is a list of site identifiers each on a separate line.
Click Add, and all of the elements matching this identifier will be displayed in
the Active Elements box.
Select the element type that you want to add.
Choose the filter from which you want to add elements of the type selected,
and click Add.
Open a Map View window and select it by clicking in it.
In the Filter wizard, select the Element Type that you want to add.
Click the Add All Elements button then click the Map View window again. All
elements of the type you have selected that are shown in the window are
added to the filter.
You can use the Add Element button to select an individual item in an open
Map View window and the Remove Element and Remove All Elements buttons to
remove items from a filter.

All newly created filters appear in the Filters Database, in the folder you selected at
the start of the process. Static filters appear with a RED symbol, as in this example:

Example of Static Filter

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7.3.4 Adding a Filter Using the Selection Expert


As well as using the Filter Wizard to add a filter, you can use the Selection Expert.
This is a powerful way of creating a filter because you can select to add to the
Selection filter any subset of items by:
Choosing items individually in the Map View
Choosing single or multiple items in the left pane or on the Hierarchy tab of the
Site Database
Creating a polygonal, circular or rectangular region in the Map View that contains
the items of interest
Then you can perform an operation on all the sites in this Selection filter, such as
globally editing them and re-predicting their coverage.
This section describes how to use the Selection Expert.

7.3.4.1 About the Selection Expert and Selection Filter


The Selection Expert:
Is a powerful way of creating a filter. Using it, you can select any subset of items
by choosing them individually in the Site Database or Map View, or by creating in
the Map View a polygonal, circular or rectangular area that contains the sites you
want. Then you can perform operations, such as globally editing and then repredicting the coverage, for only the sites in this Selection filter.
Acts as a handy clipboard - to easily allow you to cut and paste network elements
between different parents, cells between sites and so on.
Acts as a viewing window for all filters - you can quickly review all filters, (static,
dynamic and Selection) and edit the static and Selection filters.
The Selection Filter:
Is a static filter that exists only in memory. It is not stored in the database and
therefore cannot be Applied or Committed.
Can be renamed and saved as a normal static filter.
Can be used as the basis for creating a static filter in the Filter Wizard.

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7.3.4.2 Adding to the Selection Filter Using the Map View Window
To add items to the Selection filter using the Map View window:
1

If required, choose to limit the element types that are added.

From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

In an open Map View window, ensure you are displaying the area and elements
from which you will be selecting.

Click the down arrow on the Selection filter toolbox


To

Do This

Select individual network


elements

Click the Single Select

to see the options.

button.

Hold down Shift and click each network element that you want to
include in the Selection filter.
If you click an element that already exists in the Selection filter, it
will be removed from the filter. That is, holding down Shift while clicking
will toggle an item in and out of the Selection filter.
You can also replace the contents of the Selection filter with your
new selection by clicking without holding down Shift.
Select network elements in a
rectangular area that you will
draw

Click the Rectangular Select

button and hold down Shift.

Click where you want a corner to be and then drag to create a


rectangle. The elements within the rectangle are added to the
Selection filter.
As you do this, the width and height dimensions are displayed, along
with the units that you chose in the Preferences dialog box.
You can also replace the contents of the Selection filter with your
new selection by clicking and dragging without holding down Shift.

Select network elements in a


circular area that you will draw

Click the Circle Select

button and hold down Shift.

Click and hold down the mouse button where the centre of the circle will
be, and drag outwards to set the radius of the circle. The currently
selected elements inside the circle are added to the Selection filter.
You can also replace the contents of the Selection filter with your
new selection by clicking and dragging without holding down Shift.
Select network elements in a
polygon that you will draw

Click the Polygon Select

button and hold down Shift.

Click where the first point of the polygon will be, then click to create
more points as required. To close the polygon, double-click anywhere
in the Map View window.
The currently selected elements inside the polygon are added to the
Selection filter.
You can also replace the contents of the Selection filter with your
new selection by clicking and dragging without holding down Shift.
Clear Selection filter

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Click the Clear Selection filter


the Selection filter.

button to empty all objects from

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Hold down Shift when using any of the above buttons to add a current
selection to the filter. If you do not hold down Shift, the filter contains ONLY the
current selection, replacing what was there.
The selected elements appear in the Selection Expert and you can edit the items
shown, and save or export the filter.

7.3.4.3 Adding Items to the Selection Filter Using the Site or Link Database
You can add items to a Selection filter using the Site or Link Database in various
ways.
Adding Items to the Selection Filter by Right-clicking
In the Site or Link Database, right-click the network element that you want to add to
the Selection filter and from the menu that appears, click Add to Selection Filter.
Adding Items to the Selection Filter using the Filters tab
To add to the selection (or any static) filter using the Filters tab of the Site or Link
database:
1

In the Site or Link database, select the required object that you want to add to the
selection filter.

On the Filters tab, click Add to reveal the current list of available filters.

Select one or more of the static filters in which you wish the object to be included,
and click OK.
The selection filter will then be automatically updated.
You can use the Remove button in a similar way.

Adding Items to the Selection Filter on the Hierarchy tab


You can use the Hierarchy tab of the Site Database to add to a Selection filter. For
example, you might want to create a filter containing the multiple items that are
parented to the same Property.
This method is applicable to the Site Database only.
To add to the Selection Filter using the Hierarchy tab:
1

In the Site Database, select the parent of the item that you want to add to the
Selection filter.

On the Hierarchy tab for that element, click the Display button (or the Refresh
button if you have previously clicked it). For example:

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The items parented on this element now appear on the tab, as shown here:

Select one or more of the network elements shown on the tab and click the Add
button to add them to the Selection filter.
Similarly, to remove an item from the Selection filter, select the item on the tab
and click the Remove button.

7.3.4.4 Editing Items in the Selection Filter by Specifying an Identifier


To add or remove a specific network element in the Selection filter based on an
identifier:

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From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

On the Identifier tab, select the element type that you want to add or remove, for
example BSC, and enter either an exact element ID, or a regular expression.

In the Match pane, ensure you have selected the correct type - either Exact or
Regular Expression - for what you have entered above. You can also choose
whether or not to make this case-sensitive by selecting the checkbox.

Click the Add or Remove button as required.

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7.3.4.5 Editing Items in the Selection Filter by Using a File


To edit items currently in the Selection filter by using items from a file:
1

From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

On the File List tab, select the required element type, for example BSC.

Type in a file name or click the Browse button and locate the correct file.
The file format of this text file is a list of site identifiers each on a separate line.

Click Add.
All of the elements of the required type that exist in the file are displayed in the
Selection Filter.

Remove any unwanted items as required, by selecting the item and clicking
Remove.

7.3.4.6 Editing the Selection Filter Using the Map View


To edit which items currently exist in the Selection filter by using the Map View
window:
1

Open a Map View window displaying the area and items you want to add or
remove from the Selection filter.

From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

On the Map View tab, select the element type, for example Property.

Click the appropriate button, for example, Add Element.


To add or remove all of the elements of the selected element type, click the
Add or Remove All Elements button.

In the Map View window, click the required network element.

Repeat for all of the elements that you want to add to or remove from the Selection
filter.

In the Selection Expert, click the Stop Adding or Stop Removing button.

7.3.4.7 Editing the Selection Filter Using Other Filters


To add items from other filters to your Selection filter:
1

From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

In the Selection Expert, select the required element type.

From the list of folders shown, select the filter that contains the required network
elements.

Click Add.
All of the elements of the required type that exist in the file are displayed in the
Selection Filter.

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Remove any unwanted items as required, by selecting the item and clicking
Remove.

7.3.4.8 Saving the Selection Filter


To save network elements that currently exist in the Selection filter:
1

From the Database menu, click Selection Expert.

From the File menu of the Selection Expert, click Save As.

In the Filter Name box, type a name and click Save.

Now, if you view the Filter Database, (from the Database menu, click Filters) your
filter has been added, and has a red symbol next to it, indicating that it is a static
filter.
You can now modify the filter from the Filter Database as usual, and then use it, as
you would any filter, to limit lists of network elements in the Site Database
window, reports and so on.

7.3.5 Editing and Deleting Filters


To edit an existing filter:
1

From the Database menu, click Filters.

In the Filters dialog box, select the filter you want to edit.

Click Edit.

Use the Filter Wizard to modify the filter.

To rename a filter, in the Filters dialog box, right-click the required filter and then
click Rename. In the dialog box that appears, type the new name and click OK.
To delete an existing filter:
1

From the Database menu, click Filters.

Right-click the required filter and from the menu that appears, click Remove.
- or In the Filter dialog box, select the filter you want to delete and click the Remove
button.
The filter is moved to the Wastebasket. To ensure other people cannot use it, you
will need to remove it from the Wastebasket. Until you do this, the filter is still
available to others.

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7.3.6 Exporting Filters using XML Export


You can export your filters to share them or to keep a backup of them by using the
XML Export function:
1

From the File menu, point to Export and then click XML:

Click the Browse button to select the location to which you want to export the
*.xml file(s).

On the Filters tab, select the filters that you want to export.

Click Export to begin exporting.

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7.3.7 Making Your Dynamic Filters More Efficient


When creating dynamic filters, the selection rules will be activated from top to
bottom.
The sequence of these rules can therefore affect the speed of your filters.
You can make your dynamic filters run faster by:
Eliminating the largest number of unwanted objects first.
Using as few rules as possible - the number of evaluations affects the speed at
which a filter runs.
Placing the rules in a sensible order in step 2 of the Filter Wizard - some types of
rule are faster than others. For example, to test if an object is a particular element,
the filter wizard compares two integers to see if they are equal or not. However, to
test to see if a Property is within a vector, the filter wizard uses a complex
algorithm to compare the location of the Property with every point that makes up
the vector.
This table lists the rules from quickest to process to the slowest:
Fastest

Slowest

Weighting

Rule Type

Element

Hierarchy

Field

5-15

Attribute

50-10000+ depending on the


number of points in the polygon

Polygon

The examples below show how performance is affected by good and bad use of rules.
Example of reordering a simple filter
Example of making filters faster by using fewer rules

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7.4 Using Visualisers


A visualiser is a way of creating multiple display settings for the same filter. When
you have set up a filter's display properties, you take a copy, then change the display
of items that you want. If you do this, you will not have to edit the filter each time you
want to see something different, or create a new filter which is identical except for the
display properties.
Visualisers have other advantages over filters in that:
They are not committed to the database, and therefore have no impact on
processing speed.
You can customise and store your exact visual requirements on the Map View,
without affecting any other users.
Examples of when using visualisers might be useful are:
You need to present a monthly report, using the corporate look for sites, which is
different to your own. So each month, for the same filter, you turn off your own
display properties and use different ones:

You have set up the Selection filter to show Property IDs as labels. In a visualiser
you choose to change the label to show contact details instead. Or you may have a
filter showing all network elements and then create visualisers which each contain
one network element type, enabling you to separate out your displays as required:

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7.4.1 Adding Visualisers


When you add a visualiser, it will inherit all the display properties of a filter, so
ensure you have set up the filter, assigning colours and symbols to each item as
required. When you have done this, use these steps to add a visualiser:
1

In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button

In the Data Types dialog box, expand Filters and right-click the required filter.

From the menu that appears, select Add New Visualiser.

In the dialog box that appears, type the name for the new visualiser and click OK.
The new visualiser appears as a new item under the filter, and contains the filter
properties that you have copied:

Visualisers can also be included in Favourite Views (see Saving a Favourite Map
View on page 55). This greatly speeds up the process of displaying the Visualisers
with the minimum of effort.

7.4.2 Changing the Display Properties of Visualisers


You view and change the display properties of visualisers in the same way as you
would do for filters, that is, by:
Double-clicking the visualiser in the list of data types
or
Right-clicking the visualiser and from the menu that appears, selecting Properties

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7.4.3 Copying and Resetting Display Properties of Visualisers


Copying Display Properties
You can copy display properties from one visualiser to another, overwriting existing
display properties. To do this:
1

Right-click the visualiser whose properties you want to copy and from the menu
that appears click Copy Properties.

Right-click the second visualiser and from the menu that appears click Paste
Properties.

Resetting Display Properties


You can reset a visualiser's display properties to the original ones that you chose
when you first created the filter (not the visualiser).
To do this :
1

In the list of data types, expand Filters and browse to the required visualiser.

Right-click the required filter and select Reset.

7.4.4 Exporting and Importing Display Properties of Visualisers


After you have created a visualiser, you can export its display properties and import
them into another project.
To do this:
1

Right-click the visualiser whose display properties you want to export, and from
the menu that appears, click Export Properties.

In the dialog box that appears, browse to the required location and type a name
for the settings file.

Click Save.

Click Export.
The display properties are exported.

In the second project, right-click the visualiser into which you want to import the
display properties.
From the menu that appears, click Import Properties.

In the dialog box that appears, locate the required settings file and click Open.

Click Import.
The display properties in the chosen file are imported.

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7.5 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
The purpose and uses of fields
How to assign field options to network elements
The purpose and uses of filters
How to create and define dynamic filters
How to create and define static filters
How to use the selection expert
The purpose of visualisers
How to create visualisers

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 8

Predicting Pathloss and


Displaying Coverage
8.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Predicting pathloss
Creating coverage arrays
Displaying coverage
Analysing coverage with statistical reports
Managing arrays

8.2 Predicting Pathloss


After the network has been configured and all other necessary parameters have been
set, ASSET enables you to create pathloss predictions. You can predict the pathloss of
the signal from any cell to any point and use this information as the basis of coverage
analysis for your planned network.
Prediction files are vital in order to create a variety of coverage and interference
arrays for visual analysis. The arrays can be used to produce statistical reports, and
they also play a crucial part in a wide range of wizards, such as the Traffic Raster,
Interference Table and Neighbour Planner wizards.
In ASSET, the pathloss predictions are created or loaded automatically whenever you
create a coverage/interference array, or when you run the Simulator.
This means that you do not need to explicitly create pathloss predictions. For
example, if the predictions do not exist, they will be created; if they exist and are upto-date, they will be loaded; if they exist but are out-of-date (due to any parameter
changes in the database), they will be newly created.

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However, there may be circumstances where it is beneficial to explicitly create


pathloss predictions, for example if you want to create a large amount of predictions
and want to set these running while you are away from your machine, in order to
save time later. For this, or for any other, reason, you can use the Pathloss Prediction
Generator.
In the Array Settings dialog box, you can set options which have a major impact on
the predictions loaded or created. Basically, you can choose to create arrays based on
the prediction settings (radius, resolution, and propagation model) specified in the
Site Database, or you can specify to override any or all of these.

8.2.1 About Primary and Secondary Predictions


In ASSET, when predictions are created or loaded, it is possible to set up and benefit
from a 'dual prediction' option, enabling you to specify two 'sets' of resolution and
radius for the cells in your network.
This enables you, for example, to create/load a high-resolution prediction in the area
closer to the site, and a low-resolution prediction in the area further from the site. In
this example, the primary prediction (lower resolution/larger radius) might represent
the interference area, and the secondary prediction (higher resolution/smaller radius)
might represent the expected signal area.
An example of how you can set this in the Site Database (Antennas tab) appears here:

Example of how Prediction Settings can be set up in the Site Database

It is also possible to use the primary/secondary predictions to assign a different


propagation model for each one. This can be useful if part of a rural cell's coverage
also covers an urban area.
The settings you choose on in the Array Settings dialog box (Predictions tab) have a
crucial impact on how or if the primary/secondary predictions are used for prediction
creation/loading and array creation. Basically, you can choose to:
Use only primary predictions
Use primary and secondary predictions
Use primary predictions, and only overlay secondary predictions if a resolution
threshold is satisfied

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Example of the Predictions tab in the Array Settings

It is not mandatory to set or use secondary predictions.

8.2.1.1 Example of Using Primary and Secondary Predictions


The following pictures illustrate an example of how Primary and Secondary
Predictions could be used, showing different results between two of the options
under Use Network Element Settings in the Array Settings dialog box:

Example of how an array can use predictions - Using only primary predictions

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Example of how an array can use predictions - Using primary and secondary predictions

In this example, a high resolution has been set for the cell up to 2km radius, and a low
resolution up to 4km radius. The coverage array was requested at the higher
resolution. Notice how the pixels are using the lower resolution in the outer half of
the coverage.

8.2.1.2 Example of a Multi-Resolution Array


This picture shows a multi-resolution array displayed in the Map View, using multiresolution predictions from the dual-prediction system:

Example of a multi-resolution array displayed in the Map View

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8.2.2 Using the Pathloss Prediction Generator


In ASSET, the pathloss predictions are created or loaded automatically whenever you
create a coverage/interference array, or when you run the Simulator, or use the Signal
Coverage, Interference Table or Neighbour Planner wizards. This means that you do
not explicitly need to create pathloss predictions (this is even true if you are using
Measurement-based pathloss files to influence them).
However, there may be circumstances where it is beneficial to explicitly create
predictions, for example if you want to create a large amount of predictions and want
to set these running while you are away from your machine, in order to save time
later. In such cases, or for any other reason, you can explicitly create predictions by
using the Pathloss Prediction Generator.
Also, on the Predictions tab of the Array Settings dialog box, you can set options
which have a major impact on the predictions loaded or created. Basically, you can
choose to create arrays based on the prediction settings (radius, resolution, and
propagation model) specified in the Site Database, or you can specify to override any
or all of these.
To create pathloss prediction files for single or multiple sites:
1

If you intend to select sites from the map view, open a Map View, and display the
sites for which you want to create predictions.

From the Tools menu, click Pathloss Predictor, or click the

The Pathloss Prediction Generator dialog box appears. Select whether to create
predictions for:

button.

Prediction Options

Descriptions

Instructions

Sites and Cells

Enables you to select


individual sites.

Type the name of the element and press Enter. Type a


partial substring if you want multiple elements to appear.
As you type, after a small time delay, a list of all the
elements matching the substring will appear in the list.

Sites and Cells in View

Enables you to select the sites After selecting the radio button, click anywhere in the Map
currently visible in an open
View window to load the sites/cells.
Map View.
(Afterwards, the 'Select View' button becomes active, but
you do not need to press it unless you want to
subsequently switch your selection to a different Map
View.)

Sites and Cells in Filter

Enables you to select sites


from a specific filter.

Choose a filter from the drop-down box.

Note :

When a site but none of its cells are selected then all the cells on that site are
predicted

When a site and one or more of its cells are selected then only those explicit
cells are predicted

When cells (not sites) are selected, only those cells are predicted

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The sites you have chosen now appear listed in the dialog box.
4

If appropriate, you can select the checkbox to force repredictions. In the majority
of situations, due to the recognition capabilities of the prediction system, this is
unnecessary. However, in rare circumstances, there may be a situation where you
know the predictions are out-of-date, but the prediction system considers them to
be up-to-date. Such a circumstance might be, for example, when you know that
changes have been made to the underlying map data used by the project.

Click Start.
Time estimates are shown as the prediction progresses.

When the operation has finished, you can view and inspect the prediction results:

Example of Pathloss Predictor dialog box

If required, you can choose to only show the failed predictions by clicking the
'Show Failed' button. If you do, the list will be reduced, as in this example:

Example of Pathloss Predictor showing failed predictions

After doing this, you can also choose to populate the Selection filter with only the
'failed' sites or cells, by clicking the relevant button.

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8.3 Creating Signal Coverage Arrays (UMTS)


The UMTS Pilot Coverage wizard, available from the Signal Coverage option in the
Arrays menu, enables you to create the following arrays:
Best RSCP
Best DL Cell by RSCP
DL Loss
To generate these arrays:
1

Open a Map View window that shows the region of interest.

From the Arrays menu, point to Signal Coverage.


(If you have other licensed technologies, you may need to then click UMTS Pilot
Coverage wizard.)

Check that the region for the coverage is correct. If necessary, you can modify the
region by entering precise co-ordinates.
Click Next.
You can also run the wizard using the Create Arrays button
in the Map
View window itself. Confirmation of the region to be covered is then unnecessary.

Select the filters you want to include.


If you also want to consider interference caused by overlapping predictions from
cells outside the selected region, you can select the appropriate checkbox.
Click Next.

Select the appropriate terminal type(s), and click Next.

On the final step:

Select the carrier that you want to include in the array.

Select which array to display automatically (the others can be displayed


subsequently).

Specify the resolution of the array. You can specify any resolution. The output
arrays will be generated at that requested resolution, using the prediction files
at the resolutions specified for the corresponding network elements in the Site
Database (or from the Override option in the Array Settings dialog box). A
deterministic conversion process is used where necessary.

Specify the number of covering cells to be considered (the default is 6).


The recommended minimum is 6, because this provides a high degree of
confidence in the determination of the 'best' serving cell; this has particular
significance at the cell edge. You can specify a lower number if you are
prepared to accept a lower degree of accuracy (lower confidence) in exchange
for benefits in speed and memory.

Click Finish.

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The data is loaded into memory, enabling you to display the created arrays on the
Map View.

8.4 Displaying Coverage Arrays


To display a coverage array in the Map View:
1

Ensure the array has been created.

In the Map View, click the Show Data Types button


list, select the Simulator heading:

Select the array you want to display.

Click 'OK and Redraw'.

and in the Data Types

The array will be displayed on the Map View.

8.4.1 Example of Best RSCP Array


This array indicates the highest RSCP level at each pixel. It represents average values
and is therefore calculated with fades of 0dB.
As with all the arrays, you can change the display settings by double-clicking the
array in the list of Data Types.

Example of Best RSCP Array

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8.4.2 Example of Best DL Cell by RSCP Array


This array indicates the cell that provides the highest RSCP for the terminal.
As with all the arrays, you can change the display settings by double-clicking the
array in the list of Data Types.

Example of Best DL Cell by RSCP Array

8.4.3 Customising the Array Display Properties


To customise how the arrays are displayed in the Map View window:
1

In the Map View, click the Show Data Types button


and, from the list, doubleclick the appropriate array under the Simulator heading:

For the majority of the array types, the display properties are presented in a large
dialog box that includes a Colours tab with a Schemas button. If this is the case,
you can either customise the display properties specifically for each array type, or
you can define your own sets of display properties (known as schemas) and use
them generically across other array types.
On the Colours tab, you can either:

Customise the options by setting the ranges, choosing the colours and (if
required) adding labels. The simplest way to do this is to enter values for Min,
Max, Step, Ranges (you can fix any one of them) and then click Re-Calc. You
can also add, remove or sort ranges manually, using the appropriate buttons.
You can then decide to save this as a schema to be used by other arrays, as
described in the following bullet point.
- or -

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Click the Schemas button to retrieve a schema that you have already defined,
or to save a schema that you have just created. The Simulation Schemas dialog
box enables you to create your own set of customised display schemas, and
store them for future retrieval. You can therefore utilise a small set of schemas
across many array types. For more information, see Defining Display Schemas
for Simulation Arrays on page 150.
- or -

Utilise the Defaults buttons. The Make Defaults button enables you to make
the current display properties into a default, and the Use Defaults button
enables you to retrieve the default. These defaults affect all instances of a
single array type. If a default is overwritten by a new one, the old one cannot
be retrieved unless it was previously saved as a schema.

For a few arrays, the first tab is named differently (for example, Parameters).
For these array types, the display options are more specific, and the Schemas and
Defaults buttons are unavailable.
3

On the Visibility tab, you can select options for displaying the array only at a
particular zoom level threshold:

Use View Zoom Range to set the minimum and maximum map view
dimensions in which the array will be displayed according to Height or Width.

Use Scale Range to set the minimum and maximum map view dimensions in
which the array will be displayed according to the current paper settings,
which are defined in the properties for the printer you choose.

On the MapInfo Export tab, you can set the default content type for any
subsequent MapInfo-based exports of this array:

Raster Image (you can select from a range of output file types)

RLE Rectangles

Polygons

Click OK.

In the Data Types window, click 'Ok and Redraw'. The Map View will now
display the array with the new settings.

8.4.3.1 Defining Display Schemas for Simulation Arrays


For all arrays, you can customise the general display properties by following the steps
in the previous section.
For the majority of the simulation arrays, there will be a Schemas button available on
the Display Properties dialog box. This activates a feature enabling you to define your
own customised set of display schemas, and save them for future retrieval. This
enables you to utilise a small set of schemas across many of your array types.
Each of these array types also has hard-coded default display settings, which you
can restore at any time by clicking the Reset to Defaults button.

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You can define and save a new display schema at any time. To do this:
1

Ensure a simulation has been run or loaded.

Open a Map View.

Click the Show Data Types button


and in the Data Types list, under the
Simulator heading, double-click the appropriate array type.

In the Display Properties dialog box that appears, define the ranges and colours,
as described in Customising the Array Display Properties.
If, when you have finished, you just click OK, the display options will be
displayed on the Map View, and saved for this array instance. But if you want to
save it for future loading into this and other arrays, you can save it as a schema, as
explained below.

Click the Schemas button.

In the Simulation Schemas dialog box that appears, right-click a folder, and from
the menu that appears, click Save as New Schema. Alternatively, you can click the
Save as New Schema button.
You can also create sub folders, if you wish to organise the schemas.

If you want to simply update an existing schema, you can do this by selecting
it and using the Update Schema option.
7

Type a descriptive name for the schema, and click OK.

Close the Simulation Schemas dialog box. The new schema is now saved for future
use, enabling you to load it for any of the related array types.

Each time you save a new schema, the units are recorded and you will only be
able to load that schema into an array that uses the same units. For example, if you
define and save a schema for an array which uses % units, you will be unable to load
it into an array that uses dBm units.

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8.4.3.2 Loading Display Schemas into the Array Display Properties


When you have defined and saved any display schemas for simulation arrays or
Signal Coverage arrays, you can choose to load any of them into the display
properties of an array. To do this:
1

Ensure a simulation has been run or loaded.

Open a Map View.

Click the Show Data Types button


and in the Data Types list, under the
Simulator heading, double-click the appropriate array type.

In the Display Properties dialog box that appears, click the Schemas button.
For a few types of simulation array, the Schemas button is unavailable.
The Simulation Schemas dialog box appears, and displays a list of the schemas
that you have previously defined and saved:

Right-click the appropriate schema, and from the menu that appears, click
Retrieve Schema. Alternatively, you can click the Retrieve Schema button.
As an alternative short cut, you can simply double-click the schema.

