TEXTBOOK
OF
to.
TEXTBOOK
OF
THEORETICAL NAVAL
ARCHITECTURE
BV
\J#
.
iT
ATTWOOD
WITH
114
DIAGRAMS
CO.
PREFACE
THIS book has been prepared
in Shipbuilders'
draughtsmen engaged
and
drawing
offices with
more
especially
its
later
Naval Architecture.
It
all
These subjects
of the
special feature
examples given
By means of
in the text
will
book
and
be found
in the
is
list
the
fully treated
on page 292.
large
number of
is
It is
grasp of the principles and processes given in the text.
hoped that these examples, many of which have been taken
form a valuable
be consulted
vi
Preface.
have
to
Architecture
thank Mr. A.
at
the
Her
W.
I also
reading through the proofs and for sundry suggestions.
wish to express my indebtedness to Sir W. H. White, K.C.B.,
of the Royal Navy, for the interest he has shown and the
me
book.
E.
LONDON,
February, 1899.
L.
ATTWOOD.
CONTENTS
I.
II.
III.
INERTIA,
TRANSVERSE BM,
INCLINING
LONGITUDINAL
METACENTRE,
LONGITUDINAL
86
BM,
CHANGE OF TRIM
V.
43
MOMENT OF
IV.
132
STATICAL STABILITY, CURVES OF STABILITY, CALCULATIONS FOR CURVES OF STABILITY, INTEGRATOR, DY
NAMICAL STABILITY
VI.
VII.
158
188
214
APPENDIX
24$
INDEX
293
TEXTBOOK
OF
I.
This
Rectangle.
sides parallel to
Such a
figure
is
area
is
all
its
its
opposite
i.
Fig.
is
and
if
will
weigh
18
B.
F 'G.
square feet
Square.
This
X 12^ =
is
225
2 Ibs.
\>
Ibs.
i
49
12^ square
feet
Naval
TJieoretical
This
Triangle.
lines, as
ABC
is
in Fig. 2.
Architecture.
c.
(or
AB
produced,
Then
sary).
the
if
AB
neces
area
is
If
i(AB X CD)
we draw through
the
a line parallel to
apex
the base AB, any triangle
having its apex on this line,
and having AB for its base, will be equal in area to the
If more convenient, we can consider either A
triangle ABC.
FIG.
or
as the apex,
Thus a
2.
and
BC
or
triangle of base
feet, will
Iv
ciy
2 * 32 A
AC
have
?!
^4
5^ feet
UL
6^
y
^43.
9J.
16
square feet
f X 20
Trapezoid.
This
is
123!
Ibs.
ABCD.
AB
respectively,
or onehalf the
is
given by
xh
3.
sum of
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
we must
/
8'
+ 8' 9" ^
3" 
which
is
given by
12 square feet
= ^ X 12
= 102 square
feet
The
The weight
will therefore
51
J
be
X 490
Ibs.
=
=
51
*
X~
490
2240
11*15 tons
from
to
BD.
Then
the trapezium
i(AE
the area of
is
+ CF)
given by
x BD
F 'c
4
four sides taken in order are 6, 5, 6, and 10 feet respectively, and the
Find its area in square feet.
diagonal from the startingpoint 10 feet.
Ans. 40
sq. feet.
is
called a radius.
its
Any line
passing
Naval
Theoretical
The
ratio
diameter
Architecture.
and
circle
and
its
or nearly ^
Thus the length of a thin wire forming the circumference
of a circle of diameter 5 feet is given by
is
called
TT,*
or using
TT
TT
3* 141 6,
= 5 X 3*1416 feet
= 157080 feet
= ^, the circumference =
=
=157 feet nearly
x 7
The
circumference of a mast
z\
The
tfraz
<?/"
TT
feet
2'
6" in diameter
= f x ^
= ^ = 7y feet
Vr& of diameter
JL
</ is
is
given by
nearly
given by
^=,x
Thus a
area of
v
x
=
A
hollow
44
diameter
c
=
The same
result
diameter of the
square inches
may be
ring, finding
Mean
3 7 3
its
ring.
= 4f inches
= ^ X ^ inches
Area = (^ X ^) X i square inches
= 373 square inches as before
diameter
Circumference
This
is
nearly ; that
diameter.
2*
the Greek letter pi, and is always used to denote 3 141 6, or 7
of a circle to its
is, the ratio borne by the circumference
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
We
Trapezoidal Rule.
i(AD
is
(p.
y^
5
2) that
given by
is
5,
AB
If,
of a
area
the
etc.
>,,
and
//
given by
in
B.
Fig. 6, having
BE = AB,
added
part will be
given by
The
we took a
+ 0'
is
given by
+y*)&
= \h(y, +
zy, +.r 3 )
and joined on in a
area
of
the
whole
the
manner,
figure would be given by
If
third trapezoid
ay, f aya
>'*)
similar
A BCD,
Fig. 7.
AE, EG,
AB
etc.,
FH,
will
etc.,
by
straight lines,
sum of
Or using
ADFE, EFHG,
etc.
GH,
etc.
If
we
DF,
Area
join
~'+y.+y5 +}>4+y+y
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
somewhat less than that given by this rule. In any case, the
closer the perpendiculars are taken together the less will be
the error involved by using this rule.
Putting this rule into
we have
words,
A.
"
M.
K.
FIG.
0.
7.
startingpoint
is
termed an "abscissa"
the
OP
as origin.
1
This rule assumes that the
Simpson's First Rule.
line
one
curved
DC, forming
boundary of the curvilinear area
ABCD, Fig. 8, is a portion of a curve known as a parabola
It is
its
Stirling, in his
first
rule
"Methodus
to coordinate axes
constants.
is
of the form^'
is
+ a^x + a^x
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
and
DC,
stated above,
assumed
is
which, as
to
be
AD
AB
in E,
and draw
perpendicular to
ing the curve in F.
Bisect
EF
area
is
given by
FIG.
AE(AD + 4EF
or using
interval
_y l5 y.,,
^
gy
8.
+ BC)
h the common
between them
=
Area
+
1
by
h
and the portion
MNCB
will
h
Therefore the total area
are a
common
will be,
all
supposing
the ordinates
distance h apart
(>'i
Ordinates, as
4/2
2j>3
+ 4j' +
4
2_y5
+ 4j
(i
+;7 )
"
dividing ordinates"
elementary areas are termed
Ordinates between these, as EF, KL, OP, are termed
" intermediate ordinates"
1
at
The curve
any point,
is
this point
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
what
Simpson's
is
first
Therefore,
rule to
number
of ordinates, for
be applicable.
putting
first
Simpson's
rule
into
words,
we
have
Divide the base into a convenient even number of equal parts,
TJien to the sum of the end
ordinates meeting the curve..
and erect
ordinates
ordinates.
common
distance apart
of
and
twice
tJic
odd
x
:
9,
be a curved
line
Divide AB
perpendicular to AB.
equally in E, and draw the ordinate EF perpendicular to AB.
Then with the ordinary notation
with end ordinates
AD, BC
Area = (y\
by Simpson's
first
rule.
Now
4;.,
+y
3)
divide
AB
into
three
equal
and H.
Draw perpendiculars GJ and
to the base AB.
At F
draw a tangent to the 'curve,
in J and
meeting GJ and
K. Join DJ and KC. Now,
parts
by
the points
HK
HK
E
FIG.
8.
9.
Area of
the
will
be found by adding
is
to
GJKH
HKCB
= i(GJ + HK)GH
= i(HK + BC)HB
we
it is
want
Volumes,
Areas,
Now,
area
AG = GH = HB
= ^AB
= fAE,
etc.
is
i
(\
Now,
AE =
O
h,
+ 2GJ + 2 HK + BC)
(AD
'
+ HK =
and GJ
Weights, Displacement,
2EF
(this
may be
seen at
is
^(AD
o
which
is
the
+ 4 EF +
same as
BC)
= (y, + 4^+^)
*3
that given
by Simpson's
first rule.
curvithe lengths
being 145, 2*65, 435, 645, 850, 1040, and 1185 feet respectively.
Find the area of the figure in square feet.
In finding the area of such a curvilinear figure by means of Simpson's
first rale, the work is arranged as follows
:
Number
of
ordinate.
IO
A rchitecture.
Naval
Theoretical
and
into decimals
of a foot
thus,
9"
675',
6'
3^"
63'.
for the
elementary area
first
considered
i
or
The
1424241
The
area then
117 X f = 78
Simpson's Second Rule.
is
given by
square feet
FIG. 10.
ABCD,
Fig. 10,
is
Let
ABCD,
"a parabola
Fig. 10,
DC,
be a
figure
1
"parabola of the third order"
coordinate axes is of the form y = a a
a v a s are constants.
is
Areas,
"
Volumes,
etc.
Weights, Displacement,
1 1
AD
AB
BC
AB
FH
Then
the area
is
given by
or,
respectively.
>
+ BC)
ordinates,
and h the
Area = \h(y*
y4 )
zy,
3^3
1
a
Now,
long curvilinear area
may be divided into a
number of portions similar to the above, to each of which the
above rule
will apply.
Fig. 7 will
be given by
Consequently the
supposing
all
total
3 y2
\h(y\
ordinate
KL
3Js
2y4 f
3^5
4 3Je
vilinear
be,
+ y}
This rule
that
in
is
others,
KLCB
area of
The
similar to
Example.
apart of 2
A
feet,
curthe
lengths being 145, 2*65, 435, 645, 850, 10*40, and ir85 feet respectively.
Find the area of the figure in square feet by the use of Simpson's second rule.
In finding the area of such a curvilinear figure by means of Simpson's
second rule, the work is arranged as follows :
Number
of
ordinate.
Theoretical
12
Naval
Architecture.
We
The
order
together the
three intervals first
considered
or
i, 3, 3, 2, 3, 3,
2, 3> 3, i.
The sum
multiplied
by f the common
interval, or

f and con,
is
103*9
* f = 77'9 2 5 square
how nearly the areas
feet
as obtained by the
It will be noticed
two rules agree. In practice the first rule is used in nearly all
cases, because it is much simpler than the second rule and
It sometimes happens, however, that we
quite as accurate.
to deal with, and in this case Simpordinates
have
four
only
son's second rule must be used.
To find the Area of a Portion of a Curvilinear Area
contained between Two Consecutive Ordinates. Such
DFC
of
assumed
is
the
second
to be, as in Simpson's
order.
Using
the
first rule,
a parabola
notation,
ordinary
we
have
Area of
ADFE =
iVHs;
8j2
 _r
:)
ordinate
1
by y ^Thus,
if
Volumes,
Areas,
fe et j
11*85
an d
etc.
Weights, Displacement,
AEFD
13
be given
will
byTV *
2 (5
8*5
1^
2(5
11*85
104
EBCF
will
+8
10*4
11*85)
be given by
8*5)
we
feet.
rule.
of a line
result.
sufficiently accurate
B.
apart of
circle (Fig.
three ordinates
y.>,
y3
y\ a dis
the
ordinates
through
Now, the
Simpson's first rule.
curve EFC is very sharp, and
the result obtained is very far
A.
D.
FIG.
n.
or
we may
write this
lift*
The
ABED is given
T^CVI + 4
by
o at end)
TJieoretical
Naval
Architecture.
\h(y,
+w+
iiy,
2/
.>,
/+
i>' 5 )
Thus the
is
this
An
will
exercise
convenient to be
It is often
In Fig. 12,
let
ABCD
be a
by the ordinates
AB, CD, a
A#
distance
Then
A*
supposed
being
apart,
small.
is
very nearly
E.
y X A*
where
ordinate
is
AB.
imagine the
O.
strip, its
become
BDE
12.
appear,
breadth of the
now we
AC.
FIG.
If
strip to
and
calling
dx the
area will be
y X dx
The
we
be written
fy.dx
where the symbol / may be regarded as indicating the sum
We have already found that
of all such strips as y dx.
.
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
15
figures,
so
jy.dx
as
meaning
that,
we take
the
at convenient intervals,
The result,
may be,
common
of a figure,
to
f the
radii.
Take
two
points
OP =
OP', and
let
and
small
the
angle
POP' = A0
in circular
measure. 1
Then
OP
elementary
portion
as
If
now we
close
together,
consider
Area POP'
=.dB
2
<*.*
2
1
See
p. 86.
all
16
Theoretical
Now,
this exactly
Naval
Architecture.
.dx (seep.
viz.
15)
7"*
and dx corresponding
corresponding to
to dO.
Therefore
and
by Simpson's
rule,
contains multiplied by
180
is
the
\ the
Simpson's second
number of degrees
or 001745.
Thus
the circular
measure of
o
7T
~
and the
circular
measure of 15
is
i'578
026175.
radius.
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
17
Measurement of Volumes.
is
8 inches thick,
12
x 8^ X
is
The Volume
area of
in
its
given by
x ^/ X f
12
1
^f
148^ cubic
section multiplied
its
by
Thus a pipe
length.
feet,
= 2M. =
hollow
feet
^^
= ^
4
cubic
is
the
2 feet
square
feet.
and
144
(3'73\ v
A
i5
\ 144 /
=
Volume
is
of a Sphere.
the diameter.
meter
is
Thus
it is
composed
is
'
l8 6 5
~2
QO
0*195 cu bic foot
This
is
given by
 d3 where d
.
given by
22
TT
<27=
27
~&r
147 cubic inches
Volume
in the
Theoretical
18
Naval
Architecture.
cone is
perpendicular distance of the vertex from the base.
a particular case of the pyramid having for its base a figure
with a continuous curve, and a right circular cone is a cone
having for
its
its
To
find
the
Curved Surface.
Volume
of a Solid
The volumes
bounded by a
continually required in
important case being the
of a vessel.
by a plane
In this
surface,
of compartments are frequently required, such as those for conThe body is divided by
taining fresh water or coalbunkers.
CURVE
FIG.
14.
The
all
one of Simpson's
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
Areas.
it
etc.
19
20
Theoretical
Number
of
section.
Naval
Area of
section.
Architecture.
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
21
etc.
feet,
or as a weight,
when
quently
^f
it
is
weigh 64
= 35 cubic
feet
Ibs.
ton.
62^ Ibs. per cubic foot, or 36 cubic feet to the ton. The
volume displacement is therefore 35 or 36 times the weight displacement, according as
we
If a
ing illustrations
i.
Take a
and stand
large basin
it
V..
FIG. 16.
in
amount
we
shall
have a cavity
in
still
water,
solidified,
density.
left
and
mainIf
now
behind which
22
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
vessel.
Now suppose that the
water outside again becomes water. The water we
WATER
SURFACE.
FIG.
17.
outside water
in
vessel
is
If the vessel
is
floating at her
L.W.P. in
4052
4
salt water,
35
same L.W.P.
II 5' 8 to*15
in fresh water, her total
weight
would be
4052 736
112^ tons
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
23
waterplane in succession.
draughts, and
If
we
down a
set
scale of
mean
where each waterplane comes, and on these set off on a convenient scale the displacement we have found up to that waterplane, then we should have a number of spots through which we
shall be able to pass a fair curve if the calculations are correct.
t
SCALE FOR
DISPLACEMENT.
FIG. 18
A curve obtained in
and at
ment of the
once the
board.
this
way
is
total
This
will
if
the vessel
is
floating
it.
24
Theoretical
The
follows
Naval
L.W.L.
W.L.
3 W.L.
4 W.L.
5 W.L.
6 W.L.
7 W.L.
7800 square
7450
6960
6290
5460
4320
2610
to the
To
Architecture.
L.W.L.
is 7 1
Number
W.L.
of
is 1 4' o",
tons.
feet.
L.W.L.
Areas,
Volumes,
Displacement
No.
.'.
in tons
and No.
the displacement
W.L.
is
Weights, Displacement,
2047
between
W.L.'s
,
I '6
up to No.
436
* *
,
>
etc.
25
"**
a
% ,
appendage
the displacement
,, T
W.L.
is
2047
up to No.
848
1 1
appendage
The displacement up
to
The displacement up
putting the areas of 5,
rule, the result being
6,
to
The displacement up
means of
to
2118
1682
1270
890
553
272
W.L.
3 W.L.
4 W.L.
5 W.L.
6 W.L.
7 W.L.
2
in the
tons.
are
down
26
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
the ship could never float at a less draught than that given by
the weight of her structure alone, or when she was launched.
to
Since the total displacement of the vessel must equal the weight
of the vessel herself, the extra displacement caused by putting
a weight on board must equal this weight.
If A is the area
TONS PER
INCH IMMERSION.
FIG. 19.
its
neighbourhood,
is
A cubic feet
A
or
35
For a layer
A
35
tons
12
is
Areas,
and
this
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
27
number of
tons
we
it is
mean draught of
tyi tons.
1 1
feet,
therefore
100 4 \i\
= 5f
inches nearly
This curve
is
we can
mean
up
to
Coefficient of Fineness of
Midship Section.
If
we
28
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
AREAS
OF
MID; SEC:
,300.
4OO.
SQ.
iZOO.
FT;
.IOO.
termed the
its
coefficient
circumscribing rectangle
offineness of midship
section.
= 68 X 26
= 768 square
= jiJH = 0895
1
/. coefficient
If
feet
Volumes,
Areas,
29
etc.
Weights, Displacement,
the midship section of 59' 6" and a draught of 22' 9", the area
of its immersed midship section will be
The
1213 square
feet
value
and
its
circum
scribing rectangle.
The value of this coefficient for the load waterplane
be taken as follows
may
07
075
...
...
O'85
This
is
of a block having
displacement
=
=
~
14,150
What
is
its
35 cubic feet
27^ cubic feet
380 X 75 X
14150x35
380 X 75 X
'
27!
63
Theoretical
3o
Naval
Architecture.
Example. A vessel has to be 400 feet long, 42 feet beam, 17 feet draught,
and 13 \ knots speed. What would be the probable displacement?
From available data, it would appear that a block coefficient of fineness
of 0*625 would be desirable.
Consequently the displacement would be
(400
The
X 42 X
17
*
0625)
35 tons
coefficient
ships
Recent battleships
Recent fast cruisers
Fast mail steamers
...
...
...
...
...
...
Ordinary steamships
...
...
Cargo steamers
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Sailing vessels
Steam yachts
'6o'65
'5o'55
'5o'55
'SS~'^S
'65' 80
'6575
'35~'45
Prismatic Coefficient of Fineness of Displacement. This coefficient is often used as a criterion of the
fineness of the underwater portion of a vessel.
It is the ratio
between the volume of displacement and the volume of a
vessel,
Volume of displacement
Volume of prismatic solid
. .
coefficient
= 2100 X 35
= 300 X 425
= 2100 x 35
300x425
= Q'577
cubic feet
when she
started.
taken as weighing 63
Ibs.
Ibs. to
the cubic
Thames may be
In Fig. 21,
let
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
31
in salt
will
be
Theoretical
This
may be
Naval
Architecture.
weight
floating at the
if
same
line
in fresh water is
eV
less
inches, as
above
vessel,
ABCD,
A.
WL.
G.
N.
w.
H.
FIG. 22.
100
20
20
Depth
Draught
,,
,,
,,
,,
If the vessel is
assumed
to
be
ioo

20
35
io
,,
,,
10
.,
20
weight must be

feet.
20000 tons
5r>:
Areas,
Volumes,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
33
KPHF
(40
The
20
original
d)
(40
20
/.
10
1600 d
..
is,
the
i6oo</cubic feet
100
that
20 X</)
new draught
sink a distance of
=
=
</=iap=i2'6"
of water
is
2' 6".
Calling
by
we
have
80
20
x x = 4000
4000
1600
=
which
is
the
same
result as
2'
\_
^
^2 lccl
6"
partment were quite empty. The volume of the lost displacement will then be given by the volume of the compartment up
to the original
stores.
Ibs. to
Theoretical
34
i
Naval
Architecture.
if solid,
weighs 80
as stowed
Therefore
in
Ibs.
^ff
=51
Ibs.
is
29
80
The
lost
buoyancy
ff
is
its
way
therefore
X 4000 =1450
cubic feet
The
heads
will contribute
1^X20X20 =
The
1600
The
sinkage in feet
is
255
is
=185 5
therefore
square feet
therefore
ff=o78,
or
9 3 6
inches
Sinkage of vessel
in feet
volume of
lost
buoyancy
in cubic feet
is
not in the
GH
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
Velocity of Inflow of
Bilging.
Let A
into a Vessel
35
on
surface in feet
Water
etc.
initial
rate
second.
Then v
and consequently the volume of water
passing through the hole per second
= %Jd
nearly
X A
cub.
ft.
Thus, if a hole 2 square feet in area, 4 feet below the waterwere made in the side of a vessel, the amount of water,
line,
= 8 x V4 X
= 32
Cubic feet per minute = 32 x 60
Tons of water per minute = Cubic
feet per
second
35
Weights
of
employed
in shipbuilding
foot.
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
steel
The weight
may be
foot in
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
EXAMPLES TO CHAPTER
37
I.
What
etc.
weight if its
Ans. 95 Ibs.
its
is
is
foot.
certain
ordered 400
Ibs.
per
what
is
its
foot
thickness ?
square
Ans. 9 8 inches.
Steel armour plates,
as in the previous question,
are ordered 400 Ibs. per
square foot instead of 10
What is the
inches thick.
3.
armour
4.
An
If
two
Ans. 833
area then be
25 '8 square
What
is
its
j{
its
inch
A
h
sectional
/
/
*!
i
\
f~"
rj'""*!
will
area,
iron
what
feet.
diameter and
thick.
it,
feet
external
or 0^37 ton.
its area
What is
Ibs.,
*42
steel
Ibs.
