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S547S550

MOSFETs

Mincheol Shin

School of Engineering, Information and Communications University, Daejeon 305-714

Nano-Electronics Device Team, ETRI, Daejeon 305-330

We have performed numerical simulations on Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFETs by solving the twodimensional Poisson equation self-consistently with the Schr

odinger equation. We have investigated

the equilibrium charge distribution and the conduction energy bending in the inversion layer of the

SB-MOSFETs. We have found that the quantum mechanical consideration is crucial for accurate

estimation of the current in nano-scale SB-MOSFETs. We have also found that the threshold

voltage for channel inversion increases when the channel length becomes shorter than about 30 nm,

in contrast to conventional MOSFETs.

Keywords: Schottky barrier MOSFET, Device simulation, Quantum effect

I. INTRODUCTION

A Schottky barrier metal-oxide-semiconductor fieldeffect transistor (SB-MOSFET) has source and drain regions composed of silicide rather than heavily doped silicon. The device offers several important advantages over

a conventional MOSFET at nanometer scale, such as

ease of ultra-shallow junction formation, the possibility

of using metal as gate electrode, and elimination of complicated channel doping steps. Therefore, SB-MOSFETs

have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional

MOSFETs for decananometer-scale applications [13].

Most of the previous numerical simulations on SBMOSFETs have been carried out in the classical framework. The feasibility of SB-MOSFETs in reducing the

short-channel effect has been studied by using a commercial simulator in the work of Ref. 1. The Poisson

and continuity equations were solved self-consistently in

Ref. 4 for relatively long channel. By using a similar

approach, Huang et al. investigated the transistor characteristics of SB-MOSFETs with channel length down

to 10 nm [5]. Monte Carlo simulations with modeling

on Schottky barrier tunneling currents have also been

reported [6, 7]. Recently, a compact model using the

current continuity condition between the tunneling and

channel currents has been proposed [8]. On the other

hand, double-gate, thin body SB-MOSFETs were simulated by solving the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equa E-mail:

mcshin@icu.ac.kr

In this work, SB-MOSFETs are investigated by solving the 2D Poisson equation self-consistently with the

Schr

odinger equation. Our approach is similar to that

of Guo et al. [9], except that we simulated single-gate

SB-MOSFET in the equilibrium state. We have focused

on the equilibrium charge distributions in the inversion

layer : the charge distributions were compared in the

classical and quantum cases and the dependence of the

channel threshold voltages on channel length and doping

concentration was investigated.

boundaries of the simulated device.

-S547-

-S548-

1. Poisson Equation

SB-MOSFET shown in Figure 1 is given by

2 (x, z) =

q0

(p(x, z) n(x, z) NA ) ,

si

(1)

si is the dielectric constant of silicon, and NA is the

acceptor concentration. Classically, the charge densities

are given by

p(x, z) = p0 e(x,z)/T ,

(2)

(3)

ni e(Ei EF )/kB T ), ni is the intrinsic carrier concentration,

Ei is the intrinsic Fermi level, EF is the Fermi energy of

silicon, kB is Boltzmanns constant, T is the temperature, n0 is the bulk electron concentration (n0 = n2i /p0 ),

and T = kB T /q0 .

In the oxide region, the Poisson equation reduces to

the Laplace equation :

2 (x, z) = 0.

(4)

relationship

ox

= si

(5)

z z=0

z z=0+

density

X

EF El,i (x)

|l,i (x, z)|2

nq (x, z) =

Nl F0

kB T

i

X

EF Eh,i (x)

|h,i (x, z)|2 , (9)

+

Nh F0

k

T

B

i

where

Nl =

4 ml mt kB T

2mt kB T

,

N

=

,

h

~2

~2

(10)

and

F0 (x) = ln(1 + exp(x)).

(11)

electron density n(x, z) given by Eqs. (9)-(10) and the

Schr

odinger equations in Eqs. (6)-(8) were solved selfconsistently.

3. Numerical Methods

Schr

odinger equations in Eqs. (6) and (7) are such that

wave functions vanish at the oxide-silicon interface and

at z = D, where D is the depth of the simulated device

in Figure 1. Namely,

(x, 0) = (x, D) = 0.

