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ENGINEERING LABORATORY MANUAL

FLUID MECHANIC 1 LAB - MDB 2013

SEMESTER JAN 2015

Universiti Teknologi Petronas


Bandar Seri Iskandar
31750 Tronoh
Perak Darul Ridzuan

PREFACE
This manual comprises of four sets of laboratory experiments. They provide relevant but brief
information on the principles, set-up procedures, theories, and instructions that act as guidelines for
students to carry out the experiments properly.
Each experiment will be carried out in the groups assigned. Students must record the relevant data and
findings, which will be compiled into a lab report to be submitted prior to the next experiment.
Read the manual thoroughly prior to attending the lab. Upon entering the lab, students are expected to
fully observe the laboratory Health, Safety, and Environment (HSE) regulations. Complete literature
of the HSE regulations is given in the following pages. Students will also be briefed by the lab
demonstrator on the HSE aspects at the beginning of the coursework.

CONTENTS
Preface..................................................................................................................................................ii
Course Outline.....................................................................................................................................iii
Report Format.......................................................................................................................................v
Tables and Plotting Graphs for Lab Reports.........................................................................................vi
Health, Safety, and Environment Regulations in the Mechanics Laboratory........................................vi
Sample Title Page ................................................................................................................................ix
Air Flow Bench (Bernoullis Principle)...1
Flowmeter....9
Impact of Jet...14
Air Flow Rig...17

ii

COURSE OUTLINE
Subject

MCB 2013 FLUIDS MECHANICS LAB (2 credit hours)

Lecturer

Dr.Mior Azman B Meor Said


Dr. Shubash Kamal

Technologist

Mr Mohd Kamarul Azlan

Learning Mode

Laboratory Experiments (2 hrs/slot)

Lab Sessions

Session :

Learning Outcomes:

Mon.
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri

Tel : 368 7159 (Block 17)

Tel : 368 7076 (Block 20)

12 pm 2 pm
08 am 10am
09am 11am
12pm 2pm
8am 10am , 3pm 5pm

At the end of the course, students should be able to:


gain experience in data collecting, analysis and engineering report writing
integrate practice and theory into the course curriculum
enhance the understanding of these topics through the practical session
Assessment

The lab works carry 20% of the total course mark. It further breakdowns
into report and individual viva assessment as follows :
PRACTICAL + LAB REPORTS

70 %

INDIVIDUAL VIVA

30%

Note
Students will be divided into pre-assigned groups of 5 students. Each group will consist of the same
members for the rest of the semester. The experiments for each session are assigned as per the lab
scheduling, thus each group is responsible to check the schedule and make preparation accordingly.
Lab experiments will start at the third week of the semester. The laboratory sessions for the second
week will consist of briefings related to the course.

iii

TOPICS
The 4 experiments to be conducted:
NO
1
2
3
4

EXPERIMENT
EXP 1 : AIR FLOW BENCH(Bernoullis )
EXP 2 : FLOWMETER
EXP 3 : IMPACT OF JET
EXP 4 : AIR FLOW RIG

ALLOCATION OF MARKS
For group lab report, the breakdown of the total marks as follows :
INTRODUCTION
THEORY
PROCEDURE
RESULTS
DISCUSSIONS
FORMAT
TOTAL:

:
:
:
:
:
:

5 points
5 points
5 points
15 points
15 points
5 points
50 points = 100 %

PENALTIES
deduct 15 point for every 15 minutes late (31 minutes late -25
points)
Late reports
: deadline is 1 week after the session; deduct 10 points per day late
Conduct / Safety Violations : deduct 5 points
Lab Attendance

HOW TO BE SUCCESSFUL IN THIS SUBJECT

Attend and be punctual for the lab sessions.


Prepare in advance by reading the lab manual and bring the textbook as reference.
As you read, ask yourself questions, and try to determine the answers on your own.
Pay close attention to any briefings or instructions given by the demonstrator or lab staff.
Do all the required lab work carefully and efficiently, and record all notes and data precisely.
Prepare lab reports promptly and follow the given format.