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The selected schema is now loaded into the array's display properties (the
Simulation Schemas dialog box closes automatically) .

In the updated Display Properties dialog box, click OK.

In the Data Types window, click 'Ok and Redraw'. The Map View will now
display the array with the selected settings.

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8.5 Producing Coverage Reports/Statistics


Once coverage arrays have been created, you can generate coverage statistics. This is
fully explained in Generating Statistical Reports for Arrays on page 242.

Example of generating Statistics for an array using the right-click option

After selecting the required reporting options in the Statistics dialog box, you can
generate a report. Here is an example:

Example of a Coverage Statistics report

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8.6 Using the Array Manager


The Array Manager provides an array management facility, which enables you to
perform memory management on arrays and simulations. In addition, the Array
Manager provides the ability to retrieve archived arrays, allowing for the
benchmarking of statistical changes over time.
In the Array Manager, you can:
View any array information currently in memory
Load arrays
Save arrays
Delete arrays (except Simulation arrays)
View the data summary of a simulation
Copy arrays to the Array Clipboard
Rename Clipboard arrays
To open the Array Manager:
From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.
This picture shows an example of the Array Manager:

Example of the Array Manager dialog box

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By default, all column information (File name, Memory, Resolution, and so on) is
displayed, but you can customise which columns are included by right-clicking any of
the column headings:

Example of customising displayed columns in the Array Manager dialog box

8.6.1 Loading a Specific Array


In the Array Manager, you can load a coverage or interference array that you have
saved previously. To do this:
1

From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.

Click the Load button.

In the dialog box that appears, locate the *.dat file that contains the array, and then
click Load.
The required array is loaded.
If you load an array which included a cell or cells that now no longer exist(s)
in the database, you can only use this array for statistical analysis and
visualisation purposes. Also, some of the cell information for the array will be
undefined.

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8.6.2 Saving Arrays


In the Array Manager, you can save a coverage or interference array. To do this:
1

From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.

Select the array that you want to save.

Click Save.

In the Array File Selector dialog box, browse to the folder in which you want to
save the array file.

If you have any planning comments that you want to add to the array header file,
double-click the Comments field and type your comments in there.

Click the Save button.

8.6.3 Deleting Arrays


In the Array Manager, you can delete a coverage or interference or traffic array which
is no longer needed, thereby freeing some memory resources:
1

From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.

Select the array that you want to delete.

Click Delete.

You cannot delete individual arrays that were produced by the Simulator.
However, you can use the Array Manager to delete the whole simulation from
memory, if required.

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8.6.4 About the Array Clipboard


ASSET enables you to copy to clipboard any of the Simulation arrays, so that you can
make comparisons between historic simulations of your network.
The file format used for this is the *.3ga file format. This file enables you to obtain and
view all the necessary statistics and views of the output arrays, in order to make
comparisons. However, you cannot rerun a simulation from a Clipboard array.
For information on the file format for the Simulation arrays, see the ENTERPRISE
Technical Reference Guide.
To create a Clipboard array from a Simulation array, either:
Using the Array Manager:
1

From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.

Right-click on the array and click Copy to Array Clipboard.

- or Using the Map View Data Types list:


1

In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button

From the list that appears, expand the Simulator heading.

Right-click on the array and click Copy to Array Clipboard.

Either method will create the copy of the array, and it will then appear under the
Array Clipboard heading in both the Array Manager and the Map View.
All output arrays from the Compound Array Generator are automatically held in
memory as Clipboard arrays.

8.6.4.1 Renaming Clipboard Arrays


In the Array Manager, you can rename a clipboard array. To do this:
1

From the Arrays menu, click Array Manager.

Expand the Array Clipboard heading.

Right-click the appropriate clipboard array, and from the menu that appears click
Rename.
The clipboard array name will appear as an edit box.

Type the new name and either press the return key on your keyboard or, using
your mouse, click anywhere within the dialog box.

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8.7 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Predicting pathloss
Creating coverage arrays
Displaying coverage
Analysing coverage with statistical reports
Managing arrays

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 9

Traffic Planning on a
UMTS Network
9.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Configuring bearers
Configuring services
Configuring terminal types
Setting clutter parameters
Creating traffic rasters

9.2 Configuring Traffic Parameters


When you are satisfied with your network's coverage performance, you are in a
position to consider traffic modelling in your network.
In modern cellular networks, there are different types of subscribers with different
profiles, and different types of mobile terminals with different properties. In addition,
multiple services can be offered to the subscriber. These may include voice, data and
multimedia services. When planning such a network, you must account for the
different properties of these services, such as different costs, data rates and other
requirements such as quality of service.
In ASSET, you can account for this by defining bearers, services, and terminal types.

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9.3 About Bearers


Bearers represent the air interface connections, performing the task of transporting
voice and data information between cells and terminal types.
When you add a bearer, you need to specify certain settings, such as the bitrates and
link quality requirements.
After bearers have been defined, you can then decide which ones will be supported
by your different services.

9.3.1 Adding UMTS Bearers


To add a UMTS bearer:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Bearers (if you have more than one
technology activated, you may then need to click UMTS+HSPA).
If you want to add HSPA bearers, see Adding HSDPA Bearers on page 276 or
Adding HSUPA Bearers on page 278.

In the dialog box that appears, click Add.

Ensure you select UMTS from the technology drop-down box, and then name the
bearer.

Select the Link Direction, Uplink or Downlink.


You must specify bearers for both the Uplink and the Downlink. The
respective radio buttons will only activate the appropriate tabs. It is recommended
to append each bearer name with the appropriate suffix (UL or DL) for ease of
reference.

Specify the required parameters on each tab.


This table describes the parameters for UMTS bearers:
Tab

Description

Bearers

The Air Interface (bps) values are used in the processing gain calculations. The User
(bps) values are used in the Throughput Reports. It is recommended that these are set
to the same value.
The Control Overhead Factor accounts for the fact that control channel power is
transmitted even during inactive periods of a call.
You can set the Resource Consumption here. The Resource Types can be configured in
the Node Types dialog box.
When the terminal is active it will consume a fraction of the available resources on each
snapshot. For example, if a terminal needs to transmit 50mW, and the activity factor of
the service it is using is 20%, it would actually transmit 10mW, and it would consume
20% of its resources.

Noise Model

This tab is used to edit the Eb/No to FER curve for a UMTS Bearer.
The pre-defined noise models (Gaussian or Rayleigh) provide default Eb/No to FER
mapping values.

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Tab

Description

Eb/No Values & Speed Delta

Select the Use AAS Tables checkbox if you want the Simulator to use the table values to
make adjustments for diversity.
Edit the Uplink and Downlink Link Eb/No requirements according to the Air Interface
bitrate. If some cells in the network make use of antenna systems with Tx and/or Rx
diversity, then you should also specify lower Eb/No Diversity requirements to allow for
improved signals (this is deactivated if AAS Tables are used).
In the Eb/No Speed Dependency pane, you can enter values to act as offsets (in dB) to
the basic Eb/No requirements specified above. You can set speed variations on the
terminal types.

Power Control
(Uplink only)
TXP Gain
(Uplink only)

You can specify how the Power Control Headroom (fast fade margin) and the Average
(interfering) Power Rise (to other cells) varies in dB according to the mobile speed.
A mobile in soft handover can experience an uplink gain, which allows the mobile to
transmit at lower power. This gain for mobile Tx power (TXP) depends on both the
mobile speed, and the difference between the best two achieved uplink Eb/No values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

PR Gain
(Uplink only)

Fast power control causes a mobiles Tx power to vary in a way which causes a rise in
the average interference experienced in surrounding cells. This average power rise (PR)
for the interference caused by the mobile is lower for mobiles in soft handover. This
"gain depends on both the mobile speed, and the difference between the best two
achieved uplink Eb/No values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

PCH Gain (Uplink only)

Mobiles at a cell edge transmit at higher powers than those nearer to the base station,
and so are more likely to have difficulty dealing with deep fades near the cell edge. To
model this, a Power Control Headroom (PCH) is added to the link budget. This margin is
smaller for mobiles in soft handover. This "gain depends on both the mobile speed, and
the difference between the best two achieved uplink Eb/No values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

Downlink Gain

The improved radio channel which occurs when a mobile is in soft handover also allows
the base station to transmit at lower power. This Downlink gain depends on both the
mobile speed, and the difference between the best two received pilot Ec/Io values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.
The Max Tx Power (dBm) is the maximum transmit power that may be allocated to an
individual downlink bearer of this type.
Setting this value too low may cause Downlink Eb/No range failures to occur. This
would happen if the power required to achieve the Downlink Eb/No requirement exceeds
the Max Tx Power specified here.

If you choose to specify any values which depend on Mobile Speed, the
Simulator would only take account of such values if statistical variations of Mobile
Speed have been specified on the Clutter tab of the UMTS Terminal Types.
6

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

When bearers have been defined, they can be associated with a service.

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9.4 About Services


To account for the different services offered to the subscriber, you can set up your
own services and then allocate the services to terminal types. For example, services
might have different costs, data rates, and other requirements such as quality of
service. Some of these factors are determined by the bearers that you assign to a
service.
The parameters that you specify will influence how the simulation behaves and will
enable you to examine coverage and service quality for individual types of service.
After services have been defined, you can then decide which ones will be supported
by your different terminal types.

9.4.1 Adding a UMTS Service


If you want to add a UMTS service that supports HSPA, see Adding a UMTS
HSPA Service on page 164.
To add a UMTS service:

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From the Configuration menu, click Services (if you have more than one
technology activated, you may then need to click UMTS).

In the Services dialog box, click Add to create a new service.

Select the new service and type a new name for it. It is useful to describe the type
of service that it represents.

Assign a service prioritisation number for the service (1 represents the highest
priority). This is used during the simulations of network performance, where the
terminals in a snapshot are prioritised according to the service they support.
Multiple services can be assigned the same priority (if so, their priority in a
simulation is randomised).

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There are various tabs where you can specify information such as traffic
characteristics, supported carriers, and supported bearers. The tabs are described
in the following table:
Tab

Description

General

You can specify the traffic characteristic:


Voice (Circuit Switched)
Real Time Data (Circuit Switched)
Non Real Time Data (Packet Switched).
For circuit switched data, you can edit the CS Activity Factor, which is used to scale traffic
powers in the simulation.
You can also specify whether the service supports soft handovers.
If you use the Financial Analysis module, you can specify an ARPU value in the Service Revenue
pane. This is only necessary if you use the Service Based Revenue source method.
ARPU = Average Revenue Per User (or Unit).

Carriers/Cell Layers

You can select which carriers or cell layers are supported in the service you are defining.
If you are also allocating cell layers, the cell layers are listed after the available 3g carriers. (Cell
layers are only relevant to 2g networks, but they can be used here to model a joint UMTS/GSM
service.)
To allocate a carrier or cell layer:
In the left pane, select a carrier or cell layer, then click the
button for de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

You can set the order in which the Simulator should attempt the allocated carriers/cell layers by
clicking the Up and Down arrows.
If, instead, you want the Simulator to randomise the order in which carriers are attempted, you
can select the Ignore Priorities checkbox. If you are modelling a joint service, you must then
select to prioritise either 2g or 3g (if it is not a joint service, this has no effect).
UMTS UL Bearers
and
UMTS DL Bearers

You can select which available uplink/downlink bearers are supported in the service, using the
respective tabs. To do this:
First, ensure you select the correct carrier from the Carriers drop-down box. Then in, the left
pane, select the required bearer(s), and click the
de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

button for

You can use the Sort button to automatically prioritise multiple bearers by their User (bps) value.
Alternatively, you can prioritise the bearers manually using the Up and Down arrow buttons. This
determines the order in which the Simulator attempts the bearers.
For a packet switched service, the power and resource activity factors of the supported bearers
are non-editable if the 'Recalculate from Packet Model' option is selected on the Packet Switched
tab. However, if the 'Override Packet Model' option is selected, you can edit these factors
manually. You can either:
Edit the power and resource factors individually, or
Specify an overall single-value Service Rate in bps.
If you use the Service Rate option, the factors are automatically recalculated (service rate divided
by user rate) as you type a value. But, if required, you can still edit individual factors manually
after typing the service rate.
Packet Switched

See Setting the Packet Switched Parameters for a Service on page 165.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

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9.4.2 Adding a UMTS HSPA Service


To add a UMTS service that supports HSPA:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Services (if you have more than one
technology activated, you may then need to click UMTS).

In the Services dialog box, click Add to create a new service.

Select the new service and type a new name for it. It is useful to describe the type
of service that it represents.

Assign a service prioritisation number for the service (1 represents the highest
priority). This is used during the simulations of network performance, where the
terminals in a snapshot are prioritised according to the service they support.
Multiple services can be assigned the same priority (if so, their priority in a
simulation is randomised).

There are various tabs where you can specify information such as traffic
characteristics, supported carriers, and supported bearers. The tabs are described
in the following table:
Tab

Description

General

For an HSPA service, when you specify the traffic characteristic, ensure that you set this to Non
Real Time Data (Packet Switched).
You can also specify whether the service supports soft handovers.
If you use the Financial Analysis module, you can specify an ARPU value in the Service Revenue
pane. This is only necessary if you use the Service Based Revenue source method.
ARPU = Average Revenue Per User (or Unit).

Carriers/Cell Layers

You can select which carriers or cell layers are supported in the service you are defining.
If you are also allocating cell layers, the cell layers are listed after the available 3g carriers. (Cell
layers are only relevant to 2g networks, but they can be used here to model a joint UMTS/GSM
service.)
To allocate a carrier or cell layer:
In the left pane, select a carrier or cell layer, then click the
button for de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

You can set the order in which the Simulator should attempt the allocated carriers/cell layers by
clicking the Up and Down arrows.
If, instead, you want the Simulator to randomise the order in which carriers are attempted, you
can select the Ignore Priorities checkbox. If you are modelling a joint service, you must then
select to prioritise either 2g or 3g (if it is not a joint service, this has no effect).

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Tab

Description

UMTS UL Bearers

You can select which available HSUPA/HSDPA bearers are supported in the service, using the
respective tabs. To do this:

and
UMTS DL Bearers

First, ensure you select the correct carrier from the Carriers drop-down box. Then in, the left
pane, select the required bearer(s), and click the
de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

button for

You can use the Sort button to automatically prioritise multiple bearers by their User (bps) value.
Alternatively, you can prioritise the bearers manually using the Up and Down arrow buttons. This
determines the order in which the Simulator attempts the bearers.
The power and resource activity factors of the supported bearers are non-editable if the
'Recalculate from Packet Model' option is selected on the Packet Switched tab. However, if the
'Override Packet Model' option is selected, you can edit these factors manually. You can either:
Edit the power and resource factors individually, or
Specify an overall single-value Service Rate in bps.
If you use the Service Rate option, the factors are automatically recalculated (service rate divided
by user rate) as you type a value. But, if required, you can still edit individual factors manually
after typing the service rate.
In the case of the downlink, instead of manually defining and assigning your bearers, you
can choose to use HSDPA CQI Tables to determine which downlink bearers are used on the
service. (This option is only active if a UMTS resource has been dedicated to HSDPA.)
To do use the CQI Tables:
On the UMTS DL Bearers tab, select
. When this option is selected, the
only parameter on the UMTS DL Bearers tab that remains active is the overall Service Rate
option.
Packet Switched

See Setting the Packet Switched Parameters for a Service on page 165.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

9.4.3 Setting the Packet Switched Parameters for a Service


On the Packet Switched tab of the Services dialog box, you can set up the quality of
service parameters for the uplink and downlink.
The tab is only active when the Traffic Characteristic on the General tab has been set
to Packet Switched.
For EV-DO services, this tab is named Non-Real Time Params.
This table describes the parameters:
Parameter

Description

Precedence Class

The priority that should be given to the packet switched service.

Traffic Class

Conversational, interactive, streaming or background.

ARQ max number re-transmission

The number of times the terminal will try to retransmit before giving up on
transmitting a packet. The default is 3.

ARQ re-transmission timeout

The number of radio frames waited before a dropped block is retransmitted.


This is used to calculate the mean retransmission delay.

Mean packet size

Mean size of a packet.

Mean # of packet calls per session

Mean number of packet calls per session.

Reading time between calls

Reading time between calls.

Mean # of packets in call

Mean number of packets in call.

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Parameter

Description

Inter-packet arrival time

Mean time between packets in a call.

BLER working point

This is used to calculate the percentage retransmission rate using the


formula:

In the Bearer Activities pane, by selecting the appropriate radio button, you can
choose to:
Recalculate from Packet Model, to automatically calculate the Power and Resource
activity factors for supported bearers from the packet model parameters
- or Override Packet Model, if you want to edit the Power and Resource activity
factors for supported bearers manually, or (for UMTS) specify an overall singlevalue service rate.
This will influence the Power and Resource activity factors on the UL and DL Bearers
tabs of the Services dialog box.

9.4.3.1 About the Default Parameters on the Packet Switched Tab


The default parameters used on the Packet Switched tab of the Services dialog box are
those that would be required by a dynamic simulation. These are the mean values of
the www model, defined in UMTS spec TR101 112 v3.2.0, p.34. You can find this spec
at http://www.3gpp.org/. ASSET deals with packet traffic by taking these
parameters and generating an activity factor based upon them. The only additional
parameter to this model is retransmission rate, which is used to apply an increase in
the amount of demanded traffic due to retransmission.
Edit these values if you want to customise the traffic model for other traffic types.
This approach is concerned with the demand of traffic and not its scheduling.
This diagram gives a representation of some of these parameters:

Packets in a Session

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9.5 Setting UMTS Clutter Parameters


You may want to set up different shadow fading standard deviations for outdoor
terminals and indoor terminals per clutter type. If a building is in a particular
environment, such as urban, it will obviously encounter greater fading than would
occur in parkland.
You can also specify different indoor losses for each clutter type. So you might want
to specify greater losses through building walls in an industrial clutter category than
those in a parkland category.
These fades and losses will be influenced by the indoor percentage per clutter
category that you decide to set on the Clutter tab of the Terminal Types dialog box.
These percentages will represent the amount of terminals experiencing indoor fading
variations and in-building loss. The remaining percentage of terminals would
experience the outdoor fading variations.
You can also specify a value for orthogonality per clutter type. When you set up the
Simulator to run a simulation, you have the option to enable these orthogonality
values to be used in the simulation (if this option is not enabled, the orthogonality
factor used by the Simulator is the generic value for each cell on the Cell Params tab
in the Site Database.)
If your cells and terminal types support HSPA and AAS, you can also set four extra
parameters, representing clutter-specific adjustments to the Eb/No and Rate Gain
values stored in the UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters dialog box. See Setting Clutterspecific Adjustments to the AAS Parameters on page 270.
To set up Clutter Parameters:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Clutter Parameters.


(Depending on your licensed technologies, you may then need to click UMTS)

Set the standard deviation values for indoor fading, outdoor fading, and the
indoor losses.

Set the values for orthogonality per clutter type (between 0 and 1), if required.

Set the four AAS parameter (Eb/No and Rate Gain) adjustment values, if
required.

If you want to save your changes locally only, select the Override Database
Settings checkbox. However, if you want to make the changes available to other
users of the project, leave this option unselected.

Click OK.

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9.6 About Terminal Types


In ASSET, terminal types represent the different types of mobile terminal in your
network, and their distribution.
In a modern cellular network, subscribers can have different types of terminals with
different characteristics. In ASSET, you can define a variety of terminal types to
represent current or projected distribution profiles of the subscribers in your network.
You can associate these terminal types with specific or multiple cell layers, or specific
or multiple services. For example, you may have different cell layers (GSM900,
GSM1800) or different services (Voice, Packet, Internet).
Importantly, you can then determine how the traffic will be spread for each layer or
service, according to specified distributions in relation to the mapping data.
In summary, a terminal type defines these key characteristics:
How much traffic will the terminal type generate in total?
How will the traffic be spread geographically?
What is the expected mobile speed distribution for this terminal type?
With which cell layer or service will the terminal type be associated?
What are the mobile equipment characteristics?
The Terminal Types dialog box contains technology-specific settings as well as
associations with layers or services. The distribution parameters (on the Clutter and
Vectors tabs) define how the terminal type will be distributed over the Map View
when a traffic raster is created. The flexible methods of distribution are generic to all
technologies, so they are described in a separate chapter. See Determining the
Distribution of Traffic on page 170.

9.6.1 Adding a Terminal Type for UMTS


If you want to define a UMTS terminal type that supports HSPA, see Defining a
Terminal Type for UMTS with HSPA on page 281.
To set up a terminal type for UMTS:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Terminal Types.

In the Terminal Types dialog box, click Add to create a new terminal type.
If you want to add a terminal type which is similar to a previously defined one,
always make use of the Duplicate button.

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On the General tab:

Select 'UMTS' from the technology drop-down list.

Edit the name to describe the type of traffic that it represents, for example,
UMTS Voice or UMTS Packet.

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On the Mobile Speed tab, assign the speed parameters to the Clutter Types. These
work in conjunction with the 'Speed Dependency' parameters in the Bearers dialog
box. You can specify a mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum. The
minimum and maximum will limit any numbers generated from the normal
distribution during the simulation.

On the Services tab, allocate the service(s) to be supported by the terminal by


selecting from the available list, and clicking the

button.

It is recommended that you only use one service for one terminal, because this
makes specifying the various input traffic distributions and interpreting the
simulation output arrays much clearer.
6

On the Terminal Params tab you can set the following parameters:
Parameter

Description

Maximum Mobile Power

Maximum transmission power of the terminal. A candidate terminal will be rejected if its
calculated required transmit power is higher than this figure.

TX Dynamic Range

This effectively sets the minimum TX power of the terminal. The minimum power (dBm) is
derived by deducting the TX Dynamic Range (dB) from the Maximum Mobile Power (dBm).

Required RSCP

The required RSCP for a connection.

Required Ec/Io

The required pilot Ec/Io for a connection.

Required Pilot SIR

The required pilot SIR for a connection.

Power Step Size

This is the power quantisation step for the terminal. The terminal transmit power is always
rounded to an integer number of power steps below the maximum mobile power. A power
step size of zero effectively removes this quantisation of mobile TX power.

Antenna Gain

The terminal's antenna gain.

Body Loss

The loss of signal through absorption by terminal user.

Noise Figure

This is used to calculate the terminal's background (thermal) noise.

Background Noise

This is read-only and is calculated from the noise figure.

Required HS-SCCH Ec/Nt

This is only applicable to UMTS HSPA. See Defining a Terminal Type for UMTS with HSPA
on page 281.

On the Clutter and/or Vectors tabs, define how the terminal type will be
distributed over the Map View when a traffic raster is created. The flexible
methods of distribution are generic to all technologies, and therefore are described
fully in a separate section. See Determining the Distribution of Traffic on page 170.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

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9.6.2 Determining the Distribution of Traffic


After you have added a terminal type and defined the parameters, you need to
determine how you intend to spread the traffic over the Map View.
If you want to add a terminal type which is similar to a previously defined one,
you should make use of the Duplicate button. This can be particularly beneficial for
the clutter and vector values.
The options you select on the Clutter and/or Vectors tabs partly depend on whether
you intend to use Specified (estimated) Traffic or Live Traffic:
Specified traffic enables you to spread an estimation (or future projection) of the
traffic within a region, based either on clutter types or vectors, or both.
Live traffic enables you to spread known traffic values per sub-cell according to
the cell service area (that is, the area where the cell is the best server), over selected
clutter types.
Live traffic can only be spread using the Weights option on the Clutter tab, and
will only be spread into clutter types with non-zero weights.
The following sections describe the options on the:
Clutter Tab
and
Vectors Tab
Vectors may consist of lines, polygons or points. For information on how to create
each of these, please refer to the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.

9.6.2.1 About the Clutter Tab on the Terminal Types Dialog Box
When you are determining the distribution of traffic for a terminal type, you can use
either the Clutter tab or the Vectors tab, or a combination of both. This section
describes the options on the Clutter tab.
There are two methods you can choose if you want to spread traffic using clutter
types: Weight or Density.
The Weight option enables you to assign relative weights to the various clutter
types available in your map data. These weights should represent the expected
ratios of subscribers in each clutter type. The normalised percentages always add
up to 100%. This method always requires a Total Traffic value to be entered
during the Traffic wizard process.
The Density option enables you to define a traffic density for each clutter type, and
therefore the Total Traffic value in the Traffic wizard process is deactivated.
If you intend to spread Live traffic, you must use the Weights option.
Whichever method you use, the traffic units spread will be Terminals or Erlangs per
km, as appropriate. For more information, see About the Traffic Units on page 175.

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For Weight, the Traffic wizard will spread the traffic over the selected region,
applying the clutter weights on a pixel by pixel basis. For example, if the weights of
clutter types 'Urban' and 'Rural' are 12 and 1 respectively, each urban pixel will have
12 times the traffic density of each rural pixel, irrespective of the total areas of the
clutter types.
For Density, the Traffic wizard will spread the traffic over the selected region,
applying the specified densities to each pixel based on its clutter type.
An advantage of using Weights is the extra flexibility. You can enter modified traffic
values when you make subsequent runs of the Traffic wizard to produce new rasters,
which will overwrite the old one (only one raster can exist in memory for any one
terminal type). Alternatively, you can use the Scaling Traffic feature, which serves for
both spreading methods.
For each clutter type, you can also specify a percentage probability that the terminal is
In-Building (that is, indoor). This will be used if you set up shadow fading standard
deviations (and/or loss values) for indoor terminals, and will affect the simulation
results.
Setting Options and Values on the Clutter Tab
To set the options and values on the Clutter tab of the Terminal Types dialog box:
1

Select either Weight or Density.

Specify the values by selecting each of the clutter types and entering a value in the
Weight column or Traffic Density column, as appropriate.

If relevant to your technology type, specify the percentage values for In-Building
by selecting each of the clutter types and entering a value in the % In-Building
column.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

You are now ready to create a traffic raster.