FlG
plate
is
24
of the
jj
What
is its
weight
(A
steel plate
foot.)
Ans. 1267
Ibs.
FIG. 25.
7.
thick.
Calculate
its
is
15'
3" long,
3'
weight in tons.
Ans. 429
tons.
Theoretical
38
8.
Naval
Architecture.
in diameter.
What
is its
weight
and 2\ inches
4 hatchways, each
2\'
6'
,,
,,
4'
10'
feet in diameter,
is
feet.
feet of
water
14.
15*05,
its
mast 90
5 '24,
feet in length
5 '28,
i'
4" apart
Draw
this curve,
area
(1)
(2)
Ans.
square feet.
semiordinates in feet of a vessel's midship section, starting
from the load waterline, are 26'6, 26*8, 26'8, 264, 254, 234, and i8'5 feet
Below the lowest .ordinate
respectively, the ordinates being 3 feet apart.
Find the
there is an area for one side of the section of 24*6 square feet.
area of the midship section, using
15.
The
(2)
Ans. 1067.
The
feet.
feet.
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
first
etc.
39
feet.
21.
74,
What
apart.
is
36,
feet
feet.
curvilinear area has ordinates 3 feet apart of length 97, lo'o, and
1 3 '3 feet
Find
respectively.
(1) The area between the first and second ordinates.
(2) The area between the second and third ordinates.
(3) Check the addition of these results by finding the area of the whole
24.
Simpson's
26.
of
first rule.
18 feet
6'2O,
2190,
1380,
2640,
is
1 I )
The
(2)
Simpson's second
trapezoidal rule
Ans.
compartment
the form shown in Fig.
of the compartment is 12
27.
feet.
4'7> an i 7'35
feet 
(i) i '2
How many
rule.
contain
88.
Ans. 17 tons.
compartment 20 feet long, 20
broad, and 8J feet deep, has to be
28.
feet
it
2235,
FIG. 26.
section.
feet.
Theoretical
4O
Show how
Naval
Architecture.
going from
to estimate the
salt to river
32.
The
Ans.
25' 4".
State any slight error that may be involved in any assumption made. If
40 tons were taken out, would the vessel rise the same amount ? What
further information would you require to give a more accurate answer ?
Ans. 1296 tons; 3' I inches nearly.
37. Bilge keels are to be fitted to a ship whose tons per inch' are 48.
The estimated weight of the bilge keels is 36 tons, and the volume they
occupy is 840 cubic feet. What will be the increase of draught due to
fitting these bilge keels ?
Ans. \ inch.
tons per inch of a vessel at waterlines 2 feet apart are I9'45,
l8'5i, I7'25, 156, 1355, 1087, and 652, the lowest waterline being 18
Draw the curve of tons per inch
inches above the underside of flat keel.
immersion to scale, and estimate the number of tons necessary to sink the
vessel from a draught of 12 feet to a draught of 13' 6".
38.
The
(2)
(3)
is
Prismatic
,,
,,
Midshipsection coefficient.
mean
placement
Find
is
445
Volumes,
Areas,
Weights, Displacement,
etc.
41
Displacement in tons.
Area of immersed midship section.
(1)
(2)
Ans.
A vessel
is
Midshipsection coefficient.
Ans. (i) 04; (2) 0655 ; (2) 0612.
42. Find the displacement in tons in salt water, area of the immersed
midship section, prismatic coefficient of displacement, having given the
following particulars
Length, 168 feet ; breadth, 25 feet ; draught, 10' 6" ;
midshipsection coefficient, 0^87 ; block coefficient of displacement, 0595.
Ans. 750 tons ; 2285 square feet ; o'685.
vessel in the form of a box, 100 feet long, 10 feet broad, and 20
43.
feet depth, floats at a draught of 5 feet.
Find the draught if a central
compartment 10 feet long is bilged below water.
(3)
Ans.
5'
6".
In a given ship, pillars in the hold can be either solid iron 4! inches
Find the
diameter, or hollow iron 6 inches diameter and half inch thick.
saving in weight for every 100 feet length of these pillars, if hollow pillars
are adopted instead of solid, neglecting the effect of the solid heads and
heels of the hollow pillars.
44.
60
whose
is
46.
portion of a
\\ inch thick, and its external diameter
is
14 inches.
Find
its
weight in
pounds.
floating
displacement
(ir
7?).
l
Find
o'$8> 9'33, 775, and 557 feet respectively.
exact area to two places of decimals.
area by using only ordinates 4 feet apart.
area by using also the halfordinates.
area by using all the ordinates given above.
area as accurately as it is possible, supposing the ordinate 12*49
had not been given.
1386, 1249,
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
The
The
The
The
The
Ans. (i) 20106; (2) I97'33; (3) 19975 J (4) 20059; (5) 20050.
49.
cylindrical vessel 50 feet long and 16 feet diameter floats at a
constant draught of 12 feet in salt water.
Using the information given in
the previous question, find the
in tons.
displacement
Theoretical
42
Naval
Architecture.
I ton to
occupy 43 cubic feet. If the parallel sides are perpendicular to
one of the other sides, and the side 4/8 feet long is at the top of the section,
where will the top of 17 tons of coal be, supposing it to be evenly
distributed
displacement.
Ans. 0*27
foot.
54. Find the floating power of a topmast, length 64 feet, mean diameter
21 inches, the wood of the topmast weighing 36 Ibs. per cubic foot.
(The floating power of a spar is the weight it will sustain, and this is
the difference between its own weight and that of the water it displaces.
In constructing a raft, it has to be borne in mind that all the weight of
human
CHAPTER
II.
Principle
any given
Moments.
The moment
of a force
about
man
line
is
A
be regarded as the tendency to turn about the line.
pushes at the end of a capstan bar (as Fig. 27) with a
FIG. 27.
certain force.
axis
is
moment of the
by
the
man
in
pounds
If
is
and d\&
his distance
from
the axis
=PX
footlbs.
and
(1)
(2)
By
By
Theoretical
44
Naval
Architecture.
(P
+(P'x
d)
Ofootlbs.
to the
Ibs.
Wxa
If the
to turn the
radius of the
moment
footlbs.
no tendency
to
turn,
X d) + (P' X d') =
The most common forces we have
(P
WXa
to deal with are those
be
parallel at
weights, W,,
2,
^a
If
at
we have a number of
A, B, and
(Fig. 28),
rh
t
w.
FIG. 28.
whose end
is
is
fixed at O, the
moment
given by
(Wx
X AO)
+ (W
x BO)
beam
+ (W
X CO)
to turn
about O, due to
W W
and
2,
1}
be strong enough
at
placed upon
it,
etc.
45
is termed,
the bending moment. Now, we can evidently
place a single weight W, equal to the sum of the weights
2 , and
3 at some point on the beam so that its moment
Wj,
it
about
If
P be
shall
this
Wx
OP =
X OA) + (W x
+W +W
OP = OYLXjOA) + (W X
or, since
(Wx
W=W
OB)
+ (W X
OB)
+ (W
OC)
X OC)
W,
+W
4
O = (30 X 3) + (40 X 4) + (5 X
= 90 + 160 + 250 + 360
= 860 footlbs.
Total weight = 180 Ibs.
of single weight = ffg = 4$ feet from O
Bending moment
.'.
position
at
5)
(60
6)
of a
number of weights
The
as follows
of weights.
This definition will apply to the case of a solid body, since
we may regard it as composed of a very large number of small
particles, each of which has a definite weight and occupies a
definite position.
throughout
its
follows,
gravity, that
if
specified.
is
suspended
at its centre of
gravity,
46
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
lines.
The
total
centre of gravity from each of these lines is found, and consequently the position of the centre of gravity definitely fixed.
FIG. 29.
The
following example will illustrate the principles inFour weights, of 15, 3, 10, and 5 Ibs. respectively,
are lying on a table in definite positions as shown in Fig. 29.
Find the position of the centre of gravity of these weights.
(If the legs of the table were removed, this would be the place
where we should attach a rope to the table in order that it
should remain horizontal, the weight of the table being
volved
neglected.)
etc.
47
The total
indicated in the figure.
moment of the weights about Ox is
(15
The
7)
+ (3
3)
+ (10
5)
(5
weight
15)
is
33
The
Ibs.
171*5 footlbs.
Ox =
5*2 feet
33
If
we draw a
line
AA
somewhere
in the
AA.
Similarly,
moment
is
gravity from
we
150
Oy
take
footlbs.,
finding
that
the
is
W=
4'25 feet
AA
Circle.
its
at
centre.
is
The
centre
at the point
of
gravity of
intersect.
is
at
the point
centre of gravity of
Theoretical
48
Naval
Architecture.
DA, and
the
that
situated so that
EG
is
point
is onethird
DG
onethird
is
EB.
We
i.
c.
FIG. 30.
two
Bisect any
sides
the triangle,
and join
thus obtained
to the opposite
lar points.
Then
t/ie
of
points
angu
the point in
which
these
2.
triangles,
ADC, ABC.
The
found
indicated
as
above.
figure must be
somewhere in the line
EF. Again, join the
corners D and B, thus
whole
D
FIG. 31.
gravity,
and K, of
two
CDB.
these
triangles can
triangles
The
ADB,
centres of
be found.
The
HK
HK
ABCD,
AC, BD,
Draw
CE
is
etc.
49
the diagonals
greater than
EFH will
on
same position
the
as found
by
each method.)
To find the
Centre of
Gravity of a Plane Area
by Experiment. Draw out
area on a piece of cardstiff paper, and cut
the
board or
33,
a small weight,
W,
lie
on AB.
Now
AW
Mark on
Theoretical
as in Fig. 34,
string of the
must
lie
Naval
line
Architecture.
CD
of intersection
point
lines
centre of gravity
follows that the
AB
centre
and
CD
of gravity
of the
must be the
of the
given
area.
Set out the section of
piece of stiff paper, and
find by experiment the position of its
centre of gravity, the beam being formed
of a bulb plate 9 inches deep and
\ inch thick, having two angles on the
Example.
beam on a
formed of
Material.
Sphere.
Homogeneous
The
gravity of a sphere
Cylinder.
is
The
centre
of
at its centre.
centre
of
the
on the
apex.
Moment
of
an Area,
moment
known relatively to
moment about the
distance will be the moment
to speak of the moment of an
axis
and
It is
usual
when
the geometrical
moment
etc.
is
really
meant.
we wish
ordinate,
To do
OA.
this,
we must
OA, and
first
find the
end
moment
of
at
PQ
draw a
y X A*
(y
strip
very nearly,
A*
about
OA will
wide.
Then
is
OA
is
strip
this
strip
about
moment
of the
be
y x dx
.
Moment
The
is
OA =
fy
x dx
.
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
and
DG = DE
as
OFG. 1
DE
y x
.
or the
dx,
and the
total
moment of the
moment of a
distance from
will
be
area of the
original
its
new curve
.
find the
we
Example. A midship section has semiordinates, l' 6" apart, commencing at the L.W.L., of length 8 '60, 8'io, 695, 490, 275, 150, 070Find the area of the section and the distance of its C.G.
feet respectively.
from the L.W.L.
Number
of
ordinates.
etc.
53
ordi
The moment
of the halfarea
u
*u
T \\TT
L.W.L.
about
the
7S' 20
halfarea
(3
x H
8/9
*i)
is
Moment
area
f
131*4
43'35
It will
303 feet
i75'2QX (JX
8670
The
expression

1*5 is
out,
17520
8670
(i
15)
15
i'5)
common
to both top
and we have
i'5
=3'03 feet
and bottom,
Theoretical
54
The
Naval
Architecture.
When
Example.
feet
long
33'8,
are,
Number
of
ordinates.
etc.
5 5
then be
19,276
153
To
from
it
being
X
Moment
,,
appendage
/. total
moment
,,
abaft
97'5
+ 5'6 =
No. 6 ordinate
2031 feet
19,276 X i6'Oi
308,609
=153x2031=31074
,,
No. 6 ordinate
= 308,609 + 31,074
= 339,683
_
~ 339683 _
~ r 7'4 f
'
19429
example
first
Ordinates.
TJieoretical
56
Naval
Architecture.
Using
common
yi,
y2 j3
,
interval, the
ordinates y\ and
moment
yz about
of the
the ordinate
interval.
and h the
portion between
j>, is
the
given by
/r
24
We
will
now
Ordinates.
be
to
centre of gravity
57
is
at a
moment
of the
is
A*
iy X
now we
its
Therefore the
If
as a rectangle,
it
etc.
indefinitely
moment about
thin,
its
be
total
FIG. 36.
sum
of the
moments
of
all
such
moment
is
strips,
or
1
Therefore, instead of y we put ^y*
through Simpson's rule in the ordinary way, and the result will
be the moment of the curve about DC.
An
dx.
Example.
direction.
It is
athwartship coalbunker
bounded
at the sides
Ordinates.
Theoretical
58
Naval
Arcliitectnre.
= 4*25 feet
= i86'i X \ X 4^25
Volume of bunker = i86'i X
3
Number of tons of coal = i86'i X J]
= 72 tons
Moment of halfarea below top = 2901 X X
Common
interval
Halfarea of section
And
=
first
cubic feet
area
2901
In the
square feet
4' 2 J
5
78 feet
three columns
column i,the
These
end.
squares are then put through Simpson's multipliers, and the
addition of column 6 will give a function of the moment of
the
the area about the base.
This multiplied by \ and by
common interval gives the actual moment. This moment
comes
in top
and bottom, so
moment 2901 by
that
we
i86'i,
and then
multiply by
areas
we have
To
We
an Area bounded by a Curve and Two Radii.
have already seen (p. 15) how to find the area of a figure such
It is simply a step further to find the position of the
centre of gravity with reference to either of the bounding radii.
Let OAB, Fig. 13, be a figure bounded by a curve, AB, and
as this.
two bounding
BOP
radii,
being called
OA, OB.
6,
Draw
etc.
59
OP' the angle POP' being indefiwe may call it dO. Using the assumptions we
have already employed in finding areas, the area POP' =
The centre of
^r*.dd, POP' being regarded as a triangle.
=
of
is
is
POP'
at
and
and
gravity
g,
Qg f r,
gm drawn perpendicular to OB, and gm = fr. sin
p.
(see
87).
nitely
a consecutive radius,
small,
= \r
The moment
moments of
the
sin
dO
OB
is the sum of
of the whole figure about
all such small areas as POP', or, using the
ordinary rotation
ijV.sin O.dO
precisely similar in form to the expression we found
for the area of such a figure as the above (see p. 15), viz.
This
is
2
j r through Simpson's
rule,
measuring
We
Simpson's
1
first rule.
60
Theoretical
The
circular
Naval
measure of 180
/. area
Moment
first
radius
Architecture.
=
=
ir
/
1800
X
i
~ \
3'i4i6
s
=11,452 X
first
X
\ J
radius
x
is
from either of
this is
The
31416
its
bounding
radii is
if
result is
if
as this
The
relation to
in relation to
Example.
these sections,
feet
Areas.
etc.
61
62
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
The
we may
suppose,
carries a cargo of
homogeneous
one,
To
The underwater
portion of a vessel
is
divided by transverse
Number
of
station.
O'2,
Find
The centre of
when we know its
63
etc.
know
its
taken at right angles to one another. In the case of the underwater volume of a ship, we need only calculate the position of
its centre of
gravity relative to (i) the load waterplane, and
(2) an athwartship section (usually the section amidships),
because, the two sides of the ship being identical, the centre
of gravity of the displacement must lie in the middleline
mean moulded
of the
Example.
J~/
feet
below
\V LJ
Here
is
= 0403 =
1325
This
is
an example of a
Example.
8'o6
20
fine vessel.
L.W.L.
Here
1202
275
This
is
an example of a
_
~~
is
875
20
fuller vessel
than the
first
case.
Let
V=
volume of displacement up
cubic feet
A=
d=
1
Mr.
W.
See a paper
S.
to the loadline in
Theoretical
64
Then
Naval
Architecture.
=i
.
ordinary form.
design,
The
rule
the proof
is
method
that
We now
proceed to investigate
ment Sheet" or "Displacement Table" and a specimen calculation is given at the end of the book for a singlescrew tug of
the following dimensions
:
Depth moulded
Draught moulded forward
>,
,,
75'
14'
8'
o"
6"
aft
5'
6'
3"
5"
2"
mean
5'
9$"
The
etc.
65
i, 2, 3, etc.
Now, each of these transverse sections of the ship
has a definite shape, and the form of each halfsection to the
outside of frames is shown in the bodyplan, the sections being
numbered as in the sheer. The sections of the forward end
"fairing."
For
fairing, the
student
full
is
1
For purposes of reference, the dimensions of
and other particulars are placed at the top of the
given below.
the vessel
of waterlines
is
142442!
The
saw on
is
p. 13,
increases as
"
1
Laying Off," by Mr.
Watson.
S. J. P. Thearle
"Laying
Off,"
by Mr. T. H.
F
66
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
planes
off,
182,
405, 590,
waterline
In practice,
ordinates in
some
it
is
advisable to put
down
We
67
The
etc.
x^X7'iX2 =
195183
71)
in
i)
i
N x
35
8798 tons
commencing with the L.W.L., are 6*40, 6*24, 5*90, 5*32, 4*30,
These ordinates are already put down
3*40, and 2*25 feet.
opposite No. 4 ordinate.
by the
1
multipliers,
i,
4,
4,
i,
2,
i,
68
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
is
done
in
the table
by placing
interval,
we
multiply this by (
we obtain the
that
We
L.W.L.
to 6
W.L.
is
3079*5 cubic
feet,
the
"
Main
solid,"
and forms by
This
ie
termed
of the
displacement.
AVe now have to consider the portion we have left out below
No. 6 waterplane. Such a volume as this is termed an
"
The sections of this appendage are given in the
appendage."
bodyplan at the several stations. The form of these sections
are traced off, and by the ordinary rules their areas .are found
We have, therefore, this volume divided by a
in square feet.
series of equidistant planes the same as the main solid, and we
can put the areas of the sections through Simpson's rule and
This calculation is done on the lefthand
obtain the volume.
side of the sheet, the areas being placed in column 3, and the
The addition of these
functions of the areas in column 4.
functions is 49*99, and this multiplied by ^ x 7*1 gives the'
etc.
69
salt
The displacement
water.
drawn
ship
and
i.e.
to the
is fuller
be 88' 8 tons.
on Plate I. was
than
this,
a small amount
plating,
Some sheer
to the displacement, but this is often neglected.
drawings, on the other hand, are drawn so that the lines include
bottom
mean
this
is
or to a
mean
must be
laid off
metrical.)
Take
first
the sections are 055, 23*055, etc., and in the column headed
"
"
we have these functions put through
Multiples of areas
now multiply these multiples by
Simpson's multipliers.
We
number of
viz. 5, 4, etc.,
body, giving
body.
station,
we should
by (j
i) for the vertical direction, (
7*1) for the foreandaft direction, and by 2 for both sides, and then by 7*1, since we
have only multiplied by the number of intervals away, and not
Theoretical
/o
Naval
Architecture.
The
(Xi)
X (X
7'l)
No. 6
station will
be
down we
this
we can cancel
out,
leaving us with
'
=
4or5xrx
1951*83
which
is
8feet
>
6 station.
Now we
vertical
position of the
to the load water
precisely similar
to that adopted for finding the horizontal position, with the
exception that we take our moments all below the load water
We
etc.
71
"
a column as shown, and the " functions of areas are respecthe
function of
for
station
No. 4
tively multiplied by them, e.g.
is 5*92, and this is multiplied by 0*22, the distance
of the centre of gravity of the section of the appendage below
No. 6 W.L. We thus obtain a column which, added up, gives
a total of 1 3' 7 8.
To get the actual moment, we only have to
the area
\ x
by moment
4
'"rS
volume, or
0*27
feet,
49'99
centre of gravity of the appendage is 5*27 feet below the
L.W.L. The results for the main solid and for the appendage
combined together
are
final
It will
be of
p.
two approxi
below the L.W.L. The first was that this distance would be
from $ to ^j of the mean draught to top of keel (i.e. the mean
moulded draught). For this vessel the distance is 2*32 feet,
is
5' 9^",
2*^2
we have
the ratio
mation (Normand's),
or exactly
p. 63,
or 58 feet,
The second
and so
approxi
was
and
dages besides that below the lowest W.L. A specimen calcuIn this case the sheer drawing was
lation is shown below.
made
are
to include a
mean
thickness of plating.
The appendages
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
and
struts).
Bilge keels
The
(if fitted).
effect of these
hull, is to
on the
vertical position
of the C.B.
amount.
SUMMARY.
Item.
is
of very small
etc.
73
curve.
ABCD, and
Draw
order"
the following
curve
ment
BFC
BCF
is
EF
ordinate
the
AB
midway between
and
DC
a property of the
the area of the seg
is
given by twothirds
GF
Area
D.
then
BCF =
GF X AD
f x
Make
E.
FIG. 37.
ABCD
is
given
by
AD X
The
if
Thus,
ADCFB = AD x EH
area
we have a
'
we can
divide
it
up
as for Simpson's first rule, and set off on each of the intermediate ordinates twothirds the deflection of the curve above
ordinates.
distances as
1
EH
This property
Call
first rule.
right along,
may be
AB, EF,
DC
respectively
EG=
and
j yv yz
lt
FG
=j's
known as Simpson's
Then we have
EG
HG = i* *+
EH = EG + GH
_
/>
"V
and calling
AE =
/i,
we have
Area
ADCFB =
JO,
which
is
the
+ 4^ +y
3)
first rule.
