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Management Definitions

Chapter 12: Organization Culture and Change

Organizational culture system of shared beliefs and values that guides behavior in
Socialization process through which new members learn the culture of an
Core culture consists of the core values, or underlying assumptions and beliefs
that shape and guide peoples behaviors in an organization
Core values beliefs and values shared by organization members
Value based management actively develops, communicates, and enacts shared
Workplace spirituality creates meaning and shared community among
organizational members
Multiculturalism organizations involves inclusiveness, pluralism, and respect for
Multicultural organization has a culture with core values that respect diversity and
support multiculturalism
Organizational subcultures groups of people who share similar beliefs and values
based on their work or personal characteristics
Ethnocentrism belief that ones cultures is better than the other
Generation subcultures form among person who work together and share similar
ages, such as millennials and baby boomers
Gender subcultures form among persons who work together and share the same
gender identities
Ethnic/national subcultures form among people who work together and have roots
in the same ethnic community, country, or region of the world
Occupational and functional subcultures form among people who share the same
skills and work responsibilities
Glass ceiling invisible barrier to advancement by women and minorities in
Leaking pipeline problem where glass ceiling and other obstacles cause qualified
and high performing women to drop out of upward career paths

Biculturalism when minority members adopt characteristics of majority cultures in

order to succeed
Managing diversity leadership approach that creates an organizational culture that
respects diversity and supports multiculturalism
Change leader takes initiative in trying to change the behavior of another person
or social system
Top down change change initiatives come from senior management
Bottom up change change initiatives come from all levels in the organization
Incremental change bends and adjusts existing ways to improve performance
Transformational change results in a major and comprehensive redirection of the
Unfreezing phrase during which a situation is prepared for change
Changing phase where planned change actually takes place
Refreezing phase at which change is stabilized
Improvisational change makes continual adjustments as changes are being
Force- coercion strategy pursues change through formal authority and /or the use
of rewards or punishments
Rational persuasion strategy pursues change through empirical data and rational
Shared power strategy pursues change by participation in assessing change
needs, values , and goals