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9.6.2.2 About the Vectors Tab on the Terminal Types Dialog Box
When you determine the distribution of traffic for a terminal type, you can use either
the Vectors tab or the Clutter tab, or a combination of both. This section describes the
options on the Vectors tab.
On the Vectors tab of the Terminal Types dialog box, you can specify traffic to be
spread into/onto any selected vector(s). When you later run the Traffic wizard to
spread the traffic, any pixel intersected or enclosed by the vector will receive a traffic
value, according to your requirements.
Vectors may consist of lines, polygons or points. For information on how to create
these, please refer to the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
There are two methods you can choose if you want to spread traffic using vectors:
The Absolute option enables you to specify the total terminals within a vector
(line, polygon or point)
The Density option enables you to define a traffic density for each vector (line,
polygon or point)
Any vector-based traffic will be additional to clutter-based traffic, depending how
the terminal type has been configured. For more information, see Using a
Combination of the Clutter tab and the Vectors tab on page 174. If you want the
terminal type to be spread exclusively into/onto vectors, ensure that all values on the
terminal type's Clutter tab are set to zero (or, if the Weights option on the Clutter tab
has been specified, you can simply set the traffic total value in step 5 of the wizard to
zero).
In the case where lines or points are not entirely within the region selected in the
Traffic wizard, the traffic will be spread with the same specified values to the portion
of the vectors that are within the region. However, traffic for polygons will be
condensed into the portion of the polygon that is within the region.
If you have set up vectors which contain both polygons and lines, the traffic specified
for the lines is also spread over the edges of polygons (this may be useful for roads
consisting of polygon 'loops'). If you do not want this to happen, you must organise
your lines and polygons into separate vectors.

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The traffic units depend whether you use Absolute or Density, as described in this
table:
Vector type

Basis

How Traffic is Spread

Lines

Distance

Traffic is evenly spread over Terminals or Erlangs.


all the pixels through which
the line runs.

Absolute mode

Density mode
Terminals or Erlangs per km.

Polygons

Area

Traffic is evenly spread over Terminals or Erlangs.


all the pixels enclosed
within the polygon, unless
you choose to use clutter
weights when spreading
traffic into polygons when
you run the Traffic wizard.

Terminals or Erlangs per km.

Points

n/a

Traffic is spread onto


whichever pixel the point is
located.

Terminals or Erlangs.

Terminals or Erlangs.

If a vector file comprises multiple


points, the traffic you define will
be spread over all the points. For
example, if you define 6 terminals
for a vector comprising 3 points,
each point will have 2 terminals.

If a vector file comprises


multiple points, the traffic you
define will be spread to each of
the points. For example, if you
define 6 terminals for a vector
comprising 3 points, each point
will have 6 terminals.

For more information about the units for each technology, see About the Traffic Units
on page 175.
In the case of polygons, traffic can be spread with or without taking account of
clutter weights, determined by an option in step 2 of the Traffic Wizard. If you want
clutter weights to be considered, ensure that clutter weights are selected and specified
on the Clutter tab. For more information, see Creating a Traffic Raster with Specified
Values on page 177.
Setting Options and Values on the Vectors Tab
To set the options and values on the Vectors tab of the Terminal Types dialog box:
1

Select either Absolute or Density.

Select the required vector (line, polygon or point).

Enter a traffic value in the appropriate column.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

You are now ready to create a traffic raster.

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9.7 About Traffic Rasters


Traffic Rasters are arrays that store the distribution of traffic over an area. They can be
created either from the information in the Terminal Types or from imported Live
Traffic values. And they can be created with or without respect to network coverage.
The creation of Traffic Rasters enables you to:
In the case of a nominal network, obtain initial estimates of the equipment and
configuration needed. By displaying the array on the Map View, you can then
gain a good idea of where to locate your sites.
In the case of a more mature network, you can assess how your current network
performs in terms of capacity. You can check that your site configuration is
sufficient to match the traffic spread over the network.
Also, in the case of 2g networks:
You can capture the traffic from the array and assign it to individual sub-cells, and
then use this data to analyse the capacity required for individual cells in your
network. For this, you use the Static Traffic Analysis.
You can use traffic arrays when creating an Interference Table, which can be used
as an input to ILSA, the automatic Frequency Planning tool, or for the Interactive
Frequency Analysis.
And, in the case of 3g and 2g networks when using the Simulator, you need Traffic
Rasters as a vital input to analyse your network performance.

9.7.1 About Vector Attribute Traffic Rasters


You can create a traffic raster to spread attribute values, based on any attribute within
a vector (line, polygon or point). Attributes can include such information as
population data, subscriber numbers, salary information, and so on. For information
on how to define attribute values for vectors, see the ENTERPRISE User Reference
Guide.
When this method of creating a traffic raster is used, the traffic value derives directly
from the selected attribute value, that is, the attribute values automatically become
Erlangs or Terminals, whichever is appropriate to the technology. Therefore, in the
case where a single vector file contains multiple features, each feature may have a
different traffic value, corresponding to its own defined attribute value.
This method of spreading still requires a terminal type to be configured. However,
the traffic parameters specified on the terminal type's Clutter and Vectors tabs are
ignored for the spreading, with the exception of clutter weights, which can optionally
be taken into account when spreading traffic into polygons.
The traffic is spread for all selected vectors that contain the attribute. In the case of
overlapping vectors, the traffic value for each pixel is the sum of the values for each of
the vectors.

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The name of the created traffic raster will be the same as the name of the terminal
type (not the name of the attribute). Therefore any raster in memory with that name
will be replaced. This is because only one raster can exist in memory for any one
terminal type.

9.7.2 About Distributional Statistics


Distributional statistics (such as population) enable you to analyse the coverage of a
selected array with respect to distribution.
When you create a traffic raster, you can use the spread traffic values to incorporate
distributional statistics into the statistical reports. The reporting option is explained in
Generating Statistical Reports for Arrays on page 242.
For this option, the distribution 'units' can either derive from values which have been
spread using a vector attribute traffic raster, or from a traffic raster created using the
clutter and/or vectors tabs on the terminal type. In the latter case, the spread values
(whether in Erlangs or terminals) will be considered as distributed 'units'.
The distributional statistics option can only work on traffic rasters saved to file,
so if you want to use a raster for this purpose, ensure you save the raster after you
have created it.

9.7.3 About the Traffic Units


The traffic units used in the traffic rasters are determined by the technology selected
on the terminal type. This table lists the technology types and which units they use:
Technology

Traffic Units

GSM Non-Sim

E (Erlangs)

GSM Sim

T (Terminals)

GPRS, EGPRS

T (Terminals)

UMTS, CDMA2000, EV-DO, GSM/UMTS, WiMAX, LTE

T (Terminals)

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9.8 Creating a Traffic Raster


You can create a traffic raster with any of these three independent methods:
Specified traffic values
Live traffic values
Vector attribute values

Example of Traffic Raster with Map Information pane

Before using the Traffic Wizard, ensure you have:


1

Defined at least one terminal type.

Opened a Map View window that contains the area over which you want to
spread the traffic (unless you prefer to enter co-ordinates).

Created or loaded a coverage array, if restricting the traffic to coverage, or


spreading live traffic.
This step is optional for specified traffic, essential for live traffic, and not
relevant for vector attributes.

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9.8.1 Creating a Traffic Raster with Specified Values


To create a traffic raster with specified traffic values:
1

Check the preliminary steps, as described in Creating a Traffic Raster on page 176.
You should especially check the steps described in Determining the
Distribution of Traffic on page 170.

From the Arrays menu, point to Traffic and click Traffic Wizard.

The following instructions describe the steps in the Traffic Wizard:


1

On step 1, check that your defined area is correct. If you have multiple Map Views
open, the Select View button enables you to click on a different Map View. A
further option is to enter the co-ordinates manually.

On step 2, select one or more terminal types from the list. For each terminal type
you select, a separate traffic array will be created. The traffic units produced by
the raster will depend on the technology set on the terminal type, as explained in
About the Traffic Units on page 175. The Spread Type column indicates whether
you chose weights or density for clutter (if applicable) when you configured the
terminal type.
If you want clutter weights to be taken into account when spreading traffic into
polygons, select the appropriate checkbox, and ensure that clutter weights have
been selected, and specified, on the Clutter tab of the Terminal Types dialog box.

On step 3, choose the required resolution. The processing memory required to


create the raster is shown.
If you are intending to use Restrict to Coverage (see next step), this resolution
must match that of the appropriate coverage array.

On step 4, if you have a coverage array in memory, you can restrict the traffic to be
spread only to the pixels in the Map View where coverage exists. This option is
useful for assessing how your established network performs, enabling you to
assess the current traffic in your network, as well as any projected increases. You
should not use this option if you just want to obtain initial estimates of the site
locations, equipment and configuration needed for a new or expanding network.
To restrict the traffic to coverage:
Select the network traffic you wish to restrict. In the case of 3g traffic, you can
also select the array instance and enter a threshold value for the pilot power
(traffic will only spread to areas where the pilot strength is above this
threshold).

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On step 5, you can specify the amount of traffic units if you used Clutter Weights
when setting up the terminal type. If you used Clutter Density, then these values
are already fixed, making this column inactive.
Any vector-based traffic will be additional to clutter-based traffic, depending
how the terminal type has been configured. For more information, see Using a
Combination of the Clutter tab and the Vectors tab on page 174. If you want the
terminal type to be spread exclusively into/onto vectors, ensure that all values on
the terminal type's Clutter tab are set to zero (or, if the Weights option on the
Clutter tab has been specified, you can simply set the traffic total value in step 5 of
the wizard to zero).

Ignore step 6 and click Next. (This separate option is described in Creating a
Vector Attribute Traffic Raster on page 178.)

On step 7, click Finish. You can optionally save the raster to a file. (You can also
choose to do this later by using the Array Manager.)

To display the raster, see Displaying Traffic Rasters on page 179.

9.8.2 Creating a Vector Attribute Traffic Raster


If you have attributes defined for vectors, you can choose to create a vector attribute
traffic raster which can spread traffic into chosen vectors according to their attribute
values.
For more information, see About Vector Attribute Traffic Rasters on page 174.
To create a vector attribute traffic raster:
1

Check the preliminary steps, as described in Creating a Traffic Raster on page 176.

From the Arrays menu, point to Traffic and click Traffic Wizard.

The following instructions describe the steps in the Traffic Wizard:


1

On step 1, check that your defined area is correct. If you have multiple Map Views
open, the Select View button enables you to click on a different Map View. A
further option is to enter the co-ordinates manually.

On step 2, select one or more terminal types from the list. For each terminal type
you select, a separate traffic array will be created. The traffic units produced by
the raster will depend on the technology set on the terminal type, as explained in
About the Traffic Units on page 175.
If you want clutter weights to be taken into account when spreading traffic into
polygons, select the appropriate checkbox, and ensure that clutter weights have
been selected, and specified, on the Clutter tab of the Terminal Types dialog box.

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On step 3, choose the required resolution. The processing memory required to


create the raster is shown.

On step 4, the Restrict to Coverage is irrelevant for this spreading option, so just
click Next.

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On step 5, the Traffic Total is irrelevant for this spreading option, so just click
Next.

On step 6, click Select Vectors, then select the appropriate vector(s), and then click
OK. Then select the terminal type(s) and the attribute(s) by clicking in the dropdown list(s).
The traffic will be spread for all selected vectors that contain the chosen
attribute(s). The traffic values are derived directly from the attribute values, that
is, they become Erlangs or Terminals, as appropriate.
Selecting this option overrides any settings in the previous two steps in the
wizard for the specific terminal type(s).

On step 7, click Finish. You can optionally save the raster to a file. (You can also
choose to do this later by using the Array Manager.)

To display the raster, see Displaying Traffic Rasters on page 179.

9.8.3 Displaying Traffic Rasters


To display a traffic raster:
1

Open the Map View window.

Click the Show Data Types button and in the list of data types, under Traffic,
select the Traffic Raster that you require. For example:

If required, you can change the display properties by double-clicking the item.
You can then:

Choose the start colour

Type the Erlang or Terminals value at which you wish to start displaying
traffic

Type in the step interval, for example if you type 10, each colour relates to 10
mE or 10 terminals, as appropriate

Map Information Pane


You can also display the traffic value at the current pixel in the Map Information
pane. This pane displays information related to the specific pixel under the cursor
(location, height, clutter, traffic and so on). As you move the mouse cursor over the
map, the pane displays information related to the specific pixel.
To view the pane:
1

On the Map View window, from the View menu, select Show Map View Gadgets.

In the pane, click the Field Selector button

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to change what the pane displays.

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9.9 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Configuring bearers
Configuring services
Configuring terminal types
Setting clutter parameters
Creating traffic rasters

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 10

10 Planning Neighbours
10.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Creating neighbours manually
Using simple file lists to add or remove neighbours
Creating neighbours using the Neighbour Planning Wizard
Amending the neighbour-related parameters
Using the Neighbour Analysis
Displaying neighbours in the Map View
Converting neighbours to mutual relationships

10.2 About Neighbours in ASSET


ASSET enables you to create neighbour relationships between cells in several different
ways, in order to suit your individual network. For example, you can create
neighbours manually, in the Site Database or in the Map View. Alternatively, you can
use a simple list of neighbour relationships from a Comma Separated Value (*.csv)
file.
You can also take advantage of ASSETs automatic neighbour planning wizards,
which can generate neighbour relations between cells of the same (or different)
technologies and carriers according to a wide range of user-specified parameters. The
results can then be edited manually and then saved to the database. This speeds up
the process by providing a first pass set of neighbours per cell for examination by an
experienced engineer, so that manual adjustments can be made prior to
implementation.
In addition, the neighbour analysis feature can be used to view all the relationships
currently existing in the Site Database. You can also examine the differences, on a cell
by cell basis, between the database and any new potential neighbouring data that has
been generated or loaded.
Furthermore, import/exporting of neighbours via XML files is possible, and this can
be used to either represent or update the live network.

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10.3 Creating Neighbours


There are several ways to create neighbours in ASSET:
Manually, in the Map View window, or in the Site Database
Using one of the Neighbour Planner wizards and the Neighbour Analysis
(You can also create neighbours from within the Neighbour Analysis dialog box)
Importing/Exporting via XML files
Using a simple list of neighbour relationships from a Comma Separated Value
(*.csv) file

10.3.1

Creating Neighbours in the Map View

To create neighbour relationships in the Map View:


1

Click the down arrow on the Associations toolbox, and then click the Add
Neighbour Cell button

Click a cell that requires new neighbours.

Click the new neighbour cell.


Neighbour relations are created and are automatically applied to the Site
Database.

You can continue to add neighbour cells to the same site.

Apply and commit your changes as required.


The neighbour relations created in this manner are set as outward only. If you
require mutual neighbours, you must add the reverse relationship in the same
way, or you can use the Make All Mutual option in the Neighbour Analysis.

10.3.2

Creating Neighbours in the Site Database

To create neighbour relations in the Site Database window:


1

Open the Site Database window and select the appropriate cell.

On the Neighbours tab, click the Add button to add a new neighbour relationship.
For a CDMA2000 or EV-DO network, if multiple carriers exist on the sector,
you also need to select the carrier.

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In the Neighbour Chooser dialog box that appears, you can specify any of these
items:
Item

Description

Filter

This enables you to filter the cells that you want to be included in the Find operation for
potential neighbours. The All filter is the default.

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Item

Description

Cell ID

You can use this edit box to type the ID of the potential neighbouring cell(s), and the type
of expression: Substring, Regular expression or Exact (case-sensitive or otherwise). You
can also type a comma-separated list of IDs, if you want to find a multiple set of cells.
When using the Cell ID option, it may be wise to set the Filter to 'All'.

Distance (km)

The maximum distance from the potential neighbour.

Max Relative Bearing

The maximum relative bearing from the potential neighbour.

Technology

The technology used on the potential neighbour.

When satisfied with your selection criteria, click Find.


A list of the cells that meet the criteria appears.
This list always excludes any neighbour relationships already existing in the
database.

Choose the cells that you wish to use for the neighbour relationships by selecting
the required cell IDs. If required, you can also specify Mutual, Inward or
Outward.

If you want to set any of the neighbour parameters for the selected neighbours,
you can click the Set Values button.
The Set Parameters dialog box appears, enabling you to specify margins,
protection, planning status, and priority. When you have finished, click OK.

In the Neighbour Chooser dialog box, click OK.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

The neighbour relationships are added, with the parameters that you have specified.
Tips :
You can amend the parameters for the neighbour relations at any time. See
Amending Neighbour Parameters in the Site Database on page 184.
You can also customise how the neighbour relationship columns are displayed on
the Neighbours tab. See the following section.

10.3.2.1

Customising the Columns on the Neighbour Tab

When you are viewing the lists of neighbours for cells on the Neighbour tab in the
Site Database, you can:
Specify which columns to display
Set the column widths
Re-order the columns left to right
To do this:
1

On the Neighbour tab, right-click on any column heading and select Choose
Details from the context menu.

In the dialog box that appears, select the columns you want to show, and deselect
those you want to hide (the Show/Hide buttons can be used if preferred).

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Set a column width for your selected items.

Use the Move Up/Down buttons to re-order the selected columns.

Click OK.

In the Site Database window, the columns will be displayed according to your
requirements.
You can also sort the rows in the neighbour list by double-clicking any of the
column headings (for example, sort by Cell ID, Direction, or Priority).

10.3.2.2

Amending Neighbour Parameters in the Site Database

If you want to modify any of the neighbour-related parameters for neighbours that
already exist, you can do this on the Neighbours tab of the Site Database. You can
either:
Individually edit the appropriate parameters by clicking in the boxes in the
relevant columns
Using the Set Values button, which can be used for individual or groups of
neighbours
The parameters can be set separately for outward/inward relations.
These parameters include:
Hysteresis Margin (GSM only)
Protection State
Planning Status
Priority
Editing these settings always depends on your object user-permissions for the cells
affected by the outward/inward relations.
To do this for individual neighbours, using the edit boxes:
1

Click on the appropriate edit box of the neighbour: Margin (Out/In), Protection
State (Out/In), Planning Status (Out/In), or Priority (Out/In).

For Margin or Priority, edit the value. For Protection or Planning Status, choose
'Yes/No' or 'Live/Planned' (respectively) from the drop-down box.

To do this for individual or groups of neighbours, using the Set Values button:

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Select the cell or cells for which you want to amend the parameters.

Click the Set Values button.

In the Set Parameters dialog box that appears, specify the required parameters for
the selected cell(s). These can be set separately for outward/inward relations.

When you have finished, click OK.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

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10.4 Using a Simple CSV File to Add or Remove


Neighbours
One way of setting up neighbours in ASSET is to perform an XML import, and then
make manual additions or deletions, using either the Site Database or the Neighbour
Analysis functionality.
However, these manual amendments can take some time. Therefore, in circumstances
where you know exactly which neighbours you want to add or remove, ASSET
provides an easy way to do this, using a simple list of neighbour relationships.
The file you need for this is a Comma Separated Value (*.csv) file. The format of the
file is very simple.
All neighbour relationships specified in the file (whether adding or removing)
must be outward.
GSM, UMTS, WiMAX and LTE
For GSM, UMTS, WiMAX and LTE, the format comprises four columns. The first row
needs to contain the column heading information, as follows:
Cell_ID,Technology,Nbr_Cell_ID,Technology
The subsequent rows contain the neighbour data.
The first line must contain the column heading information.
Here is an example:

Example of file format that can be used for GSM, UMTS, WIMAX and LTE

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10.5 About the Neighbour Planning Wizards


ASSETs automatic Neighbour Planning Wizards enable you to generate neighbour
relations between cells of the same (or different) technologies and carriers according
to a wide range of user-specified parameters. This can be a very useful way of
achieving a 'first pass' set of neighbours for each cell.
There are two neighbour wizards available:
Prediction-based
Measurement-based (subject to an additional licence)
The former method uses information from the prediction coverage arrays, the latter
use information from imported measurement data files.
As the measurement-based wizard is licence-based, this course only covers the
prediction-based wizard.
After the prediction-based wizard has been run, the proposed set of neighbour
relationships can be viewed in a neighbour analysis window. This enables you to
examine the differences, on a cell by cell basis, between relationships already existing
in the database and the new potential neighbouring data that has been generated or
loaded. If you are satisfied with the results, you can update the changes to the
database from within the neighbour analysis window. Further manual adjustments
can be made in this window prior to updating the database. You can also save any of
your plans, and reload them and use them to update the database as required at any
time.
How a List of Valid Neighbours is Calculated
The algorithm takes place in two discrete stages:
1

A 'search area' is established for each source cell included in the neighbour
planning wizard, identifying the pixels to be included. This is based on a
combination of hysteresis margin and signal and/or quality thresholds
(depending on the plan type).

The calculation of potential target neighbour cells takes place, according to userdefined criteria. Within the search area, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the neighbour
wizard calculates a list of valid neighbours (target cells).

The Neighbour Planning Wizard only creates outward neighbour relationships,


but, of course, these are 'mirrored' by inward neighbour relationships for the
corresponding cells.

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10.5.1

Using the Prediction-based Neighbour Wizard

The Prediction-based Neighbour wizard is available for GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000,


EV-DO, LTE or Mobile WiMAX, as well as a range of inter-technology neighbour
plans, such as GSM-UMTS, UMTS-LTE, LTE-CDMA, and so on.
Before you use the wizard, you should consider performing a Commit All on the
Site Database. This would enable you to perform a Restore All to return to the
previous configuration, if necessary.
To plan neighbours using the Prediction-based Neighbour wizard:
1

Open the Map View window and display the area and cells that you wish to
include in the plan.

From the Tools menu, point to Neighbours, then Neighbour Wizard, and click
Prediction Based.

In the first step of the wizard, check that the region for the plan is correct. If
necessary, you can modify the area by entering precise co-ordinates.

Click Next and select the filters that you wish to plan for. You can either use the
filters that already appear in the Map View, or select filters from the checkboxes
provided.
Whichever option you use, only cells included in the chosen map region will
be included in the plan.

Click Next and select the Plan Type you wish to use, and set the required
parameters. For more information about this, see Setting the Prediction-based
Neighbour Plan Parameters on page 188.
The plan types will vary depending on the technologies enabled in your
project. If you use more than one plan type in the wizard, the results will be
combined in the resulting Neighbour Analysis.

Click Next and you can choose to:

Start the Neighbour Analysis immediately after the wizard has finished

Save the list of valid neighbours in a *.xml file (this list will be automatically
stored in memory, but you can choose to save it now or later)

Click Next. A summary page will appear. If you are satisfied with the settings,
click Finish.

If you have selected to automatically start the analysis, the neighbours are displayed
in the Neighbour Analysis dialog box. For more information about this, see About the
Neighbour Analysis on page 190.
To start the Neighbour Analysis at any other time, from the Tools menu, point to
Neighbours and click Neighbour Analysis.

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10.5.2 Setting the Prediction-based Neighbour Plan Parameters


When you are planning neighbours using the Prediction-based Neighbour Wizard,
you can set specific options and parameters depending on your plan type. This
enables you to model the characteristics of your network more accurately.
Search Area Parameters
This table describes the parameters for establishing the search area of the source cell:
Plan Type

Search Area
Parameters

Description

All

Handover hysteresis margin This is a network parameter whose purpose is to prevent repetitive re-selection of
the serving cell. It defines the maximum allowed difference between the signal
strength of the serving cell and the best signal, in order that the serving cell can
keep serving a terminal even when its signal is not the best one.
In the Neighbour Wizard, this margin is used to determine the amount of source
cells to be compared against target cells in each pixel. For example, if the margin
is set to 3dB, then the source cells can be defined as 'all cells whose signal
strength is within 3dB of the Best Serving signal at that pixel'.
For each pixel, the threshold parameter/s (below) must also be satisfied.
Signal or Quality
Threshold(s)

Only pixels containing values (signal strengths or quality, as appropriate) equal to


or higher than the threshold will be included in the resulting search area, provided
that the handover hysteresis margin is also satisfied.
All pixels below the threshold will be excluded.
For plan types where two threshold values are available (for example, RSCP
and Ec/Io), both must be satisfied.

Target Cells Parameters


Within the search area, on a pixel-by-pixel basis, the wizard finds potential target
cells, and creates a list of valid neighbours for the source cell.
This table describes the parameters for the selection of valid target neighbour cells:
Plan Type

Target Cells
Parameters

Description

UMTS Intra

Neighbour planning margin


(dB)

In each pixel, the signal strength* difference between the source cell and target
cell is calculated. This value is then compared to this margin, and the difference is
converted into a handover probability factor (based on a normal distribution
formula). These factors are summed to find the net handover probability for each
target cell on the whole search area. Depending on the other qualifying criteria,
the target cell may qualify as a valid neighbour.

UMTS Inter

* For UMTS inter-frequency plans, Ec/Io difference is used.

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GSM-UMTS

RSCP Threshold and Ec/Io


Threshold

In each pixel, the target cell must satisfy both the RSCP Threshold and the Ec/Io
Threshold.

UMTS-GSM

GSM Signal Threshold

In each pixel, the target cell must satisfy the GSM Signal Threshold.

UMTS-LTE

RSRP Threshold and


RSRQ Threshold

In each pixel, the target cell must satisfy both the RSRP Threshold and the RSRQ
Threshold.

LTE-UMTS

RSCP Threshold and Ec/Io


Threshold

In each pixel, the target cell must satisfy both the RSCP Threshold and the Ec/Io
Threshold.

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Plan Type

Target Cells
Parameters

Description

All

Maximum number of
covering cells

The maximum number of target cells that are considered at each pixel during the
neighbour calculations. At a pixel-by-pixel level, this parameter determines how
many 'sets' of covering cell data are to be evaluated for potential neighbours.

Maximum distance

In order to qualify as a valid neighbour, a target cell must be within this specified
distance.

Maximum number of
neighbouring cells

The maximum number of neighbouring cells that can qualify as valid neighbours
for the source cell. (The overlapping percentage ranking determines which
neighbours qualify.)
This parameter is unavailable for LTE-UMTS, because, for this plan type,
cell-specific neighbour limits can be set in the Site Database.