Theoretical
74
Naval
Architecture.
FIG.
as shown.
oft'
We
joined, also
and C
MO
= f HM,
and
and E are
and NP is set
38.
is
set
off
GO + LP
ABCD
LP)
by a length equal to
we remember that
this length
to get the area. This principle can
be extended to finding the areas of longer figures, such as
waterplanes, and we now proceed to show how the displacement
and centre of buoyancy of a ship can be determined by its use.
has to be multiplied by
if
AF
with
to hold
good
the portions
first
nary way.
Plate
I.
etc.
75
all
the waterplanes.
plane.
FIG.
all
39.
" curve
will give a
of areas of waterplanes ? Now, the area of this
curve up to the L.W.L. gives us the volume of displacement up
to the L.W.L., as we have seen in Chapter I., and we can readily
find the area of the figure
by the graphic method, and
this area will give us the displacement up to the L.W.L.
ABC EG
DK
Theoretical
76
same
Naval
Architecture.
ADEG,
Then
and so on.
will give us a
a curve drawn through all such points as L,
" cjtrve
of displacement" and the ordinate of this curve at any
draught will give the displacement at that draught, BL being
We
distance
of the centre
We now
Exactly the same course is pursued for finding the displacement and the longitudinal position of the centre of buoyancy,
only in this case
we use a curve
AA
body.
is
the
"
is
the
"
curve of displacement
"
CC
is
BB
OB
being the
"
moments
the curve of
DD
is
about No. 6 ordinate ;
of areas of transverse sections
"
"
the curve of moment of displacement about No. 6 ordinate,
etc.
77
OD
is
three places
shown
first,
by being pressed
actuates a circular
horizontal
disc, the
It is
is
supported at
fixed in position
by a wheel, which
ment
is
scale to
which the
figure is
drawn.
Particu
lars
Theoretical
78
Naval
Architecture.
A/ POINTER.
FIG. 41.
follows
will
The
is
:
Simpson's
frequently the
The bodyplan
be used,
Or we could put
i.e.
practice
the actual
multipliers,
and
multiplier.
to
shorten
the
process as
it is
viz. 3, 5, 7, etc.,
difference
plied
by
4,
is
multiplied by
and the
last
by
i,
Numbers
of
sections.
is
79
multi
The sum
2.
etc.
of these products is
rule, and then by the proper
The work can
scale used.
Products.
So
"
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
"
Method
of approximating
Wetted Surface
assumed
shown in
to
the
by "Kirk's" Analysis.
Area of the
The
ship
is
to
C.
D.
L=
=
D=
B'
length of ship ;
breadth of model
etc.
mean
draught.
Having found these particulars, the surface of the model
Area of bottom
Area of both sides
The
surface of a
= AG X B'
= 2(GH + 2AE) X
model formed
in this
mean draught
way approximates
It is
very closely to the actual wetted surface of the vessel.
stated that in very fine ships the surface of the model exceeds
V
= y.
of sides = zL'D
Area of bottom
Area
where L'
is
Surface
ADCB.
= 2L'D
we
Then
f
result, as
seen above
and
if
take
Surface
= 2LD + V
=:
we
Since
V=
displacement,
LED, where k
we may
is
the block
coefficient of
write
Surface
= 2LD +
LB
82
Theoretical
Naval
i'7LD
which
is
Architecture.
I)
Mr. Taylor,
15'6,/WL
where
is
Let
M=
in
feet;
m=
mean
m=
095^!
2(1
EXAMPLES TO CHAPTER
.
LJ
o
X ^
(see p. 30)
Then
c)D
II.
45
15
40
60
40
50
80
feet abaft
no
Show
Ans. 3'27
feet
'58 feet
etc.
83
An
Area
in square feet.
Position of centre of gravity relative to the first ordinate.
(3) Position of the centre of gravity relative to the base.
Ans. (l) 423 square feet ; (2) 1627 feet ; (3) 7*24 feet.
has its base BC 15 feet long, and its height 25
4.
triangle
line is drawn 10 feet from
feet.
and
parallel to the base, meeting
in
and E. Find the distance of the centre of gravity of
from the apex.
(1)
(2)
A
A
D
AC
ABC
AB
DBCE
The
feet.
The
9.
question.
10. The tons per inch of a ship's displacement at waterlines 4 feet
Find
apart, commencing at the L.W.L., are 44*3, 427, 405, 375, 333.
number of tons displacement, and the depth of C.B. below the top W.L.
The
12.
The
Ans. 8 inches.
areas of transverse sections of a coalbunker 19 feet apart are
Theoretical
84
Naval
Architecture.
respectively 6^2, 93'6, I2i'6, io8'8, 94^8 square feet, and the centres
of gravity of these sections are ID'S, ir6, 12*2, ii'7, ii'2 feet respectively
below the L.W.L. Find the number of tons of coal the bunker will hold,
and the vertical position of its centre of gravity (44 cubic feet of coal to the
ton).
Normand's formula,
p. 63).
15.
vessel of
result.
1 6.
The main portion of the displacement of a vessel has been calculated
and found to be 10,466 tons, and its centre of gravity is 10*48 feet below
In addition to this,
the L.W.L., and 5 '85 feet abaft the middle ordinate.
tons.
16,
2'8
Rudder
16,
175
Bilge keels
...
20,
20
Shafting, etc.
...
18,
15
ft.
,,
,,
ft.
,,
202
,,
ord.
201 ft. abaft mid. ord.
ft.
forward of mid.
200
o
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
140
,,
,,
,,
Ans. 4
19.
Ans. 238 tons ; 56*3 feet before after end, 3 feet below waterline.
Show by experiment or otherwise that the centre of gravity of a
20.
etc.
85
How
CHAPTER
III.
The
Trigonometry.
of
stability, if
portions of trigonometry.
The
following are
some
properties
OA, OB,
inclined to
Fig.
43, are
each other,
AOB,
A.
OB
in
O, cutting OA,
A and B, then
OA
~ radius
is termed the circular measure
length of arc AB
of the angle AOB.
Or, putting it more shortly
Circular measure
of four right
arc
radius
circumference of a circle
27T
radius
The
circular
measure of a
right angle
whose
circular
measure
2?r in circular
is
360
The
circular
unity
87
= 2
etc.
is
573 degrees
measure of
degree
is
is
?
0^01745, and
found by multiplying
the
Trigonometrical Ratios?
Let
etc.
BOC,
be
Fig. 44,
draw
PM
OB.
perpendicular to
PM
dicular.
OM
is
OP
is
tenuse.
Then
PM _
perpendicular
OP
OM
hypotenuse
base
OP
hypotenuse
PM =
OM
fyirf
An aid to
these ratios is
1
perpendicular
r
base
These ratios
on the line OC.
will
tangent
6,
memory which
is
found of assistance by
many
Sin /ifrplexes
Cos of base Ayfocrisy.
2
is
is
taken
in learning
Theoretical
We
Naval
Architecture.
hyp.
base
hyp.
and
also tan 6
cos Q
and tan
Angle
in
decrees.
89
etc.
We
The upward
same
a rope
is
same
as the
upright
that
shall
ship
is
said to
tion of inclination
if,
be in stable equilibrium for a given direcon being slightly inclined in that direction
ship
is
move away
90
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
in that direction
to return to
is
vertically
it
will
be
in stable equilibrium.
2. If the same
sphere is placed so that its C.G. is vertically
above the centre, it will be in unstable equilibrium.
3. If the sphere is formed of homogeneous material so that
its C.G. is at the
centre, it will be in neutral or indifferent
equilibrium.
Transverse
Metacentre.
We
shall
deal
first
with
STABLE.
FIG. 45
etc.
91
from
its
original position.
In
WAL
WL
when upright,
being the position of the waterline on
the ship.
On being inclined, WL' becomes the waterline,
and
represents tbe immersed volume of the ship, which,
WAL'
immersed volume
original
WAL.
WSW
It
is
Now
WAL'
original centre of
fix
the position of
the
the
upward
force of
the ship in
the ship, viz.
then
we
(1)
Weight acting
(2)
Buoyancy acting
shall
B',
vertically
down through
the
centre of
gravity.
vertically
of buoyancy.
But they do not act in the same vertical
line.
Such a system
92
Naval
Theoretical
of forces
vertical
is
termed a
through
B'.
Architecture.
couple.
Then
of
and
in Fig. 46,
away from
the
and
coincided, we should have the
again, if
forces acting in the same vertical line, and consequently no
upright
and
UNSTABLE.
rw.
FIG. 46.
couple at
all,
We
be
to
move
in stable equilibrium
brium
(i) The weight of water displaced must equal the total
weight of the ship (see p. 21).
etc.
93
metacentre.
BM
be noted
positions.
We may now
a ship's
initial stability
G
G
If G
coincides with
(3)
different equilibrium.
M,
the ship
is
in neutral or in
We
GM
more
We
in a
= GM
arm of the
couple
couple, and so
we can say
is
GM
sin
that the
moment
of the
Theoretical
94
If
we may
angle 6
is
above G,
Naval
Architecture.
moment
this
moment of statical
is
W X GM
sin 6
is
vessel's stability.
14,000
We
3'5
sin
how
10
8506 foottons
and M,
viz. (i)
the position of
M,
Now,
depends
solely
upon the
weights forming the structure and lading of the ship, and the
methods employed to find its position we shall deal with
M depends
separately
and
its
but
position can
be employed.
Centre of Flotation.
inclined so as to
the
the centre
of gravity of
volume of
immersed
wedge SLLj, Fig 47, must equal the volume of the emerged
wedge SWWi. Call y an ordinate on the immersed side, and
y an ordinate on the emerged side of the waterplane. Then
=y
95
WWj = /
d&,
etc.
dd,
dd being
Volume
of immersed wedge
emerged
=
=
$Jj>
.dO.dx
2
dO dx
$/(/)'
and accordingly
W.d6.dx = i/(/)
or i// dx = i/(/)
\f
But
dx
the
is
moment
of the
dO dx
2
.
dx
and
the
dx is the moment of
emerged portion of the water/(y)
moment
is
the
same
as the
of
The
tion.
In whatever
direction
is
inclined,
transversely,
longitudinally, or in any intermediate direction, through a small
ship
must always
96
Theoretical
the
Architecture.
be
Naval
its
its
centre at
due to
ABCD,
centre of gravity.
EF
is
in the position
new
We
figure,
FK, forming
ADKHGE.
The
with
FIG.
its
of gravity
centre
now
its
Then
at g'.
is
centre of gravity at
g,
this
important
shifted
rr
In this case,
if
<*
,
X gg
~A~
gg'
TT
40
In the same way, gg" being the horizontal shift of the centre
of gravity of the corner EF, the horizontal shift of the centre
of gravity of the whole area will be given by
rr"
In
and
The same
gravity of a
this case
therefore
gg"
GG" =
\b
The
it.
its shift,
its
and the
etc.
97
equal to the
are in parallel
shift is
shifts
directions.
as
The uses that are made of this will become more apparent
we proceed, but the following examples will serve as illus
trations
vessel weighing
tons has a weight
tons on the deck.
shifted transversely across the deck a distance of d feet, as in Fig. 49.
the shift of the C.G. of the vessel both in direction and amount.
Example.
This
is
Find
IW.
jp
FIG. 49.
will move to G' such that GG' will be parallel to the line joining
the original and final positions of the weight
;
and!
If
w=
70 tons,
30
feet,
GG' =
W
W = 5000 tons, then
^f
X3 = tt feet = 042
foot
5000
The C.G.
will
move
horizontally an
and
Moment
vertically
of Inertia.
amount equal
an amount equal to
We
= 0*45
to
4000
ft.
= 0*1125
II.
ft.
with
98
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
the
We
of
its
moment
area or force
by the
is
multiplied simply
have to go a step
further,
and imagine
distance.
Now we
is
FIG. 50.
moment
the
moment
follows
1
This is the geometrical moment of inertia. Strictly speaking, moment
make here the same assumpof inertia involves the mass of the body.
tion that we did in simple moments (p. 47), viz. that the area is the
surface of a very thin lamina or plate of homogeneous material of uniform
We
thickness.
Imagine
tJie
and
etc.
99
each such
small area multiplied by the square of its distance from the given
axis ; then, if all these products be added together, we shall obtain
2
employed) Jj> </A, will be the moment of inertia of the area
about the axis OO.
To determine this for any figure requires the application of
advanced mathematics, but the result for certain regular figures
.
is
the expression
where
is
is
//
is
when
the axis
is
axis.
and 52
r
H
4
N.
FIG. 51.
for
FIG.
a circle
for a rectangle
for a triangle
= y^, so
= y^,
n = yj,
//
52.
= y^ A//
I =
y^A//
that I
=[yA/r
ioo
Naval
TJieoretical
when
Second,
for
the axis
is
a rectangle n
for a triangle
Architecture.
;/
^,
so that I
^,
= jjA/r
= ^A/r
Two
The
Example.
squares of side a are joined to form a rectangle.
I of each square about the common side is
(cf
\(ci}a^
the
common
area)
side will
'
T 2 (2a )(2rt)
which
is
the same
To find
parallel to
result as
4
<z
was obtained
(area
it
as a rectangle,
its
2a~)
before.
of gravity.
inertia
NN
NN
from
it.
passing
the
is I
is
A, and
axis, is parallel
and a distance y
Then
the
moment
about
OO is given by
I = I. + A/
The moment
of inertia of an
N.
is
there
determined by adding
to the
moment
of inertia of
moment
We
it.
Example.
moment
oi
moment
the
NN through the
etc.
NN.
we have
which agrees with the value given above for the moment of inertia of a
triangle about its base.
and
Ans. A/;
2
.
Example.
Ans. 9 I 16.
square of 12 inches side has another symmetrical square
of half its area cut out of the centre.
Compare the moments of inertia
about an axis through the centre parallel to one side of, the original
square, the square cut out, the remaining area.
Ans. As 411:3, the ratio of the areas being 4 2 ; 2.
Example.
'.
This
area
is
last
example
distributed
illustrates the
gravity, the
if
an
moment
of inertia
Then, if we regard
about the base DC
\(y
dx))?
PQ
all
as a rectangle,
its
moment
of inertia
is
dx
j/
(y
inertia of the
dx
area)
DC
will
or
that is, we put the third part of the cubes of the ordinates of the
curve through either of Simpson's rules. For the waterplane
of a ship (for which we usually require to find the moment of
inertia
inertia of
line),
we must add
:the
moment
of
we have
I
:!
J j>
.dx
(y
semiordinate of waterplane)
IO2
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
Number
of
ordinate.
line,
but
it
expressed in the
I, is
so that
that the
area can be
L x B
B
k
03
form
k x
where
is
We know
as
etc.
breadth;
is
a coefficient of fineness
we can
write
1
= LB
formula
,,
,,
,,
,,
,,
fine
moderately fine
...
very full
,,
...
...
...
0*04
0^05
O'o6
For the waterplane whose moment of inertia we calcuwe have, length 280 feet, breadth 35*3 feet, and
lated above,
I
is
508262
280 x (35'3)
Formula
verse
:t
'
41
We have already
of
the centre of buoyancy can be determined if the underposition
water form of the ship is known, and now we proceed to discuss
(BM).
how
fix
the distance
BM
is
found.
Knowing
this,
we
are able to
Theoretical
IO4
Naval
Architecture.
WL.
buoyancy
when
is
is
g is
,
and
since the
WSW
Now
for
we may
say
that
BB'
or BB'
we can
so that
find
= BM
BM if
sin 6
we can determine
volume of displacement,
is
the value of
known.
and new
the emerged
wit/, IP
being for
all
If y be the halfbreadth of
practical purposes straight lines.
the waterline at this section, we can say ww'
II'
y sin 6,
%y X y
Let
a,
respectively
sin
= /
sin 6
ad
etc.
105
FIG. 54.
transference
by the
moment
of
is
(y
x ib
sin 0)
and
will
be
= f/
dx of the
j
fy
sin 6
sin
waterline the
moment
dx
volume is \y sin
dx, and the shift of its
If now we summed all such exprescentre of gravity is fj.
sions as this for the whole length of the ship, we should get
since the small
the
moment
Therefore we
X
therefore
gg'.
may
gg'
= /!/ sin
= sin y
dx
dx
we have
BM =
or DAT
this
y
y
dx
t/y
1
expression
is
to
io6
be the moment of
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
inertia of a waterplane
being a semiordinate
We
have seen, on
waterplane is found
therefore
p. 101,
for
how
about
we can
the
any given
its
centre line,
write
moment
of inertia of a
case,
V, the
volume
=^X
3600 X 900
(//
= 270,000
of displacement, = 120 X 30 X 10 = 36,000
270,000 =
O\K
.. BM = !
75 feet
30)
'
36,000
draught has a constant section in the
form of a trapezoid, breadth at the waterline 30 feet, breadth at base
20 feet, length 120 feet. Find the transverse BM.
Ans. 9 feet.
Example.
pontoon of 10
feet
the
less,
the
BM
two reasons.
is
greater.
BM
is
is
greater and B
suppose the length is / feet. We may find the I of the waterplane in two
It consists of two rectangles each /' X 5', and their centre lines
ways.
are 10 feet apart.
1. The waterplane may be regarded as formed by cutting a rectangle
/' X 5' out of a rectangle /' X 15' ;
.*.
this
y5 (/
15)
^(/
is
5)
We
5*
raft.
may
= ^W x
5)S
(I
5)5
and
for
this,
etc.
or
fj
/,
07
as
obtained above.
We
cubic
feet.
The
distance
BM
is
ao/...^L/_
raft
is
being 25
The
feet.
The moment
T j*/
3 8 feet
Example.
and symmetrical throughout
parallel
?7
therefore
feet
in diameter,
BM.
We
BM
35 feet.
Approximate Formula for the Height of the Transverse Metacentre above the Centre of Buoyancy.
The formula
for
BM
is
are similar.
We
is
is
a coefficient which
the
as
LBD, where
mean moulded
be the same
for
Therefore we
may
similar.
say
X L X B*
_
~'k X L X B X
=
B2
"TJ
io8
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
to that waterplane.
value of
BM
508262
i
837
is
therefore
feet
35
log having a specific gravity of 05 will float, and will float
with half its substance immersed.
The condition that it shall
any position
is
be above
is
J4
.j_.*
yj
Then
the
draughtline will be at a
distance a from the bot'
same
will
have
middle at G, at a distance
also of a from the bottom.
The
will
FIG. 55.
The
centre
be
of buoyancy
of
at a distance
metacentre
height of the transverse
is
given by
where
V=
Now,
moment
of inertia
etc.
09
volume of displacement
in cubic feet.
a rectangle of length /
is
and breadth
=
and V =
/. BM =
But BG =
itS I
the
therefore
Y2
/.
/. 2(l(20f
za
iV^r
\a
transverse
2/
f 2la
Y^fa"'
\a
metacentre
is
gravity,
given.
If,
ward,
now, the log be assumed floating with one corner downwill be found by a precisely similar method that
it
and
Thus
BG =
047 \a
BM =
0*943^
metacentre
is
above the
We
know
floating at
some
condition.
shown
line
It is
in Fig. 56,
W^
parallel to
it
is
HO
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
FIG. 56.
down from
the
centres
when
B3 B 4
,
floating at
Thus
AB
L^
is
the
the distance
are obtained
etc.
1 1 1
the ship is floating at some intermediate watersay wl\ through /, where wl cuts the 45 line, draw a
vertical cutting the curves of centres of buoyancy and meta
Now, suppose
line
centres in b
that
and divided by
centric
corresponding to this
trim
is
mean
parallel to the
L.W.P.,
Unless the change of
draught.
is
at a
12
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
made
separate calculation
vessel
is
which the
floating.
condition,
a homogeneous cargo.
The
light condition
may be
defined as
No
follows
The
GM,
the
lines, the
mean
draught, displacement,
for
it is
inch.
instructive to
2.
A floating
body of constant
apex
Suppose the
draughts, but the volume of displacement varies.
is 80 feet long, 8 feet broad, 9 feet deep.
box
rectangular
Then the moment of inertia of the waterplane for all draughts
is
1
/Q
jo(oO
The volumes
foot
2 feet
4
7
<X\
o^
v
X
R2
o
10240
3
Draught 6 inches
1
v
X
V = 80 X 8 X cubic feet
V = 80 X 8
V = So x 8 x 2
V = 8ox 8 X4
V = So X 8 X 7
V = 80 X 8 X 9
BM
foot
2 feet
>,
1 1
BM =
BM =
BM =
BM =
BM =
BM =
Draught 6 inches
etc.
icr66 feet
533
266
133
076
059
waterlines,
as
shown
we
in Fig. 57
line
BB
being the
FIG. 57.
For a
floating
locus of centres of
rolurne of displacement
be as follows
up
to each.
The
results are
This
may be
found to
Naval
Theoretical
14
i
Draught
............
............
............
............
foot
,,
2 feet
,,
Architecture.
,,
BM = o'2o feet
BM = 041
BM = 082
BM = 123
,,
,,
set
DD
diagram
is,
in
the direction the curve takes on leaving the position for the load
we should obtain a very close approximation to the
waterline,
actual curve
itself.
It
approximation
not be convenient to calculate the actual positions of the centre
of buoyancy, in order to accurately construct the curve.
Let
at
horizontal, as in
Pig 56;
the area of the load waterplane in square feet ;
V, the volume of displacement up to the load waterline
in cubic feet ;
A.,
Then
is
given by
tan0
= Ah
^
etc.