GROUND RULES
iv

Students who are absent without a valid MC will be scored a zero for the respective lab report.
Non-emergency or non-medical leaves must be pre-approved by the lecturer.
No "make-up" labs will be allowed.
Tardiness or lack of discipline during lab will be penalized.
Lab reports are due 1 week after the attended lab session. Late reports will be penalized.
Observe all the HSE guidelines, in addition to other instructions from the lab staff or demonstrator.

REPORT FORMAT
The lab reports must be a group effort. The entire report (texts, figures, graphs, equations, etc)
must be hand writing. These basic requirements apply to all reports:
Each page must be numbered at the bottom center of the pages, and the report must be stapled or
firmly bound by other means (no paper clips or strings).
Lab reports should follow the generic format given below:
(a)

COVER PAGE
title of experiment, group name, group members, lab section etc. (follow format of the
cover page for this manual)

(b)

INTRODUCTION
brief overview of experiment, objectives, applications

(c)

THEORY
discussion on theory / formula related to the experiment, applicable test standards

(d)

PROCEDURE
In you own words, Write out the actual experimental procedure followed (which might
differ slightly from the standard procedure mentioned in the manual). List the
equipment/apparatus employed, test specimen details, step by step summary of
procedure

(e)

RESULTS
All tables, figures should include a brief description indicating from where the data came,
what they show and how they compare to theoretical results. Also to include comparison
to theory (% error).

(f)

DISCUSSIONS & CONCLUSIONS


In this section, the results presented are analyzed and interpreted individually from the
context of strength of materials. (Try to explain WHY you get those results!) The logic
should support the conclusion section. Also discuss the implications of those results and
how do the results fit into a broader context. Pay attention to the errors existed in the
experiment, both where they originated and what is their significance in interpreting the
reliability of conclusion. The conclusion highlights the major findings in the context of
the entire experiment; the objectives mentioned are revisited/examined to determine
whether the experiment succeeded.
v

All results must be explained and discussed - this means you should answer the
question "are these results what one expects or predicts?" with a complete
answer.

Conclusion
In this section you should write about the concepts that you learned in the laboratory and how
they relate to other aspects of the course or digital design in general. If you experienced
problems or obtained data that was incorrect, here is where you might elaborate on the causes
and ideas for solutions.
(g)

REFERENCES
list of reference used.

The texts of the report must be in your own words. Reproducing texts from the lab manual or
other sources is not acceptable. Figures or other items reproduced from other sources must be
properly cited. Lab report must not exceed twelve (12) pages in length (including cover page and
references).
TABLE AND PLOTTING GRAPHS FOR LAB REPORTS
Each Table and Figure should have an associated caption that provides a short description of the
table and figure. In a figure each axis must be labeled together with the symbol and the proper
units must be included, example length, (cm). The independent variable is always plotted
along the abscissa (x-axis), and the dependent variable on the ordinate (y- axis). If more than
one curve is to be plotted or data of different observation is to be included in the same figure,
use different symbols like squares, triangles etc to differentiate the different sets of data. Do
provide legend for the symbols. Use symbols only for experimental data. Theoretical
data/results should be presented with lines instead of symbols. Be sure to include all figures,

equations, and tables necessary.


Other hints
Remember that you are reporting on what has already been done - the past tense should be
used. Avoid using first person unless absolutely necessary.
Technical reports include only "figures" and "tables". Do not use terms like "picture",
"appendix", or "code" to label illustrations or tables. All figures and tables must be numbered
and titled immediately after the figure or table, centered on the page. Include figures and
titles WITH the text as much as possible.
Number all pages, including appendices.
vi

HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT REGULATIONS IN THE MECHANICS


LABORATORY
1. Introduction
The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 cover all persons at work except the arm forces, and
workers aboard ships who are covered by different acts. The OSH Act 1994 puts the primary
responsibility of safety and health on employers and employees.

WHY? WHAT FOR? FOR WHOM?