Minimum overlapping (%)

A target cell must attain at least n% of the overlapping area (the net handover
probability) to qualify as a valid neighbour.
If you also select the minimum number option (below), this simply means that if
the number of valid neighbours attaining >n% is less than the specified minimum
number, other target cells (attaining <n%) will be added as valid neighbours, until
the minimum is satisfied.
All the supporting criteria must also be satisfied.

Minimum number of
neighbouring cells

This option can be used to ensure a minimum number of neighbours for each
source cell, even if the percentage (above) is not attained. This must be less than
or equal to the specified maximum. For LTE-UMTS, this value is always limited
by the cell-specific neighbour limits set in the Site Database.
All the supporting criteria must also be satisfied.

Standard Deviation (dB)

Enables you to set a generic standard deviation for the signal strength/quality (as
appropriate). Otherwise, the parameter on the target cell's assigned propagation
model will be used (or, if the model has no such parameter, 7dB will be used).

Force co-located cells as


neighbours

If you select this option, cells that exist on sites belonging to the same Property
will automatically qualify as valid neighbours.

Resolution for all plans

The map resolution for the plan(s).

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10.6 About the Neighbour Analysis


The Neighbour Analysis dialog box displays the neighbour data differences, on a cell
by cell basis, between the database and the neighbour plan that has been
automatically generated (or loaded). It can also be used at any time to display the
relationships currently existing in the Site Database. This picture shows an example
Neighbour Analysis:

Example Neighbour Analysis dialog box

You can use the Neighbour Analysis to:


Identify any discrepancies with the existing neighbours, after planning neighbours
using one of the Neighbour Wizards.
Load the neighbour lists that are used in the live network into the database, and
then compare them to those that have been generated by the Neighbour Wizards.
Analyse the effects of new sites and cells, seeing where new relationships need to
be added and where current relationships have become obsolete, then update the
database as appropriate.
Use the editing functionality (also available in the Site Database) such as:

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Adding/removing neighbours

Making one-way relationships mutual

Modifying neighbour-related parameters

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View the neighbour relationships currently existing in the Site Database.


Display the 'Proposed and Existing' neighbours on the Map View (even if not
Applied to the database)
Generate a neighbours report.
Generate a delta export text file.
If you used more than one plan type in the Neighbour Planning Wizard, the
results are combined in the Neighbour Analysis.

10.6.1

Performing a Neighbour Analysis

The Neighbour Analysis dialog box is interactive. You can use it to add or remove
neighbours, and edit a variety of neighbour-related parameters.
If you have created neighbours using the Neighbour wizard, and have selected to
automatically display the Neighbour Analysis window after planning, you can view it
immediately. Alternatively, you can generate the Neighbour Analysis window at any
other time (including if you have created neighbours manually, without using the
wizard).
It is wise to perform a Commit All on the Site Database before you use the
Neighbour Analysis. This would enable you to perform a Restore All to return to the
previous configuration, if necessary.
To perform the neighbour analysis:
1

From the Tools menu, point to Neighbours and click Neighbour Analysis.

In the Neighbour Analysis window, from the cell list in the left pane, select any
cell and then, in the neighbour list in the right pane, you can view information
relating to the neighbour cells.
If you have run the Neighbour Planning Wizard, or loaded a saved plan, the Filter
option allows you to view other cells that were not in the planned filter. However,
if you want to only view cells that were included in the generated plan, you can
select the Display Proposed Cells Only option. If required, while you are in this
display mode, you can click the 'Set All Priority' button. This will automatically
assign priorities for the neighbour relationships for each cell. An integer value (1,
2, 3 and so on) will be assigned, corresponding to the relative attained percentage
overlap value of each neighbour.
There are also three basic display options: Proposed, Existing, Proposed and
Existing. There is also a fourth option to display all neighbours excluding any
user-deleted ones. However, it is recommended that you generally use the
'Proposed and Existing' display mode within this dialog box.
The display option is only for visual purposes and does not play any part in
limiting which neighbours are updated if/when you click the 'Update Database'
or the 'Make All Mutual' buttons.

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The different display options for the neighbouring cells are described in the
following table:
This Option
Proposed

Existing

Displays
Neighbour relationships that are in the generated neighbour plan, but do not currently
exist in the Site Database.
Neighbour relationships added manually in the Neighbour Analysis.
Neighbour relationships that currently exist in the Site Database, but are not in the generated
neighbour plan.

Proposed and Existing All neighbour relationships. That is, those that:
Are newly proposed in the generated neighbour plan, or
Currently exist in the Site Database, or
Have been added manually in the Neighbour Analysis
Delta plan

All Proposed-only neighbours relationships, excluding any user-deleted ones. In other words,
this option can be considered as a way of viewing the differences between Proposed
relationships and Existing relationships.

If you want to make some or all of your neighbour relationships mutual, see
Converting Inward/Outward Neighbours to Mutual on page 202.

The Neighbour Analysis automatically sets an 'Action (Inward)' and 'Action


(Outward)' for each neighbouring cell. The different categories are described in the
following table:
This Action

Corresponds to

Create

Newly proposed neighbour relationships that do not currently exist in the Site Database (these
may be have been generated by the wizard, or added manually in the Neighbour Analysis).
Such relationships remain in the 'Create' state, even if their neighbour-related parameters
have also been changed in the Neighbour Analysis.

Keep

Neighbour relationships which already exist in the Site Database and will not be changed
(unless manually selected to be removed).

Remove

Neighbour relationships (proposed or existing) that have been manually selected in the
Neighbour Analysis to be removed.
Removals can be undone using the Undo Changes button.

Update

Existing neighbour relationships that have had their neighbour-related parameters changed in
the Neighbour Analysis, such as margin, priority, and so on.
Any newly proposed neighbour relationships (that is, not already existing in the database)
will always show as 'Create' rather than 'Update', even if their parameters have been changed.

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Here is an example of the State and Action columns:

10.6.1.1

Updating the Database from a Neighbour Plan

When you have performed a Neighbour Analysis, you can choose to update the
database with the changes from within the analysis. This may include changes made
by the Neighbour Wizard (such as new or removed relationships) and/or changes
that you have made manually in the analysis.
When you update the database with the neighbour relationships generated by the
plan, you can do this in two distinct ways:
If you manually right-click on individual cells and use the 'Update Selected Cell(s)
to DB' option, this operation applies all the changes marked as 'create', 'remove'
and 'update'. It does this for those selected cells only.
You may find this option useful, for example, if you want to create some
neighbours for one or several new sites but not modify a very carefully optimised
neighbour plan that already exists for the 'live' sites.
If you use the Update Database button, this operation applies all the changes
marked as 'create', 'remove' and 'update'. It does this for all the appropriate cells in
the Neighbour Analysis, regardless of the selected filter and regardless of the
display option.

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10.6.1.2

Customising the Columns in the Neighbour Analysis

When you are viewing the lists of neighbours for cells in the Neighbour Analysis
dialog box, you can:
Specify which columns to display
Set the column widths
Re-order the columns left to right
To do this:
1

In the Neighbour Analysis dialog box, in the right-hand pane, right-click on any
column heading and select Choose Details from the context menu.

In the dialog box that appears, select the columns you want to show, and deselect
those you want to hide (the Show/Hide buttons can be used if preferred).

Set a column width for your selected items.

Use the Move Up/Down buttons to re-order the selected columns.

Click OK.

In the Neighbour Analysis dialog box, the columns will be displayed according to
your requirements.
You can also sort the rows in the neighbour list by double-clicking any of the
column headings (for example, sort by Cell ID, Direction, or Priority).

10.6.1.3

Creating Neighbours in the Neighbour Analysis

You can add inward, outward or mutual neighbours to a cell in the Neighbour
Analysis dialog box. The method is the same as the one on the Neighbour tab of the
Site Database.
To do this:
1

Select the cell (in the left pane) for which you want to create a neighbour.

Click Create.

In the Neighbour Chooser dialog box that appears, specify these items:
Item

Description

Filter

This enables you to filter the cells that you want to be included in the Find operation. The All
filter is the default.

Cell ID

You can use this edit box to type the ID of the potential neighbouring cell(s), and the type of
expression: Substring, Regular expression or Exact (case-sensitive or otherwise). You can
also type a comma-separated list of IDs, if you want to find a multiple set of cells.
When using the Cell ID option, it may be wise to set the Filter to 'All'.

Distance (km)

The maximum distance from the potential neighbour.

Max Relative Bearing

The maximum relative bearing from the potential neighbour.

Technology

The technology used on the potential neighbour.

4
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When satisfied with your selection criteria, click Find.


A list of the cells that meet the criteria appears.
This list always excludes any neighbour relationships already existing in the
database.

Choose the cells that you wish to use for the neighbour relationships by selecting
the required cell IDs. If required, you can also specify Mutual, Inward or
Outward.

If you want to set any of the neighbour parameters for the selected neighbours,
you can click the Set Values button.
The Set Parameters dialog box appears, enabling you to specify margins, planning
status, and priority. When you have finished, click OK.

In the Neighbour Chooser dialog box, click OK.


The neighbour relations are added (or updated) in the Neighbour Analysis dialog
box.

To update the database with the changes that you have made, click Update
Database. This adds all the neighbour relationships marked in the Neighbour
Analysis as 'create' to the Site Database (and removes any marked as 'remove').
The changes will be in the Applied state.

10.6.1.4

Amending Parameters in the Neighbour Analysis

You can use the Neighbour Analysis dialog box to update the neighbour-related
parameters for individual neighbours or groups of neighbours (the parameters can be
set separately for outward/inward relations).
These include:
Hysteresis Margin (GSM only)
Planning Status
Priority
Notes:
Editing these settings always depends on your object user-permissions for the cells
affected by the outward/inward relations.
The protection state cannot be edited here (for information on editing this, see the
ASSET User Reference Guide).
To do this for individual neighbours, using the edit boxes:
1

Click on the appropriate edit box of the neighbour: Margin (Out/In), Planning
Status (Out/In), or Priority (Out/In).

For Margin or Priority, edit the value. For Planning Status, choose Live or Planned
from the drop-down box.

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To do this for individual or groups of neighbours, using the Set Parameters dialog
box:
1

Select the cell or cells (in the right pane) for which you want to amend the
parameters.

Click the Set Values button.

In the dialog box that appears, specify the required parameters for the selected
cell(s). These can be set separately for outward/inward relations.

When you have finished, click OK.

For individual neighbours, you can open the Set Parameters dialog box by doubleclicking on the row containing the appropriate neighbour.

10.6.1.5

Removing Neighbours in the Neighbour Analysis

You can use the Neighbour Analysis dialog box to remove individual neighbours, or
remove groups of neighbours for a particular cell, or remove all neighbours within
the analysis. The right pane enables you to 'hand-pick' neighbours, whereas the left
pane enables you to choose (sub)sets of neighbours relating to a particular cell.
Removing Neighbours by using Individual Selections
1

In the right pane, select the neighbour(s) you wish to remove.

Click Remove (the right pane button).

In the dialog box that appears, select Outward, Inward or All.

Click OK to confirm.

In the Neighbour Analysis, any deletions will have their appropriate Action
column(s) set to 'remove'.
Removing All neighbours of a Cell or All Neighbours within the Analysis
1

In the left pane, select the appropriate cell(s).


- or At the top of the left pane, click the Select All button.

At the bottom of the left pane, click the Remove button.

In the dialog box that appears, select the type of neighbours to remove:

Direction: Outward, Inward or all

Status: Proposed, Existing or all

Technology: Intra, Inter or all

Click OK to confirm.

In the Neighbour Analysis, any deletions will have their appropriate Action
column(s) set to 'remove'.

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Any neighbours with their Action column(s) marked as 'remove' will not be
deleted from the database until you click the Update Database button. The Update
Database operation applies all the neighbour removals to all the appropriate cells in
the Neighbour Analysis, regardless of the selected filter and regardless of the display
option.

10.6.1.6

Undoing the Changes that You Have Made

Before updating the database with your changes, you can selectively undo:
Any neighbours that have been set to be removed
Any neighbour parameters, such as margin or priority changes
To do this:
In the right pane of the Neighbour Analysis:
1

Select the neighbour(s) for which you wish to undo the changes.

Click Undo Changes.

In the dialog box that appears, select Outward, Inward or All.

Click OK to confirm.

In the Neighbour Analysis, the selected neighbour(s) will have the appropriate Action
column(s) set to 'keep' or 'create' (as appropriate)'.

10.6.1.7

Generating Reports in the Neighbour Analysis

You can generate two types of report from the Neighbour Analysis.
Neighbour Report
This report format can either be Microsoft
List.

Excel

Text File or Comma-Separated

To do this:
1

In the Neighbour Analysis dialog box, click the Generate Report button.

Select the report format, and click OK.

The neighbour report is generated.


The content of the neighbour report is reactive to both the selected filter and the
display option mode. That is, the report will only show the neighbour relationships
included in the filter and within the display option (Proposed, Existing, and so on).
This flexibility enables you to limit the report to the items of interest.

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Delta Export Report


The delta export report will show the differences between a neighbour plan created
using the Neighbour Planning Wizard and the neighbour plan in the Site Database.
This export only contains neighbour relationships that have been created or removed in
the plan. It can also include create/remove changes that you make manually in the
Neighbour Analysis, provided the Delta Export button is clicked after making such
changes.
To do this:
1

In the Neighbour Analysis dialog box, click the Delta Export button.

Browse for a destination folder, and then click Save.


A default file name appears, but you can edit this.

Check that the file name and destination path are as required.

Click Export.

The delta export report is generated to a text file.


The file format is described in this example:
Source Cell

Target Cell

Action

Identity

GSM ID or
Cell ID (UMTS)

Identity

GSM ID or
Cell ID (UMTS)

1=Add
0=Remove

SITE7C

123lon

SITE8C

456lon

SITE8B

789lon

SITE7C

123lon

The content of the delta export report is reactive to the selected filter but it is not
reactive to the display option mode. That is, the report will only show the
create/remove differences for those neighbour relationships included in the filter, but
it disregards the display option (Proposed, Existing, and so on).

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10.7 Displaying Neighbours


All the neighbour relationships of a cell appear on the Neighbour tab of the Site
Database.

Example of Neighbours tab

You can also display neighbours on the Map View in several ways:
All neighbours
Neighbours for individual cells
Neighbours that are proposed by the Neighbour Analysis
Live/planned neighbours

10.7.1

Displaying All Neighbours

This display method requires you to hover the mouse over each cell's azimuth to
display its neighbours.
To display all neighbours in the Map View window:
1

In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button

In the list of Data Types, expand Neighbours/Exceptions, then expand Hand Over
Neighbours.

Select the All Neighbours option.

Click the OK & Redraw button.

Move the mouse over each cell's azimuth to display its neighbours.

The Map View is updated as you move the mouse.


.
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10.7.2

Displaying Neighbours for an Individual Cell

This display method enables you to display an individual cell's neighbours on the
Map View. To do this:
1

In the bottom-left of the Site Design toolbar (on the left of the Map View), click the
down arrow on the Associations toolbox, and then click the Display Neighbour
button as shown here:

Select the appropriate cell on the Map View.


The neighbour relationships are displayed as lines between the cells as shown in
this example:

Example of Map View with lines showing neighbour relationships

You can show or hide the displayed item by selecting/deselecting the relevant
checkbox.

You can also customise how the neighbours are displayed, as described in the
following section.

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10.7.3

Cross-referencing the Neighbour Analysis with the Map


View

When you are viewing the contents of the Neighbour Analysis dialog box, you can
display the 'Proposed and Existing' neighbours on the Map View, even if you have
not yet Applied the proposed neighbours to the database.
This may be very useful in aiding you to assess the proposed new relationships.
To do this:
1

Select the 'Render on 2D View' option in the Neighbour Analysis dialog box.

In the Map View window, click the Show Data Types button

In the list of Data Types, expand Neighbours/Exceptions, then expand Hand Over
Neighbours.

Select the Neighbours from Analysis option.

Click the OK & Redraw button.

Move the mouse over each cell's azimuth to display its neighbours.

The Map View is updated as you move the mouse, and the respective cell is
highlighted automatically in the Neighbour Analysis.
Conversely, you can also click on any cell in the left pane of the Neighbour Analysis,
and the Map View updates accordingly.
Here is an example:

Example of cross-referencing the Neighbour Analysis with the Map View

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10.8 Committing All First Order Neighbours of a Cell


You can select any cell in the Site Database and commit all the First Order Neighbours
of that cell. To do this:
1

In the Site Database, select a cell and right-click.

From the menu that appears, select Commit All 1st Order Neighbours.

All the cells which are First Order neighbours of that cell, and currently in the
Applied state, will be promoted to the Committed state.
Notes :
Only the first order neighbouring cells will be committed. The originating cell will
not be committed by this action.
This action commits the neighbouring relationship and any other applied
parameters existing on the neighbouring cells.

10.9 Converting Inward/Outward Neighbours to


Mutual
You can convert inward or outward neighbours to be mutual neighbours. You can do
this either in the Site Database or in the Neighbour Analysis.
In the Site Database you can convert:
Individually selected neighbours
In the Neighbour Analysis you can convert:
Individually selected neighbours
All the neighbours within the analysis

10.9.1

Converting Neighbours in the Site Database

In the Site Database you can convert inward and outward neighbours to be mutual
neighbours. To do this:
1

Open the Site Database window and select the appropriate cell.

On the Neighbours tab, select the neighbour(s) that you want to make mutual.
You can select more than one neighbour at a time by holding down the Shift or
Ctrl key on your keyboard and then selecting the neighbours you require.

Click the Make Mutual button.


The new outward or inward relationship(s) will be created accordingly, and the
Direction of the appropriate neighbour(s) will show as 'Mutual' in the Site
Database window.

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10.9.2

Converting Neighbours using the Neighbour Analysis

There are various ways of making neighbours mutual within the Neighbour Analysis.
Converting Individually Selected Neighbours
1

In the right pane, select the neighbour(s) that you want to make mutual.
You can select more than one neighbour at a time by holding down the Shift or
Ctrl key on your keyboard and then selecting the neighbours you require.

Click the Make Mutual button.


The new outward or inward relationship(s) will be created accordingly, and the
Direction column of the appropriate neighbour(s) will display as 'Mutual'.

To apply this change, click Update Database.

Converting All Neighbours of a Cell or All Neighbours


1

In the left pane, select the appropriate cell(s).


- or At the top of the left pane, click the Select All button.

At the bottom of the left pane, click the Make All Mutual button.

In the dialog box that appears, select the type of neighbours to make mutual.

Status: Proposed, Existing or All

Technology: Intra, Inter or All

Intra technology carrier: Intra, Inter or All (not applicable to 2g)

The changes takes place for all the selected cells, regardless of the display
option in the right pane.
4

Click OK to confirm.
The new outward or inward relationships will be created accordingly, and the
Direction column of the appropriate neighbours will display as 'Mutual'.

To apply these changes, click Update Database.

The Update Database operation applies all the changes to all the appropriate cells
in the Neighbour Analysis, regardless of the selected filter and regardless of the
display option.

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10.10

Session Summary Checklist

This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Creating neighbours manually
Using simple file lists to add or remove neighbours
Creating neighbours using the Neighbour Planning Wizard
Amending the neighbour-related parameters
Using the Neighbour Analysis
Displaying neighbours in the Map View
Converting neighbours to mutual relationships

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 11

11 Simulating Network
Performance
11.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
How the Simulator can help to assess network performance
Setting up the Simulator
Determining the Outputs
Running the Simulator
Viewing the Arrays and Reports
Saving and Loading Simulation Data
Using the Pixel Analyser

11.2 About Monte Carlo-based Simulation


When simulating network performance, ASSET uses a modern sophisticated
approach based on using Monte Carlo algorithms, which can provide a good balance
between accuracy and usability.
The Simulator in ASSET enables you to perform either a:
Full simulation, including a sequence of randomised snapshots
- or Simulation without snapshots, equivalent to a 'static analysis'

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11.2.1

About the Static Simulation Method

When performing a full simulation in ASSET, the performance of the network can be
analysed over a series of randomised snapshots, in which specified densities of user
terminals are positioned in statistically determined locations. The ability of each
terminal to make its connection to the network is calculated through an iterative
process. The performance of the network is then analysed from the averaged results.
Snapshots
During the simulation:
A number of randomised snapshots are taken of network performance for
different user equipment (terminals) over time. In these snapshots, the terminals
are positioned in statistically determined locations and generated independently
for each snapshot.
The number of terminals in an active session in a pixel is determined using a
Poisson distribution with a mean given by the number of terminals in the traffic
array. This means that the total number of terminals in a snapshot is Poissondistributed and so it will vary from snapshot to snapshot.
Within each snapshot, calculations take place to check for connection failure
conditions, using an iterative process. Various connection failure conditions are
considered, for example:

Maximum mobile power exceeded

Maximum node power reached

No available channels

Low pilot signals

The accumulated averaged results from the series of snapshots are then used in
calculations to obtain statistically valid measurements to provide an estimate of
the mean performance of the network.
Repeated simulations with the same inputs may give different results each time. They
can prove valuable for detailed optimisation of site configurations, problem areas and
radio resource management algorithms.
The Monte Carlo static simulation approach (using snapshots) is more complex than a
static analysis (not using snapshots), and therefore can potentially produce more
accurate results.

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This simplified picture illustrates two consecutive snapshots in a Static Simulation:

Snapshots in a Static Simulation

11.2.2

About the Static Analysis Method

In ASSET, you can use the Simulator wizard to perform a static analysis. You can do
this by specifying the loading parameters for cells within the Site Database, and then
performing a simulation without running snapshots.
(In contrast, when you perform a full static simulation that generates randomised
snapshots, it automatically calculates the cell loading levels in the network, based on a
Monte Carlo algorithm.)
A simulation without snapshots (static analysis) provides a fast and simple method of
analysing your network performance, compared to a full simulation. It can offer a
useful 'first pass' of network performance, and highlight basic problems such as pilot
coverage or network environment problems. Repeating this type of analysis with the
same inputs always gives the same results.

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11.3 About the Simulator in ASSET


The ASSET Simulator has been developed to achieve:
Efficient memory consumption
Fast creation of snapshots
Detailed and accurate outputs
Flexible analysis of results, based on any user-specified combination (per carrier,
per all carriers, per service, per terminal type, per bearer, per cell layer, and so on)
The algorithm used in the Simulator has been designed to produce arrays which cover
all pixels of the simulated region, and uses a relatively small number of snapshots to
satisfy the convergence criteria.
You can specify your exact output requirements using the Array Definition Controller
dialog box.
The Simulator produces only the arrays that you specify, creating them when you
select to display them on the Map View. You can make changes to the array
definitions at any time.
An extensive range of output reports can also be generated.
Technology-specific documents are available, containing comprehensive details of
all the algorithms and outputs related to the Simulator. If your company is registered
for a customer web account, and you know the login password, you can download
these specialist documents. To do this, log in to the Product Support page, click the
User Reference Guides link, select the relevant software version from the drop-down
box, and then click the 'Static Simulations' link for the appropriate technology.

11.4 Prerequisites for Running a Simulation


Before simulating your ASSET network with the Simulator, ensure you have:
Configured the network as required, assigning antennas and propagation models
to the cells, and setting the appropriate site and cell parameters in the Site
Database
Defined and assigned carriers to the cells
Set up bearers, services and terminal types
Set the clutter parameters
Created a traffic raster for the terminal type(s) you would like to be included in
the cell loading calculations if you intend to run a simulation using snapshots
Specified cell loading parameters for the cells/sectors in the Site Database, if you
intend to run a simulation without running snapshots
If you need more information on the above steps, please refer to the sections on
Setting Up a Network and Traffic Planning within this document.

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11.4.1

Running a Simulation with Specified Cell Load Levels

If you intend to run a simulation without running snapshots (equivalent to a static


analysis) you must ensure that the cell loading parameters for the cells/sectors have
been specified in the Site Database.
The parameters are Mean Uplink Noise Rise and Mean Downlink Traffic Power. For
UMTS cells, these values are set on the Cell Params tab.
You can use the Global Editor to set these values for many cells/sectors
simultaneously. You can also pre-set the values in the Templates dialog box.

11.4.2

Selecting the Terminal Types for the Simulation

When selecting the terminal types in the Simulator wizard, bear in mind that the
carrier(s) loaded into the simulation will depend on:
Which service(s) is/are supported by the terminal type(s)
Which carriers are supported by the service(s)
Whether the carrier(s) is/are assigned to the cells included in the network filter
chosen for the simulation
For example, if the network supports carriers 1 and 3, but the services on the selected
terminal types support carrier 1, then only carrier 1 will be loaded into the Simulator.
If there are no services on the selected terminal types, then this is a special case, and
all the carriers in the network are loaded. In this case, all outputs except the 'per
service' arrays are available but the terminal type will not be served in the snapshots.

11.4.3

Setting Options for the Simulator

On the Simulator tab of the Array Settings dialog box, you can:
Set the Simulator to start running automatically after the wizard has been
completed.
Set the Simulator to redraw the arrays that were previously displayed.
Set what you want the Simulator to check when you click 'Run' in the Simulator.
This enables you, if required, to use one of the options that do not check all
data. This can save time if, sometimes, you stop and then continue a simulation,
because less or no changes would be checked. However, these options should be
used with caution.
Set up a warning threshold. If the Simulator produces a threshold greater than the
percentage that you specify here when running the Simulator, then a triangle will
flash in the Simulation Control Panel.

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11.5 Using the Simulator Wizard for UMTS


After the network and the traffic modelling parameters (bearers, services, terminal
types) have been configured, and (if applicable) the traffic has been spread, you can
perform a simulation to analyse the performance of your network.
Before you start the Simulator Wizard:
Ensure that you have all the prerequisites you need. See Prerequisites for Running
a Simulation on page 208.
Ensure that you have a Map View window open that displays the area and cells
that you wish to plan.
If you tend to run the same number of snapshots every time, you can set the
Simulator to start running automatically after the wizard finishes. You can also
automatically redraw the previously displayed arrays. See Setting Options for the
Simulator on page 209.
To start the Simulator Wizard:
1

From the Arrays menu, point to Simulator and click Simulator Wizard.
- or On the main toolbar, click the

button.