115
In a given case
feet
so that
tan e
= 7854 X S' 4 *
2140 X 35
= 0572
J
We
Inclining Experiment.
All that is
finding the position of the transverse metacentre.
in order to determine this point is the form of the
needed
underwater portion of the vessel. But in order to know anything about the vessel's initial stability, we must also know the
vertical position of the centre of gravity of the ship,
and
determine
performed.
it is
to
This
experiment.
this
trim
1
The best way to set off this tangent is, not to find the angle 6 in
degrees and then set it off by means of a protractor, but to set off a
horizontal line of 10 feet long (on a convenient scale), and from the end
set down a vertical line 572 feet long on the same scale.
This will give
ocr ^*72
=
==
for
tan
the inclination required,
0572.
base
10
This remark applies to any case in which an angle has to be set off very
table of tangents is consulted and the tangent of the required
accurately.
angle is found, and a similar process to the above is gone through.
Il6
will
Tlieoretical
Naval
Architecture.
p. 97,
GG'
Now,
unless prevented
=wXd
by external
forces,
it
is
evident that
the vessel must incline over to such an angle that the centre of
gravity G' and the centre of buoyancy B' are in the same vertical line (see Fig. 58), and, the angle of inclination being small,
FIG. 58.
will
If
now we
GM being
call B the
the " metacentric
"
height
tan0
= GG'
j
GG'
GM = tan B
wX
W x tan
The only term that we
using the value found above for GG'.
do not yet know in this expression is tan 6, and this is found in
the following manner At two or three convenient positions
:
etc.
1 1
in the ship
(such as at bulkheads or down hatchways) plumbbobs are suspended from a point in the middle line of the ship,
and at a convenient distance from the point of suspension a
1
horizontal batten
on
as
is
shown by
PQ
in Fig. 58.
marked
is
it,
inclined,
the plumbline should coincide, as nearly as possible, with the
that is to say, the ship should be praccentreline of the ship
When the ship is heeled over to the angle 0,
tically upright.
tan
so that
we can
in practice
is
at
once determined,
for
write
it is
sets
on the other
The experiment
See
if
.feet,
positions,
and the
original
upright
position.
1
If two positions are taken, one is forward and the other aft.
positions are taken, one is forward, one aft, and one amidships.
If three
Tlieoretical
(e)
The weight
(3)
Naval
Architecture.
moved from
is
The
(/)
weight (4)
is
moved from
mrti
FIG. 59.
mean
1 2^
tons
GM
ment.
There
rnethod
cleared of
all
and
free water,
Any
etc.
painters.
If possible a fine
is
When
any, and secured by hawsers at the bow and stern.
taking the readings, these hawsers should be slacked out, so as
to ensure that they do not influence the reading.
The ship
if
all
weights to
ment
"
Report on Inclining Experiment performed on
water
cubic
at
feet
Density of
.
Draught of water
...
...
...
"
1 6'
...
189,
9" forward.
,,
,,
on
to the ton.
Displacement in tons at
this
draught
...
5372
...
two
Deviation of pendulum in 15
Forward.
Experiment
I,
2,
......
feet.
Aft.
s*"
lot"
right
Experiment
4,
The
12*
Bilges dry.
Watertanks empty.
is
as defined
below
I2O
Theoretical
No
Naval
Architecture.
Workmen on
board, 66.
Tools on board, 5 tons.
Masts and spars complete.
No boats on board.
Bunkers full.
Anchors and
cables,
No
Hull complete.
The mean
lo^j inches
is
2_5
x_3 6_xjs_x_i_2 =
10312
x 5372
We may now
same
vertical line as
vertical position of
is
The
found
3*14
feet.
etc.
122
Tlieoretical
Naval
Architecture.
GM.
We
vertical
position for
its
position
any given
of the centre
of
can be determined
experiment.
the ship, we get the distance
GM,
Harbour
Modern
Modern
Values of
of ship.
15 to 1 8 inches
2 to 2j feet
3i feet
4 to 8 feet
12 feet
protected cruisers
...
British battleships
The amount
largely
GM.
to 7 feet
3 to 3i feet
may be
a vessel
forces
sails
"
stiff" that
is,
difficult to incline
etc.
123
by external
W X GM sin
W being the weight of
inclination,
(see p. 94)
supposed small.
moment
tending
"
"
is
directly
GM
case
The
satisfied) to
after being
make
GM
GM
3 to 3^ feet
is
that,
and
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
GM
carrying a
with satisfactory
homogeneous cargo
(con
obtained at large
There
cases
on
record of vessels
however,
are,
inclinations).
going long voyages with a metacentric height of less than
i foot, and
being reported as comfortable and seaworthy. Mr.
sistently
stability
being
Denny
and
Effect
safe.
on
Initial Stability
due
to the Presence of
On
1st
be
an d
g,
Fig. 60
is
z'o
1
b, b'
etc.
25
and
bb' is parallel to
V X
bb'
and
bb'
= ^ X gg'
gg.
Now,
if
(}
X gg
in precisely the
same way as we
FIG. 60.
wedges wsw',
1st, viz.
where
moment
/ is
the
in the tank
is
the
ix
Draw
the
b',
then
bb'
bm x
line in
;//
126
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
and consequently
bin
= / x=
*0
and bm
^~o
Now,
at b
effect
its
on the ship
is
just
same
the
as
were a solid
if it
when
though
is
This
On
will take
We
we have
W X GG
and
=V
"
if
be
supposed
bin
X bm
35
and
therefore
V x bm =
GG =
,y
V,,
X bm
(V
bm
='
etc.
27
volume of displacement)
and therefore
CT"
rG
WXGM
(,
v
y X


W
=W
effect
We
the
*.
result,
The
surface.
is
x (GM  GG sin
X ( GM  ) sin
V /
ineitia
of the free
all free
and
Since the free surface
is
=
=
V
'
T 5 (6o
30)
(30)'
(30)'
9100 x 35
128
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
EXAMPLES TO CHAPTER
Find the
1.
circular
III.
Show
that sin 10 is onehalf per cent, less in value than the circular
measure of 10, and that tan 10 is one per cent, greater in value than the
circular measure of 10.
2.
the axis,
each end.
Ans.
/i6

12
'
2a about a diagonal.
Ans. a*.
6. A square has a similar square cut out of its centre such that the
moment of inertia (about a line through the centre parallel to one side) of
What prothe small square and of the portion remaining is the same.
portion of the area of the original square is cut out ?
Ans. 071 nearly.
vessel of rectangular crosssection throughout floats at a constant
7.
draught of 10 feet, and has its centre of gravity in the load waterplane.
The successive halfordinates of the load waterplane in feet are o'5, 6, 12,
Find the transverse
16, 15, 9, o ; and the common interval 20 feet.
5.
metacentric height.
Ans. 8
8.
log of
2 feet square.
fir,
What
is its
inches.
specific gravity
5, is
Ans. o'47
foot.
The
Ans. 6,012,862.
semiordinates of the load waterplane of a vessel are o, 3*35,
641, 8'63, 9'93, 1044, io 37, 9'94, 896, 7'i6, and 2 5 feet respectively.
These ordinates being 21 feet apart, find
(1) The tons per inch immersion.
(2) The distance between the centre of buoyancy and the transverse
metacentre, the load displacement being 484 tons.
10.
The
The
A vessel
What was
inches.
etc.
29
the metacentric
The
Find
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The
The
The
The
L.W.L.
Ans.
(I)
feet.
3,
292 square
feet
(2)
(4)
334
14.
ship displacing 9972 tons is inclined by moving 40 tons 54 feel
across the deck, and a mean deviation of 9^ inches is obtained by pendulums
1
Find the metacentric height at the time of the operation.
5 feet long.
Ans. 4'i8
feet.
taken in the
17.
L.W.P.
Approximate
p.
Ans. 5^ feet.
60 for the distance of the centre of
by finding
3*"
BM
the transverse
of a pontoon of circular section floating with its axis in
the surface of the water.
(M in this case is in the centre of section.)
18. Take a body shaped as in Kirk's analysis, p. 80, of length 140
feet ; length of parallel middle body, 100 feet
Find the transverse BM.
draught, 12 feet.
extreme breadth, 30
Ans.
57
feet
feet.
Ans.
I '9 1 feet.
20.
vessel of displacement 1 722 tons
ballast across the deck through 22\ feet.
is
Ans. 13*95
feet.
Theoretical
130
Naval
Architecture.
21. The ship in the previous question has 169 tons to go on board at
10 feet above keel, and 32 tons to come out at 20 feet above keel. Find
the metacentric height when completed, the transverse metacentre at the
displacement of 1859 tons being 15 '3 feet above keel.
feet,
vessel of
is
given by
feet,
centre
45
all
to the horizontal,
is
draughts.
Show
~Dt
30.
referred
on
p. 107,
their length
for
coefficient
floating bodies
in
the
formula
BM = a
throughout
(a) Rectangular crosssection.
(b) Triangular crosssection, vertex down.
(c) Verticalsided for one half the draught, the lower half of the section
being in the form of a triangle.
Aits, (a) O'OS
(6) O'l6 ; (<:) O'll.
:
will lie
between the
first
etc.
and
131
last
of
these.
31.
floats at
lighter in the
form of a box
a constant draught of
feet.
is
100
The
At one time, in ships which were found to possess insufficient stagirdling was secured to the ship in the neighbourhood of the water*
Indicate how far the stability would be influenced by this means.
If the breadth
33.
floating body has a constant triangular section.
at the waterline is equal to the draught, show that the locus of metacentres
in the metacentric diagram mikes an angle with the horizontal of about 40.
Show that if
34.
cylinder is placed into water with its axis vertical.
the centre of gravity is in the waterplane, the cylinder will float upright if
32.
bility,
line.
the radius
(2)
(3)
39.
vessel
Show
whose
coefficient of
of displacement
//
and k
is
o'55.
respectively,
mand's formula,
In any
show
p. 63).
in Fig.
L.W.P.
56
is
between 29
and 30
for a
that tan #
=3+
\)K
CHAPTER
IV.
We now
in
the
same
It is simply a
of equilibrium laid down on p. 89.
matter of calculation to find the longitudinal position of the
centre of buoyancy of a ship when floating at a certain water
ditions
we have the form of the ship given, and thus the foreandaft position of the centre of gravity is determined.
have already dealt with the inclination of a ship in a
line, if
We
transverse
forward and
forward of
by the
aft.
1 2 feet,
at a draught
to trim 3 feet
stern.
We
have, on p. 93, considered the definition of the transverse metacentre, and the definition of the longitudinal metacentre is precisely analogous.
WL
BM
Longititdinal
etacentre,
Longitudinal
BM,
etc.
133
FIG. 61.
BM
in
M.
Then
the
point
is
metacentre.
The
Formula for finding the Distance of the Longitudinal Metacentre above the Centre of Buoyancy.
Let Fig. 62 represent the
line
AW
of trim
AW
is
BL')
WW
f
LL'
the change
of trim
is
the
p.
94.
This
metacentre more
Much
difficult
Theoretical
134
Naval
Architecture.
latter case,
in the
middle
A.
FIG. 62.
In Fig. 62
Let
B be
WL
waterline
B',
line
W'L'
when
floating
at
the
when
respectively
We
gg'
=VX
BB'
But BB'
/.
BM
'
BM,
etc.
135
&
= BM X
=
6 (0
in circular
is
measure)
^^
or the
Then
F, x.
dx
is
x x
and the volume
2y
X x6 x dx
This
area y
is
is
zyx
FF
is
dx X x
dx
or 2yx*
We
x g
= J2yx~
= 26/}'x
gg'
',
dx
.dx
(9
being constant)
therefore have
i
BM X
or
"
= 20fyx
BM =
.dx
y"
2 \'yx*
dx
moment
JVA x
where
dA
y
is
The
Consider, now, the expression obtained, 2\yx" dx.
is
area
x
is
and
its
distance
from
a
elementary
2y dx,
.
Theoretical
136
Naval
Architecture.
transverse
may
where
The method
inertia of a waterplane
We
first
find
midship ordinate.
centre of flotation
the
or
The method
= I + Ar
= I  A/
BM,
etc.
137
In column 2 of the table are given the lengths of semiordinates of a load waterplane corresponding to the numbers
The ordinates are 7*1 feet
of the ordinates in column i.
required to find the longitudinal BM, the displacement being 916 tons in salt water.
The distance apart of the ordinates being 71 feet, we
It is
apart.
have
Area
Distance of centre of gravity of
waterplane abaft No. 6 ordinate
(the stations are
numbered from
)
)
=
=
16342
(\
773'5 square
565686
7*1
7*1)
feet
247 feet
6342
forward).
The
calculation
Area
Column
is
2Jy dx
.
Moment
2\'yx
by the formula
.
dx
down
result
means the
column 5
moment
of inertia
to that indicated
is
distance
from No.
6
2
is
4x71 =
284
feet.
The
Naval
TJieorctical
138
column
7,
we
shall
Architecture.
obtain
the
To obtain the
is added up, giving a result 959*14.
of inertia about No. 6 ordinate, this has to be multi
column 8
moment
plied as follows
(a) By onethird the
:
son's rule, or i
common
x
interval to
complete Simp
7'i.
common
(/>)
By
(c}
explained above.
By two for both sides.
fully
We
moment
95914
71)
(7'i)
228,858
The moment
formula
+ Ay
2
,
where
I is
/.
I,,
=
=
228,858
(7735
247)
224,139
The displacement up
to this waterplane
916
The
longitudinal
is
is
35
3206 cubic
feet
BM = ^
=
224139
3206
^=
699 feet
Approximate Formula for the Height of the Longitudinal Metacentre above the Centre of Buoyancy.
The
following formula
and
is
is
due to M.
J.
Let
A. Normand, M.I.N.A., 1
results in practice
in feet
BM,
Then
etc.
139
feet.
of buoyancy
AX L
3
H=
o'o7^i;=:
^,
H=
we
find
feet.
The quantities required for the use of the formula would all be
known at a very early stage of a design and a close approximation to the height
is
We
manner
as was
done
Moment
we may
BM
on
say
Volume of displacement
same
Using
p. 107.
//
X L X B
:l
;/'
used on
p. 103.
= /C'xLxBxD
'
_
~
kx
X L8 x B
L X B XT)
to the
being 58
feet
The
value of
H=
65 feet
Theoretical
J4
Naval
Architecture.
more
BM
of the longitudinal
BM
found by using
this
formula
will
not
be trustworthy.
of a Vessel when
out of the Designed Trim.
The following
method is found useful when it is not desired to actually
calculate the displacement from the drawings, and a close
approximation is sufficiently accurate. Take a ship floating
we can at once determine
parallel to her designed L.W.L.
the displacement when floating at such a waterline from the
curve of displacement (see p. 23).
If now a weight already
floating
on board
is
will trim
more by
shifted aft, say, the ship will change trim, and she
the stern than designed.
The new water
we have termed
it,
and
FIG. 63.
be either
The
as that given
to
WL.
which
a'/,
BM,
etc.
141
parallel
Then
is
of the layer
W'L' and
WL.
the waterplane
wl
is
Now,
say.
WL
tan 6
wl
+ /L
w\V
length of ship
amount out of trim
length of ship
But
if
WL, we
tan
SFH
"J
sin
very nearly)
This, multiplied
the tons per inch T, will give the displacement of the layer.
The following example will illustrate the above
by
Example. A vessel floats at a draught of 16' 5$" forward, 23' i" aft,
normal trim being 2 feet by the stern. At a draught of 19' gj", her
is 5380 tons, the
displacement, measured from the curve of displacement,
tons per inch is 31 'I tons, and the centre of flotation is I2'9 feet abaft
the
amidships.
The
The
12
129
The displacement of
the layer
215
The displacement
is
56
/x
335
is
lz
6' 8",
is
335
and we
215 inches
therefore
31*1
67 tons
therefore
5380
+ 67 =
Theoretical
142
Naval
Architecture.
of trim
is
the
that
We
d'
B'
FlG. 64.
a weight on the deck when the vessel is floating at the waterline WL,
being the position of the centre of gravity. Now
to be shifted forward a distance of d feet.
the
weight
suppose
will, in
consequence of
this,
move forward
be the
joining the original and final positions of w, and if
will move to G' such that
displacement of the ship in tons,
GG'
G
=wXd
Draw W'C
parallel
to
the
original
waterline
WL,
BM,
etc.
143
WL
tan
0,
6*
and
say,
CL'
r
length
x
r
GG'
tan
TTTj
GM
two values
~
~
W x GM
GM
w
X d
GG'
moment
weight
or
wXd
WX GM X L
of transference of the
w through
we have
for tan 0,
GG'
feet
the distance d,
or
ine change
to
ot trim in inches
change trim
wX
inch
12

wX
,^
is
W x GM foottons
d=
.
12
X TL
metacentric
height
BM
GM
BM
Naval
Theoretical
144
Architecture.
GM
also ; we may
equals the length of the ship, and therefore
therefore say that in such ships the moment to change trim
inch
1*2
moment
75 feet
GM =
.'.
=
and the moment
to
change trim
inch
699
689 feet
oi'6
12
x 689
x 75
7 '01 foottons
2200 X 490
12
The moment
aft
due
X.
inch
is
300
to the
shift
of the weight
X 200 = 1000
is
foottons
is
3s mcJics
A xL
B x V
2
H = 00735
we may
moment
change trim
We
Wx GM
12
X L
inch
is
to
BM,
We
V
W = 
can write
and assume
etc.
145
that,
35
2
poses,
\
L
BM = GM = 00735^X y
Moment
trim
to
change
inch
35
we have
12
A X L\
a
x L
'
073 5B^TV /
Aor 0*000175:;,
Applying
Area of L.W.P.
Breadth
so that the
moment
to
=A=
=B=
change trim
inch
approximately
should equal
foottons
1442
the exact value, as calculated on p. 144, being 7*01 foottons.
It is generally sufficiently accurate to assume that onehalf
In the
forward, and the other half is aft.
12' 3"
the
a
of
floated
at
p. 144,
ship
draught
14' 9" aft, the new draught forward would be
example on
forward and
is
if
12 3" 
aft
12'
if
would be
14' 9"
as
if =
+ if =
14' rof"
is
WW
of the length,
is not equal to LL', so that,
strictly speakthe
total
ing,
change of trim should not be divided by 2, and
onehalf taken forward and the other half aft.
Consider the
triangles
FWW,
FLL'; these
triangles
are
to
similar
one
Naval
Theoretical
146
Architecture.
another,
sides are
proportional,
so
that
WW
WF
and both these
Consequent!)
LF
triangles are
similar to
WW ~ LL' ~
WF
'
LL'
==
CL'
WC
LF
WW = WF
_ change of trim
~
length
X change
tnm
leligth
and LL'
that
is
x change
of trim
aft or
forward,
is
Where
Mf=i6f inches
The
The
2 feet abaft
is
there
is
there
fore
iff X
7f inches
v
* A3
instead
of 8
forward
is
inches both
o
U1 <"C!
7 inches
>
forward
and
aft.
The draught
therefore
'
i2
aft
14' 9"
It will
is
be noticed
that the
7f"
15'
4f"
mean draught
is
BM,
etc.
147
comes out.
Effect on the Trim of a Ship due to adding a
Weight of Moderate Amount. If we wish to place a
weight on board a ship so that the vessel will not change trim,
we must place it so that the upward force of the added buoyancy
will act in the same line as the downward force of the added
Take a ship floating at a certain waterline, and
weight.
imagine her to sink
waterplane
buoyancy
is
is
down a
small amount, so
formed of a layer of
new
The added
that the
parallel thickness,
and having
is
known
at once, if
we know
of moderate amount.
by considering
change appreciably as the draught increases, and this is, for all
practical purposes, the case in ordinary ships. Second, that the
centre of gravity of the parallel layer of added buoyancy is in
the same section as the centre of flotation.
This latter assump
tion
Theoretical
148
Naval
ArcJiitectnre.
changes
to
new draught of
water,
we proceed
two steps
1. Imagine the weight placed over the centre of
in
flotation.
Then imagine
by
its
This
longitudinal distance from the centre of flotation.
divided by the moment to change trim i inch as cal
moment
culated for the original waterplane will give the change of trim.
The steps will be best illustrated by the following example
:
vessel is floating at a draught of 12' 3" forward and 14' 6" aft.
The
tons per inch immersion is 20 ; length, 300 feet ; centre of flotation, 12 feet
abaft the middle of length ; moment to change trim i inch, 300 foottons.
weight of 30 tons is placed 20 feet from the forward end of the ship.
What will be the new draught of water ?
The first step is to see the sinkage caused by placing the weight over
This sinkage is i inches, and the draughts would
the centre of flotation.
then be
12'
4!" forward,
Now, the shift from the centre of flotation to the given position is 142
feet, so that the moment forward is 30 X 142 foottons, and the change
of trim by the bow is
30
142
,
The
final
jj
Jj$
X
X
BM,
etc.
149
We
14^"
14^"
= 7f
= 61"
say
say
Forward,
f
7f =
13'
6i"
14' i"
05"
made
assumptions
due to adding a
In
the
case
this
no longer
hold,
1.
The
2.
same
transverse section.
3. The addition of a large weight will alter the position
of G, the centre of gravity of the ship.
4. The different form of the volume of displacement will
alter the position of B, the centre of buoyancy of the ship, and
BM.
Items 3 and 4
5.
change trim
will
of the
moment
to
inch.
added weight,
will
draught
is
44'5
it
is
17 inches nearly.