To ensure the safety and health of individuals who may be exposed to risks arising from work
activities.
HOW?
Through effective safety management systems suited to the nature of work activity at the workplace.
This regulation is intended to draw the guidelines for students with regard to the health, safety, and
environment in the Mechanics Laboratory. It is expected that students will fully observe the
guidelines as a measure to prevent the risk of injuries, health hazards, and damage to the properties in
the laboratory.
2. Major Potential Hazard In Fluids Mechanic Lab
Listed below are the major potential hazards occurs in Fluids Mechanic Lab:
injury through misuse of equipment,
injury from electrical shocks,
injury from rotating components,
injury from heavy components,
injury from sharp objects or edges,
injury from hot surfaces.
injury from chemical usage.

vii

FLUIDS MECHANIC LABORATORY GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS


i) SAFETY
a) A proper attire and dress code shall be worn at all times. This includes the wearing of lab coat, lab
jacket, apron, safety shoes or whichever is applicable. NO wearing of slippers / sandals exposing
the toes is allowed. (Please consult the laboratory personnel for the requirements).
b) Eating, and storing food are strictly prohibited in the lab working area at all times.
c) Gloves, safety goggles and other protective equipment MUST be worn as required.
(Please consult the laboratory personnel for the requirements) .
d) Handling of toxic, hazardous chemicals, solvent, and acids should only be done in the
Fume hood.
e) Spilled chemicals and other substances should be cleaned up immediately and disposed properly.
(Please consult the Lab personnel if you are not sure how to do so)
f) Waste chemicals should be disposed off into proper waste container at the designated location. NO
chemicals should be discharged into the sink
g) All broken glass should be disposed separately into proper sharp bins
h) Ensure that all equipment, gasses, and power utilities are properly off or shutdown upon
completion of work. .
i) Playful or prankish behavior will not be tolerated in the laboratory
ii) SECURITY
a) NO one is allowed to enter the lab without notification from the lab personnel.
b) All activities have to be supervised by the lab personnel
c) NO Outsiders / Unauthorized personnel are allowed into the labs unless approved or
on official matters. .
d) NO lab equipments or items should be transported out without notification and
approval from the Lab personnel
iii) HOUSEKEEPING
a) Work areas MUST be clean up following the completion of any operation .
b) All equipments MUST be cleaned and restored to its original condition as before the
works started.
c) All containers and chemicals or materials or samples in use MUST be clearly labeled
and stored properly; any unidentified / unlabelled containers and samples will be
disposed off.
d) All personnel belongings should be placed at designated area.
iv) MATERIALS HANDLING
viii

a) Use carts, hand trucks and mobile racks when moving materials. Use suitable carrier when moving
chemicals.
b) Instead of carrying heavyweights, divide them into smaller lightweight packages, containers or
trays.
c) Use lifting devices or lift-trucks for lifting heavy materials

---- SAMPLE TITLE PAGE ----

FLUIDS MECHANIC (MDB 2013)


Semester Jan, 2015

LAB REPORT
EXP 2 : FLOWMETER
GROUP 2 (Mon 11-1 pm)

Members : ____________________ ID: ______


___________________ ID: ______
ix
____________________
ID: ______

____________________ ID: ______


____________________ ID: ______

Lab Session

Monday 11-1pm, 17 Jan, 2011

Submission Date : Wednesday, 24 Jan, 2011

FLUID MECHANICS I
MDB 2013

LABORATORY MANUAL SHEET


EXP 1 :AIR FLOW BENCH (BERNOULLIS)

JAN 2015

Measurement
section from top
y (mm)

Length of the duct


L (mm)

Height of water
column in pitot tube
measuring total
pressure
y1 (mm)

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250

Height of water
column in pitot tube
measuring static
pressure
y2 (mm)

1. What are the conditions and assumptions required for Bernoulli equation to remain
valid?
2. Tabulate the velocity and mass flow rate for each run.
3. In one figure, plot the velocity and the mass flow rate vs. y
4. In one figure, plot the total pressure, the static pressure and the dynamic pressure
vs. h
5. Discuss the trends and relationships among the properties that you have observed
in Question 4. Does this comply with the Bernoullis equation?