(If you have more than one technology activated, you may need to then select
UMTS).
The Simulator Wizard appears.
2

Check that the region for the simulation is correct. If necessary, you can modify
the region by entering precise co-ordinates.
Click Next.

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Specify the simulation parameters. See About the Simulation Parameters for
UMTS on page 213.

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This picture shows an example:

The values and options will be automatically persisted the next time you use the
wizard, but you can reset to the default values at any time by clicking the Default
button.
Click Next.
4

Select the filter(s) you want to include in the simulation.


If you want to also consider interference from overlapping predictions from cells
outside the selected region, you can select the appropriate checkbox.
Click Next.

Select the terminal type(s) you want to include in the simulation.


There are three possible 'modes' of terminal type that are potentially available:

Loading and Outputs - a related traffic array is in memory. These terminal


types will contribute to the power and noise calculations during the snapshots,
and a full set of outputs will be available.

Outputs Only - there is not a related traffic array in memory, so no snapshots


can be run for these types. However, a full range of outputs is available.

Outputs Only (only pilot-based outputs available) - the terminal type has been
configured without associated bearers or services so no per-bearer or perservice outputs will be available. This mode of operation can be useful for
quickly calculating 'in-the-air' received values.

Any combination of types can be selected, but if you want to analyse a loaded
network you will need to select at least one with a related traffic array in memory
(that is, the Loading and Outputs mode above).
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Click Next.
6

On the Settings page, you can:

Choose to periodically save the accumulated snapshots to a backup file.

Set the Max. Power Change (%) convergence parameter to set the 'stabilisation'
target for each snapshot. This effectively limits the number of iterations per
snapshot.
If the percentage change in total uplink and total downlink interference (in
both cases, summed over all cells) changes by an amount smaller than this
target value for 15 consecutive iterations, then the iterations are deemed to
have converged.

You can also choose to only scan pixels containing traffic, if a valid traffic
raster is in memory.

Click Next.
7

The final step displays a summary of all your parameters and the total memory
requirements. If you do not have enough physical memory to run the simulation,
you should go back and edit the parameters, or consider closing any other
applications that are running on your machine.
If you want the simulation to automatically include all possible array outputs that
are relevant to the inputs and the chosen region, select the Automatically Setup
Output Arrays checkbox. For more information, see Using the Simplified Auto
Setup Option on page 215.
If you select Auto Setup, this will replace any existing customised array
definition set-up. For more information on customising the array definitions, see
Specifying Array Definitions for the Simulator Outputs on page 215.
If you are satisfied with the summary, click Finish to close the wizard.

ASSET now allocates memory and loads the parameters. When this is complete:
If you chose to use cell load levels specified in the database, the arrays are now
available for analysis using the Map View.
If you chose to calculate the cell load levels by running snapshots, you now have a
simulation in memory that represents an "unloaded" network (although some
arrays are already available for analysis at this stage). The Simulation Control
Panel dialog box appears, and you are now ready to run snapshots to create a
simulation of a "loaded" network.

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11.5.1

About the Simulation Parameters for UMTS

This picture shows the upper section of the UMTS simulation parameters on step 2 of
the Simulator Wizard:

Simulation Parameters for UMTS - upper section

This table describes these parameters:


Simulation Parameter

Description

Simulation Resolution

The pixel resolution at which the simulation will be performed.


You can specify any resolution. The output arrays will be generated at that requested resolution,
using the prediction files at the resolutions specified for the corresponding network elements in the
Site Database (or from the Override option in the Array Settings dialog box). Where the requested
resolution is different, a deterministic conversion process is used.
Where traffic arrays are applicable, it is recommended that they are generated at the same
resolution required for the simulation.

Number of Covering Cells

The number of cells that are considered as primary covering cells, handover cells and interferers.
This also enables you to view the corresponding 'Nth best' array outputs.
The recommended minimum is 6, because this provides a high degree of confidence in the
determination of the 'best' serving cell; this has particular significance at the cell edge. You can
specify a lower number if you are prepared to accept a lower degree of accuracy (lower
confidence) in exchange for benefits in speed and memory.

Pilot Pollution Threshold

The simulation outputs an array that shows the average number of pilot polluters at any location.
This is determined by this threshold (xdB).
The exact definition of pilot polluters for UMTS in ASSET is:
The number of cells not in the active set, but providing an Ec/Io level within xdB of the best
Ec/Io in the active set. The threshold is relative. The default value is 6dB.

Power Control Standard


Deviation

The error due to imperfect power control in dB, which can be used to influence the simulation
results. It is recommended that this parameter is set to zero.
In a real network, imperfect power control produces a (log-normal) distribution of achieved Eb/No
values for successfully served terminals. One consequence might be a higher uplink noise rise. If a
non-zero value is entered here, the simulation models this effect by including uncorrelated lognormal errors on the UL and DL transmit powers. Errors are applied only after all other handover
gains and margins have been considered.
Terminals are never dropped from the simulation results if the resulting error makes their transmit
power too high or low. Therefore, although the output arrays may differ slightly, the reports will be
unaffected.

Chip Rate

The chip rate of the system to be simulated. This value is used in combination with the service bit
rate to calculate the processing gain for a service.

Intra-Site Correlation Coefficient The correlation between fades (for a terminal) to cells on the same site.
Inter-Site Correlation Coefficient The correlation between fades (for a terminal) to cells on different sites.

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Simulation Parameter

Description

Use levels specified in database Only use this method if you want to run a 'static analysis' (that is, without snapshots) and have
specified the loading levels for cells in the Site Database.
Calculate levels by running
snapshots

Always use this method if you want to run a full simulation, enabling the Monte Carlo algorithm to
calculate the loading levels by generating snapshots.

This picture shows the lower section of the UMTS simulation parameters on step 2 of
the Simulator wizard:

Simulation Parameters for UMTS - lower section

This table describes these options:


Simulation Parameter

Description

Orthogonality Factor per Clutter


Type

If you have specified values for 'orthogonality per clutter type' in the UMTS Clutter Parameters
dialog box, you have the option here to enable them to be used in the simulation.
If this option is not enabled, the orthogonality factor used by the Simulator is the generic value on
the Cell Params tab in the Site Database.

Use Neighbour Lists

If applicable, select this if you want to impose restrictions on handovers. Otherwise, handovers
can potentially occur between any cells.

Generate DVB-H Arrays

Select this if you want to produce DVB-H C/I arrays.

Allow Blocking Reports

Select this only if you want to include blocking results in the simulation reports. This is only
available if running snapshots.

Allow Blocking Arrays

Select this only if you want to be able to include blocking arrays in the simulation outputs. This is
only available if running snapshots.

HSDPA Scheduling

For HSDPA, you can choose one of three scheduling strategies: Round Robin, Max Ec/Io, or
Proportionally Fair.
Only the terminals that support HSDPA will be sorted, even if they do not end up using an
HSDPA bearer.

HSDPA Dynamic Power


Allocation

When you run a simulation that models HSDPA, you can specify to use Dynamic power
allocation. If you do not select this option, the simulation will use Non-Dynamic power allocation.
The HSDPA power for a cell is specified on the Cell Params tab in the Site Database.
If you use Non-Dynamic, a HSDPA user (or a number of users if code multiplexing is
enabled) will be served with the HSDPA Power value, regardless of their location relative to
the cell.
If you use Dynamic, HSDPA users will be served either with the HSDPA power value, or (if
it is lower) the available power on the cell. Therefore, with this method, you should ensure
that the HSDPA power value is set accurately.

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11.6 Specifying Array Definitions for the Simulator


Outputs
ASSET provides ways of setting your own array definitions, so that you can specify
exactly which arrays you want to be output when you use the Simulator.
These features do not create or delete arrays. Instead, their purpose is to define a
collection of arrays that you might want to display for analysis after you have run a
simulation. The feature also enables you to customise the names of the output arrays,
and categorise them using folders.
The easiest way of doing this is to use the Auto Setup option. This ensures that all the
relevant array types and their parameter combinations are included in the simulation
outputs for display and analysis. It also provides the opportunity to make general
exclusions of arrays that you do not require, enabling you to quickly and easily
determine the arrays that you want to be included in the outputs.
If, however, you want to define your own customised collection of output array types
from the Simulator, see Specifying Customised Array Definitions on page 217. This
enables you to specify array definitions to determine precisely which arrays you want
to output and display, in any combination of parameters you choose. This method is
probably only beneficial for advanced users.

11.6.1

Using the Simplified Auto Setup Option

ASSET provides an easy-to-use Auto Setup option that ensures that all the relevant
array types and their parameter combinations are included in the simulation outputs
for display and analysis. It also provides the opportunity to make general exclusions of
arrays based on indoor/outdoor, speed, terminal types, services, bearers or carriers.
In this way, you can quickly and easily determine the arrays that you want to be
included in the outputs.
The option to run or configure the Auto Setup can be accessed from two different
places:
The final (summary) page of the Simulator Wizard
- and The Array Definition Controller dialog box, which is accessible (after the
Simulator Wizard has been run) via:

The Outputs button in the Simulation Control Panel dialog box

Double-clicking the Simulator heading in the Map View Data Types list

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Configuring the Auto Setup


If you want to configure the Auto Setup using the option to make general exclusions,
either:
1

On the final page of the Simulator Wizard, click the Auto Setup Configuration
button.

- or In the Array Definition Controller dialog box, from the Auto Setup menu, click
Configure.

The Auto Setup Configuration dialog box appears:

Make the required general selections for EXCLUSION from the output arrays.
These selections are for exclusion, not inclusion.
At any time, you can use the Exclude All option to select or deselect all the items.

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If you have previously created a structured folder layout for your arrays in the
Array Definition Controller, you can choose to retain the structure, so that only the
Array Definitions are updated, or to overwrite the structure.

Click OK.

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The selected exclusions will be retained every time you run the Auto Setup (unless
the parameter combinations have been removed due to reconfiguration in the
project).
Running the Auto Setup
To run the Auto Setup, either:
On the final (summary) page of the Simulator Wizard, select the Automatically
Setup Output Arrays checkbox (the Auto Setup will run when you finish the
wizard).
- or In the Array Definition Controller dialog box, from the Auto Setup menu, click
Run.
If any previously set up customised definition currently exists, this would be
overwritten by running Auto Setup. However, it is possible to save your
customised definitions as XML files, which you can reload at any time.
When you have run Auto Setup once, there is no need to rerun it, unless you
either modify the Auto Setup configuration, or add/reconfigure any of the
appropriate parameters in the project.
The array definitions currently set up when you close a project will be automatically
available the next time you open the project.

11.6.2

Specifying Customised Array Definitions

When you use the Simulator, you can specify array definitions to determine precisely
which arrays you want to output and display, in any combination of parameters you
choose. You can do this by using the Array Definition Controller.
You only need to use the Array Definition Controller if you want to define your
own customised collection of arrays types and their associated parameters. If you
simply want to make general selections, it is much easier to use Auto Setup, as
described in Using the Simplified Auto Setup Option on page 215.
To specify customised array definitions:
1

After you have set up the Simulator wizard, either:

Click the Outputs button in the Simulation Control Panel dialog box
- or -

Double-click the Simulator heading in the list of Data Types in the Map View

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The Array Definition Controller dialog box appears:

Right-click on the Simulator folder. You can then select to either:

Add your own customised array definitions (this enables you to limit the
amount of output arrays to your exact requirements).
An easier strategy might be to start with Auto Setup, and then remove the
arrays/combinations that you do not need.

Add folders, and then create sub-folders. You can then use any of the above
options by right-clicking the folder.

If you want to add or edit array definitions, you can do the following:

To create an array definition, right-click on your chosen folder (unless you are
using the Flat View), then point to Add and select Definition.

To edit an existing array definition, right-click on the definition and select


Modify, or double-click on an existing definition.

Either of the above options causes the Array Definition Editor dialog box to
appear. For information on how to use this, see Creating and Editing Customised
Array Definitions on page 219.
4

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You can also do the following:

Move or remove any definitions, by right-clicking on the definition and select


Cut, Paste, or Remove.

Switch the view mode of the list of arrays between Hierarchy and Flat, using
the View menu.

Reorder any of the array types or parameters (useful if using the 'Flat View'
layout), by clicking any of the column headings.

When you are satisfied with your changes, click OK in the Array Definition
Controller dialog box.

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The collection of array definitions you have specified will be available for display on
the Map View the next time you set up and run a simulation. They appear in the Map
View's list of Data Types under the Simulator heading:

The array definitions currently set up when you close a project will be automatically
available the next time you open the project.

11.6.2.1

Creating and Editing Customised Array Definitions

In the Array Definition Controller dialog box, you can add or modify customised
Array Definitions at any time.
If you want to add or edit array definitions, you can do the following:
To create an array definition, right-click on your chosen folder (unless you are
using the Flat View), then point to Add and select Definition.
To edit an existing array definition, right-click on the definition and select Modify,
or double-click on an existing definition.
When you have selected either of the above options, the Array Definition Editor
dialog box appears:

Array Definition Editor dialog box

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To add or modify an array definition:


1

In the left-hand pane, select an array type that you want to include in the outputs.
Also ensure the checkbox is selected.

In the right-hand pane, for each of the available fields, select your requirements
from the drop-down list options.
In addition to per 'carrier', some of the arrays have a per 'all carriers' option.

Repeat the above steps for all the array types that you want to include in the
outputs, always ensuring the checkbox is selected.
The name of the definition defaults to the string name, but you can choose to
set your own definition name.

When you have finished, click OK in the Array Definition Editor dialog box.
The list of selections in the Array Definition Controller dialog box is automatically
updated, enabling you to review the array types that you have chosen and
defined.
Each of the definitions will have a symbol to the left of it. This table describes
the meanings:
Symbol

Meaning
The definition exists in the currently loaded simulation, and so the array can be output.
At least one of the definition's parameters does not exist in the currently loaded simulation,
therefore the array cannot be output.

Click OK in the Array Definition Controller dialog box to apply the changes.
When you close the project, these definitions will be automatically available the
next time you open the project.

If you want to apply any changes you have made to the array definitions, you
must click OK in the Array Definition Controller dialog box. If you click Cancel, any
of the last changes made in the Array Definition Editor will be ignored.
In the Array Definition Controller dialog box, you can save your collection of
definitions as XML files, which can be reloaded at any time.

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11.7 Running Simulation Snapshots


When you have completed and closed the Simulator wizard, and after ASSET has
allocated memory and loaded the parameters, the Simulation Control Panel appears:

Example of the Simulation Control Panel

This panel only appears if the option to 'run snapshots' was chosen in the
Simulator wizard.
To run the snapshots:
1

Insert the initial number of snapshots you require.


You can choose to run additional snapshots for the same simulation at any
time.
or
Insert the 95% confidence interval in dB.
The 95% confidence interval refers to the confidence intervals for uplink noise rise
and downlink traffic power on cells. These are reported in the uplink and
downlink performance reports. Snapshots are performed until the intervals in the
reports are all smaller than the value you specify here.

Click Run.

If you have closed the Simulation Control Panel dialog box, you can reopen it from
the Arrays menu, by pointing to Simulator and selecting Control Panel.
When the snapshots have finished, the arrays are available for analysis using the Map
View. You can then run more snapshots, if required, and re-analyse the results.

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11.7.1

What Happens Within a Snapshot?

A snapshot represents an individual component within the simulation process. At the


start of every snapshot, the terminals are distributed in statistically randomised
positions. Each sequential snapshot analyses the network performance based upon on
its own particular distribution of the terminals.
The number of snapshots specified in the Simulation Control Panel will be run when
you start the simulation.
This list indicates what is happening within each snapshot when the simulation is
running:
At the start of the snapshot, the terminals are randomly ordered to ensure no
biasing of results (since the terminals are sequentially tested during the snapshot).
The terminal and cell powers are initialised to zero and these are then used to
initialise the noise on the uplink and downlink. Other parameters such as power
control error are set randomly on every terminal.
Correlated fades to the covering cells of a terminal are generated, according to the
values set in the Simulator wizard.
Shadow fading is calculated independently for every combination of cell and
terminal in every snapshot. This means that within a snapshot in a pixel two
terminals may have different pathloss values to a cell.
The first terminal in the list is tested for failure conditions. If it does not fail, then
its Tx power, and the Tx power of the cells to which it is connected, are modified.
The next terminal in the list is then tested for failure conditions, and so on.
When the entire list has been tested, the Simulator returns to the first terminal and
repeats the process. This continues until convergence is reached.
When convergence is reached, the results of the snapshot are appended to the
results of the overall simulation.
The simulation then moves on to the next snapshot.
When the simulation has completed all the specified snapshots, you can view your
results using the arrays or view a summary of the data or reports, or you can choose
to run more snapshots.
Technology-specific documents are available, containing comprehensive details of
all the algorithms and outputs related to the Simulator. If your company is registered
for a customer web account, and you know the login password, you can download
these specialist documents. To do this, log in to the Product Support page, click the
User Reference Guides link, select the relevant software version from the drop-down
box, and then click the 'Static Simulations' link for the appropriate technology.

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11.7.2

What Failure Conditions Are Tested For?

There are many failure conditions that are tested when a simulation is running. Here
are some examples:
Maximum number of resources Has the limit for the combined number of
primary and handover resources been reached?
Maximum number of primary resources Has the limit for the number of primary
resources been reached?
For UMTS networks Pilot SIR failure condition, is the Pilot SIR lower than that
specified in the terminal type?
Is there a high pathloss (>200dB) to the pixel or no recorded prediction to any
node?
For CDMA2000 network Ec/Io failure condition, is the Ec/Io lower than that
specified in the terminal type?
Is there is a high pathloss (>200dB) to the pixel or no recorded prediction to any
CDMA BS?
For the Uplink Eb/No Failure, does the mobile have sufficient power to achieve
the uplink Eb/No?
For the Noise Rise Failure, does the mobile break the noise rise limit on any cells
when it connects?
For the Downlink Eb/No Range Failure, is the power required to achieve the
downlink Eb/No greater than the maximum allowed downlink power?
For the Downlink Eb/No Capacity Failure, does the cell have sufficient power to
achieve the downlink Eb/No?
For an LTE network DL BCH/SCH SINR Failure, is the requirement specified on
the terminal type satisfied?
For more detailed descriptions of the failure conditions for each technology, see
the ASSET Technical Reference Guide.

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11.8 Viewing and Controlling the Progress of a


Simulation
While you are running a simulation, you can use the Simulation Control Panel dialog
box to view the progress of the simulation, in terms of the number snapshots and the
time taken:

Simulation Control Panel dialog box

The Simulator will run until the specified number of snapshots have been completed.
You can also click Stop at any time, if you want to view interim results. You can then
continue the simulation by clicking Run again. The accumulated results of all the
snapshots completed so far are saved in memory, until you either close the project, or
choose to start another simulation.
You can save the results of any stage of the simulation by clicking Save. You can also
set up an automatic save option when you are using the Simulator wizard, or you can
edit the auto-save by clicking the Properties button.
If a yellow triangle symbol flashes in the dialog box while running the
simulation, it means that the failure rate is greater than the warning rate set on the
Simulator tab of the Array Settings dialog box. This indicates that too many terminals
are failing to connect. This can cause the simulation to run very slowly. If the yellow
triangle symbol appears, you should click Stop and then investigate the problem by
analysing the output reports and arrays.
If the "Too Many Failures" warning symbol is displayed, you can check the reason
in the Composite report or the Failures report.

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11.8.1

Pausing and Restarting a Simulation

You can pause, continue and restart a simulation using the Simulation Control Panel
dialog box. This dialog box appears after you have set up all the parameters using the
Simulator wizard and loaded in the necessary data.
Pausing a Simulation
To pause a running simulation:
In the Simulation Control Panel dialog box, click the Stop button.
The current simulation status changes to Stopping, and then Idle.
Continuing a Simulation
To continue a simulation after pausing:
Edit (if necessary) the additional number of snapshots required, and click Run.
The current Simulation Status changes to Running.
Restarting a Simulation with Cleared Results
To clear the current results from memory and re-run the simulation with the same
settings:
1

Click the Clear Results button.

Edit (if necessary) the additional number of snapshots required, and click Run.

The current Simulation Status changes to Running.


ASSET takes copies of the simulation parameters during the setup process.
Clearing the results and restarting will restart the simulation with the same
parameters as initially copied.
Restarting a Simulation with New Simulation Parameters
To restart the simulation with new simulation parameters:
1

Close the Simulator Control Panel dialog box.

Reopen the Simulator wizard to set up new parameters.


You will be warned that any unsaved results will be lost.

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11.9 Viewing Simulation Results in Arrays and


Reports
After you have run a simulation, you can view the latest results in the arrays and
reports.
To view the simulation arrays in the Map View:
1. In the Map View, click the Show Data Types button
list, expand the Simulator heading:

and in the Data Types

2. Select the array you want to display.


3. Click 'OK and Redraw'. The array is displayed.
To view the simulation reports:
From the Arrays menu, select Simulator and click Reports. You will then be able to
choose which format to use to display the report.
The range of simulation arrays and reports available depends on what you have
set up in the Array Definition Controller dialog box.

11.9.1

Example of Pilot Ec/Io Array

This array displays the highest Ec/Io values. They represent average values and are
therefore calculated with fades of 0dB.

Example of Pilot Ec/Io Array

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11.9.2

Example of Output Reports

Here is an example of a set of simulation reports:

Example of Simulation Reports

11.10

Writing Cell Loading Parameters to the


Database

If you have used the Simulator with the 'calculate cell load levels by running
snapshots' option selected, you can choose to write the calculated values to the cells in
the Site Database.
If you want to do this:
1

Ensure you have run the Simulator Wizard (using snapshots).

Run at least one snapshot.

From the Arrays menu, point to Simulator and click Write Cell Loading
Parameters to Site Database.
This option is only enabled if the Simulator is loaded but not running, and
with at least one snapshot calculated.

The values (uplink noise rise and downlink traffic power for each relevant cell/sector)
will now be written to the Cell Loading parameters in the Site Database.

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11.11

Writing Carried Traffic Data to the Database

If you have used the Simulator with the 'calculate levels by running snapshots' option
selected, you can choose to write the calculated traffic values to the cells in the Site
Database. Carried traffic data is applied to specific combinations of terminal type and
service.
If you want to do this:
1

Ensure you have run the Simulator Wizard (using snapshots).

Run at least one snapshot.

From the Arrays menu, point to Simulator and click Write Carried Traffic to Site
Database.
This option is only enabled if the Simulator is loaded but not running, and
with at least one snapshot calculated.
The Write Carried Traffic dialog box appears. This gives you options controlling
the extent to which you wish to overwrite any existing data. Existing data may
have been generated by previous runs of the Simulator or typed in using the
Carried Traffic Editor, which might also have been used to protect the data from
being unintentionally overwritten. For more information on how to manually add
and protect traffic data, see Using the Carried Traffic Editor on page 114. This
picture shows an example of the Write Carried Traffic dialog box:

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This table describes the available options:

Select This Option

To Do This

Replace All

Remove all unprotected traffic. Traffic is created where protected terminal-service traffic
combinations do not already exist.

Override And Add

Replace unprotected existing traffic if terminal-service traffic combinations already exist. Also
add all new traffic where terminal service traffic combinations do not already exist.

Override And Ignore

Replace unprotected existing traffic if terminal-service traffic combinations already exist, but
do not add any new terminal-service traffic combinations.

Keep And Add

Leave any existing traffic if terminal-service traffic combinations already exist. Also add any
new traffic where terminal-service traffic combinations do not already exist.

Select the required option and click Write to Database.


The values are written to the Site Database. For more information on how to view
and edit these values, see About the Carried Traffic Tab on page 110.

11.12

Saving and Loading Simulation Data

You can save the simulation results at any time, and then reload them. When you are
running the Simulator, the accumulated results of all the snapshots completed so far
are saved in memory, until you either close the project, or choose to start another
simulation.
You can save the results of any stage of the simulation by clicking Save in the
Simulation Control Panel dialog box. You can also set up an automatic save option
when you are using the Simulator wizard, or you can edit the auto-save by clicking
the Properties button in the Simulation Control Panel dialog box.
When a simulation is saved, the following items are saved:
The simulation status, that is, how many snapshots have been taken
The simulation parameters, which include the filters of nodes being simulated, the
resolution, all the wizard parameters, all the cell parameters, terminal types,
service types, bearers, handover and so on
The simulation results
Simulations are saved as *.3gr files. You should not use .3gr files as a way of
backing up data as .3gr files are only guaranteed to work in the same Version, Build
and Release that they were created in.
You can also save simulation data in either of these ways:
Using the MapInfo-based export. For more information, see the ENTERPRISE
User Reference Guide.
Copying arrays to the array clipboard. For more information, see About the Array
Clipboard on page 157.

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11.13

About the Pixel Analyser

The Pixel Analyser is a separate window that can be placed alongside a Map View
window in order to see all kinds of array information that has been accumulated
during a simulation.
This enables you to visually analyse network information (for any of the technology
types) output from the Simulator, such as signal strength or signal quality.
Whether or not you have run a simulation, you can also choose to view information
relating to:
Clutter and Heights map data
Traffic arrays
Clipboard arrays
The ability to read pixel-specific values from the Map View provides an invaluable
resource for analysis, problem-solving and improvement of the network performance.
Here is an example of the Pixel Analyser window:

Example of Pixel Analyser window

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11.13.1

Using the Pixel Analyser to View Information

After you have generated some simulation results, you can use the Pixel Analyser to
view information for any selected pixel in the Map View window. By analysing the
effects of each cell on a selected pixel, you can improve the network performance.
Whether or not you have run a simulation, you can also choose to view
information relating to Clutter and Heights map data, Traffic arrays, Clipboard
arrays, and GSM Non-Sim arrays.
To use the Pixel Analyser:
1

Depending on your technology licences and your exact requirements, ensure you
either have:

Simulation data in memory, either by running a simulation, or from a loaded


simulation.
- and/or -

Traffic arrays in memory


- and/or -

Clipboard arrays in memory

(or none of these if you are only interested in Clutter or Heights data)
2

In the Map View window, click one of the Pixel Analyser buttons

This button

Enables you to

Hot Tracking

Dynamically view information about values for any pixel on the Map View window by moving the
mouse cursor over the map. This mode operates dynamically with the mouse cursor.