At a draught of
mean
is
therefore (44'5
is
therefore
45' 1
45'?)
23' 7"
45*7.
The
= 45%
and
is
1663, or
6f inches
Theoretical
150
nearly.
Naval
Architecture.
case, the weight must have been placed in the same transverse
section as the centre of gravity of the layer of displacement
We know
in the
down
added buoyancy.
same
and
and
same
We
is supposed to sink.
Put these points on
the profile drawing at the respective waterlines.
Draw a line
and
bisect
this
Then
this
line.
point will be
joining them,
a very close approximation to the centre of gravity of the layer.
its
centre of gravity
ship to take
up a new draught of
'
23'
Lowering
We
or
G=
=
750
16
10250
i 'i 7
feet
taken, the new C.B. below the original watei'litit was 9*7 feet,
as against 10*5 feet in the original condition, or a rise of 0*8
foot.
BM,
to
BM,
etc.
151
Then
forward.
the
moment changing
750 x 50
r
bow
is
37,500 foottons
trim by the
95
is
39* inches
aft
and forward.
In this case
We
Draught aft,
Draught forward,
For
all
say
new draughts
25' 2"
22' 2"
an approximation, because we do
new GM for the final waterline, and
These can
the consequent new moment to change trim i inch.
be calculated if desired, and corrections made where necessary.
To determine the Position of a Weight on Board
a Ship such that the Draught aft shall remain
constant whether the Weight is or is not on Board.
rate
but
it is
evidently
not take account of the
;
still
'.
Take a
If
ship floating at the waterline WL, as in Fig. 65.
be placed with its centre of gravity in the transverse
a weight
section that contains the centre of flotation, the vessel will very
1
This, however, is
nearly sink to a parallel waterline W'L'.
not what is required, because the draught aft is the distance
WW
greater than
it
should be.
The weight
will
have to be
WL
moved forward
WW
Naval
Theoretical
152
sufficient to
Architecture.
WW
amount
FIG. 65.
may be
fulfilled
Length of
ship,
after perpendicular,
GM,
longitudinal
coals, 57 tons.
From
we
Moment
trim
to
change
6615 X 522
=140
12 X 205
inch
find that
foottons
The
be
1 1 '4
inches.
moment
Accordingly, a forward
140
10
of
1400 foottons
246 feet
if
BM,
etc.
153
104*3
24'6
i28'9 feet
same
as before.
by working
broached before
Let
ABCD,
this
damaged condition ?
Fig. 66,
lighter,
with a
C.
FIG. 66.
collision
bulkhead 6
feet
WL.
two stages
r. Determine the amount of mean sinkage due to the
loss
of buoyancy.
i.
a waterline
will
wl such
that
volume
wG =
x between
volume GB.
ze>/and
WL.
This
Naval
Theoretical
154
wG = wH X 40 feet X x
GB = GL X 40 feet X 3 feet
40 x 6 x 3 = 18 ,
.'.# = f feet
=
2.
We now
The volume
Architecture.
94 X 40
2\ inches nearly
of displacement
The weight
of the lighter
x 40 x
^**> X
100
3 cubic feet
3
O3
1^2. tons
acting
acting
B'.
3 feet
= ^/^ X
= ^^
foottons
To
to
find the
change trim
amount of
i
this trim,
we must
find the
moment
inch
_ W x^GM
12
x L
GM
Now,
BM
2400
.".
moment
to
change trim
inch
=
BM =
where
and
(1
V=
12
x 100
f X
BM
BM
and moment
.'.
The new
to alter trim
2

W'L'
waterline
wl
new draught
3'
o"
aft is
(94)
X (94)
:!
144000
X 40 X (94)
7 x 144000
:!
66 foottons nearly
r 66
15^ inches
pass
in the ratio 47
=
=
=
will
at
155
12,000
inch
etc.
TV(94 x 40) X
BM =
BM,
53
= ^X
= f^r X
or
15$
15^
=
=
75
inches
8^ inches
given by
+ 2? 
7i"
2'
7"
2\" 4 8i"
3'
iol"
o"
The same
This gives a
moment forward
of
(
4~ 3
)
X 50
foottons
foottons
as obtained above.
It will be noticed that we have assumed that the moment to
change trim for the waterplane wl remains constant as the
vessel changes trim.
The slight alteration can be allowed for,
if
thought desirable, by taking the mean between the moment
to
change of trim.
Theoretical
156
Naval
Architecture.
is
in tons.
waterplane in
2O
IOO
8oj
45
60
3o
so
...
when
feet.
before
,
r,
abaft
5oj
What
will be the
trim
aft,
:
aft,
the
moment
to
change
35 ?
Ans. 20' 5f" forward, 22' 3" aft.
2. A vessel 300 feet long, designed to float with a trim of 3 feet by
the stern, owing to consumption of coal and stores, floats at a draught of
The load displacement at a mean draught of
9' 3" forward, and 14' 3" aft.
13' 6" is 2140 tons ; tons per inch, i8J ; centre of flotation, 12.^ feet abaft the
middle of length. Approximate as closely as you can to the displacement.
3.
moment
vessel
to
is
300
feet
change trim
being 0*75.
4.
A lightdraught sternwheel
5.
Ans. 319
foottons.
is
steamer
is
The
an even
keel.
What
right circular
BM,
etc.
157
10. Find the moment to change trim I inch of a vessel 400 feet long,
Longitudinal metacentre above
having given the following particulars
centre of buoyancy, 446 feet ; distance between centre of gravity and centre
of buoyancy, 14 feet displacement, 15,000 tons.
Ans. 1 350 foottons.
11. The moment of inertia of a waterplane of 22,500 square feet
about a transverse axis 20 feet forward of the centre of flotation, is found
The displacement of the vessel being
to be 254,000,000 in footunits.
14,000 tons, determine the distance between the centre of buoyancy and
:
Ans. 500
feet.
In the preceding question, if the length of the ship is 405 feet, and
the distance between the centre of buoyancy and the centre of gravity is 13
feet, determine the change of trim caused by the longitudinal transfer of
12.
feet.
13.
inertia
The
(3)
Transverse B.M.
Longitudinal B.M.
(Volume of displacement up
(4)
Ans.
15.
(i)
183,
184,
185,
181,
Ans. 534
feet.
State the conditions that must hold in order that a vessel shall not
change trim in passing from river water to salt water.
17.
log of fir, specific gravity 05, is 12 feet long, and the section is
2 feet square.
What is its longitudinal metacentric height when floating in
16.
stable equilibrium
30
8.
rpj
=>
where
Show
I
is
j^
L 2 B.
is
the breadth.
moment
to
change trim
CHAPTER
V.
DYNAMICAL
STABJLIl^Y.
Statical
Atwood's Formula.
we cannot employ
to a large angle
0.
WL
is
and B the
original waterline,
buoyancy.
W'L', which intersects
WL
will
SWW
centres of gravity of the emerged and immersed wedges respecThe volume of displacement remains the same, and
Let this
consequently these wedges are equal in volume.
tively.
volume be denoted by
vessel
v.
The
when
upward
GZ
B',
BR
to the
Then
etc.
159
x GZ,
moment of the couple tending to right the ship is
we term it, the moment of statical stability. Now
or, as
GZ = BR  BP
= BR  BG
so that the
moment
W(BR  BG
The
length
BR
sin
is
is
sin 6}
it is
WSW
LSL', through a horizontal distance hK. Therefore the horizontal shift of the centre of gravity of the immersed volume
from
original position at B, or
its
BR =
(using
known
1!
given by
x hK
V
principle discussed on p.
of statical stability at the angle
Wf
is
is
the
moment
This
BR,
96).
Therefore
is
JtJl'
BG
sin B
foottons
the
160
The
If
Theoretical
Naval
arm or
righting
we want
lever
Architecture.
BG
sin 6
we must
arm
or lever
know
therefore
of the wedges
expression involves a considerable amount of calform of a ship is an irregular one. The methods
adopted will be fully explained later, but for the present we
will suppose that it can be obtained when the form of the ship
This
last
culation, as the
is
given.
reached when
is
and usually
heel increases,
further inclination,
it
an angle
couple
ship, but
X GZ
is
will
GZ
to
the
right
At
i.
GZ=
11
11
11
21
,,
,,
11
28
11
o5
>'
11
11
42
j>
11
11
49
11
11
i,
11
54i
=
=
4^
Hi2
*4
10
if
inches
11
)J
11
'"'/
Biscay.
vol.
set
degrees,
T A
A
4
11
Now
ll
a rigged turretship
discussion of her stability will
etc.
161
we
28
21.
14.
ANCLES
42.
35.
OF
49.
545.
INCLINATION.
FIG. 68.
at
which
GZ obtains
maximum
its
maximum
value
is
the baseline
is
"
setting couple.
The lengths
calculated as
At
7 degrees,
>J
*4
J)
t* T
L
)>
5i
ZO
GZ =
*>
1C
OD
1
"4
5J
T1 *
'~ 1
*4
5>
55
4 inches
55
5>
'
T
Q
IO
1
*
1
4~
T.2.
1
J>
also the
above referred
to.
62
Theoretical
Naval
At 42 degrees,
49
Architecture.
GZ =
22 inches
20
"
The curve for this ship, using the above values for GZ, is
given by B, Fig. 68. The righting lever goes on lengthening
in the Monarch's case up to the
large angle of 40, and then
shortens but slowly ; that of the Captain
begins to shorten at
of inclination, and disappears altogether at
5 4^, an
which the Monarch still possesses a large
righting lever.
Referring to Atwood's formula for the lever of statical
about 21
angle at
stability at the
angle
9, viz.
GZ =
we
that
see
the
v X hh'
= BG
\
expression
consists
sin 6
of
two
parts.
The
BG
and
this
We
of boxes.
constant.
The
Take
Beam
...............
...............
Freeboard
...
Draught
...
......
...
is
taken as
21
50^
6J
feet.
,.
,,
at the Institution of
etc.
163
curve A.
of 14^, and from this angle the curve increases less rapidly
than before, and, having reached a maximum value, decreases,
the angle of vanishing stability being reached at about 38.
Now
thus
4^ feet
Draught
Beam
...
...
...
...
...
Freeboard
...
...
...
...
...
The curve
ing
to the
beam,
stability
21
feet.
55
6
,,
is now given by B, Fig. 69, the angle of vanishbeing increased to about 45. Although the
20.
10.
30.
ANGLE OF
40.
50.
60.
70.
INCLINATION.
FIG. 69.
We know
GM
curve
GM
is
greater.
There
is
Now
21
Beam
50^
Freeboard
..
II
feet.
,,
Theoretical
64
The curve
is
now
contrast to both
is
now 72.
The
Naval
Architecture.
curves
40.
These curves are very instructive in showing the influence
of beam and freeboard on stability at large angles.
We see
An
(a)
increase of
beam
and
therefore the slope of the curve near the origin, but does not
greatly influence the area enclosed by the curve or the range.
An
(b)
of
increase
freeboard
has
no
effect
on
initial
We now
(2)
effect
on the curve of
is
BG
is less
than
by the
90;
ship.
is
raised 2 feet.
Then
at
any
is diminished by 2 x sin 0.
For 30, sin
and
angle
,
In this way we get the curve D,
the deduction is there i foot.
in which the range of stability is reduced from 72 to 53 owing
as indicated, the
ordinates being righting levers, and not righting moments. The
righting
moment
at
is
etc.
165
73.
1500
tons,
and B
75.
the baseline
(b)
The angle
at
which the
maximum
66
The
line
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
angle the tangent at the origin makes with the baseAt the
circular
unity, viz.
is
measure
57*3, erect a
perpendicular
and make
the
to
base,
length equal to
the metacentric height GM,
the
for
its
condition
j*~
r,
it
Join
:
72).
'
'
FIG. 72.
curve as
at which
be drawn,
the end
.
of this
will
tend to
lie
and the
along
this
curve.
The proof
of this
is
given below.
is
modern
The range
3^
about 63.
B is the curve for the American monitor Miantonomoh.
This ship had a low freeboard, and to provide sufficient stability
feet metacentric height.
is
This
is
shown
inclination
we know
0,
that
B being in circular
or
GZ =
GM
If
now we
in degrees, say
express
<p
If a
is
the angle
line
<f>,
then
GM
GZ_
GZ _
is I
GM
OM
lies
GZ =
GM
0,
be stated
167
etc.
It
must
10.
in loading.
30.
20.
70.
40.
SO.
OF
INCLINATION.
60.
80.
90.
ANGLES
FIG. 73.
tecture,"
by
Sir E. J.
Reed.
is
W. H.
"
Manual of Naval Archiand the work on " Stability," by
in the
AVhite,
the curve of stability for a sailingship having a metaFor further examples see the works
stability for
a vessel
3 FT.
2. FT.
I. FT.
30.
"0
50.
70
80
FIG. 74.
which
is
unstable in the
moderate angle of heel. This vessel has a negative metacentric height, and would not remain in the upright position,
but on heeling to an angle of 25 she will resist further inclination,
and consequently,
if left
68
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
to this angle,
is
burnt out abreast the boilers, and this weight, low down in the
ship, being removed, causes the C.G. of the ship to rise, and
thus possibly be above the transverse metacentre.
The ship
is
The
section
such
is
that
the
shown
of the section, as
The
75.
in Fig.
righting lever at
GM
any
sin 0, where
angle 6 is
is the centre of gravity, and
the
Taking
centre of the
the
GM
section.
as two
feet,
The maximum
curve
is
shown
is
180.
The
in Fig. 76.
r 2FTI FT
30.
60.
90.
120.
ISO.
DEGREES.
FIG. 76.
Calculations for Curves of Stability. We now proceed to investigate methods that are or have been adopted in
practice to determine for any given ship the curve of righting
levers.
The
is
now
etc.
169
tions
in the
that
and
referred to the
is
Architects,
"
and
to
Stability of Ships."
The
be discussed
1. Blom's mechanical method.
2. Barnes' method.
:
3.
Direct
other methods).
4. By Amsler's Integrator
v
i.
Theoretical
170
The weight
Naval
Architecture.
set,
When this
the weight equals that of the first set.
the case, we can say that at the inclined waterline the
line until
is
displacement
is
right condition.
heels over.
we want
On
to find
the
same
This
is
done graphically by
we have gummed
together, and the point thus found will give us the position of
the centre of buoyancy for the inclined condition.
This is
must be made
2.
called
set
Method
Barnes's
Statical
of
calculating
method a series of tables are employed,
Preliminary and Combination Tables, in which the work
out in tabulated form.
Take the section in Fig. 77 to
Stability.
is
stability
In
this
WL
plane for the same displacement will pass through the centre
WL, but as the angle of inclina
etc.
171
If this
great.
is
new waterplane
is
FIG. 77.
In
found, and a mean taken between it and the original.
this way the thickness of the layer can be correctly found.
If the immersed wedge is in excess, the layer has to be de
ducted
if .the
emerged wedge
is in
added.
Theoretical
172
Naval
Architecture.
result will
The
results
consists
side of 477*4.
the squares of the ordinates, and put them
through the Simpson's multipliers, giving us a result for the
immersed side of 17,888, and for the emerged side 14,250.
We
then put
down
The remainder
described
We now
p.
later.
multipliers.
so
we
cubic
find the
feet,
the bottom
We
of the layer.
square
and
feet,
this
We now
1
The
have
off, viz.
is
or
\$ly*.d.d*
which can be written
J/J>.
</*.<#
or J ( Jjj/ 8
i.e.
Jjy
2
.
dx
is
found
for
dx)d6
x hJ
etc.
173
wedges, v
in
for
emerged and
the
immersed
sides
are
added
These
together, giving us for the 30 radial plane 1,053,633.
sums of functions of cubes are put in the combination table for
each radial plane up to and including 30, and they are put
through Simpson's
and then
rule,
respectively
multiplied
by
of the wedges
plied
by
3,39i,662, in footunits,
is
i.e.
cubic
feet, multi
feet.
1
The proof of the process is as follows Take a section of the wedge
S/L, Fig. 78, and draw ST perpendicular to S/. Then what is required is
the moment of the section about ST, and this
:
Take P and
integrated throughout the length.
P' on the curved boundary, very close together,
and join SP, SP' ; call the angle P'Sl, 0, and
the angle PSP', d9.
Then
the area
The
PSP'
y*
s pi^S
__l.
SP = y
do
about
ST
is
(fop . dO)
or }> 3
We
X
.
($y
cos 6
cos
dO
6)
moment
/SL about ST
of
3
\
cos
(jj/
d0
/(J/.J'
cos
'.
cos
ST
is
d6)dx
dx. d0
.
. dx for radial
find the value of jjj 3 . cos
planes up to and including
It will
the angle, and then integrate with respect to the angular interval.
be seen that the process described above corresponds with this formula.
i.e.
30.
30.
Theoretical
176
We now
Naval
Architecture.
We
The volume
We,
displacement
o'5
is
or
for
the
layer,
hH
So we can
correction
moment
fill
EG
GZ =
2535 feet
is
irgo
feet; sin
Atwood's formula
30
etc.
177
o, 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90
method of calculating stability has been very largely
It was introduced by Mr. F. K. Barnes at the Institution of Naval Architects in 1861, and in 1871 a paper was
read at the Institution by Sir W. H. White and the late Mr.
Barnes's
employed.
work on
it
"
Stability,"
cussed
in
Chapter
I.,
1
Fig. 77, for all the sections, and also the position of the centre
of gravity, g, for each section, thus obtaining the distance S//.
1
The sections are made into simple figures, as triangles
in order to obtain the area and position of C.G. of each.
and trapeziums,
78
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
This is done for both the immersed and emerged wedges. The
work can then be arranged in tabular form thus
:
Number
of
section.
function of the
is
set to.
the bar
(3)
the
same
function of the
tJie
moment of
inertia
179
of
tlie
area about
axis.
The bar
is
are required, by
(1) is
(2) is
(3) is
The
moment of
etc.
means of distance
pieces.
finding of the
present calculation.
M'LMW
1
Now let
of a vessel
represent the bodyplan
inclined to an angle of 30 ; then, as the instrument is set, the
INTEGRATOR.
FIG. 79.
axis of
moments
is
passing the
pointer
W'L'M, we can determine its area, and also its moment about
the axis ST by using the multipliers and doing this for all the
sections in the body, we can determine the displacement and
;
also the
1
moment
The bodyplan
drawn
for
Dividing the
the forebody in
80
TJteoretical
Naval
Architecture.
moment by
method employed.
and
for the
moment
We
in foottons is
x 64 x
181
etc.
X 875) x
(\
^ = 02133'
GZ=
981
is
at
46 feet
6726
Now,
6726 tons
this
original waterline
is
CROSS
CURVES
OF
STABILITY.
C.G.m L.WL.
3000.
4OOO.
DISPLACEMENT.
FIG. 80.
same way
as
we have found
it
for the
volume
WML'.
The
is
at S.
The same
process
is
gone through
82
for
GZ
Theoretical
Naval
waterlines,
at varying displacements at
Architecture.
and we
shall
have values of
These can
a constant angle.
be
measure
The
relation
of stability
is
IS.
30.
DEGREES
45.
OF
60.
75.
INCLINATION.
FIG. 81.
and 3000
Curves of Stability,
Statical Stability,
etc.
183
this point
on the
crosscurves.
It is
centre of gravity
is always at the
should be clearly stated
if
is
above
S,
then
GZ = SZ
SG
sin
for
any angle
0.
The amount
of work done by
X 1760 X
Ibs. for
a mile does
external forces,
The buoyancy
inclined, they
The
rise
TJieoretical
184
Work
Naval
Architecture.
of gravity and
the
the centre;
of buoyancy.
This calculated for any given angle of inclination
"
"
the
and
at that angle,
is
is
termed
dynamical stability
has to be expended on the ship in heeling her over to the
given angle.
at
p. 159,
new
waterline
their usual
meaning,
to the vertical
The
W'L
BR
through
is
GZ
vertical distance
The
and
B'.
at the angle
is
when
B'Z.
the vessel
is
upright
BG.
Therefore the vertical separation
B'Z
and according
to the definition
Dynamical
where
stability
is
 BG
above
W(B'Z  BG)
B'R
+ RZ =
B'R
+ BG
cos
v X (gh
4
or
g'ti)
r>
is.
= V x B'R
= vx(gh+g'h')
==.
we have
dynamical
stability
which
is
known
w Lr^Jg*V +/*)
185
.
'J
as Moseletfs formula.
be seen that
It will
etc.
and
this
formula
is
formula
stability of a
curve of
ship at
statical
method adopted,
follows
it is
if
is
is
required,
as
The dynamical
As
is
somewhat
it
difficult,
is
To
whose section
is
in the
form of a
its
centre of this
body must be
The
transverse meta
buoyancy
will
dynamical
stability at
90
W X GM.
level,
so that the
Now
The
W GM
W.GM,
05
GM,
and
calculated,
it
W.GM,
will
GM.
0707
W.GM,
0866
W.GM,
be found that
its
area
is
and
0965
area
its
W X GM, which
is
The
circular
measure of 15
is
0*2618.
86
Naval
Tlieoretical
Architecture.
because
stable,
work
that has to
it
Reed's work
J.
referred
is
to
the
V.
(2)
45
to the baseline
present
maximum
,'g
Ans.
stability at
45.
Ans. 171
foottons.
safety ?
6. Show from Atwood's formula that a ship is in stable, unstable, or
neutral equilibrium according as the centre of gravity is below, above, or
coincident with the transverse metacentre respectively.
vessel in a given condition displaces 4600 tons, and has the C.G.
7.