(12)

equation in Eq. (1) are as follows. The Dirichlet boundary conditions were used for the source-silicon, drainsilicon and gate-oxide interfaces. Namely,

2. Schr

odinger Equation

odinger equations in

the vertical direction (z-direction) were solved for each

x-position :

~2 2

2ml z 2

~2 2

2mt z 2

where l,i (h,i ) and El,i (Eh,i ) are the i-th wave function

and energy level in the lower (higher) subband ladder,

respectively, ml and mt are longitudinal and transverse

effective masses (ml =0.98 m0 and ml = 0.19 m0 , where

m0 is the free electron mass), and V (x, z) is the potential

profile defined as

V (x, z) = Ec /q0 (x, z),

(8)

bulk.

(x, tox ) = Vg , for 0 < x < L,

(13)

(14)

of the source and drain, tox is the oxide thickness, Vg is

the gate potential, and Vbi is the built-in potential at the

Schottky contacts, which is defined as

Vbi = (Ec EF )/q0 Bn ,

(15)

boundary conditions

= 0,

~n

(16)

surface, were used for all the other boundaries [10].

The 1D Schr

odinger equations in Eqs. (6)-(8) with the

boundary conditions given by Eq. (12) were solved numerically by using the standard shooting method [11].

The Poisson equation in Eq. (1) was discretized by the

standard five-point finite difference method and solved

Quantum Mechanical Simulation of Charge Distribution Mincheol Shin and Moongyu Jang and Seongjae Lee

by using the Newton-Raphson method with the boundary conditions given by Eqs. (13)-(15). For inversion

of the resultant sparse matrix, the ILU-CG iteration

method provided by LASpack was employed [12].

The self-consistent calculations proceeded as follows.

We first solved the Poisson equation with an initial guess

for the potential (x, z). The Schr

odinger equation using

the potential obtained from solving the Poisson equation

was then solved to update the quantum electron density. The iteration between the Poisson equation and the

Schr

odinger equation was repeated until self-consistency

was achieved, namely, until the quantum charge density converged to a value within a pre-set error bound.

For better convergence of the self-consistent solution, the

Poisson equation modified for a predictor-corrector approach [13] was solved at the m-th iteration :

q0 (m)

2 (m) =

p

n

(m)

NA ,

(17)

q

si

(m)/T

where p(m) = p0 e

Eq. (9), except that

(m)

and n

q

-S549-

cm3 . The gate voltage was 1 V, L = 50 nm, Lm = 50 nm,

Dm = 50 nm, tox = 5 nm, and the Schottky barrier height

was Bn = 0.28 V. The unit for the electron concentration is

1017 cm3 .

is the same as nq of

EF EF + q0 ((m) (m1) ).

(18)

To save computational time in computing nq , the classical approximation was employed for energies above

EF + 12kB T , as described in Ref. 14.

The quantum-mechanical equilibrium charge distributions in the inversion layer were obtained for various doping concentrations and channel lengths. Figures 2 and 3

show the quantum electron distributions near the oxide

interface for the doping concentrations NA = 1015 and

1018 cm3 , respectively. While the electron concentration profile for the former exhibits the peak at the center

of the channel as one may expect, the electron distribution for the latter case exhibits two symmetric peaks

close to source and drain contacts. We attribute this effect to the shortening of electron screening length as the

doping concentration increases.

Figures 4 and 5 show the conduction band energy at

the oxide-channel interface along the lateral (x) direction

for NA = 1015 and 1018 cm3 , respectively. For low gate

voltages, the conduction-band energy profiles from the

classical and quantum calculations are almost the same.

For higher gate voltages, however, the quantum results

deviate considerably from the classical results. In the

middle of the channel, especially, the difference between

the two becomes as much as 0.1 eV (in the strong inversion regime). More importantly, the lowering of the

conduction-band energy in the quantum case results in

the thinning of the Schottky barrier. Since the current

through the Schottky barrier is mainly due to the tunneling current which exponentially depends on the barrier thickness, the source-drain current is expected to

cm3 . The gate volt age was 2 V, L = 100 nm, Lm = 100

nm, Dm = 50 nm, tox = 5 nm, and the Schottky barrier height

was Bn = 0.28 V. The unit for the electron concentration is

1018 cm3 .