Pixel Select

Select a specific pixel by clicking on the Map View window. The displayed values will not change
until you click on another pixel on the Map View.
This mode enables you to view a pixel's values and compare them elsewhere, for example with
those in the Site Database.

Select Arrow

Deactivate both the modes, whilst keeping the Pixel Analyser window open.

The Pixel Analyser window opens. The specified arrays and their values per pixel
can be displayed in the first pane, while the available cells per pixel and their
values can be displayed in the second pane. You can also choose to display a
vector analysis plot in the third pane.

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To customise the content of the Pixel Analyser window, you can either use the
Options menu at the top of the window, or double-click on the relevant pane. For
more information, see:

Selecting the Arrays to Display in the Pixel Analyser on page 233

Setting the Pixel Column Details in the Pixel Analyser on page 234

Displaying Vector Analysis Plots on page 236

About the Options Pane on the Pixel Analyser on page 238

When you are satisfied with the options you have set, place the cursor on the Map
View, and you will notice a

symbol appears.

To display the information per pixel in the Pixel Analyser window, either move
the cursor (if in Hot Tracking mode) or click on a specific pixel (if in Pixel Select
mode).

In the Pixel Analyser window, the cells and their values per pixel change as you move
or click the cursor on the Map View. Here is an example:

Example of Pixel Analyser window

You can click any of the column headers in the second pane to sort information in
ascending or descending order. For example, to find the best server using the Pixel
Analyser, sort the cells by the Pilot Power column, which enables you to compare the
other cells with the best server.

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In addition, at the bottom of the Pixel Analyser window, the following useful data is
displayed:

The pixel location

The height data of that pixel

The clutter type of that pixel

The nearest cell to that pixel

11.13.1.1

Selecting the Arrays to Display in the Pixel Analyser

To select and customise the arrays (in the first pane) that you wish to analyse per
pixel:
1

In the Pixel Analyser window, double-click anywhere in the first pane. The Select
Array Rows dialog box appears:

In the Available Arrays pane, double-click the arrays you want to be displayed.
They will appear in the upper pane.

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Select the Chart checkbox for each array if you would like the chart to be
displayed in the Pixel Analyser window.
Here is an example of a 'chart':

Set the Min and Max values for the chart by clicking the value boxes for the array,
and then entering values.

When you have finished, click OK.

11.13.1.2

Setting the Pixel Column Details in the Pixel Analyser

To select and customise the columns (in the second pane) that you wish to display for
the cells/carriers:

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In the Pixel Analyser window, double-click anywhere in the second pane. The
Select Column Details dialog box appears.

If you are using more than one technology, click on the appropriate technology
tab.

Select the columns you want to be displayed in the Pixel Analyser.

For some of the items, you can select or deselect the Chart checkbox. (To do this,
you must select the item first.) This allows you to display a chart in the Pixel
Analyser, and set the Max and Min values for the chart. Here is an example of a
chart:

For some of the items, you can set the required threshold. (To do this, you must
select the item first.) Here is an example:

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When a threshold is used in the Pixel Analyser, only cells with pixel values equal
to or greater* than the stated threshold will be displayed (*less than, in the case of
link loss).
In the Pixel Analyser window, you can only use one threshold at time. To turn
one of them on, you must right-click on the specific column header. To turn it off,
you can right-click on it again.
6

When you have finished, click OK.

In the Pixel Analyser window, the second pane displays the column details according
to what you have specified. Here is an example:

In the Pixel Analyser window, if you want to use one of the thresholds, you must
right-click on the specific column header. To turn it off, you can right-click on it again.
The values displayed for each of the columns are those derived from the simulation
currently in memory. Most of the column headings are self-explanatory. The
following table clarifies the purpose of some of the columns:
This Column

Displays

Relative

Difference between the Rx Pilot Power of the cell and that of the topmost sorted item.

Distance

Distance of the cell from the selected pixel.

Bearing

Bearing of the antenna for the cell.

Neighbours

Yes/No to indicate whether the cell is a neighbour of the cell in the topmost sorted item.

Co Channel / Adjacent Channels


(GSM only)

Yes/No to indicate whether the cell has a cell or carrier layer that is the same as (or
adjacent to) that of another cell.

Line of Sight

Yes/No to indicate whether there is a clear line of sight between the pixel and the cell.
This option may slow down the operation of the Pixel Analyser, so it is
recommended only to activate this when you need it.

yy

The exact combination of details will vary according to the technology.

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11.13.1.3

Displaying Vector Analysis Plots

You can use the Pixel Analyser to display analysis plots of any vector/polygon
chosen from your Map View.
Customising the Vector Analysis Plot
To customise the vector analysis plot within the Pixel Analyser:
1

In the Pixel Analyser dialog box, double-click anywhere in the third pane. The
Vector Analysis Plot Details dialog box appears.

Select one of the radio buttons to choose which covering cell levels along the
vector you want to be plotted.
The above step is not applicable if you are using the WiMAX technology mode.

Enter the number of 'Best Values' to take into account (each will display its own
coloured plot line).

Enter a Step value for the X axis (this determines the plot intervals along the linear
distance of the vector).

Enter Min and Max values for the Y axis.

When you have finished, click OK.

Activating the Vector Analysis Plot


To activate the vector analysis plot (in the third pane):
1

Ensure you have your required vector/polygon displayed in the Map View
window.

If the Options pane at the bottom of the Pixel Analyser window is not already
open, click the

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button.

Select the Vector Analysis checkbox.

Click the Select Vector button.

On the Map View, use the cursor to select a vector/polygon. Here is an example:

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When you have selected a vector/polygon, it becomes highlighted, and the


symbol appears. You can then either move the cursor (if in Hot Tracking mode) or
click on a specific pixel (if in Pixel Select mode) along the vector.
As you move (or click) along the vector, you can see the analysis plots in the third
pane of the Pixel Analyser. The display format depends how you chose to
customise the analysis plot. Here is an example:

Notes :

In this mode, the cursor is sensitive exclusively to points along the


vector/polygon. Therefore, if you place the cursor away from the vector, the
cursor will simply react to the nearest point on the vector. This is true for both
the analysis plot, and for the pixel values in the first and second panes of the
Pixel Analyser window.

If you wish to select a different vector/polygon, you must click the Select
Vector button again. If you wish to zoom or pan in the Map View, you must
also reactivate the Pixel Analyser mode.

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11.13.1.4

About the Options Pane on the Pixel Analyser

The Options pane of the Pixel Analyser window enables you to do the following:
Select the layer to view, if multiple technologies or carriers were included in the
simulation. This will display cells of that technology only, and/or using that
carrier only.
Compare cell values over two locations. See Comparing Cell Values Over Two
Locations on page 238.
Activate the vector analysis plot. See Displaying Vector Analysis Plots on page
236.
To view the Options pane of the Pixel Analyser window, click the

button.

Here is an example:

Example of the Options pane in the Pixel Analyser

Comparing Cell Values Over Two Locations


When using the Pixel Analyser, you can see the effects on the same cells in two
different locations. This is useful for checking how any particular cell behaves in other
pixels. To do this:
1

Set up the Pixel Analyser, as described above.


This method requires that you start the process in Pixel Select

In the Pixel Analyser window, ensure the Options pane is displayed by clicking
the Up Arrow button

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mode.

In the Pixel Data Update pane, choose to automatically display all cells per pixel,
then click the cursor on the map to a location whose cells you want to compare
with another location.

In the Pixel Data Update pane, choose the Frozen option. This will retain the list of
cells shown for the current pixel.

Now click (or move the cursor if you have switched to Hot Tracking mode) on
another location in the Map View, and the Pixel Analyser shows updated
information for both the original cells and for all the new cells relevant to the new
pixel location.

You can click the Refresh button whenever you want to refresh the data so that
only values for the last clicked pixel are shown.
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Exporting Array Data to a Report for a Single Grid Location

When using the Pixel Analyser, you can export the pixel data to a report for a single
grid location, for comparisons with other results.
The generated information depends on what you have enabled in the first and
second panes of the Pixel Analyser window.
To do this:
1

Set up the Pixel Analyser, as described in Using the Pixel Analyser to View
Information on page 231.

Select a pixel on the Map View by moving the mouse cursor or clicking.
(This depends on which button

mode is being used.)

From the Options menu of the Pixel Analyser window, select Grid Export:

In the dialog box that appears, select how you want to output the report.

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11.14

Session Summary Checklist

This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
How the Simulator can help to assess network performance
Setting up the Simulator
Determining the Outputs
Running the Simulator
Viewing the Arrays and Reports
Saving and Loading Simulation Data
Using the Pixel Analyser

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 12

12 Generating Reports
12.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Generating Statistical Reports
Generating Simulation Reports
Generating Site/Node Reports
Generating a Delta Report

12.2 Generating Reports and Statistics


To help with decisions that influence the evolution of the cellular network, ASSET
provides a comprehensive range of database and statistical reports which can be
generated in Microsoft Excel or a Text Editor.
This section describes the reports that can be generated. Here is a brief summary of
the report categories available:
Statistical Reports
These can only be generated after creating the relevant arrays. They enable you to
produce percentage statistics for arrays, both in terms of overall results, and in terms
of individual cells, clutter categories and cell coverage areas. Distributional statistics
(such as population) can also be incorporated in the results.
Simulation Reports
These are output directly as a result of running a simulation. They complement the
simulation arrays displayed on the Map View. These reports allow you to view and
analyse any performance problems in the area simulated as a whole, as well as the
performance of individual cells.
Database Reports
These can be generated at any time from the Reports menu, and have no prerequisite
steps since they directly query the ENTERPRISE database.

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12.3 Generating Statistical Reports for Arrays


Statistical reports enable you to produce area and percentage statistics for arrays.
They can only be generated after creating the relevant array.
The report sections (that is, the rows) can show overall statistical summaries,
comparing the area satisfying the target level with the total area analysed, giving the
result as a percentage of the total. The area statistics can also be broken down by:
Clutter type
Individual cells
Specific vectors
Specific features (such as lines, polygons, roads) of a vector
For information on creating vector file features, see the ENTERPRISE User
Reference Guide.
Furthermore, you can incorporate distributional statistics (such as population), which
appear as additional columns in the report. These are obtained from traffic values
which have been spread by a traffic raster. If you wish to do this, check that the
relevant traffic raster has already been saved to file. For more information, see About
Distributional Statistics on page 175.
To create a statistical report for an array:
1

Ensure that the array has been created.

Open a Map View (if not already open). Ensure that this includes the area for
which you want to generate statistics.
If this view area is different from the one originally used to create the array,
the statistics will be based on the intersection of the two areas. It is also possible to
focus the statistics within selected vectors.

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Click the Show Data Types button


to display the Data Types list, and expand
either the Simulator or Coverage heading, as appropriate. Then select the required
array, right-click on it, and choose Statistics. This picture shows an example:

The Statistics dialog box appears. The options are described in the following
section.
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12.3.1

Results of the Statistical Reports for Arrays

Depending on the options you select in the Statistics dialog box, the report you create
can display the following sections:
The analysis parameters such as the coverage or quality level selected, and any
area restriction vectors selected
Statistics and Category summaries
Statistics broken down by:

Per clutter type

Per cell

Per chosen vector(s)

Per feature within a chosen vector

The following tables describe the values that you can choose to include in the rows of
the statistical reports:
Statistics summary

Description

Total Displayed Area

The chosen area of analysis. This is either the area of the selected Map
view, or, if you selected to restrict the analysis area, the sum of the area
within the chosen vector(s).

Covered Area

The total area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

The covered area as a percentage of the total displayed area.

Category summary

Description

Category information

Category names and ranges of values.

Covered Area

The total area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

The covered area as a percentage of the total area.

Per Clutter statistics breakdown

Description

Total Area by Clutter category

For each clutter category, the area that exists in the chosen area of analysis.

Covered Area

For each clutter category, the amount of its area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

For each clutter category, the percentage of its area within the specified
levels.

Per Cell statistics breakdown

Description

Total Area of the Cell coverage (service area)

For each cell, the total of its (best server) service area that exists in the
chosen area of analysis.
For each pixel, only the best serving cell is considered.

Covered Area

For each cell, the amount of its service area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

For each cell, the percentage of its service area within the specified levels.

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Per Vector statistics breakdown

Description

Total Area of each chosen vector

The total area of the vector that exists in the chosen area of analysis.

Covered Area

The total area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

The covered area as a percentage of the total area.

Per Feature statistics breakdown

Description

Total Area of of each feature* that is contained in The total area of the feature that exists in the chosen area of analysis.
the chosen vector.
Attribute values (road name, road number, building name, and so on) can
(*roads, lines, polygons, and so on)
also be shown, depending on the configuration in the vector's structure
editor.
Covered Area

The total area within the specified levels.

Covered Area (%)

The covered area as a percentage of the total area.

Distributional Statistics (such as population)


This is an optional further breakdown of the results into columns, giving values for
distribution units.
Distributional statistics

Description

Distribution units covered

For each of the above (Summaries, Clutter, Cell and Attribute), the
distribution units within the specified levels.

Distribution units covered (%)

For each of the above (Summaries, Clutter, Cell and Attribute), the
percentage of the distribution units within the specified levels.

ENTERPRISE calculates its area statistics by counting pixels at the particular


resolution. MapInfo, in contrast, calculates the complete area of a polygon. This is the
reason for any discrepancy between corresponding areas in each program.

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12.3.1.1

Statistical Report Example 1

Here is an example of a statistical report (for coverage) for a Best Server array:

Example of a Coverage Statistics report

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12.4 Generating Simulation Reports


Simulation reports are output directly as a result of running a simulation (when using
the snapshot mode), and complement the simulation arrays displayed on the Map
View. These reports allow you to view and analyse network performance in the area
simulated as a whole, as well as the performance of individual cells.
After you have run a simulation, you can generate reports with the latest results. To
do this:
1

From the Arrays menu, select Simulator and click Reports.


- or In the Simulation Control Panel, click the Reports button.

Select which types of report you want to generate, and click OK.

Choose which format to use to display the report, and click OK.

Here is an example of a set of simulation reports:

For descriptions of the output reports that can be generated from the Simulator for
the various technologies, see the ASSET Technical Reference Guide.

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12.4.1

UMTS Composite Reports

The UMTS Composite Report contains the following information:


This Result

Describes

Mean Attempted

Attempted service connections

Mean Served

Successful service connections.

Mean Failed

Failed service connections.

Mean in Soft or Softer Handover

Successful service connections that were in either soft handover or softer handover.

Mean in Softer Handover

Successful service connections that were in softer handover.

No UL Resource Primary Channel

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

No DL Resource Primary Channel

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

UL Resource Channel Limit


Reached

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

DL Resource Channel Limit


Reached

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Low Pilot

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Downlink Eb/No (Range)

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Downlink Eb/No (Capacity)

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Uplink Eb/No

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Noise Rise Limit

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

No Valid Connection Scenarios

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.


This indicates compatibility issues in terms of the network and configuration
parameters. There may be a problem with the carriers, bearers, services, terminal
types or filters used, so you should check your configuration and simulation set-up.

No Covering Cells

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason. This indicates that
there was no pathloss information in the pixel at the location of the terminal.

Probability percentages can add up to more than 100%. This is because a


connection can fail for multiple reasons simultaneously.

12.4.2

UMTS Cell Failure Report

The UMTS Cell Failure report shows the failures that are measured in the simulation
and contains the following information:
This Result

Describes

Cell Identity

Unique cell identifier.

Mean Number of Failures

The mean number of failed service connections.

Mean Number of Attempts

The mean number of attempted service connections.

Failure Rate

The amount of failures as a percentage of the attempts.

Failures due to No UL Resource Primary


Channel

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Failures due to No DL Resource Primary


Channel

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

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This Result

Describes

Failures due to UL Resource Channel Limit The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.
Reached
Failures due to DL Resource Channel Limit The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.
Reached
Failures due to Low Pilot

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Failures due to Downlink Eb/No (Range)

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Failures due to Downlink Eb/No (Capacity) The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.
Failures due to Uplink Eb/No

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

Failures due to Noise Rise

The percentage of failures attributable, in part, to this reason.

For UMTS networks there are potentially 36 different resource types but only
those that have been defined will be displayed.

12.4.3

UMTS Downlink Performance Reports

The UMTS Downlink Performance report contains the following information:


This Result

Describes

Cell Identity

Unique cell identifier.

Downlink Traffic Power (dBm)

This value shows the mean transmitted downlink traffic power per cell
(calculated).

DL Traffic Power 95% Confidence Interval


(+/- dB)

The confidence interval on the mean downlink traffic power.

Total TX Power (dBm)

This is the sum of the traffic channel power and all of the downlink channel
powers.

Max TX Power (dBm)

This value shows the Max TX Power limit that you have set per cell.

Common Channel Power (dBm)

This is the total time-averaged common channel power. The primary and
secondary common channel powers that the user specifies in the site dialog
are peak powers.
The total time-averaged common channel power is given by:
Mean_Common_Power = 0.9 x Peak_Primary_Common_Power + 1.0 x
Peak_Secondary_Common_Power
All powers in this formula are in Watts.

Pilot Power (dBm)

This value shows the downlink pilot power that you have set per cell.

Sync Channel Power (dBm)

This is the total time-averaged synchronisation channel power. The primary


and secondary synchronisation channel powers that the user specifies in the
site dialog are peak powers.
The total time-averaged sync channel power is given by:
Total_Sync_Power = 0.1 x Peak_Primary_Sync_Power + 0.1 x
Peak_Secondary_Sync_Power
All powers in this formula are in Watts.

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12.4.4

UMTS Cell Handover Reports

The UMTS Cell Handover Report contains the following information:


This Result

Describes

Cell Identity

Unique cell identifier.

UL Resource Primary Channels


Used

The mean number of uplink resource primary channels used per cell.

UL Resource Handover Channel


Used Soft

The mean number of uplink resource channels used for soft handover per cell.

UL Resource Handover Channel


Used - Softer

The mean number of uplink resource channels used for softer handover per cell.

DL Resource Primary Channels


Used

The mean number of downlink resource primary channels used per cell.

DL Resource Handover Channel


Used Soft

The mean number of downlink resource channels used for soft handover per cell.

DL Resource Handover Channel


Used Softer

The mean number of downlink resource channels used for softer handover per cell.

For UMTS networks there are 36 different resource types but only those that have
been defined will be displayed.

12.4.5

Throughput Reports

The Throughput Report can be displayed for UMTS, CDMA2000 and EV-DO
technologies and contains the following information:
This Result

Describes

Cell/Sector Identity

Unique cell/sector identifier.

Downlink Throughput (kbit/s)

Mean amount of data served on a carrier on that cell/sector.

Uplink Throughput (kbit/s)

Mean amount of data served on a carrier on that cell/sector.

12.4.6

Uplink Performance Reports

The Uplink Performance Report can be displayed for UMTS, CDMA2000 and EV-DO
technologies, and contains the following information:
This Result

Describes

Cell/Sector Identity

Unique cell/sector identifier.

Noise Rise Limit (dB)

This value shows the noise rise over thermal noise per cell/sector.

Noise Rise 95% Confidence Interval


(+/- dB)

The confidence interval on the noise rise. The interval will tend to decrease as
more snapshots are performed.

Load (%)

This value shows the fractional cell load per cell/sector.

Frequency Re-use Efficiency (%)

This value shows the frequency re-use efficiency per cell/sector.

Out-cell Noise:In-cell Noise

This value shows the ratio of noise from terminals that have this cell in the active
set to noise from terminals that do not have this cell in the active set, it is
expressed as a percentage.

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12.5 Generating Site/Node Reports


You can generate a customised Site/Node Report at any time, using filtered selections
if required.
You can extract and summarise the contents of the Site Database to various network
object levels, such as:
Properties
UMTS NodeBs
UMTS Cells
Neighbours
If you select items from more than one of the above, the generated report contains
columns that do not apply to all the records - this is inevitable because of the
hierarchical nature of the data, that is, one-to-many relationships.
For ease of reading, the requested information for Properties and the requested
information for each technology are generated onto separate report sheets.
To produce a Site/Node Report:
1

From the Reports menu, click Site/Node Report. The Site Report Generator dialog
box appears.

Select a filter for the Properties/sites/nodes you want to include in the report.

Select the style of report that you want to use:

Hierarchy style, with new rows separating individual object types

Flat style, for ease of data manipulation

Choose whether you want the report to open in Microsoft Excel or in a text editor.

Select the Autosave checkbox to automate the naming of the file. The file will be
saved in your personal TEMP directory when you generate it and the filename
will contain the date and time, for example:
C\:Documents and Settings\john.smith\Local Settings\Temp\2007-02-28 17-4829 (Report).xls

On the tabs of the Site Report Generator dialog box, select the information you
want to extract from the database.
You can quickly select or deselect all the checkboxes on any single tab, by
right-clicking anywhere on the main body of the dialog box, and then clicking
Select All or Clear All.

Click Generate.

The selections you choose will be stored automatically, so that the next time you
use this dialog box, the previously selected items will appear by default. However,
the filter initially displayed is always determined by the default set on the Filters tab
of the Preferences dialog box, accessible from the File menu.

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12.6 Generating Reports of Uncommitted Changes


You can produce a report that details all the changes (additions, modifications and
deletions) which you have made and Applied to network elements, but not
Committed to the database. These changes are therefore not visible to other users.
The network element, each field and the modified and previous values of each field
are shown.
The report details additions, modifications and deletions to all elements in your
networks as well as items such as propagation models and equipment.
To produce a report of uncommitted changes:
1

From the Database menu, click Delta Report.

If there are a large number of differences, a message appears to warn you that this
might take time. You can choose not to continue by clicking No, otherwise click
Yes to produce the report.
You can reduce the time taken to generate the report by clearing any orphaned
DB entries that exist in the DIFF tables for the project. (Otherwise, any such entries
will be included in the Delta report as inserts or updates.) To do this, click on the
Utilities tab, and from the Tools menu, click Clean DB Orphans.
A message also appears if there are no differences.
The diff tables in the database are analysed and a report appears.
The left pane displays each item, its type and a state showing if the element has
been added, deleted or updated.
Tips:

To sort the data in any of the columns in the left-hand pane, click the column
heading

To find a particular network element ID, type the name in the Find ID box.
ENTERPRISE highlights the item with then name (or the nearest
alphabetical/numerical match) that you have entered.

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Click >> to display the right hand pane which will show all fields associated with
any element that you select and its value:

In the right hand pane:

A red symbol appears next to an item with applied changes, for example,

A green symbol appears next to an item that has not been changed, for
example,

To view any additional information, double-click the


symbol beside the
name of an attribute, then click the Back button to return to the previous list
Notes:

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If no information is available, the symbol is green

If the item is an addition, the 'Previous Value' is marked as '-'

If the item is a deletion, the 'Modified Value' is marked as '-'

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12.7 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Generating Statistical Reports
Generating Simulation Reports
Generating Site/Node Reports
Generating a Delta Report

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 13

13 Planning Scrambling
Codes
13.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas
Running the Scrambling Code Planner
Analysing the Scrambling Code Report

13.2 About Scrambling Codes


In CDMA-based technologies, user information bits are spread over a wide
bandwidth and each channel uses all of the available bandwidth all of the time.
Therefore, you need to be able to distinguish a wanted channel from the many other
channels that share the same bandwidth.
To do this, you need a layer of coding, enabling you to differentiate between base
stations and so provide a degree of separation between cells on the downlink. These
codes are called 'scrambling codes'.
These are different from 'spreading codes', which use code bits called 'chips' to
multiply the user information. Each user has a different spreading code, enabling the
differentiation of one user from another on the same cell by spreading, then
recovering, the original information through subsequent processing. (You cannot plan
spreading codes in ASSET.)
This picture shows the relationship between spreading codes and scrambling codes:

Spreading Codes and Scrambling Codes

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13.3 Planning Scrambling Codes for UMTS


The UMTS Scrambling Code Planner is used to assign primary scrambling codes to
individual cells. Scrambling codes do not affect the simulations and reports in ASSET,
but the code planner is useful for achieving code re-use efficiency in the network.
Code planning is required for the downlink scrambling codes to ensure that code reuse is as efficient as possible. Interfering cells should be assigned different scrambling
codes. In addition, consideration should be given to limiting the number of code
groups or codes per group used by the neighbouring cells.
If required, you can run the Scrambling Code Planner at the same time as running
the Simulator.

13.3.1

Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas

The Scrambling Code Schemas dialog box enables you to create ranges (schemas) of
code groups and codes. These schemas enable you to set limits on the scrambling
codes generated when you use the Scrambling Code Planner.
The schemas will also appear in a drop-down box above the scrambling codes on the
Cell Params tab in the Site Database, limiting manual selections of the codes. (If
required, the schemas and codes assigned to cells can be edited using the Global
Editor.)
The potential number of code groups is 64 (0-63) and the number of primary
scrambling codes within each group is 8 (0-7).
The default schema is named 'All', and, in a new project, it contains all 512 (0-511)
scrambling codes. However (assuming you have user permissions), you can modify
the code ranges within this default schema and, if required, give the schema a new
name. You cannot delete this schema.

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Creating a Schema
To create a schema:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Code/ID Schemas.


Depending on your technology licences, you may then need to click UMTS
Scrambling Code Schemas.
This picture shows an example of the Scrambling Code Schemas dialog box:

Click Add, and name the new schema.

Select the code groups that you want to use. When you select a code group, the list
of codes within the code group appears in the right pane. Select or deselect the
codes for each code group, as required.
Tips:

If you want to select or deselect all the codes within a group, click inside the
relevant group checkbox.

If you just want to view the codes that you have selected for a particular
group, click on the group number (not the checkbox).

Click Commit All to save the changes to the database.