The ordinates of the crosscurves at this disin the igfeet waterline.
measure as
placement, with the C.G. assumed in the igfeet waterline,
follows: 063, 138, 215, 206, 137, 056 feet at angles of 15, 30,
45, 60, 75 and 90 respectively. The metacentric height is 24 feet.
Draw
etc.
187
out the curve of stability, and state (l) the angle of maximum
the angle of vanishing stability, and (3) find the dynamical
stability, (2)
stability at
45
and 90.
Ans.
50!
(2)
8.
9.
A vessel's curve of
ioo
of 3^4
(3)
feet,
viz. 051,
and o o8

feet
CHAPTER VI.
CALCULATION OF WEIGHTS AND STRENGTH OF BUTT
CONNECTIONS. STRAINS EXPERIENCED BY SHIPS.
Calculations
of
Weights.
We
 
have
discussed
in
Chapter
if
I.
is given.
For iron and steel
the
thicknesses,
varying
weight per square foot is
bars of
For iron and steel angles and
p. 36.
plates ,of
given
on
It
being in ^ths of an inch.
in
thicknot
etc.,
is
3!" x 3" is specified to weigh 15 Ibs. per lineal foot. When the
bars are specified in this way, reference to tables is unnecessary.
The same
practice is employed with regard to plates, the thickness being specified as so many pounds to the square foot.
If we have given the size of an angle bar and its thick
section
is
(a
+b
f)
inches, or
feet
I
is
+ b
2
is
X 40 X
t Ibs.
and
if
the bar
co ro to
P4
Op
Os
^coO o
t^
TJ
O N
T) i/i
CO CO CO to
CO
r
rs
vp
ro
ui
iiti
ro
GO OS
r^
<ivO
MD t^CO
11
>f
^OO
O M N
O N
ON
TJ
I^OO OS
1000
****
O Os N vo Os
rO\O O
M "
^"^
^n
vovO t^OO
rO
t
O " N
rovo CO
s
O n
O
<>
OsC<5
to
^CO
i
Os
>
O
o>
ro
>*
Vj
ov
<>
Os ^v
O CO
;* CO
N CO j "TO t^ t^CO Os
ofO'* o
^s
t^c
olo
1
MD t^CO CO Os
OCOvO
w
<*
~~
OOO
HtHHIH
vOvO" >OTjT)rOCOO*N!'''OOOs
w N CO ro rt
ov v

CsoO CO
(
ro
rvO r^CO
Os
O "
"
ipNrOfO'l'<JiO vov
Os
i
Tfvo Os
t^OO CO Os OS
n
ov
*t~.l^COCO
Osss
N vO O
psNvp
COCO
JO
rj
ThOsOOvO
t^NCO
JO jovp f^CO ps
b b b b b b b b
<>[!
ml
jo
lit
wng
to wivo VO t^ t^CO
GOOsOsOON
Naval
Theoretical
190
Architecture.
is
t'\
L
f b
40*8
/ Ibs.
Thus a 3" X 3" X f" steel angle bar would weigh 717 Ibs.,
and a steel angle bar 3" X 3" of 7 Ibs. per foot would be
slightly less than f inch thick.
It is frequently necessary to calculate the weight of a
portion of a ship's structure, having given the particulars of
instance, a
bulkhead, a deck,
In any case, the first step must
be to find the area of plating and the lengths of angle bars.
The weight of the net area of the plating will not give us the
total weight _of the plating, because we have to allow for butt
its
employed
and
The method
is
to take a
and
find
steel plating,
weight
Ibs.
1275
that
the net
is
io,335
x 1275
=8 8tons
.
2240
average size for the plates, say 16' X 4'.
Jinch rivetb
will probably be used, and the width of the edge strip and butt strap will
round
half
inches.
The
the
of
the
be about 5
length
edge
plate is 20 feet,
and the area of the strap and lap belonging to this plate is
Now, assume an
20
The percentage of
X &=
833
^
04
Adding 3 per
is
100
is
therefore
13 per cent.
add 3 per cent, to allow for the weight of rivetFor lapped edges and butt straps, both double riveted,
It is usual to
heads.
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
191
specified.
for fastenings.
Example. The beams of a deck are 3 feet apart, and weigh 22 Ib.s.
per foot run ; the deck plating weighs 10 Ibs. per square foot, and this is
Calculate the weight of a part
covered by teak planking 3 inches thick.
54 feet long by 10 feet wide of this structure, including fastenings.
(S.
Add
for butts
=
=
and A. Exam.
1897.)
540
378
5778
straps
and singleriveted
laps.)
= 5 77 '8 X 10
= 5778 Ibs.
Running feet of beams = ^ = 180
Weight of beams = 180 X 22
= 3960 Ibs.Total weight of plating and beams = 9,738 Ibs.
Add 3 per cent, for rivetheads =
292
Weight of plating
,,
10,030
3
Weight of teak = 540 X f
Add 3 per cent, for fastenings
Weight of
=
=
6750
202
,,
Ibs,
,,
,,
Summary.
Plating and
Wood
deck
beams
...
...
...
...
...
Total
...
10,030
6,952
16,982
lbs<
,,
76 tons.
will
if
a whole
TJieoretical
192
Use of Curves.
Naval
Architecture,
for
example,
in
sections
this
set
is
Plating.
we have
The
first
to deal with.
step
A\ e
FIG. 82.
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
193
is
Then
lines.
the
ordinate
of
the
curve
of girths
midway
bottom of the
This
ship.
is,
(4) Steel
(5)
Bulkheads.
(6) Topsides.
There
are
are,
bearers, rudder,
paint,
cement,
pumping and
fittings, etc.
Theoretical
194
Naval
Architecture.
The
size
of the vessel
is
denoted
The
to the
upper deck
Lloyd's numbers
The
and spacing of the frames, reversed frames, and floorbulkheads and the diameter of pillars are regulated
by numbers, which are produced as follows
2. For one and two decked vessels, the number is the sum of the
measurements in feet arising from the addition of the halfmoulded breadth
1.
scantlings
of the vessel at the middle of the length, the depth from the upper part of
the keel to the top of the upperdeck beams, with the normal roundup,
and the girth of the half midship frame section of the vessel, measured from
the centre line at the top of the keel to the upperdeck stringer plate.
threedeck steamvessels, the number is produced by the
3. For
deduction of 7 feet from the sum of the measurements taken to the top of
the upperdeck beams.
vessels and awningdecked steamvessels, the
4. For spardecked
number is the sum of the measurements in feet taken to the top of the mainfor
vessels having one or two decks.
deck beams, as described
5. The scantlings of the keel, stem, sternframe, keelson, and stringer
plates, the thickness of the outside plating and deck ; also the scantlings
of the angle bars on beam stringer plates, and keelson and stringer angles
in hold, are governed by the longitudinal number obtained by multiplying
that which regulates the size of the irames, etc., by the length of the vessel.
The measurements for regulating the above scantling numbers are taken
as follows :
I. The length is measured from the after part of the stem to the fore part
of the sternpost on the range of the upperdeck beams in one, two, and
three decked and spardecked vessels, but on the range of maindeck beams
in
awningdecked vessels.
In vessels where the stem forms a cutwater, the length
is
measured from
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
195
and
above.
To
ment
ment
(that is, the weights on board at the time of the experithat do not form part of the hull are set down and their
positions determined,
C.G. of the
Chapter
hull
III.).
is
stem
beam.
Theoretical
196
Naval
Architecture.
a certain ship the C.G. of hull was 20*3 feet above keel, the
it is
AB
at a certain station.
The
Fig. 83 represents
is divided into
curve
four equal parts by dividers, and the C.G. of each of these parts
estimated as shown. The centres of the first two portions
is
are joined, and the centres of the two top portions are joined
as shown.
The centres of these lastdrawn lines, g^ #.,, are
joined, and the centre of the line g^g.^ viz. G, is the C.G. of
is the distance from the
the line forming the curve AB, and
L.W.L. This done for each of the sections will enable us to
GP
CC in Fig. 82, of distances of C.G. of the halffrom the L.W.L. 1 We then proceed to find the C.G. of
The
the bottom plating as indicated in the following table.
put a curve,
girths
area
1
is
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
197
FIG.
98
Tlieoretical
Naral
Common
Architecture.
interval
Area both
sides
=
=
=
C.G. abaft middle of length of plating
=
=
61 feet
5878
X ^ X
61
61
5878
145 feet
45 8
= %
=
5878
212 feet
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
199
The preceding
is
not intended to represent any special ship, but only the type of
calculation.
tons,
is
0*857 foot
middle of length.
The
1 1
The
strap.
the butt
tight,
is
and the
row of holes
from the butt. Such a connection as this could conceivably break in five distinct ways
1. By the whole of the rivets
on one side of the butt
farthest
shearing.
2.
By
farthest
3.
from the
By
AA,
butt.
holes,
holes,
2OO
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
.&.
1*
iff
if
lit
if!
'
r::;r
t
rt
SI
if!
it!
A.C.B.
FIG.
put in a larger
number of
84.
rivets
strap,
FIG. 85.
there would
still
remain the
AA,
line
farthest
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
201
The most
through the
line
of holes
at
that
beam
or frame,
the
least
strength by any
equal this standard
strength.
Experimental Data.
Before
Naval Architects
results given
in 1885,
"\
i'
IN TONS.
2O2
Naval
Theoretical
The
mild
steel plates
Unpunched
...
...
...
...
Holes punched
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
Holes drilled
Holes punched small, and the hole then
countersunk
The
after
Architecture.
...
...
...
. . .
cent.
full
si/.e,
the
rivets
tcrsnnk,
the
rivets
which
is
as
It
after punching, the full strength of the material is restored.
is the practice, in ships built for the British Admiralty, for all
Calculation of Weiglits,
etc.
203
is
In our calculations of the strength of butt straps, we thereassume that the strength of the material between the
fore can
rivetholes
unpunched
is
the
same
plate.
The
are as follows
For ships
The plates tested above showed a tensile strength of 28tons per square inch, or nearly midway between the limits laid
down by the British Admiralty. It seems reasonable, therefore, in calculating the ultimate strength of riveted joints, to
The
adopted
following two
examples
will
illustrate
methods
the
2
:
Admiralty
tests, etc.,
adopted.
Naval
Theoretical
2O4
Architecture.
I.
steel stringer plate is 48 inches broad and 7g inch thick.
Sketch
the fastenings in a beam and at a butt, and show by calculations that the
butt connection is a good one.
at the
and
this is the
48
41 1
9(1)
is
therefore
4!:}
inches
is
fa
X 26 = 470
tons
we have
to
aim
at in designing the
butt strap.
(1)
rivet
As
regards the
number of
rivets.
The
being 115 tons, the number of rivets necessary to equal the standard
is
47
 
is
given by
{48
This
i6()}
X 26 = 410
yg
tons
[48Which
i6(f)}
If
made
J inch
X 26 = 468
is
AA
The
410+
1035
S 1 3'5 tons
CC
and the
AA
468
184
652 tons
The ultimate strengths of the butt connection in the five different ways it
might break are therefore 47lJ, 470, 468, 513^, 652 tons respectively, and
thus the standard strength of 470 tons is maintained for all practical
purposes, and consequently the butt connection is a good one.
2. If it were required to so join two plates as to make the strength at
the butt as nearly as possible equal to that of the unpierced plates, what
kind of butt strap would you adopt ?
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
205
inch thick,
Supposing the plates to be of mild steel 36 inches wide and
give the diameter, disposition, and pitch of rivets necessary in the strap.
(S. and A. Exain., 1895.)
The first part of this question has been already dealt with on p. 201.
To lessen the number of rivets, it is best to use a double butt strap, as
Each of the butt straps
so as to get a double shear of the rivets.
I'ig. 85,
should be slightly thicker than the halfthickness of the plate, say T5 inch.
The standard strength to work up to is that of the plate through the
finch rivets being used, the
single rivethole at the corner of the strap,
standard strength is
,.
(36
i)
The
i5'25
15 \ tons,
'8
26
number of
least
\
is
457 tons
and
may
be
27^ tons
rivets
is
23L
27'S
The strength of the plate along the slanting row of holes furthest from
the butt must be looked into.
The rivets here are made with a watertight
If we set out the holes for a strap 2 feet
pitch, say from 4 to 4^ diameters.
wide, it will be found that the strength is below the standard.
strap
3 feet wide will, however, give a strength through this line of about 465
There are 13 rivets along
tons, which is very near the required 457 tons.
the edge of the strap, and the inside may be filled in as shown, giving a
total number of rivets, each side of the butt, of 19.
Local strains,
of the ship.
1
Structural
.
follows
strains
i.e.
Strains.
which
These
may
be
classified
as
aft direction.
(b) Strains
(c)
Strains
steam or
2.
sails.
Local Strains.
(a)
Panting
(b)
Strains
armour, guns,
These may be
classified as follows
strains.
due
etc.
to
206
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
We
now
will
deal with
some of
The
FIG. 86.
of the portions has its weight, and each has an upward support
But in some of the portions the weight exceeds
of buoyancy.
the buoyancy, and in others the buoyancy exceeds the weight.
The
total weight.
1
In
they would sink deeper in the water if left to themselves.
the portions (2) and (4), on the other hand, the buoyancy might
exceed the weight (suppose these are the foreandaft holds, and
is light), and if left to themselves they would rise. The
the ship
Strictly speaking, each portion would change trim if left to itself, but
suppose that the various portions are attached, but free to move in a
we
Vertical direction.
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
207
FIG. 87.
beam
beam
is a
tendency to bend, caused by the way the
loaded and supported, and the beam must be made
In the
sufficiently strong to withstand this bending tendency.
same way, the ship must be constructed in such a manner as to
there
is
upon the
When
waves
bending
brought to bear
structure.
still
FIG.
The
amidships.
ship
is
crest of the
wave
208
(2)
Theoretical
The
ship
is
Naval
Architecture.
amidships.
(i)
This
is
At
an
excess of weight at the ends, and an excess of buoyancy amidships. The ship may be roughly compared to a beam supported
The conat the middle, with weights at the end, as in Fig. 89.
FIG. So.
sequence
is
that there
is
This
is
_
FIG. 90.
Calculation of Weights,
209
etc.
beams. 1
middle.
KIG. 92.
the
resistance
beam
will
offer
to
many
different ways.
8 inches wide,
will depend on
Take a beam having
bending
Take
We
the following
(a,)
FIG. 93.
Then
compare
We
we can make
The beam
although
1
The
(d) is
it
has
far
and
(d) is 6f.
stronger to resist
the centre.
away from
subject of
Applied Mechanics,
beam
the
beams
will
be found
fully discussed
in
works on
2io
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
we
structure should
thickened
strength.
axis.
Thus the
ture that are useful in resisting these hogging and sagging strains
are the upper and main decks and stringers, sheerstrake and
plating below, plating at and below the bilge, both of the inner
and outer bottom, keel, keelsons, and longitudinal framing.
up
Form of tht
Ship.
made
place.
sufficiently strong to
when
the length of
There are other strains, viz. shearing strains, which are of importance
"Applied Mechanics," by Professor Cotterill, and a paper read at the
Institution of Naval Architects in 1890, by the late Professor Jenkins).
1
(see
Calculation of Weights,
etc.
21
FIG. 94.
however,
partially supported by shores as well as at the keel
as the water leaves, so that this case is an extreme one.
is
Panting.
This term
is
in
plating,
See p. 194.
due
to the sails,
tending to
212
TJieorctical
Naval
Architecture.
bulkhead.
prevent
The
stringer plates
These
stringers.
head
when
fitted in
to be attached to
continuation of intercostal
at alternate frames.
at the after
Naval Architecture," by
Sir
is
referred to the
W. H.
"Manual
of
White.
plating
is
worked 25
Ans. About 20
tons.
Steel angle bars 3^" X 3" are specified to be 8J Ibs. per lineal foot
instead of ^ inch thick.
Determine the saving of weight per 100 lineal
2.
feet.
3.
Ans. 52 Ibs.
5" x 4" x \"
Ans. I4'45 Ibs.
T" Dar
"
For a given purpose, angle bars of iron 5" X 3" X T8S or of
be
can
used.
Find
the
of
feet if
100
X
3"
saving
2
V'
weight
5"
per
is adopted.
4.
steel
steel
5.
Ans. 95
mast 96
feet in length, if
made
of iron,
is at its
Ibs.
greatest diameter,
Calculation of Weights,
213
etc.
8
32 inches, /g inch thick, and has three angle stiffeners 5" X 3" X T 6 ".
For the same diameter, if made of steel, the thickness is $ inch, with three
viz.
3"
9
5 ".
At a given
8.
L.W.L. 97 tons.
The whole ordinates of
;
3,
The deck, with the exception of 350 square feet, is covered with f inch
worked flush jointed, with single riveted edges and butts.
steel plating
fastenings.
Ans. 45
tons.
CHAPTER
IIORSEPOIVER,
VII.
CORRESPONDING SPEEDS.
Horsepower. We have
done by a force as being
"
"
in
stance.
if the train is
moving at a uniform speed is employed in
overcoming the various resistances, such as the friction of the
If we
wheels on the track, the resistance of the air, etc.
know the amount of this resistance, and also the speed of the
train, we can determine the horsepower exerted by the loco
motive.
The
If the mass of a train is 150 tons, and the resistance to its motion
arising from the air, friction, etc., amount to 16 Ibs. weight per ton when
the train is going at the rate of 60 miles per hour on a level plain, find the
horsepower of the engine which can just keep it going at that rate.
= 150 X 16
= 2400 Ibs.
= 5280
=
2400
X 5280
= 2400 x 5280
33000
= 384
footlbs.
and
Horsepoiver, Effective
In any general case,
R=
Indicated,
etc.
215
if
motion
resistance to
in
pounds
per hour)
of
knot
is
6080
feet
then
Horsepower
=
_
X r
QO
R X V x
ioi
33000
vessel
offered
example
At a speed of 1017 feet per minute, the towrope strain was 10,770
Find the horsepower necessary to overcome the resistance.
Work done per minute = 10,770 X 1017 footlbs.
10770 X 1017
Horsepower =
33000
= 332
Ibs.
is
We
E.H.P.
is
216
Naval
Theoretical
which
is
the
Architecture.
engines.
late
was given,
make them
summary of the
1874.
Rankine's
a
with
experiments, including
"Augcomparison
mented Surface Theory of Resistance," will be found in vol. iii.
Institution of
of
Naval
Science.
published in Engineering,
May
to the
Admiralty was
1874.
i,
Fic. 95.
corresponding to
this
feet
tons; area of
area of immersed surface,
rigged out from the side of the Active to take the towrope (see
Fig. 95).
By this means the Greyhound proceeded through
Horsepower, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
217
water that had not been influenced by the wake of the Active.
The length of the boom on the Active was 45 feet, and the length
of the towrope was such that the Greyhound's bow was 190
rope at
its
2D.OOO
r
SPEED
KNOTS.
IN
FIG. 96.
The
in
rapidly
2iS
Naval
Theoretical
Architecture.
Now,
is a
very important matter.
(We are only concerned
with the total resistance.)
to
8 knots it was found
Up
that the resistance was proportional to the square of the speed
increases
now
that
to
is
say, if
t,
R,
R,
or
0r
By measuring
the resistance
if
2 respectively, then,
Vj,
the square of the speed
V
2
V
3
Rl
is
at
speeds
proportional to
V.,
'
RT~"vV
ias P61 cen t. this being for speeds between 8 and 12 knots.
Ratio between Effective Horsepower and IndiWe have already seen that, the
cated Horsepower.
"
resistance of the
Greyhound
at certain
being deter
speeds
mined,
it
(I.H.P.),
is
when proceeding on
on a separate
series of trials,
the measured
and tabulated.
mile,
was observed
The
ratio of the
Horsepower, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
219
that
was employed
led
it
The
ratio
yTr~b
it.
is
fine lines a
becomes smaller.
by Mr. Froude.
sistership to the Greyhound, and she had
been run upon the measured mile at the same draught and
designed
gives
some
results as given
22O
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
of the ship.
2. Resistance due to the formation of eddies.
3.
1.
Frictional resistance"
or
the
resistance
due
to
the
level line
largely
owing to the
different laws.
It is
upon the
bottom.
state of the
vessel,
on becoming
etc.,
good proportion
at higher
speeds.
Take a block of wood,
2. Resistance due to eddymaking.
and imagine it placed a good distance below the surface of
Then
a current of water moving at a uniform speed V.
the particles of water will run as approximately indicated
in Fig. 97.
At A we shall have a mass of water in a state of
FIG. 97.
violent agitation,
of the block.
" eddies" and
that
Horsepoiver, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
221
and thick
sternposts,
it
amounted
to
the resistance.
tion of
them.
Frictional Resistance.
when considering
this
and resistance being simultaneously recorded. The following table represents the resistances in pounds per square
foot due to various lengths of surface of various qualities when
at a uniform speed of 600 feet per minute, or very
6
knots. There is also given the powers of the speed
nearly
to which the resistances are approximately proportional.
moving
We
The
resistance
depends upon
(2)
the speed.
as the square of
Theoretical
Naval
Architecture.
223
etc.
desirable to extend these experiments, and the law they elucidate, to greater lengths of surface than 50 feet ; but this is the
and its apparatus
greatest length which the experimenttank
surface
of the
as
is
affecting
The
resistance.
may be
foot
is
the
Resistance
= 7540 Ibs.
= 025 X 7540 X
= 6702 Ibs.
'
('g')
= I '83 log 2
= 05508849
*'" = 35554
1
log (2
,'.