Fig. 4. Conduction band energy at the oxide-channel interface along the lateral (x) direction for NA = 1015 cm3 .

See caption of Fig. 2 for simulation parameters. Dotted lines

are results from classical calculations, and solid lines from

quantum calculations. From the top, Vg = 0.65, 1.0, and 1.5

V, respectively.

cases. Our results therefore indicate that for accurate

estimation of the current in nano-scale SB-MOSFETs,

the quantum mechanical consideration is necessary.

Figure 6 shows the threshold voltage for various channel lengths and doping concentrations. Notice that, due

to the presence of the Schottky barrier in SB-MOSFETs,

-S550-

Schr

odinger equations self-consistently. We have found

that the quantum mechanical calculations led to a thinner Schottky barrier, compared to classical calculations,

which indicates that the quantum mechanical consideration is necessary for accurate estimation of the current in

nano-scale SB-MOSFETs. We have also found that the

threshold voltage for channel inversion first decreases as

the channel length shortens, but, contrary to conventional MOSFETs, it increases rapidly when the channel

length becomes shorter than about 30 nm.

Fig. 5. Conduction-band energy at the oxide-channel interface along the lateral (x) direction for NA = 1018 cm3 .

See caption of Fig. 3 for simulation parameters. Dotted lines

are results from classical calculations, and solid lines from

quantum calculations. From the top, Vg = 1.5 and 2.0 V,

respectively.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work has been supported by the Ministry of Information and Communications, Korea.

REFERENCES

Fig. 6. Dependence of threshold gate voltages on the channel length, for NA = (a) 1015 , (b) 1017 , and (c) 1018 cm3 ,

respectively.

different from that for channel inversion, while the two

are the same in conventional MOSFETs. The threshold

voltage for channel inversion is shown in Figure 6. In

sharp contrast to conventional MOSFETs, the threshold

voltage first decreases as the channel length decreases,

followed by rapid increase as the channel length further

decreases. We attribute this effect to the constant builtin potential of the source and drain contacts. For shorter

channel lengths, it becomes harder for the gate voltage

to overcome the built-in potentials clipped at both the

contacts. To verify the threshold voltage behavior, solution of the transport equation coupled with the Poisson

and the Schrodinger equations or using an approximated

method [15] is needed.

IV. CONCLUSION

We have investigated the equilibrium charge distribution and the conduction energy bending in the inver-

Lett, 65, 618 (1994).

[2] J. P. Snyder, C. R. Helms and Y. Nishi, Appl. Phys. Lett,

67, 1420 (1995).

[3] M. Jang, W. Cho, W. Jung, S. Lee, K. Park, J. Lee and

J. Cha, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 42, S189 (2003).

[4] R. Hattori and J. Shirafuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 33, 612

(1994).

[5] C. K. Huang, W. E. Zhang and C. H. Yang, IEEE Trans.

Electron Devices 45, 842 (1998).

[6] B. Winstead and U. Ravaioli, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 47, 1241 (2000).

[7] L. Sun, X. Y. Liu, M. Liu, G. Du and R. Q. Han, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, 576 (2003).

[8] M. Jang, K. Kang, S. Lee and K. Park, Appl. Phys. Lett.

82, 2718 (2003).

[9] J. Guo and M. S. Lundstrom, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 49, 1897 (2002).

[10] S. Selberherr, Analysis and Simulation of Semiconductor

Devices. (New York, Springer-Verlag, 1984).

[11] W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky and W. T.

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[12] Tomas Skalicky, LASPack Reference Manual,

http://www.tu-dresden.de/mwism/skalicky/laspack/

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[13] A. Trellakis, A. T. Gallick, A. Pacelli and U. Ravaioli, J.

Appl. Phys. 81, 7880 (1997).

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