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Modifying a Schema
To modify a schema, select it and then follow steps 3 and 4 above.
If required, you can modify the groups and codes within the default schema, and
edit its name.
Deleting a Schema
You can delete additional schemas, but if you do this, they cannot be restored. They
are deleted immediately and not moved to the wastebasket. (You cannot delete the
default schema.)
To delete additional schemas from the list:
1

Select the schema that you wish to delete.

Click Remove.

Click Commit All to save the changes to the database.

13.3.2

Running the Scrambling Code Planner

To use the Scrambling Code Planner:


1

Ensure that you have read the prerequisites in the previous section.

From the Tools menu, point to UMTS Planners, then click UMTS Scrambling Code
Plan Wizard.

In the first step of the wizard, check that the area for the plan is correct. If
necessary, you can modify the area by entering precise co-ordinates. Click Next.

Select the site/cell filters to be included in the plan. Click Next.

In the Status column, you can assign a planning status (Plan, Read-Only or Ignore)
to each selected filter. If necessary, the Up/Down arrows enable you to prioritise
the filters in the list (if a cell belongs to more than one of the filters, then its
planning status is determined by the higher priority filter).
Please see the information about the planning status options in the
prerequisites in the previous section.

In the Schema column, associate each selected 'Plan' filter with the required
schema (see Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas on page 256).
Alternatively, you can load the 'per cell' schemas from the Site Database.

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In the Minimise column, associate each selected 'Plan' filter with the required
minimising mode:
Minimising Mode

The Planner Wizard attempts to

Groups

Use as few groups as possible, by trying to assign the same group number to cells on a site.

Codes

Use as few codes as possible, by trying to assign the same code number to cells on a site.

Code IDs

Use as few scrambling codes as possible, by allowing the cells on a site to have different code
numbers and group numbers.

Click Next.
8

Set the required Re-use parameters:


Parameter

Description

Code re-use distance

You can choose one of two options: Fixed or Automatic.


Fixed: This is a constant re-use distance from a cell, within which the Planner will try not to
assign the same code.
Automatic: This is a variable re-use distance from a cell, within which the Planner will try not to
assign the same code.
You specify the number of Divisions Per Cell, and the amount of Nearest Cells Per Division to
consider. For each division, the re-use distance will vary, depending on the proximity of the
other cells within it. You also specify a Re-use Distance Limit, which sets a hard limit for all
divisions.

Consider Neighbouring
cells: Highest
Neighbour Order

When planning codes with reference to neighbouring cells, this enables you to specify such
neighbours up to the nth order. This can be 1, 2, 3 or 4, representing (up to) first, second, third
and fourth order neighbours, respectively.

Click Next.
9

If you are satisfied with the summary, click Finish.

ASSET calculates the code assignments, and generates a Report dialog box.

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13.3.3

About the Scrambling Code Report Dialog Box

The Scrambling Code report dialog box is generated when you run the Scrambling
Code Planner. It displays the assignments, and also displays details of any clashing
cells.
Left Pane

Example section of the left pane of Scrambling Code report dialog box

For each planned (or read-only) cell, the left pane of the report dialog box presents the
following information:
Column Heading
Result

Additional Comments or Possible Values


Success: the cell has no clashes with its neighbours, or cells inside the re-use distance (it may
have clashes with cells outside the re-use distance).
Re-use Violation: the cell has no clashes with its neighbours, but clashes with one or more
cells inside the re-use distance.
Neighbour Clash: the cell clashes with one or more of its neighbours.
Excluded: the cell was excluded from the plan because it has no antennas or no assigned
carrier.

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Sector

Sector/Cell Identity

Plan Status

Plan, Read Only, Excluded

Minimise

Groups, Codes, Code IDs

Carrier

Group

Code

Number of Clashing
Neighbours

Details are listed in the right pane.

Number of Clashing
Sectors

Details are listed in the right pane.

Closest Clash

Distance to the nearest clashing cell.

Max Clash Factor

See About the Clash Factors on page 263.

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Right Pane

Example section of the right pane of Scrambling Code report dialog box

The right pane provides information on the clashing sectors, and presents the following
information:
Column Heading

Additional Comments or Possible Values

Sector

Sector/Cell Identity

Plan Status

Plan, Read Only, None


Cells that appear in the right pane may not necessarily have been included in the filters
specified in the wizard. Such cells will have a plan status of None.

Minimise

Groups, Codes, Code IDs

Neighbour Order

Neighbour Order of the neighbour clash:


'1', '2', '3', '4': signifies first order, second order, and so on
'0' signifies a non-neighbour cell inside the re-use distance
'--' signifies a non-neighbour cell outside the re-use distance

Distance

Distance between the two cells

Clash Factor

See About the Clash Factors on page 263.

Paths

In the event of 2nd or higher order neighbour clashes, this shows the shortest path between the
planned cell and the clashing neighbour.

The report dialog box can only be generated by running the wizard, so if you wish
to retain it for a while in memory, use the minimise option rather than the close
option. You can produce a printed version of the report by clicking the Reports
button.
If you are satisfied with the planned results, you can save the planned codes to
the Database. See Applying the Planned Scrambling Codes to the Database.

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13.3.3.1

Customising the Columns on the Scrambling Code Report

When you are viewing the Scrambling Code Report dialog box, you can:
Specify which columns to display
Set the column widths
Re-order the columns left to right
To do this:
1

Right-click on any column heading and select Choose Columns from the context
menu.

In the dialog box that appears, select the columns you want to show, and deselect
those you want to hide (the Show/Hide buttons can be used if preferred).

Set a column width for your selected items.

Use the Move Up/Down buttons to re-order the selected columns.

Click OK.

You can also resize the Report dialog box window, and you can resize the
individual left and right panes.

13.3.3.2

Sorting the Rows on the Scrambling Code Report

When you are viewing the Scrambling Code Report dialog box, you can sort the rows
(top to bottom) by clicking on any of the column headings. You can then toggle
between ascending and descending order. This simple method sorts all the rows
based singly on the clicked column.
However, you may also sort the rows based on multiple columns, using a hierarchical
method. This may be useful if you want, for example, to display the rows primarily in
the Group or Code sequence, and then subordinately in the Closest Clash sequence.
To do this:

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Right-click on any column heading and select Sort By from the context menu.

In the dialog box that appears, select the columns that you want to determine the
row sequencing.

Highlight each of the selected items in turn, and use the Change button to toggle
between Ascending/Descending.

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Highlight each of the selected items in turn, and use the Move Up/Down buttons
to define the hierarchy. The primary column must be higher than a subordinate
column.

Click OK.

13.3.3.3

About the Clash Factors

The Report dialog box enables you to rank the clashes and the re-use violations by
sorting the rows based on the distance between cells. However, this distance cannot
help to indicate whether the cells are pointing towards or away from each other.
Also, a pair of cells with large coverage areas may interfere with each other more than
a pair cells with the small coverage areas, even though the distances between the cells
is the same.
The Clash Factor (a number between 0 and 3) tries to account for this. The higher the
number, the worse the clash.
The report shows the 'Clash Factor' in the right pane, and the maximum of these
('Max Clash Factor') in the left pane.
How the Clash Factor is Calculated
In the case of two cells A and B, the Clash Factor for cell A is a measure of how much
A affects B, and is calculated as follows:
Scenario

Clash Factor Formula for Cell A

Explanation

A and B are colocated.

Clash Factor =
(3 - Angular Separation/180)

Cells that are co-located have the most severe Clash Factors
(between 2 and 3 inclusive). The smaller the angular separation
between clashing antennas, the higher the Clash Factor.

A and B are not


co-located, and
B is outside As
capture region.

Clash Factor = 0

Zero Clash Factor, since A is not pointing towards B.

A and B are not Clash Factor =


Cells that are not co-located have Clash Factors of 1 or lower.
co-located and B
(Distance to nearest non-co-located
Example 1:
is inside As
capture region". cell in As capture region) / ( Distance Distance to B = 10km, and B is the nearest cell in As capture
to B )
region. Clash Factor = 1
Example 2:
Distance to B = 10km, and the nearest cell in As capture region is
2km. Clash Factor = 0.2
The clash factor is lower in Example 2, because Cell A probably has
a smaller coverage area than in Example 1.

For the purposes of the calculations, the "capture region" is a sector of angular width
equal to twice the antennas 3dB beamwidth. For example, if cell A has an antenna
with a bearing of 40, and a beamwidth of 60, then the capture region is a sector with
a bearing of 40 and an angular width of 120.
For cells with multiple antennas and/or repeaters, a capture region is calculated for
each antenna, and then, from all the combinations of antennas on A and B, the highest
Clash Factor is reported.

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13.4 Session Summary Checklist


This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
Setting up Scrambling Code Schemas
Running the Scrambling Code Planner
Analysing the Scrambling Code Report

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 14

14 Configuring HSPA
14.1 Objectives of this Session
In this session you will learn about:
HSPA technology overview
Configuring ASSET for HSPA:

Defining Resources

Defining Node Types and Resource Limits

Enabling AAS Support (including MIMO)

Enabling HSPA for cells in the Site Database

Adding Bearers, Services and Terminal Types

Using CQI Tables for HSDPA

Performing Simulations for HSPA


Viewing HSDPA and HSUPA Arrays

14.2 Configuring HSPA Support


High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) technology is an enhancement of the WCDMA air
interface that supports data communication services with high data rates and low
latency. HSPA standards are defined by 3GPP Release 5 (HSDPA - downlink) and
Release 6 (HSUPA - uplink). The higher data rates are achieved by adaptive
modulation and coding.
HSPA Evolution (HSPA+) represents a further evolution of HSPA functionality (for
both HSDPA and HSUPA) toward even higher data rates, lower latency and better
spectrum utilisation. The standards for HSPA+ are defined in 3GPP Release 7.
ASSET supports HSPA+.

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14.3 Defining UMTS Resources


ASSET enables you to name up to 6 types of resources for your network. By default,
these types are set as: Channels, Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, Type 4 and Type 5.
In any new project, the first resource (Channels) exists by default as a node resource
in the Site Database, but this can be modified if required. If required, one of the
resources can be designated for HSDPA.
To make changes to the UMTS resources:
1

From the Configuration menu, click UMTS Resources.

In the UMTS Resources dialog box, you can, optionally:

Rename any of the resources

Preset any resource as 'per Cell' by selecting the Air Interface option
(do not select this if you intend the resource to be 'per Node', or 'per Carrier')

Set a unique resource to be dedicated to HSDPA


If you are using HSDPA within your network, you must set up one of the
resources to represent HSDPA Codes.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

When you have defined your resources, you can set up Node Types. These enable you
to define different combinations of the resources for your network, and decide
whether they are per Node, per Cell or per Carrier.

14.4 Defining Node Types


When you have defined and named your resources, you can set up Node Types.
These enable you to define different combinations of the resources for your network,
and decide whether they are a node, cell or carrier resource.
A resource can be already fixed as 'per cell' in the UMTS Resources dialog box.
To define and edit Node Types:
1

Ensure you have defined the UMTS Resources.

From the Equipment menu, click Node Types.

In the Node Types dialog box that appears, click Add, or select a Node Type that
already exists.

On the General tab, you can name or rename the Node Type.

On the Resources Types tab, you can select up to three resources and set the
pooling method for each one as Node, Carrier or Cell.
This is preset as 'per Cell' if you selected the Air Interface option in the UMTS
Resources dialog box.

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On the Default Limits tab, you can set default limits for the resources.
If an HSDPA resource has been selected, only two of the limits are applicable,
with default limits of 15.

On the Load Control tab, you can enable overflow control limits (if you have more
than one carrier) and/or automatic calculation of Tx power limits. This enables
you to set these values on the Load&Power Ctrl tab of any cells in the Site
Database that are assigned with this Node Type.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

If you are implementing HSDPA in your network, you must ensure that at least
one of your Node Types is set up to include the HSDPA Code resources that you have
previously defined in the UMTS Resources dialog box. You must then ensure that the
parent node of HSDPA-supporting cells is set to use the correct Node Type. This is
essential to enable the Simulator to analyse the performance of HSDPA data services.
When you have set up one or more Node Types, you can set the resource limits in the
Site Database. For information on how to do this, see Setting the Node Type and
Resource Limits for a Node on page 99 and Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS
Cells on page 103.

14.5 Setting the Node Type and Resource Limits for


a Node
On the Resource tab for a node in the Site Database, you can assign a Node Type, and
specify the resource limits for the node.
To do this:
1

Ensure you have set up the resource details. For more information, see About
UMTS Resources and Node Types on page 93.

In the Site Database, select the appropriate Node, and then click the Resource tab.

From the Node Type drop-down box, select the Node Type you want to assign.
If this node is to support HSDPA, ensure you select a Node Type which has
been configured with HSDPA resources.

On the Limits sub-tab:

Set the required values for the resource limits


or

Use the default limits from the Node Type

On the Config Summary sub-tab, you can check your resource limits, by clicking
on the Cell ID or Carrier, as appropriate. The limits are displayed in the lower
pane of the tab.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

If you want to set limits at the cell level, see Setting the Resource Limits for UMTS
Cells on page 103.
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The above steps can be carried out for multiple cells by using the Global editor
(Node Config tab). They can also be pre-set in the Templates dialog box.

14.6 Using AAS Support for UMTS or HSPA


The following AAS (Advanced Antenna System) options are supported within ASSET
for a UMTS or HSPA network:
Receive Diversity
Transmit Diversity
MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing) (HSPA only)
MIMO increases the cell's throughput, but causes an increase in the Eb/No
requirement. Diversity, on the other hand, utilises the multiple antenna elements to
assist the radio signal to be delivered for a lower Eb/No requirement.
On the Antennas tab for a cell in the Site Database, you can select any of these
settings, as described in Assigning Antennas to UMTS Cells on page 271.
If any of the AAS settings are enabled for a cell, and if the bearers have been set to use
AAS Tables, the calculations involving Eb/No requirements and throughput data rate
are adjusted with user-defined offsets stored in the UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters
look-up tables.
Use of the UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters tables is automatic if you use the
HSDPA CQI Tables to determine which downlink bearers are to be used on your
HSPA services. In the case of manually defined UMTS or HSPA bearers, you can,
optionally, choose to 'Use AAS Tables' (for diversity) when you define the bearers.
To view the look-up tables:
1

From the Configuration Menu, point to Lookup Tables and Curves.

Click UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters.

The UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters dialog box appears:

Example of the Look-Up Tables for the Advanced Antenna System Parameters

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The tables contain the adjustment values (to required Eb/No and user data rate)
corresponding to the number of TX elements from the cell and the number of RX
elements from the terminal type.
If you have the relevant permissions, you can edit these values.
Notes:
The numbers of TX elements are specified on the Antennas tab for a cell in the Site
Database.
For HSPA, the terminal type RX elements are specified on the HSPA tab of the
Terminal Types dialog box.
For UMTS, the terminal type RX elements are always 1.
You can also specify clutter-specific adjustments to the values that already exist in
the UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters. If you want to do this, see Setting UMTS
Clutter Parameters on page 167.

14.6.1

How the UMTS/HSPA AAS Look-Up Tables Are Used

If AAS (Advanced Antenna System) schemes are supported in your UMTS or HSPA
network, the following table describes the impacts that each option (if enabled on the
Antennas tab for a cell in the Site Database) can have on the results of a simulation of
network performance:
Site Database Cell Option Look-Up Table
(Antennas tab)
(Tab Name)

Impact on Simulation of Network Performance

DL MIMO
(Spatial Multiplexing)

DL SM Eb/No Adjustment

Required DL Eb/No is increased by the corresponding table value.

- and -

- and -

DL SM Rate Gain

Achievable User Data Rate is scaled up by the corresponding table


value.

TX Diversity

DL SD Eb/No Adjustment

Required DL Eb/No is scaled down by the corresponding table value.

RX Diversity

UL SD Eb/No Adjustment

Required UL Eb/No is scaled down by the corresponding table value.

(HSPA only)

The table values consider any clutter-specific adjustments, if these have been
defined in the UMTS Clutter Parameters dialog box.
Here are some examples:
Example 1: Cell using DL MIMO Spatial Multiplexing
For a connection which uses a bearer with an Eb/No requirement of 8dB.
If the number of TX and RX Elements gives a DL SM Eb/No table value of 1.0000, and a DL SM
Rate Gain table value of 2.0000.
The original Eb/No requirement of 8dB will be increased by 1.0000, giving an adjusted Eb/No
requirement of 9dB, and the achievable user data rate will be doubled.

Example 2a: Cell using TX Diversity


For a connection which uses a bearer with an Eb/No requirement of 8dB.
If the number of TX and RX Elements gives a DL SD Eb/No table value of 4.0000.
The original Eb/No requirement of 8dB will be divided by 4.0000, giving an adjusted Eb/No
requirement of 2dB.
(The same principle applies to RX Diversity, using the UL SD Eb/No table.)
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Example 2b: Cell using TX Diversity and Clutter-specific Parameters have been
defined
For a connection which uses a bearer with an Eb/No requirement of 8dB.
If the number of TX and RX Elements give a DL SD Eb/No table value of 4.0000, and the
corresponding adjustment value for the clutter type has been defined in the UMTS Clutter
Parameters as 0.5.
The original Eb/No requirement of 8dB will be divided by (4.0000 0.5), giving an adjusted
Eb/No requirement of 4dB.

14.6.2

Setting Clutter-specific Adjustments to the AAS


Parameters

For UMTS, if your cells and terminal types support AAS, you can optionally set four
clutter-specific parameters:
DL SD Eb/No Adjustment
DL SM Eb/No Adjustment
DL SM Rate Gain
UL SM Eb/No Adjustment
These four parameters can be used to make clutter-specific adjustments to the Eb/No
and data rate values that already exist in the UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters dialog
box. See How the UMTS/HSPA AAS Look-Up Tables Are Used on page 269.
This table describes how these parameters adjust the existing values in the
UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters:
Parameter

Value Range

Impact on UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters Table Values

DL SD Eb/No
Adjustment

Factor between
0.01 and 1

If less than 1, it reduces the existing value in the corresponding UMTS/HSPA


AAS Parameters table.

Value between
-40db and +40dB

It is added to the value in the corresponding UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters


table.

DL SM Rate Gain
UL SM Eb/No
Adjustment
DL SM Eb/No
Adjustment

There is an in-built logic that prevents the resulting adjusted Eb/No values
becoming greater than the original value on the bearer, or the user data rate becoming
smaller.
To define clutter-specific adjustments to the values that already exist in the
UMTS/HSPA AAS Parameters:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Clutter Parameters.


(Depending on your licensed technologies, you may then need to click UMTS.)

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Specify the appropriate values.

Click OK.

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(The primary purpose of the clutter parameters is to store environmental factors, such
as indoor/outdoor shadow fading standard deviations, indoor loss, and
orthogonality, so that they can be used to influence simulations. For more general
information about the Clutter Parameters dialog box, see Setting UMTS Clutter
Parameters on page 167.)

14.7 Assigning Antennas to UMTS Cells


On the Antennas tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database (or in the Templates dialog
box), you can:
Assign antennas to each cell
This is dependent on the antennas that have been added to the parent node
Configure the feeder type and length
Set the Mast Head Amplifier (MHA) type and gain
The gain value cannot be higher than the maximum gain limit specified in the
Equipment database for that MHA
Specify whether the antenna supports AAS (Advanced Antenna System) settings,
if appropriate to your network:

DL MIMO (Spatial Multiplexing)


The MIMO setting is only relevant for HSPA-enabled cells; MIMO support
also needs to be enabled on the appropriate terminal type(s).

Transmit diversity

Receive diversity

If you select any of the AAS settings, you need to specify the number of TX or RX
antennas, as appropriate.
MIMO increases the cell's throughput, but causes an increase in the Eb/No
requirement. Diversity, on the other hand, utilises the multiple antenna elements
to assist the radio signal to be delivered for a lower Eb/No requirement.
If any of the AAS settings are selected, and if the bearers have been set to use
AAS Tables, the calculations involving Eb/No requirements and throughput data
rate are adjusted with user-defined offsets stored in the UMTS/HSPA AAS
Parameters look-up tables. For more information, see Using AAS Support for
UMTS or HSPA on page 268.
If an assigned antenna is activated as a connected repeater, you can configure the
uplink and downlink gains, the noise figure, and other downlink losses.
After making any changes on this tab, ensure that you Apply and Commit the
changes, as required.
The above steps can be carried out for multiple cells by using the Global editor.
They can also be pre-set in the Templates dialog box.

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14.8 Enabling HSPA Support for UMTS Cells


On the HSPA tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box, you
can enable HSDPA support and/or HSUPA support.
You should also read the general information on using HSPA in ASSET. See
Configuring HSPA Support on page 265. In particular, you should check that the
Node Type selected for the parent node of the cell has been configured with HSDPA
resources.
To set up HSPA on a UMTS cell in the Site Database:
1

In the Site Database, select the required UMTS cell and click the HSPA tab.

Then, depending on your network configuration, select:

Enable HSDPA
- and/or -

Enable HSUPA

Specify the cell's HSDPA capabilities (if enabled):

Maximum Supported Modulation

Maximum Supported Block Size

Code Multiplexing Support

Specify the cell's HSUPA capabilities (if enabled):

Maximum number of HSUPA codes

Minimum SF (spreading factor)

Support 2ms TTI (transmission time interval)

Support for 4PAM

Apply and commit your changes as required.

The above steps can be carried out for multiple nodes and cells by using the Global
editor. They can also be pre-set in the Templates dialog box. For more information,
see the ENTERPRISE User Reference Guide.
You also need to specify the cell's HSPA-specific powers. See Setting the HSPA
Parameters on the Cell Params Tab on page 273.

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14.9 Setting the HSPA Parameters on the Cell


Params Tab
On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
there is a category for HSPA Parameters. If this is applicable to your network
configuration, you can set the following:
Parameter

Description

HSDPA Power

The HSDPA Power for the cell, if enabled for HSDPA.


When you run a simulation that models HSDPA, you can specify to use Dynamic power
allocation. If you do not specify this, it will default to Non-Dynamic power allocation.
If you use Non-Dynamic, a HSDPA user (or a number of users if code multiplexing is
enabled) will be served with the HSDPA Power value, regardless of their location relative
to the cell.
If you use Dynamic, HSDPA users will be served either with the HSDPA power value or (if
it is lower) the available power on the cell. Therefore, you should ensure that the HSDPA
power value is set accordingly.

HS-SCCH Power

The power on the High Speed Shared Control Channel. This is the maximum transmit
power for HS-SCCH per HSDPA user.

Dynamic HS-SCCH Power

This parameter indicates how the HS-SCCH power is set:


False = static; True = dynamic.
If this parameter is set to False, the value in HS-SCCH Power is used to transmit the HSSCCH channel. If it is set to True, then the HS-SCCH channel is transmitted using enough
power to meet the HS-SCCH quality requirement of the terminal (and the value in HSSCCH Power is always an upper limit of that power).

Fixed HSDPA Power

This constraint parameter only affects ADVANTAGE users. See the ADVANTAGE User
Reference Guide.

E-AGCH Power

The power on the E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an editable Activity Factor, and an option to switch the
channel completely OFF.

E-RGCH Power

The power on the E-DCH Relative Grant Channel.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an editable Activity Factor, and an option to switch the
channel completely OFF.

E-HICH Power

The power on the E-DCH HARQ Acknowledgement Indicator Channel.


You can either set this directly, or by using the Pilot Power Offset (this has no effect on the
actual Pilot Power). There is also an editable Activity Factor, and an option to switch the
channel completely OFF.

You also need to enable HSPA support for the cell. See Enabling HSPA Support
for UMTS Cells on page 272.

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14.10 Setting the Cell Load Levels on the Cell


Params Tab
On the Cell Params tab for a UMTS cell in the Site Database or Templates dialog box,
there is a Cell Load Levels category, which can optionally be used when running a
simulation.
You can set the following:
Parameter

Description

Mean Achieved UL Noise Rise

Uplink noise rise on the cell.

Mean UMTS DL Traffic Power

Time-averaged UMTS downlink traffic power for the cell.


Excludes any HSDPA power.

Mean HSDPA DL Traffic Power

Time-averaged HSDPA downlink traffic power for the cell.


Only relevant if the cell supports HSDPA.

Mean HS-SCCH Power

Time-averaged HS-SCCH power for the cell.


Only relevant if the cell supports HSDPA.

These parameter values can either be set manually here on the Cell Params tab, or
they can be automatically populated after running a simulation. For more
information, see Writing Cell Loading Parameters to the Database on page 227.

14.11 Using CQI Tables for HSDPA


When you are specifying the downlink bearers to be used on a UMTS service that
supports HSDPA, instead of manually defining and assigning your bearers, you can
choose to use HSDPA CQI Tables to determine which downlink bearers are used on a
service.
ASSET enables you to define the HSDPA CQI tables to suit your exact requirements.
Basically, each CQI table represents a set of predefined UMTS bearers for which you
can specify the Eb/No Requirement values.
The HSDPA CQI Table Editor comprises nine HSDPA CQI tables (A-I). Each table has
the following columns: CQI Index, Block Size, Modulation, Number of Codes, Coding
Rates, Eb/No Requirement, SINR Requirement (per code), SINR Requirement (total),
a range of speed offsets, and six resource consumption columns.
The last two CQI tables (H and I) are MIMO tables.
When you edit the Eb/No Requirement, both the SINR Requirement columns are
automatically recalculated and updated. At any time, you can reset these values to the
defaults, using the Defaults button.
To view the look-up tables:

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From the Configuration Menu, click Lookup Tables and Curves.

Click HSDPA CQI Tables.

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The HSDPA CQI Table Editor appears:

Example of the Look-Up Tables for the HSDPA CQI Tables

If you have the relevant permissions, you can edit the values that are within the white
columns.
To do this:
1

Highlight it with the mouse, edit it, and then press Enter after each change.

Apply and, optionally, Commit the changes you have made, or click Close if you
want to ignore them.