'
83
83
Naval
Theoretical
224
Architecture,
It is useful, in
V
= 2LD + yc
Surface
(2)
(3)
= ryLD
V
f
=156
being the
is
girth,
and
The formula
wetted surface.
Mean
where
this multiplied
wetted girth
is
by the length
as follows
0*95 cM.
2(1
mean moulded
<r)D
mean
draught.
2. Eddymaking Resistance,
We have already seen the
It may be
general character of this form of resistance.
assumed to vary as the square of the speed, but it will vary
in amount according to the shape of the ship and the appen
dages.
will
Thus a
experience this
Horsepower, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
225
extent than a vessel with a fine stern and with sternpost and
rudder of moderate thickness.
Eddymaking resistance can
be allowed
resistance.
this
form
for
of
resistance
It is possible
eddymaking to
minimum by paying
careful
attention
to
the
FIG.
A completely
3. Resistance due to the Formation of Waves.
submerged body moving at any given speed will only experience resistance due to surface friction and eddymaking provided
it is
immersed sufficiently but with a body moving at the
;
DIRECTION
OF FLOW.
FIG. 99.
surface, such as
we have
due to
especially at
way
and
226
TJieoretical
Naval
Architecture.
suppose the water is made to move past the body with a uniform
speed V. The particles of water must move past the body in
These streamcertain lines, which are termed streamlines.
lines are straight and parallel before they reach the body, but
locally diverted,
is
and
at the rear of
the
speed
any
We
is
decrease in speed is
may therefore say
(1)
There
is
a broadening of
all
the streams,
and attendant
the draught of a
The body
move
it
it,
in
the
frictionless
"
We may say
Horsepower, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
227
surface
by the dotted
profile of the
The
FIG. ioo.
In actual practice the waves that are formed obscure the simple system we have described above, which has
"
been termed the statical wave."
of causes.
series of
each side a local oblique wave of greater or less size according to the speed and obtuseness of the wedge, and these waves
These waves
228
Theoretical
Naval
They
Architecture.
and the
FIG. ioi.
waves
cos
travel
0,
where
the ship increases the diverging waves become larger, and consequently represent a greater amount of resistance.
Besides these diverging waves, however, " there is produced
by the motion of the vessel another notable series of waves,
which carry
is this
This relation
is
that
the length of the wave varies as the square of tJie speed at which
the ship is travelling, and thus as the speed of the ship increases
and
Horsepower, Effective
Interference between the
Indicated,
229
etc.
Transverse Series of
In a paper read by the late Mr. Froude at the Institution of Naval Architects in 1877, some very important
experiments were described, showing how the residuary resist
Waves.
ance
The
as roughly
shown
340
240
^^
results
LENGTH
PARALLEL
being
set
set out
up on a
40.
140.
OF
were
MIDDLE
BODY
FIG. 102.
At the low
this was
speed the residuary resistance was
little
this
variation
The
The
Residuary resistance
is
Theoretical
230
Naval
ArcJiitecture.
parallel
When
bow wave
series
coincide with the crests of the stern wave series, the residuary
resistance is at a maximum.
When the crests of the bowwave
series coincides with the trough of the sternwave series, the
is at a minimum.
These experiments show very clearly that it is not possible
construct a formula which shall give the resistance of a ship
residuary resistance
to
when
at speeds
We
feature.
son
must
"
(see p. 237).
The
1
following extracts from a lecture by Lord Kelvin (Sir
William Thomson) are of interest as giving the relative in
3626
tons,
no
parallel
6'95
tons as against
5*8
is
much more
is
rather
At
favourable.
more than A, being
tons, while the wave resistance is
At 14 knots there is a
3*2 tons.
is
etc.
231
ance
r*i tons."
have
to
be considered
in the case of
surface.
as
we
We
not
portion tapers off very fine. The reason for the small resistances
of forms of this sort is seen when we consider the paths the particles
the rear end which must be fined off in order to reduce eddymaking to a minimum. This was always insisted on very strongly
"
by the late Mr. Froude, who said, It is blunt tails rather than
A very good illustration of the
blunt noses that cause eddies."
above is seen in the form that is given to the section of shaft
brackets in twinscrew vessels.
Such a section is given in Fig.
It will be noticed that the forward end is comparatively
98.
blunt, while the after end is fined off to a small radius.
Speed Coefficients. The method which is most largely
it is
a vessel
from the
results of trials of existing vessels.
They are based upon
assumptions which should always be carefully borne in mind
employed
at a certain speed
Displacement
is
coefficients obtained
by using
in actual practice.
We
Coefficient.
(a)
(b)
so that
As the square
we may write
is
surface
of the speed ;
for the resistance in pounds
resist
Theoretical
232
Naval
R=
Architecture.
KiSV
resistance.
___ = R
Now, E.H.P
(p.
IDT
as
Therefore we
215).
V x
33000
may
say
E.H.P. =
K SV
or, in
I.H.P. =
;i
KSV
we may
write
S,
is
s
will be 2
8 times the displacement of
the displacement of
The ratio of the linear dimensions will be the cube root
B.
of the ratio
2
(^/8)
= 4.
This
of the
may
displacements, in
also
be written
8*.
the above
We may
case
accord
ingly say that for similar ships the area of the wetted surface
will be proportional to the twothirds power of the displace
ment, or
horsepower
We
Horsepower, Effective
T
where
TT
and
_ W* x V
233
etc.
Indicated,
s
~C~
W = the displacement in tons
;
V=
ment, and the I.H.P. and speed are measured, the value of the
coefficient
W~* X
T TJ^
3
.
It is
usual
l.rl.Jr.
it
goes on
trial,
and
of the ship and the conditions under which she was tried.
It
is
specimen calculation
is
W= 4375
V=
1293
I.H.P.= 2338
By
we
find
= 3' 6 4io
log 1293 = i'in6
log 2338 = 33689
that log (4375)* = I !og 4375 = 24273
log (i2'93) = 3 log 1293 = 3'3348
!og 4375
so
33689
23932
of whjch this is the logarithm is 2473,
accordingly this is the value of the coefficient required.
The number
The
same
be seen on
p.
vessel.
Theoretical
234
2.
The
1
Naval
Architecture.
coefficient''
I.H.P.
ship.
This assumption
is
not
is
In obtaining the
coefficient, we have assumed that the
wetted surface of the ships we are comparing will vary as the
twothirds power of the displacement ; but this will not be true
if
all
respects.
However,
it
is
We
Summing up
should be employed,
(1)
(2)
surface,
we have
The
The
resistance
and
this area is
is
resistance
is
assumed
power
somewhat
(3)
The
1
See
p. 236.
is
Horsepower, Effective
and
Indicated,
etc.
235
working
(4)
surfaces
in
"
pared for corresponding speeds."
to give
must be
carefully used,
and
new
their limitations
thoroughly appreciated.
We have seen that it
resistance can
is
7556
3958
1765
596
The
results
Speed in knots.
186
1575
I2'5
83
above are
i86
Theoretical
236
Naval
Architecture.
It will
maximum
We may
explain this
by pointing out
(1) At high speeds, although the "propulsive
coefficient"
being
less for
is
Corresponding Speeds.
the terms
ships,
What would be
strictly relative.
high speed for one vessel might very well be a low speed for
The first general idea that we have is that the speed
another.
depends in some way on the length. Fifteen knots would be
it
would be quite a
In trying a model
"/
dimensions
is
f=48
625
to
20 knots of the
is
20
Speeds obtained in
Example.
on the \ inch
A
=
f
this
,/48
way
288 knots
etc.
237
Although here the actual dimensions are not given, yet the
linear dimensions
ratio of the
Therefore the speed of the ship
3 /y/48
this
Expressing
where
V=
knots
coefficient
may
say
=a
2o
law in a formula, we
speed in knots
L=
the
expressing
ratio
V:VL>
and
We may
"
efficient
"
When
0*5
i'o to
to
0*65,
modern
Beyond
this
we
the
ship
battleships
is
being driven at a
it
is
excessive speeds.
We have already seen that the W* coefficient of performance has a maximum value at a certain speed for a given ship.
In the case of the Iris, we saw that this was at a speed of
1
2 knots.
This
maximum
found to be obtained
ing to the value c
in fullsized ships at a
07.
The
Iris
was 300
is
usually
and the
12
value of c at 12 knots would be
.=
V3
0*09.
form.
If
It is as follows
V V
2,
s,
Theoretical
238
Naval
are
Architecture.
"
at the " corresponding speeds
of
etc. y
water on the longer surface. The law of comparison strictly applies to the resistances other than frictional.
The law can be used in comparing the resistance of two
friction of the
when model
1 ^, or
therefore the corresponding speeds of the ship were
If the law of comparison
four times the speed of the model.
held good for the total resistance, the resistance of the ship
3
should have been i6
surfaces.
employing a
model and
the condition
of
its
and a curve drawn through all the spots thus obtained. This
shown by the dotted curve DD in Fig. 103. Thus at
250 feet per minute the total resistance of the model is given
by ac, and the resistance due to surface friction by ad. The
portion of the ordinate between the curves CC and DD will
give at any speed the resistance due to other causes than that
is
Horsepower, Effective
Thus
of surface friction.
at
250
and
Indicated,
etc.
239
The wavemaking
already seen,
resistance, as
we have
is
SPEED
FIG. 103.
CC
curves
speed increases.
It is
AA
and BB,
Fig. 96, giving .the resistance for the ship other than
frictional, were in
practical agreement with the ordinates
TJteoretical
240
Naval
Architecture.
first
In this
experimental tank belonging to the British Admiralty.
case also there was virtual agreement between the boat and
It is now the
the model according to the law of comparison.
practice of the British Admiralty and others to have models
made and run in a tank. The data obtained are of great
Having the
at
ance of a ship
follows
is
10,700
Ibs.,
in feet
per minute
Work done
per minute
Speed
=
=
HP =
=
and
if
we can
we assume a propulsive
L H.P.
gf
10,700
I07
X
x
(10
^ffr)
footlbs.
^~
33000
328
coefficient of
45 per cent.
= 3*AX '
45
= 729
etc.
241
assumed
(3)
to
The
be the same.
efficiency of the
machinery,
propellers, etc.,
is
The
.*.
the ratio
displacement = 3
of the linear dimensions / = jJ/3
ratio of the
.'.
=
=
144
14
1
X \
_
i
'44
6 '8 knots
The resistance of the new ship will be P times that of the original, and
accordingly the E.H.P., and therefore the I.H.P., will be that of the
7
by
fi
I.H.P.
for
(1*44)'
new
ship
3*6,
=
=
and
2500 X 3'6
9000
When ships have been run on the measured mile at progressive speeds, the information obtained is found to be extremely valuable, since we can draw for the ship thus tried a
curve of I.H.P. on a base of speed, and thus at intermediate
The following
speeds we can determine the I.H.P. necessary.
example
will
new
is
found useful
in
design.
Now, the corresponding speeds of the ships will vary as the square root
of the ratio of linear dimension /.
We have
73
*~
and
_
=
V/"=
9000
73$S
107
1035
Naval
TJieoretical
242
Architecture.
21
i
1035
is
203
power
at that speed.
3.
Ans. 460.
steam yacht has the following particulars given
Displacement on
I.H.P on
trial
...
...
...
...
trial
,,
Speed
Find the "displacement
1765 tons
364
...
...
...
...
...
133 knots
coefficient of speed."
Ans. 203.
steamyacht has a displacement of 1435 tons, and 250 I.H.P. is
expected on trial. What should the speed in knots be, assuming a displacement coefficient of speed of 196 ?
4.
A
A
and
Horsepower, Effective
speed must a similar vessel 350
performances may be compared ?
feet
Indicated,
long be driven
in
etc.
243
A us.
j.6'2
knots.
vessel
trial
Ans. 354
vessel of
55
223
tried
Speed.
I.H.P.
847
1043
1223
1293
485
881
1573
2I I7
is
being designed.
APPENDIX A
Proof of Simpson's First Rule.
referred to the axes
31, p. 51,
y=
a lt a 2 being constants
and breadth AX is
y x AX
and the area required between x = o and x = 2h is the sum of all
such strips between these limits. Considering the strips as being a
small breadth Ax, we still do not take account of the small triangular
pieces as BDE (see Fig. 12), but on proceeding to the limit, i.e.
making the strips indefinitely narrow, these triangular areas disappear, and the expression for the area becomes, using the formula;
of the calculus
y dx
.
o
or,
(a
atx
a.2 x}dx
which equals
which has
The
to be evaluated
x = ih and x =
Now, from
2/t
^4^ + $a*8/i
when
x = o,y = a
x = y = a + aji + ajix  2/t, y = a + 2a Ji + \tiji//,
246
Appendix.
=y
x  h,y = }',
x = zk, y = j> 3
when x
therefore
o,y
we have
<*&=?!
a
<?
from which
may be
t)
aji
2aji
+ a. h* = y.,
+ 4a.2 h = y~
2
or substituting above
Area = yflh
+  A(4J2 
3Xi
 >'s) +
'
^O's
2A>
i
which
to the
curve be
will
be given by
(a
a^x
a.?*
a z x?)dx
(i)
J o
The
From
(i)
we
is
3o/!
A2
9^1
is
+
,
81
4
<h'1
(3)
Now
y\
ao
we
for
a.a a 3
<z
</,,
above forj 15 y.
determining
etc., in
the
247
Appendix.
manner.
The dynamical
The
centre of buoyancy
will
B'B"
will
draw
be
GZ x
df).
angle
9 to
the angle 9
Wx
Take now the curve
angle
angle
the ordinate
is
de.
this is the
Wx
GZ x do ; but
the work done in
inclining the vessel through the angle de, and this, being true for
any small angle de, is true for all the small angles up to the angle 0.
But the addition of the work done for each successive increment of
angle,
draught, and
Take two
in
OW
the
WL
level
lines,
AB,
&z
apart.
248
Appendix.
will
be
AST, or,
feet,
The
sup
C'C.
FIG. 104.
x dz
or
Draw
B'C',
BC
x dz
is
vertically as
shown.
x z x
ds.
this strip is
35
The area
all
such
strips, or
fA a dz
.
35
The moment
is
given by
moment by
is
found by dividing
feet,
or
[A.x.ds
J
The
WL x
35
s dz
.
35
WL
which
is
the
same
thing.
is
249
Appendix.
A is known
T
as
"
mean
Rankine's
depth," and
we may
for con
venience say
V=D
The formula then becomes
Distance of
the
CB
below)
LWL in feet
A.
DC
DE
D.
E.
FIG. 105.
= D.
Draw
FD
EG
in H.
parallel to DA, cutting the diagonal
Finish the figure as indicated. The assumption made is that the
C.G. of the area DABC, which will give the vertical position of
the centre of buoyancy, is in the same position as the C.G. of the
area
DAHC.
case.
to show.
By
AF
AD
GF ~
_ ED
GH
HE
and therefore
or
GF
EC
x
x
HE = ED x GH
HE = AG x GH
we have
250
Appendix.
or the triangles
AGH, HEC
Area AHCD
and
rectangle having
therefore
AGED
area
A and
A respectively.
DABC
The
DABC
DAHC
We
DAHC
in relation to the
L.W.L.
AGH
AGED
Area
area
_
~
AG x GH _~
AG x AD
\ x
i
'
GH
AD
d~ D
or the triangle
AGH =
~~^~
as
of
its
it
x rectangle
made by
taking
in the position
AGED
AGH
away
HEC. The
is
,
there
fore the C.G. of the whole figure will shift downwards, using the
principle explained in p. 96, an amount equal to x say, x being given
by
AGED
x x=
AGH
x 3
 D
The C.G.
therefore the
AGH
i.
of
and taking the assumption given above, this is the distance of the
C.B. below the L.W.L. very nearly.
Strength of Rudderheads. For vessels built to Lloyd's rules,
the diameter of the rudderhead
number
(see p. 194)
and
is
is
251
Appendix.
formula
d=
by the following
2
jjVX/D x B* x S
maximum
As regards (i), the pressure in pounds on a plane moving uniformly broadside on (see Fig. 106), by the formula
P = ri2Az/2
where
is
is
FIG. 107.
FIG. 106.
With regard
may be
to the position
on the rudder
at
which
this
For
normal
regarded as acting,
it
is
252
Appendix.
maximum
16
x101
speed of
6 knots
=
=
27
46^5 tons
The
The
twisting
To determine
P er second
+ 27
moment =
=
inchtons,
2 7 f et
35;
angle,
13

52
feet,
sin 35
or 62^4 inches
x 62^4
2901 inchtons
46'5
we use
moment
of
T=
where
d=
diameter in inches,
For wrought
f is taken as 4 tons
,,5
/
iron,
cast steel,
3
phosphor bronze,/
For a twisting moment of 2901 inchtons, the diameter of a
rudderhead, if of wrought iron, will be given by
iV x
or
d=
2*
x 4
15^ inches
Calculations.
1
See Engineering, 1883, for a report on the Daphne, by Sir E.
Reed.
J.
253
Appendix.
of gravity.
FIG. 108.
We
lifts.
After the ship has run a certain distance (see Fig. 108)
Tipping
is
in Fig. 108.
254
Appendix.
the C.G. will pass beyond the end of the ways, and will give rise to
a " tipping moment " but by this time a portion of the ship is in
the water, and the upward support of the buoyancy will give rise to
;
moment
ship,
and
the C.G.
at the position
buoyancy, and
buoyancy beyond
the end of the ways. Then the support of the ways at this particular position of the ship's travel is
TV, and if the vessel tipped,
x d were greater than the
i.e. if the moment of the weight
W
W
fell.
We
moment
of the
buoyancy should exceed the moment of the weight about the end
of the ways. In order to see if this is so, we proceed as follows
Assume a height of tide that may safely be expected for launching,
and take a series of positions as the ship goes down the ways, and
determine the buoyancy and the distances of the C.G. and C.B.
from the end of the ways, viz. ?t>, d, and rf as above.
Then on a baseline (Fig. 109) representing the distance the ship
has travelled, we draw two curves first, a curve AA, giving the
moment of buoyancy about the end of the ways and second, BB,
giving the moment of weight about the end of the ways (this latter
being a straight line, since the weight is constant). The distance
between these curves will give us the " moment against tipping " at
any particular place, and the minimum distance between them gives
:
remedy would be
The
some
Appendix.
255
the
the
is the weight of
ship will begin to lift ; and if
the buoyancy, the ship will be partially supported
the ship, and
by the fore poppets, and the amount of this support is
stern of the
W.
and on the
The amount of this
vessel, concentrated over a small distance.
can be determined as follows
In a similar manner in which we
strain,
slip
250.
200.
DISTANCE
SHIP TRAVELS.
FIG. 109.
the
are equal, and therefore the place where the stern will begin to lift.
Now construct also C and D, C being the weight of the ship, in
this case 6000 tons, and
being the buoyancy as the ship moves
down
in
Mr. Mackrow's
256
"
Appendix.
Pocket Book," and in that case the weight of the ship was 5746
and the weight on the fore poppets 870 tons.
The internal shoring of the ship must be specially arranged
for in the neighbourhood of the fore poppets, and the portion
of the slip under them at the time the stern lifts must be made of
sufficient strength to bear the concentrated weight
tons,
APPENDIX
(From
Xo
in
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
I.
fails to
obtain marks
faces
river water.
scale.
It is
shall
258
Appendix.
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
The
bulkheads
tight
methods of
and
water and amongst waves, and the
tudinal
structural arrangements
which
give the necessary strength to resist those stresses also the various
local stresses to which a ship is liable, and the special arrangements
:
worked
to
meet them
and the
shipbuilding,
precautions to be observed
hot
effect of annealing.
when working
steel plates
and angles
in the
ing materials and laying off the several parts of an iron or steel
mercantile vessel ; also the similar work relating to warships, both
SHIP CALCULATIONS.
"
rules for calculating positions of transverse and longituheight
dinal metacentres
metacentric diagrams, their construction and
;
use
a deck or bulkhead.
HONOURS.
The examination in Honours will be divided into two parts,
which cannot both be taken in the same year, and no candidate who
has not been success/til in Part I. can be examined in Fart II. A
Part 1L
certificate or medal will only be given when a success in
has been obtained.
259
Appendix.
PART
this
I.
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
Important
launching arrangements
moment
to
gravity of hull
inclining experiment made to ascertain position
of centre of gravity of a vessel and precautions necessary to be
observed to ensure accuracy calculations for strength of bottom
;
plating.
PART
Those candidates
II.
Honours who
mentioned examination
may
sit for
formulae,
buoyancy corresponding
to
carrying vessels.
in
260
Appendix.
damage
prometacentres."
Radius of curvature
R=
at
J
y
a
V
or
= R+
\,,T
for radius of
ways proposed
is sufficient, etc.
Methods of measuring speed of ships on their trial trips precautions necessary to ensure accuracy.
Progressive trials.
Calculations relating to the steering of ships. Methods of determining necessary size of rudderhead.
;
Time
of complete oscillation (T
^/ Sm or =
= 2**
"
still
water.
Effect
rio8
f
V MS
on time of
"
"
oscillation of raising or
Curves of
extincwinging
weights.
"
"
Causes operating to reduce the
tion
declining angles ").
(or
set rolling in
still
water or
Methods of
The
minimizing.
Those candidates
and methods of
26 1
Appendix.
moulds, battens, straightedges, squares, etc., and all other necessaries, except drawing boards, drawing paper, batten weights, and
drawing battens and straightedges over two feet in length, which
will
will
be insisted on.
APPENDIX
selection of questions
Controller of
is
Office.
first
examination
ELEMENTARY.