FLUID MECHANICS I
MDB 2013

LABORATORY MANUAL SHEET


EXP 2: FLOWMETER MEASUREMENT
APPARATUS

JAN 2015
9

10

11

4. RESULTS
1. When calculating (p1 - p2) for the venturi meter, why is the reading for p2 is taken at the
venturi throat and not at the tapping after the throat?
2. How does the variable area meter work?
3. How to calculate the volume flow rate using stop watch?
4. What sort of losses do you think would occur on the venturi meter and the orifice plate?
5. Why are the velocities at P2 and P7 different?
6. Include error analysis (Please refer to your tabulated data in Tables 2.2-2.4)

Hint: Get the following manometer readings for the respective flow rates of the
variable area meter.
Table 2.1 Data of the experimental readings
Variable
meter flow
rate (lit/m)

Manometer readings (mm H2O)


1

2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

12

From the readings obtained on the Venturi meter and orifice plate calculate the volume flow
rate using the basic equation with relevant Cd factor.
Calculate the actual flow rate using the volume and time measured.
Compare these calculated values and the reading on the variable area meter with the actual
flow rate. Use same units.
Calculate the velocities at points 2 (venturi meter) and 7 (orifice plate) and discuss.
Also calculate the Reynolds number at these two points. Re VD , where = absolute
viscosity = 8.937 x l0-4 Pa.s and D is the diameter of the pipe.
Table 2.2 Flow comparison table
Variable meter
Conversion to Venturi
flow Orifice
flow Flow rate using
3
3
3
flow rate (lit/m)
[m /m]
rate [m /s]
rate [m /s]
stopwatch
[m3/s]
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22
Table 2.3 Percentage difference relative to variable area meter
Variable meter
Venturi [%]
Orifice [%]
Stopwatch [%]
flow rate (lit/m)
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22
Table 2.4 Velocity at p2 and p7
Variable meter
Velocity at V2
flow rate (lit/m)
[m/s]
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

Velocity at V7 Reynolds
[m/s]
number at p2

13

Reynolds
number at p2

FLUID MECHANICS I
MDB 2013

LABORATORY MANUAL SHEET


EXP 3: IMPACT OF JET

JAN 2015
14

15

1.
2.
3.

What are the assumptions or approximations involved in the theoretical calculations?


Determine the experimental and the corresponding theoretical forces. Determine the
percentage error percentage. Which one should be considered to be more accurate and
Why?
For each target, plot the variation of the measured and the computed force against the
V1 ) , i.e., each figure containing the
linear momentum flux into the control volume ( m
curve for experimental and theoretical data.

16

FLUID MECHANICS I
MDB 2013

LABORATORY MANUAL SHEET


EXP 4: AIR FLOW RIG
DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT FOR AN
ORIFICE PLATE

JAN 2015
17

18

5. RESULTS

1. Discuss the functions of the nozzle and orifice meters and the difference
between the two meters.
2. What is a discharge coefficient and what effects does it take into account?
3. Calculate the CD of both the orifice plate and the 50mm nozzle for each damper
opening.
4. For each case, plot values of CD obtained against corresponding values of Reynolds
number (Re) and discuss the plots.
5. Plot the longitudinal pressure profile from the manometer readings (mm of
manometer fluid SG=0.874 against tapping position) and discuss what happen as the
air flow past through the orifice plate.
6. What happen to the CD when you increase the damper opening?
19 when the damper opening changes? Discuss.
7. What happen to the manometer reading

Hint: Use the following tables for your results

Table 4.1 Static pressure readings when using standard Nozzle (80mm)
Damper openings
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
Points
mm of manometer fluid SG=0.874
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before orifice
After orifice
1574mm
2534mm
Table 4.2 Static pressure readings when using small nozzle (50mm)
Damper openings
0%
25%
50%
75%
Points
mm of manometer fluid SG=0.874
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before orifice
After orifice
1574mm
2534mm

100%

Then From Table 4.1 calculate the CD for the orifice plate for each damper opening
using the standard nozzle where its CD is assumed to be 0.97.
And from Table 4.2 data calculate the C D of the 50mm nozzle for each damper opening
using the calculated CD of the orifice plate.

20