You can quickly and easily edit the values by copying and pasting any groups of
values. If you do this across both white and grey columns, the grey columns will
always remain unchanged. The values can also be copied and pasted from or to an
Excel spreadsheet.
When changes are Applied to any CQI tables, validity checks are run to ensure
that the SINR Requirement (total) values are ascending with respect to the CQI
indexes.
If you choose this method, you need to select
on the UMTS DL
Bearers tab of the Services dialog box. This is described in Adding a UMTS HSPA
Service on page 164.

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14.12

Adding HSDPA Bearers

When you are specifying the downlink bearers to be used on a UMTS service that
supports HSDPA, instead of manually defining and assigning your bearers, you can
choose to use HSDPA CQI Tables to determine which downlink bearers are used on
that service. See Using CQI Tables for HSDPA on page 274.
You cannot add a HSDPA bearer unless a UMTS resource has been dedicated to
HSDPA (See Defining UMTS Resources on page 94).
To add a HSDPA bearer:
1

From the Configuration menu, click Bearers, or, if you have more than one
technology activated, point to Bearers and click UMTS+HSPA.

In the dialog box that appears, click Add.

Ensure you select HSPA from the technology drop-down box, and then name the
bearer.

Select the Link Direction to be Downlink.


Each link direction radio button will only activate the appropriate tabs.

Specify the required parameters on each tab.


This table describes the parameters for HSDPA bearers:
Tab

Description

Bearers

The Air Interface (bps) value is automatically calculated, and depends on the modulation
scheme and number of HSDPA codes used by the bearer. (This value can also optionally be
used to calculate the activity factors in the Services dialog box.) For more information see
About HSDPA Bearer Parameters on page 277.
The User (bps) value is automatically calculated and is used in the Throughput Reports.
Select the MIMO Supported checkbox if you want to flag the bearer as a MIMO bearer. (If
you select MIMO, the AAS Tables option on the Eb/No Values & Speed Delta tab is
automatically selected.)
Set the Modulation to either QPSK, 16QAM or 64QAM.
Set the Coding Rate.
The Block Size is automatically calculated, but it is user-editable, if required.
Set the number of HSDPA (resource) codes.
Set any non-HSDPA resource consumption, if applicable (the Resource Types can be
configured in the Node Types dialog box).
When the terminal is active it will consume a fraction of the available resources on each
snapshot. For example, if a terminal needed to transmit 50mW, and its activity factor in the
Services dialog box was set to 20%, it would actually transmit 10mW. It would also consume
20% of its channels.

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Tab

Description

Eb/No Values & Speed Delta

Select the Use AAS Tables checkbox if you want the Simulator to use the table values to
make adjustments for diversity. (The AAS Tables option is automatically selected if you have
already selected MIMO on the Bearers tab.)
Set the Downlink Eb/No requirements according to the Air Interface bitrate. This is used to
determine the SINR requirement for the bearer. For more information see About HSDPA
Bearer Parameters on page 277.
The Eb/No requirement must be specified on a 'per code' basis. That means that you
do not need to adjust the value according to the number of HDSPA codes specified on the
bearer.
If some of the cells in the network make use of antenna systems with Tx and/or Rx diversity,
then you should also specify lower Eb/No Diversity requirements to allow for improved
signals (this is deactivated if AAS Tables are used).
In the Eb/No Speed Dependency pane, you can enter values to act as additional offsets (in
dB) to adjust the basic Eb/No requirements specified above. If you choose to enter any
values which depend on Mobile Speed, the Simulator would only take account of such
values if statistical variations of Mobile Speed have been specified on the Clutter tab of the
UMTS Terminal Types.

Apply and commit your changes as required.

Now you can associate this bearer with a service.

14.12.1

About HSDPA Bearer Parameters

When you are setting parameters for an HSDPA bearer, you should take account of
the following:
HSDPA has a fixed spreading factor of 16
The Block Size is calculated using the following equation:
Block Size = N CR (Bits/Subframe)
Where:
CR is Coding Rate
Bits/Subframe are: 960 for QPSK, 1920 for 16QAM, and 2880 for 64QAM
The Air Interface bitrate is automatically calculated to provide the correct
processing gain in the link budget
The effective processing gain is given by: G = 16 / MN
The Air Interface bitrate is given by:

W/G

Where:
G

Downlink processing gain

Modulation Scheme (2 for QPSK, 4 for 16QAM, 6 for 64QAM)

Number of HSDPA Codes used

System Chip Rate (as set on Simulator)

The SINR requirement for a bearer is automatically calculated, and depends on


what you set for the Eb/No, the modulation scheme, and the number of codes
used.
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The SINR requirement for a bearer is given by:

A full explanation of these equations can be found in a document named UMTS


Static Simulations, which contains comprehensive details of all the UMTS algorithms
and outputs related to the Simulator. If your company is registered for a customer
web account, and you know the login password, you can download this document.
To do this, log in to the Product Support page, click the User Reference Guides link,
select the relevant software version from the drop-down box, and then click 'UMTS
Static Simulations'.

14.13

Adding HSUPA Bearers

To add a HSUPA bearer:


1

From the Configuration menu, click Bearers, or, if you have more than one
technology activated, point to Bearers and click UMTS+HSPA.

In the dialog box that appears, click Add.

Ensure you select HSPA from the technology drop-down box, and then name the
bearer.

Select the Link Direction to be Uplink.


Each link direction radio button will only activate the appropriate tabs.

Specify the required parameters on each tab.


This table describes the parameters for HSUPA bearers:
Tab

Description

Bearers

The Air Interface (bps) value is automatically calculated, depending on the other parameters
(this value can also optionally be used to calculate the activity factors in the Services dialog
box).
The User (bps) value is automatically calculated and is used in the Throughput Reports.
Set the E-DPCCH Overhead Factor percentage. This is the power of the E-DPCCH relative
to the E-DCH power.
Set the Modulation to either BPSK or 4PAM.
Set the Coding Rate.
Set the TTI to either 2 or 10.
Set the SF Combo (the number of HSUPA codes in a bearer is implicitly given by this SF
combination, for example, 2SF2+2SF4 represents four codes).
Set any non-HSDPA resource consumption, if applicable (the Resource Types can be
configured in the Node Types dialog box).
When the terminal is active it will consume a fraction of the available resources on each
snapshot. For example, if a terminal needed to transmit 50mW, and its activity factor in the
Services dialog box was set to 20%, it would actually transmit 10mW. It would also consume
20% of its channels.

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Tab

Description

Eb/No Values & Speed Delta

Select the Use AAS Tables checkbox if you want the Simulator to use the table values to
make adjustments for diversity.
Set the Uplink Eb/No requirements according to the Air Interface bitrate. This is used to
determine the SINR requirement for the bearer.
The Eb/No requirement must be specified on a 'per code' basis. That means that you
do not need to adjust the value according to the number of HSUPA codes specified on the
bearer.
If some of the cells in the network make use of antenna systems with Tx and/or Rx diversity,
then you should also specify lower Eb/No Diversity requirements to allow for improved
signals (this is deactivated if AAS Tables are used).
In the Eb/No Speed Dependency pane, you can enter values to act as additional offsets (in
dB) to adjust the basic Eb/No requirements specified above. If you choose to enter any
values which depend on Mobile Speed, the Simulator would only take account of such
values if statistical variations of Mobile Speed have been specified on the Clutter tab of the
UMTS Terminal Types.

Power Control

You can specify how the Power Control Headroom (fast fade margin) and the Average
(interfering) Power Rise (to other cells) varies in dB according to the mobile speed.

TXP Gain

A mobile in soft handover can experience an uplink gain, which allows the mobile to transmit
at lower power. This gain for mobile Tx power (TXP) depends on both the mobile speed, and
the difference between the best two achieved uplink Eb/No values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

PR Gain

Fast power control causes a mobiles Tx power to vary in a way which causes a rise in the
average interference experienced in surrounding cells. This average power rise (PR) for the
interference caused by the mobile is lower for mobiles in soft handover. This "gain depends
on both the mobile speed, and the difference between the best two achieved uplink Eb/No
values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

PCH Gain

Mobiles at a cell edge transmit at higher powers than those nearer to the base station, and
so are more likely to have difficulty dealing with deep fades near the cell edge. To model
this, a Power Control Headroom (PCH) is added to the link budget. This margin is smaller for
mobiles in soft handover. This "gain depends on both the mobile speed, and the difference
between the best two achieved uplink Eb/No values.
You can edit the gains (in dB) for each Speed/Delta combination.

If you choose to specify any values which depend on Mobile Speed, the
Simulator would only take account of such values if statistical variations of Mobile
Speed have been specified on the Clutter tab of the UMTS Terminal Types.
6

Apply and commit your changes as required.

Now you can associate this bearer with a service.

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14.14

Adding a UMTS HSPA Service

To add a UMTS service that supports HSPA:


1

From the Configuration menu, click Services (if you have more than one
technology activated, you may then need to click UMTS).

In the Services dialog box, click Add to create a new service.

Select the new service and type a new name for it. It is useful to describe the type
of service that it represents.

Assign a service prioritisation number for the service (1 represents the highest
priority). This is used during the simulations of network performance, where the
terminals in a snapshot are prioritised according to the service they support.
Multiple services can be assigned the same priority (if so, their priority in a
simulation is randomised).

There are various tabs where you can specify information such as traffic
characteristics, supported carriers, and supported bearers. The tabs are described
in the following table:
Tab

Description

General

For an HSPA service, when you specify the traffic characteristic, ensure that you set this to Non
Real Time Data (Packet Switched).
You can also specify whether the service supports soft handovers.
If you use the Financial Analysis module, you can specify an ARPU value in the Service Revenue
pane. This is only necessary if you use the Service Based Revenue source method.
ARPU = Average Revenue Per User (or Unit).

Carriers/Cell Layers

You can select which carriers or cell layers are supported in the service you are defining.
If you are also allocating cell layers, the cell layers are listed after the available 3g carriers. (Cell
layers are only relevant to 2g networks, but they can be used here to model a joint UMTS/GSM
service.)
To allocate a carrier or cell layer:
In the left pane, select a carrier or cell layer, then click the
button for de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

You can set the order in which the Simulator should attempt the allocated carriers/cell layers by
clicking the Up and Down arrows.
If, instead, you want the Simulator to randomise the order in which carriers are attempted, you
can select the Ignore Priorities checkbox. If you are modelling a joint service, you must then
select to prioritise either 2g or 3g (if it is not a joint service, this has no effect).

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Tab

Description

UMTS UL Bearers

You can select which available HSUPA/HSDPA bearers are supported in the service, using the
respective tabs. To do this:

and
UMTS DL Bearers

First, ensure you select the correct carrier from the Carriers drop-down box. Then in, the left
pane, select the required bearer(s), and click the
de-allocation.)

button. (You can use the

button for

You can use the Sort button to automatically prioritise multiple bearers by their User (bps) value.
Alternatively, you can prioritise the bearers manually using the Up and Down arrow buttons. This
determines the order in which the Simulator attempts the bearers.
The power and resource activity factors of the supported bearers are non-editable if the
'Recalculate from Packet Model' option is selected on the Packet Switched tab. However, if the
'Override Packet Model' option is selected, you can edit these factors manually. You can either:
Edit the power and resource factors individually, or
Specify an overall single-value Service Rate in bps.
If you use the Service Rate option, the factors are automatically recalculated (service rate divided
by user rate) as you type a value. But, if required, you can still edit individual factors manually
after typing the service rate.
In the case of the downlink, instead of manually defining and assigning your bearers, you
can choose to use HSDPA CQI Tables to determine which downlink bearers are used on the
service. (This option is only active if a UMTS resource has been dedicated to HSDPA.)
To do use the CQI Tables:
On the UMTS DL Bearers tab, select
. When this option is selected, the
only parameter on the UMTS DL Bearers tab that remains active is the overall Service Rate
option.
Packet Switched

See Setting the Packet Switched Parameters for a Service on page 165.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

14.15 Adding a Terminal Type for UMTS with HSPA


Setting up a UMTS terminal type that supports HSPA is similar to setting up a UMTS
terminal type. The only difference is that you need to specify the terminal type's
HSDPA/HSUPA capabilities on the HSPA tab, and define one extra parameter on the
Terminal Params tab.
To set up a UMTS terminal type that supports HSPA:
1

Follow the steps described in Adding a Terminal Type for UMTS on page 168.

Click on the HSPA tab.

If appropriate, select 'Enable HSDPA'. From the Terminal Category drop-down


list, you can either:

Select one of the preset categories based on the 3GPP standard


- or -

Select the Custom option

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If you choose a preset category, the following parameters are set automatically:
- Maximum Supported Modulation
- Maximum Supported Block Size
- Maximum number of HSDPA codes
- Number of RX antennas
- MIMO Support
If you choose the Custom option, you can manually set the above parameters.
Regardless of whether you choose a preset or custom category, you can also set:

The Chip Equalisation Support efficiency factor (combats intra-cell


interference)

The Interference Cancellation Support efficiency factor (combats inter-cell


interference)

If appropriate, select 'Enable HSUPA'. From the Terminal Category drop-down


list, you can either:

Select one of the preset categories based on the 3GPP standard


- or -

Select the Custom option

If you choose a preset category, the following parameters are set automatically:
- Maximum number of HSUPA codes
- Minimum SF (spreading factor)
- Support 2ms TTI (transmission time interval)
- Support for 4PAM
If you choose the Custom option, you can manually set the above parameters.

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Click on the Terminal Params tab.

In addition to the UMTS-related parameters, ensure you set the HSPA-specific


parameter:
Parameter

Description

Required HS-SCCH Ec/Nt

This represents the HS-SCCH quality requirement for a HSDPA link to be allowed.

On the Clutter and/or Vectors tabs, define how the terminal type will be
distributed over the Map View when a traffic raster is created. The flexible
methods of distribution are generic to all technologies, and therefore are described
fully in a separate section. See Determining the Distribution of Traffic on page 170.

Apply and Commit your changes as required.

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14.16

Using the Simulator for UMTS with HSPA

When performing a network performance simulation that includes HSPA, you use
the Simulator Wizard in the same way as for UMTS, as described on page 210.
However, you should pay special attention to the simulation options on Step 2 of the
wizard, as described here:

Simulation Parameters - lower section

This table describes the HSDPA options:


Simulation Parameter

Description

HSDPA Scheduling

If applicable, choose one of the scheduling strategies: Round Robin, Max Ec/Io, or Proportional Fair.
Only the terminals that support HSDPA will be sorted, even if they do not end up using a HSDPA
bearer.

HSDPA Dynamic Power


Allocation

When you run a simulation that models HSDPA, you can specify to use Dynamic power allocation. If you
do not select this option, the simulation will use Non-Dynamic power allocation.
The HSDPA power for a cell is specified on the Cell Params tab in the Site Database.
If you use Non-Dynamic, all HSDPA users will be served with the HSDPA power value, regardless
of their location relative to the cell.
If you use Dynamic, HSDPA users will be served either with the HSDPA power value or (if it is
lower) the available power on the cell. Therefore, with this method, you should ensure that the
HSDPA power value is set accurately.

14.17

HSPA Array Outputs

There are a range of arrays that can be produced for HSDPA and HSUPA.
Here is an example of one of the arrays:

Example of the HSDPA - SINR Array

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14.18

Session Summary Checklist

This checklist has been provided as a self-assessment of the objectives stated at the
beginning of the session.
Please tick all objectives covered in this session:
HSPA technology overview
Configuring ASSET for HSPA:

Defining Resources

Defining Node Types and Resource Limits

Enabling AAS Support (including MIMO)

Enabling HSPA for cells in the Site Database

Adding Bearers, Services and Terminal Types

Using CQI Tables for HSDPA

Performing Simulations for HSPA


Viewing HSDPA and HSUPA Arrays

Additional Notes:

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SECTION 15

15 What's New in ASSET


7.0?
In ASSET 7.0, the following additional features are now available.

15.1 LTE Support


ASSET 7.0 provides complete planning/dimensioning capabilities for LTE, and these
capabilities are highly flexible to meet the varying requirements and demands of
different network operators and vendors.
ASSET provides a flexible approach to planning and analysing different service types
by using a combination of service types, terminal types and terminal density arrays.
The static simulation provides a wide range of output arrays and reports.
The LTE functionality includes:
Frame Structures
Frequency Bands
Carrier definitions (including signalling/control overheads and intercell
interference coordination schemes)
Advanced Antenna System support
Site Database network element parameters for LTE
Using the Coverage Wizard
Traffic modelling: bearers, services, terminal types, clutter parameters
Planning Physical Cell Identities
Simulator Wizard
Interference Table Wizard
Frequency Planning

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15.2 Antenna Instance IDs


ASSET 7.0 now enables you to specify an Antenna Instance ID. This is optional, and
you can use it to uniquely identify each antenna instance in the network.
This parameter is available on the Antennas tab for a cell in the Sit e Database, and
may be very useful if your network uses a distributed antenna system (DAS), where
there are many antennas assigned to a single cell (or any similar scenario). It enables
you to give a unique identity to each antenna instance on such cells, which helps to
identify individual antennas when using the Map View, creating Filters, using the Site
or Cell Quick Edit, or generating Site/Node Reports.
Here is an example of how this can help to select the correct antenna when using the
Map View for antenna re-orientation:

Example of how Antenna Instance IDs can facilitate antenna selection on the Map View

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15.3 Google Earth Support


ASSET 7.0 now includes KML as one of the standard GIS export formats. This means
it is now possible to export map information from ASSET which can then be
displayed in Google Earth:

Example of ASSET map information exported into Google Earth

In addition to KML, ENTERPRISE can also produce GeoTIFF exports. To import


GeoTIFF images into Google Earth, you should use Google Earth Pro.

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You can also link your ENTERPRISE Map View with Google Earth, so that when you
pan or zoom on the map, Google Earth opens, shows the same view, and reflects any
panning and zooming performed:

Example of 2D View and corresponding Google Earth view

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15.4 Extended Character Set Support


ENTERPRISE 7.0 supports the use of extended character sets for the following
products:
ASSET
ADVANTAGE
ASSET ACP
As an example of an extended character set, you can now use Chinese characters in
the majority of the user interface.
For information on configuring ENTERPRISE to support Chinese characters, see the
Installation and Administration Guide.
For information on the user interface locations where you can type Chinese
characters, and the associated database tables and fields, see the ENTERPRISE
Technical Reference Guide.
This picture shows an example of using an extended character set in the Site
Database:

Example of Site Database supporting Extended Character Sets

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15.5 Licensing Configurations and Permissions


ENTERPRISE 7.0 provides an improved licensing system.
Configuring License Distribution in ENTERPRISE Administrator
System administrators can control the distribution of licences to users via the Licence
Administration tabs in the Group Properties and User Properties dialog boxes in
ENTERPRISE Administrator.
Here is an example:

Example of Licence Administration tabs in the Group Properties

For more information about how licensing configurations and permissions can be
controlled by the system administrator, and further licensing information, see the
ENTERPRISE Installation and Administration Guide.

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User Controlling their Licence Usage in ENTERPRISE


Users can control their licence use via the Licence Administrator in ENTERPRISE.
The Licence Administrator enables you to view and edit the licences that are available
to you after logging in to the database.
As an ENTERPRISE user, you can use the Licence Administrator to:
Get licences
Drop licences
Check out (commute) licences for usage remote from the network server, based on
a specified number of days
Edit the Startup option to determine your default licence configuration
Here is an example of the Licence Administrator dialog box:

Example of Licence Administrator dialog box

For more information about using the Licence Administrator, see the ENTERPRISE
User Reference Guide.

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Index

editing 108
viewing attributes as screentips 47
Change reports 251
Clipboard arrays 157
Clutter parameters
UMTS 167
Codes
scrambling 255, 256, 260
Co-ordinates
setting 31
Coverage
pathloss predictions 145
statistics 242
CQI Tables, for HSDPA 274

A
AAS support
for UMTS or HSPA 268, 272
Algorithms
Monte Carlo 205
Prediction file caching algorithm 29, 30
Analysis
Monte Carlo 205, 206
Static Analysis 207
Static Simulation 205, 206
Antennas
distributed 104, 106
moving 104, 106
reorientating 104, 107
UMTS 271
Arrays
archiving 154, 157
clipboard 157
deleting 156
loading 155
managing 154
saving 154, 156, 157
specifying outputs from Simulator 215
traffic 174, 176, 179
Arrays Settings
Simulator tab 209
Attributes
adding to vectors 68
defining for a vector file feature 68
editing 70
traffic rasters 174
viewing as screentips 47
Auto Setup for specifying array outputs 215
Azimuths, changing 104, 106, 107

C
Caching algorithm for predictions 29
Carried traffic (Root)
above cell level 112
at cell level 111
Carried traffic
editing 114
viewing and editing 110
writing to database 228
Carriers
configuring 95
defining UMTS carriers 95
Cells
antennas 104, 106, 107, 271
configuring 96

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D
Data
loading 31
ordering 44
project 25
shared 26
viewing 44
viewing attributes as screentips 47
Databases
logging in 24
uncommitted changes 251
Delta reports 251
Display Schemas for arrays 150, 152
Displaying
attributes 47
neighbours 199, 200
traffic 179
Distribution Statistics, generating reports 174, 175,
242
Dual predictions, example 142

E
Editing
cells quickly 108
lines and polygons 69
sites quickly 108
vector file feature attributes 70
Examples
fields 118
Exporting
array data 239
data 239
MapInfo 40
pixel data 239

F
Fading
shadow fading 167
Failure conditions, simulator 223
Favourites
accessing 57
saving 57
Features
creating vector file features 64
using and managing vector file features 70
Fields
about 117
creating 118

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examples 118
Filters
about 129
adding 121, 123, 128
creating 121, 129, 131
deleting 134
editing 134
optimising 136
speeding up 136
using 129
Forcing repredictions 145

H
Height profile
cellular antenna tilts 104
Hierarchy tab
adding to filter 131
Holes, for polygons 74
HSDPA
node types 93, 94, 99
resources 93, 94, 99
HSPA
about 265
bearers 276, 278
configuring 265
enabling on cells 265, 272
services 164
terminal types 281
HSPA+ 265

I
Importing
vectors 78
Islands, for polygons 74

L
Lines
spreading traffic 68, 172, 174
Links
fields 118
Live traffic
creating a traffic raster 176
Locations, finding on map 49
Logging in, overview 24

M
Map data
projections 28
specifying 28
Map View
displaying attribute data on 47
saving 57
MapInfo, exporting to 40
Maps
displaying 44
displaying attribute data on 47
favourites 57
printing 58, 60
redrawing 44, 57
repositioning 57
saving views 57

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selecting items 46
size 31
vector file features 64
viewing 57
Monte Carlo static simulation
about 205, 208

N
Neighbours
about 181
adding 182, 185, 187, 194
analysing 190, 191
customising column details 183, 194
displaying 199
making mutual 202
planning 187
Network Configuration Report 250
Node types
defining 94
Nodes
adding 96
antennas 271
carriers 95
node types (UMTS) 94

O
Ordering, map data 44
Orthogonality Factor
in clutter parameters 167
in UMTS cell parameters 101

P
Parameters
simulation 229
suggested values for propagation models 88
Partial loading
about 31
Pathloss
predicting 145
Pixel Analyser, about 230, 231
Planning
scrambling codes 255, 256, 258
Points
attributes 68, 174
creating 64
spreading traffic 68, 172, 174
Vector Manager 64
Polygons
attributes 68, 174
creating 64
holes and islands 74
spreading traffic 68, 172, 174
Vector Manager 64
Population Statistics, generating reports 68, 174, 175,
242
Prediction file management 29, 30
Predictions
creating 145
file caching system 29, 30
file management algorithm 29, 30
Printing
maps 58, 60
Projections

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specifying 28
Projects
creating 24, 25
loading subsets 31
sharing data 26
Propagation Models
Enhanced Macrocell 86, 87
Properties
fields 117
viewing attributes as screentips 47

Q
Quick Finder
searching with 49
setting up 51

R
Recommendations
propagation model parameters 88
Redrawing maps 57
Refreshing
maps 57
Region loading
about 31
Regions
loading 31
Reorientating antennas in Map View 104, 107
Reports
about 242, 246
coverage statistics 242
delta 251
population statistics 174, 175, 242
sites/nodes 250
statistics 242
uncommitted 251
Repositioning, maps 57
Rules
for filters 136

S
Saving
map views 56, 57
Schemas
display schemas 150, 152
Scrambling codes
about 255, 256
planning 256, 258
schemas 256
Screentips, viewing attribute data as 47
Searching
attributes 70
maps 49
vectors 70
Settings
projects 24
Shadow fading, clutter parameters 167
Shortcuts
zooming 56
Signal coverage
pathloss predictions 145
Simulations
about 205
loading 229

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Monte Carlo 205, 206


parameters 229
pausing 225
restarting 225
running 221
saving 229
Site Database network parameters
UMTS 99
Site tips, displaying 47
Sites
adding 96
displaying 49
editing 108
fields 119
filters 130, 131, 134, 136
finding on map 49
flagging status 117
reports 250
status 117
viewing attributes as screentips 47
Snapshots
about 222
definition 222
Spreading traffic
traffic rasters 174, 176
Static Analysis, about 207
Statistics
population 174, 175, 242
reports 242
Status fields
examples 118

T
Table Browser, using 70
Templates
creating 96
Terminal types
determining distribution 170
Text
creating 64
on map 49
Tilts, analysing in the Height Profile 104
Toolbars
Map View 39
Vector Editor 64
Traffic
arrays 174, 176, 179
carried 110, 228
displaying 179
live 176
rasters 174, 176, 179
spreading 174, 176
Troubleshooting
co-ordinates 31
selecting items 46

U
UMTS
bearers 160
carriers 95
cell parameters 101
FDD 99, 100, 101, 160
network design 99, 101
terminal types 168

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Uncommitted changes, reporting 251


UTM, co-ordinate system 28

V
Vectors
analysis plots in Pixel Analyser 231, 236
attributes 68, 174
creating 64
editing 69
importing 78
managing 70
spreading traffic 68, 172, 174
Table Browser 70
Vector Manager 64
Visualisers, about 137, 138

Z
Zoom
saving 57
shortcuts 56

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