The
4 hatchways, each
2
4'
10'
x
x
2}'
6'
and two
and
commencing from
o'2,
weight
feet.
is
24'
x 12" x 10".
What
is
10,
263
Appendix.
A steel
its
weight
plate
is
of the form
What
is
z.
L,
FIG.
no.
Writedown and explain Simpson's first rule for finding the area
of a plane surface.
The halfordinates of a deck plan in feet are respectively i, 5^,
xoj, 13^, 142, Hi? I2i, 9, and 3!, and the length of the plan is 128
Find the area of the deck plan in square yards.
Referring to the previous question, find the area in square feet
of the portion of the plan between the ordinates i] and 5}.
The areas of the waterline sections of a vessel in square feet are
feet.
between them
is
shown below.
Find
its
weight in pounds.
r~
FIG. in.
Write down
(1) Simpson's first rule,
(2)
for finding the areas of
is
Simpson's second
rule,
applicable.
264
Appendix.
The
127,
I2'8,
I2'9,
respectively,
129,
129,
125,
128,
interval
19,
104,
5 '9,
between them
and
is
1*4 feet
18 inches.
What
other end.
What
is its
weight
It is
at the
Write down and explain Simpson's first rule for finding the area
of a plane surface.
The halfordinates of the load water plane of a vessel are

2 6,
oi,
5,
respectively,
S'3,
10,
11,
io'8,
n,
105, 96,
interval
7'6,
55,
and
04 feet
is
feet.
water by 2 inches ?
Define displacement.
A cylindrical
floats in
pontoon
seawater with
is
its
It
What
A steel
FIG.
265
Appendix.
Write down
(1) Simpson's first rule,
(2)
Simpson's second
The
is
o'i,
clearly explain in
what
applicable.
and
rule,
and
it
is
80 feet
and
A rectangular " steel " deck plate is 14' 3" long, 3' 3^" wide, and
thick.
A circular piece 13 inches in diameter is cut out of the
What
is
first rule,
I2'9, 13, 13, 13, I2'9, 126, 12, 105, 6'o, and
and the distance between each of them is
would be necessary
to use
to
it
The
What
board
tons on
266
Appendix.
foot of
English elm.
(3)
(4) Iron.
(5) Steel.
What
diameter.
is its
weight
and 2]"
in
first
The
I2'2,
and
121,
common
their
portion below the lowest ordinate, find the total area of the section
in square feet.
What
areas,
8000,
The
15'
3" long,
3'
217,
22'2,
common
and
interval
is
3 feet
between the
first
fifth
Write down and explain Simpson's second rule for finding the
areas of plane surfaces.
Obtain the total area included between the first and fourth
ordinates of the section given in the preceding question.
The " tons per inch immersion " of a vessel when floating at a
certain waterplane
is 44'5.
What
is
What
is its
weight
267
Appendix.
ADVANCED.
The
9}, 4j,
1
feet.
its
ordinate.
Write down and explain Simpson's second rule for rinding the
area of a plane surface.
The halfordinates of a waterplane of a vessel in feet are
respectively,
and
7'4, 36,
commencing from
o'2,
n, u,
10,
Find the
common
section
cubic
is 6.
in tons
and
in
feet.
Write down and explain the formula giving the height of the
transverse metacentre above the centre of buoyancy.
State clearly the use that can be made of this height by the
naval architect when he knows it for any particular vessel.
in
at a
The
is
and pitches of
a good one.
rivets,
the vessel,
268
Appendix.
tons
The
4100
3700
(3) 3200
(4) 2500
(1)
(2)
(5)
common
HOO
the
interval
between them
planes.
When
The
halfordinates
of a waterplane of a vessel, in
respectively,
ii'5,
interval
is
are
between them
Find
feet.
(1)
feet,
io'2, ii'5,
What
is
is
269
Appendix.
gravity of the layer between the load and light lines is 6 feet below
the loadline. Find the vertical position of the centre of buoyancy
below the light line in the light condition.
The ordinates of the boundary of the deck of a ship are 65,
and
335,
interval
between them
is
65
feet respectively,
21 feet.
and fastenings.
The
common
(1) the
(2)
n,
5, 8*3,
the
interval
and
is
r,
2 '6,
9 feet.
the distance of
ordinate
Find
"
"
tons per inch immersion " at the load waterplane.
(3) the
"
Define " displacement " and centre of buoyancy."
The transverse sections of a vessel are 25 feet apart, and their
"halfareas below the L.W.L. are i, 37, Si, 104, 107, 105, 88, 48.
and 6 square
(1) the
feet respectively.
Find
How
uses
is
curve of displacement
What
are
is filled
its
The
f
constructed
"
A transverse bunker
way.
buoyancy "abaft
tranverse section
is
of the
respectively 6, 9, zoi,
being 2 feet.
1 1
J,
12^, 12^,
and
transverse
12 feet, the
section
are
common interval
44 cubic
What
A stringer
plate
is
40" x
g".
Show
the riveting in a
beam and
270
at
Appendix.
The
are respectively OT, 5, ir6, 15*4, i6'8, 17, 16x5, 16*4, 14*5, 9^4,
Find
feet.
o'i, and the common interval is
and
How
is
"
constructed
What
use
is
which are
\\ feet
Construct
foot of
(1)
gun
vessels of the
Royal Navy
is
pontoon
(2)
edges and butts, what would be the weight of the plating, including
straps
and fastenings ?
When
27 1
Appendix.
The
lengths,
and
Find
2'6.
The
common
in tons
weight in pounds.
State the conditions under which a ship floats freely and at rest
at a given waterline in still water, and describe what calculations
have to be made in order to ascertain that the conditions will be
fulfilled.
are,
i
The semiordinates
commencing from
respectively,
and the
in feet of the
forward,
o,
07,
3, 7, 8'5, 8,
and
65, 5, 2'5,
Find
"
abaft
"
the
foremost ordinate
(3) the increase in draught caused by placing 20 tons on
board.
If a deck surface of equal area to the load waterplane, referred
;
curves.
A stringer plate is
rivets in a
beam and
arrangement
is
at a butt,
a good one.
272
Appendix.
The
and
1 1
Find
(1) the displacement of the vessel in tons
A
4
feet apart
and weighing
5 Ibs.
is
it
its
uses.
plates,
The
apart,
and
179,
and
Calculate
(1) the total area of the plane in
square feet
The
Ibs. per
the deck plating weighs 10 Ibs. per square foot, and this
covered by teak planking 3 inches thick. Calculate the weight
foot run
is
of
a part 54
feet
fastenings.
vessel has the
viz.
waterplanes,
are 3 feet apart.
''
"
specified
below
at the several
State
(1) the shearing stress of a inch steel rivet ;
(2) the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel plates.
What reduction is allowed for in calculating the strength of the
material
plates
left
in
mild
steel
273
Appendix.
HONOURS.
The ''tons per inch" of five equidistant waterplanes of a ship
are respectively 9*8, 88, 76, 59, and 34, the waterplanes being
2} feet apart. Below the lowest of the planes mentioned is an
appendage of 60 tons. Calculate the displacement in tons up to
each of the waterplanes.
Referring to the previous question, construct the curve of displacement on a scale of f inch per foot of draught, and f inch per
100 tons of displacement, the lowest water plane mentioned being
3 feet above the keel.
Obtain the expression for the height of the transverse metacentre
tan 4
tan
tan 6
What
is
meant by
"
=
=
=
moment
00699
00875
01051
to
change trim
"
Write down
to alter trim
one inch.
be put on board a
to
ship, where must it be placed so that the ship shall be bodily deeper
in the water without change of trim ?
Give reasons for your
answer.
A transverse iron watertight bulkhead is worked in a ship at
a station whose semiordinates are (commencing from below) 6, 9,
ioi, jij, 12^, I2, and 12 feet respectively, the common interval
being 2 feet. Find the weight of the bulkhead, the following particulars being given
i
j i
u ,.. j
i
j /H
H inch for lower
,
,
Plates, lap jointed, lap butted, single riveted <
4.
4.
5 feet.
1
fi
~k
l1r
274
Appendix.
What
stability
forms
of curves of
swamped.
The
halfordinates of a portion of a deck plan of a vessel, comabaft, are 2, 8, and 1 1 \ feet respectively, and the
common interval is 16 feet. On the beams : between the two after
mencing from
most ordinates,
J
275
Appendix.
method.
How
stringer plate
is
in
at the butts
Show how
effects
(1)
(2)
a smaller ansrle.
From
station
(3) the
L.W.L.
2
W. L.
W.L.
276
Appendix.
weak
How
longitudinally.
and buoyancy
The
common
u, n,
and
The
dage
is
of
Find
waterplane.
(1) the total displacement in tons
feet
load waterplane.
Explain how the height of the transverse metacentre above the
centre of buoyancy of a ship
may be
found
(1) accurately;
(2)
and
state clearly
what use
is
made
architect.
What
obtained.
A ship is
If a weight
(G.M.) of 400 feet, and a displacement of 9200 tons.
of 50 tons, already on board, be shifted longitudinally through
90 feet, what will be the change in trim ?
Under what circumstances may it be expected that the cargoes
is
known,
277
Appendix.
show how the new
tan 11
tan 12
tan 13
=
=
=
O'I944
02126
02309
portions of a properly constructed steel ship are most
What
bending ?
Why
What
at
to
"
produce changes in their transverse
When
"
forms.
From
278
Appendix.
W.L. being
neglected.)
Define centre of gravity. Write down and explain the rule for
"
''
"
transverse position of the C.G. of the longitudinal
finding the
half of a waterplane.
The ordinates of half a waterplane in feet are respectively
o'i, 5, 1 1 6, 15*4, i6'8, 17, i6'9, i6'4, 14/5, 9*4, and 0*1, and the
common interval is 1 1 feet. Find the " transverse " position of the
C.G. of the half water plane.
'
The
respectively,
0*3, 92,
29, 295, 295, 295, 295, 295, 293, 29, 285, 275, 255, 21,
the
common
and
115
What
structed
useful
is
a metacentric diagram ? How is such a diagram conclasses of ships are such diagrams specially
For what
Draw a
line, to
279
Appendix.
From the
(b}
(c]
(a)
280
Appendix.
From
(2)
(3)
3 station.
281
Appendix.
How are the curves made, and what are their uses? What checks
would you adopt to verify the accuracy of the curves, and what
guarantee would you have that the conditions of the checks are
correct
What
The
inch" at those
238,
21
'9,
195,
lines,
i6'4,
feet apart,
and the
"
tons per
when
when
Obtain the formula giving the height of the longitudinal metacentre above the centre of buoyancy.
What is meant by " change of trim " ?
is
affected
is
first
for
282
Appendix.
The
apart,
and
177,
and
Calculate
(1) the total area of the plane in square feet
(2) the area included between the third and sixth ordinates.
;
The
waterplanes of a vessel are 3 feet apart, and the displaceto the several planes are 2380, 1785, 1235, 740, 325, 60, o
ments up
tons respectively.
Sketch a metacentric diagram for any one type of ship, specifyHow is such a diagram constructed ?
What is meant by the dynamical stability of a vessel at any
angle of inclination ? Obtain Moseley's formula for calculating its
value.
with considerable accuracy. Describe any method of rapidly calculating wetted surfaces with which you may be acquainted.
1898.
SUBJECT
NAVAL ARCHITECTURE.
IV.
EXAMINER
J.
J.
WELCH,
ESQ., R.C.N.C.
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.
If the rules are not attended to, the paper will be cancelled.
You may take the Elementary stage, or the Advanced stage, or
Part I. of Honours, or (if eligible) Part II. of Honours, but you must
confine yourself to one of them.
Put the number of the question before your answer.
You are to confine your answers strictly to the questions
proposed.
283
Appendix.
Your name is not given to the Examiner, and you are forbidden
him about your answers.
The value attached to each question is shown in brackets after
A full and correct answer to an easy question will
the question.
in all cases secure a larger number of marks than an incomplete
or inexact answer to a more difficult one.
to write to
The examination
ELEMENTARY EXAMINATION.
FIRST STAGE OR
Instructions.
and the
rest
questions
from the
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
Give a sketch of a side bar keel, and describe how the several
lengths are secured together, and how the work is made water1.
(8)
tight.
2.
In some cases
6.
(8)
is
of
~1
section
is
(8)
7.
If,
8.
Name, with
(8)
in
shipwork.
Sketch a usual
(8)
deck
the several plates are secured together, and
9.
shift of butts of
284
Appendix.
DRAWING.
What
ELEMENTARY
Draw
it
neatly in
(14)
STAGE.
FIG. 113.
CALCULATIONS.
State the fundamental conditions which must be fulfilled by
a vessel when floating freely and at rest in still water.
(6)
1
2.
13. The areas of successive waterplanes of a vessel are, beginning with the load waterplane, 14,850, 14,400, 13,780, 12,950,
11,770, 10,130, and 7680 square feet respectively, and the common
interval between the planes is 3^ feet.
Neglecting the part below
(12)
14.
when
Point out
why
it
is
285
Appendix.
How much
to sink
15.
and
internal diameter
its
10 inches.
(8)
viz.
Practical Ship
Laying
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
Give sketches showing the sections of moulded steel in
general use for shipbuilding purposes, and say for what parts of the
structure each is used.
(12)
22. For what purposes are web frames fitted in vessels ?
How is a web frame secured where it crosses a continuous
21.
stringer plate
(12)
of
the fastenings.
(14)
iV
thick.
25.
(20)
Describe
Describe
constructed,
27.
how
in position.
tests are applied to
(1)
mild
sound
(14)
is
(14)
and
rivets,
An
to ensure
steel plates,
28.
riveting
and secured
What
and
is
to
(16)
286
Appendix.
with,
and
straining actions.
LAYING OFF.
30.
How
is
its
uses
(10)
(1) in
DRAWING.
33. What does the drawing Fig. 1 14 represent
in pencil on a scale twice the size shown.
ADVANCED
STAGE.
N233.
FIG. 114.
Draw
it
neatly
(24)
287
Appendix.
CALCULATIONS.
34.
The
their areas
up
6'5, 55'8, 132*0, 2109, 2663, 2895, 2802, 2357, 1612, 778,
and
109
section.
36.
What
such a curve
(16)
is
is
shape.
37.
Sketch
(8)
is
y^ inch thick.
and show by
a good one.
HONOURS EXAMINATION.
PART
(20)
I.
Instructions.
You
questions.
the remainder you may select from
stage, provided that one or more be
viz.
and Calculations.
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING.
*
60.
What
is
(2)
in this respect,
and
steel
62.
a double bottom, and point out the order in which the work of
288
Appendix.
64.
Show by
how
watertight
work
is
secured
(i) at the
(2)
where a middle
line keelson of
JL
the floors, passes through a transverse bulkhead.
(16)
Describe the work of laying and fastening the planking of a
(25)
deck, the beams of which are not covered with plating.
68.
69. Sketch, and describe the working of, a large sliding watertight door as fitted to a bulkhead between machinery compartments.
(30)
LAYING OFF.
What
Show how
faired.
(20)
How
be put upon
The
is
it
workman.
(16)
lines of a vessel
(i)
approximately,
289
Appendix.
CALCULATIONS.
74.
The
spaced 18
feet apart,
are 06, 34, 71, 114, i6'o, 203, 240, 268,288, 300, 305, 305,
300, 289, 270, 243, 211, 172, 127,
feet,
and the
(25)
(12)
A vessel, 200
feet
(16)
78. Show how the work of estimating the weight and position
of the centre of gravity of the outer bottom plating of a vessel from
her drawings would be proceeded with.
(16)
HONOURS EXAMINATION.
PART
II.
Instructions.
You
Instructions on
p. 282.
questions,
NoiE.
of Honours
290
Appendix.
PRACTICAL SHIPBUILDING AND LAYING OFF.
machines
(30)
What
(20)
(35)
A raking
ment
of 300 tons,
and
its
centre of buoyancy
is
21 i feet
below the
load waterline.
Estimate (i) the total displacement of the vessel
in tons
(2) the vertical position of her centre of buoyancy. (25)
;
and
water ?
(30)
for the statical stability of a vessel
at any angle of heel.
Show how a curve of statical stability is
constructed, and explain its uses.
(25)
floating freely
92.
at rest in still
93.
weight of moderate amount is to be placed on board a
given vessel in such a position that the draft of water aft will be
unaffected by the addition. Explain how the necessary position of
the weight can be calculated.
(30)
94. Describe any method by which the statical stability of a
vessel of
291
Appendix.
95.
What
How
are these
in the
stability.
(30)
97.
What
"
ing speed
What
is
(35)
meant by
a stiff vessel;
a steady vessel ?
T
hat features of the design affect these qualities?
(25)
100. A rudder hung at its forward edge and entirely below water
is rectangular in
Calculate
shape, 14 feet deep, and 10 feet broad.
the diameter of steel rudderhead required, the maximum speed of
the vessel being 14 knots, and the greatest helm angle 35.
(1)
(2)
AW*.
101.
Sin 35
A hole
(30)
0574.
is
292
Appendix.
"
and Shipbuilders."
M.I.N.A.
Yacht Architecture." By Mr. Dixon Kemp, Assoc. I.N.A.
Manual of Naval Architecture." By Sir W. H. White, K.C.B.,
F.R.S.
"
Stability of Ships."
"
By
Sir
INDEX
AuiKBRAlc
curvilinear figure, 14
Amsler's integrator, 178
Angles, measurement
Area of circle, 4
figure
and two
of,
86
flotation,
94
gravity, 45
radii, 15
triangle, 2
trapezium, 3
trapezoid, 2
of an area bounded by a
curve and two radii, 58
of an area with respect to
an ordinate, 51, 55
of an area with respect to
the base, 56
of a plane area by experiment, 49
of a ship, calculation
64
63,
rectangle,
square, I
of,
195
of outer bottom plating,
sta
158
196
of solid bounded by a
BARNKS' method
'of
calculating sta
170
Beams, 209
bility,
29,
,
,
Books on
approximations, 107
theoretical naval archi
tecture, 292
Buoyancy, centre of, 6l, 62
strains due to unequal distribution of weight and, 206
Butt fastenings, strength of, 199
,
midship section, 27
waterplane, 29
speed, 231
section,
27
displacement, 22
sectional areas, 19
CALCULATION
of weights, 188
Captain, stability of, 161
60
30
,
approximations, 138
transverse, 103
of,
of solids, 50
Circle, area of, 4
Circular measure of angles, 86
Coefficient of fineness, displacement,
stability, 1 60,
,
166
Index.
294
use
in
of,
calculating
weights, 192
DIFFERENCE
in
river water,
Direct
moment
of,
calculating
sta
177
Displacement, 21
22
, curve of,
of vessel out of the designed
trim, 140
bility,
64
Draught
EDDYMAKING
resistance,
Iron, weight
of,
LAUNCHING,
Lloyd's
35,
numbers
, syllabus, 257
Experimental data as to strength of
and
201
rivets,
plates
Experiments on Greyhound, 216
to determine frictional resistance, 221
head, 251
Longitudinal bending strains,
Longitudinal BM, 133
metacentre, 1 32
metacentric height, 133
35
stability, 169
Metacentre, longitudinal, 132
,
transverse,
50
Moment
of inertia, 97
of curvilinear figure, 101
approximation
to,
143
,
of,
216,
115
121
Graphic method of calculating displacement and position of C.B.,
approximate, 144,
157
Monarch,
Moseley's
stability,
184
of,
H.M.S.,
experiments
on, 216
HOGGING
90
Moment
72
Greyhound,
06
values
regulating
102
rule, 12
GM by experiment,
for
GM,
36
scantlings, 194
Lloyd's rule for diameter of rudder
of,
224
FIVEEIGHT
97
30
method of
sheet,
Inertia,
,
strains,
208
OUTER bottom
63, 249
215
effective,
indicated, 218
of,
formula
192
Horsepower, 214
Hull, weight
NORMAND'S approximate
for longitudinal BM, 144
193
PANTING, 211
Planimeter, 77
Preliminary table for stability, 174
Prismatic coefficient of fineness, 30
Index.
set in examinations of
the Science and Art Department,
QUESTIONS
295
262
RACKING
TANGENT
210
strains,
to
curve of centres of
buoyancy, 114
Tensile
SAGGING
strains,
208
Sheer drawing, 64
Shift
of
C.G. of a
figure
due to
a portion, 96
Simpson's first rule, 6
approximate proof,
shift of
8
,
proof, 245
second rule, IO
66
for
tests
steel
plates,
Admiralty, 203
,
Lloyd's, 203
proof, 246
Sinkage due to bilging a central
compartment, 32
Speed, coefficients of, 231
Stability, curves of, specimen, 166
dynamical, 183
Moseley's formula, 184
statical, 89
at large angles, 158
crosscurves of, 1 78
curve of, 160
calculations for, 168
definition, 89
Steadiness 123
Steel, weight of, 35, 36
Stiffness, 123
Strains experienced by ships, 205
Strength of butt fastenings, 199
Subdivided intervals, 13
,
VELOCITY of inflow
Volume of pyramid,
of water, 35
17
rectangular block, 17
solid bounded by a curved
surface, 18
Submerged body,
sphere, 17
WATER,
free,
effect
on
stability,
124
Wavemaking
Weight,
H7,
resistance, 225
effect on trim due to adding,
H9
of hull, 193
of materials, 35
of outer bottom plating, 192
steel angles, 189
Wetted surface, area of, 80
Wood, weight
SON'S,
of,
LIMITED, LONDON
35
AND
BECCLES.
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