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- Etabs Guide
- Design of Minaret
- Design of Circular Domes
- Analysis and Design of mosque
- S11OS_SAP2000 v 15 Hands-On Training
- Abu Dhabi Mosque Development Regulations
- 6 Story Rc Building_eng.affoune.m.hadi
- etabs ppt1
- ETABS Example
- ETABS Learning Guide
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- ETABS G+4.doc
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Designed By

Adnan Riaz

(2001-civil-952)

Muhammad Yousaf

(2001-civil-959)

Adnan Ahmed

(2001-civil-962)

Imran Malghani

(2001-civil-948)

PROJECT ADVISOR

UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LAHORE

THE MOST BENEFICENT,

THE MOST MERCIFUL.

Who created, created man from

A clot.

Al-Quran

DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to

Our beloved parents,

Respected teachers,

And sincere friends.

For their efforts and worthy encouragement.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

merciful, Who is the entire source of all knowledge and wisdom endowed to

mankind and who capacitate us to complete our project.

We are highly indebted to the honorable advisor, Prof. Dr. Zahid

Ahmed Siddiqi for his valuable guidance, and useful suggestion.

Our deepest gratitude to Multi Dimesional Consultants Lahore

who guided us a lot for the successful fulfillment of this task.

Authors

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that we developed this project and this report entirely on

the basis of our personal efforts made under the sincere guidance of our project

supervisor.

It is further declared that no portion of the work presented in this report has

been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification

of this or any other University or institute of learning.

We further declare that this project and all associated documents, reports

and records are submitted as partial requirement for the degree of B.S Civil

Engineering.

We understand and transfer copyrights for these materials to University of

Engineering and Technology Lahore.

Adnan Riaz

(2001-civil-952)

Muhammad Yousaf

(2001-civil-959)

Adnan Ahmed

(2001-civil-962)

Imran Malghani

(2001-civil-948)

Project Advisor

Signature

____________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page No

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Chapter -1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.1 INTRODUCTON

1.3 OBJECTIVES

2.1 DOMES

2.2 BEAMS

12

2.3 SLABS

26

2.4 COLUMNS

31

38

44

3.1 SLABS

55

78

81

USING SAP 2000

4.1 JOINT REACTIONS

89

90

96

RETAINING WALL

6.1 COLUMN DESIGN

118

121

126

7.1 DESIGN OF DOMES

130

134

135

CHAPTER- 8 DRAWINGS

CHAPTER- 9 CONCLUSIONS

REFRENCES

139

CHAPTER No. 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION

1.1.1 Architectural Consideration of Mosque

Architectural Design is the first step in any constructional work. For a mosque the

architectural consideration should be kept in mind.

Capacity of mosque should be consistent with the community requirements. It

should also depend on the cost of the land in the community that if land is costly the area

may be less and storey # can be increase.2nd thing is the esthetic that should be look like a

mosque. It should be well lit and scene of wideness should be there. There should be

harmony in all the components of the mosque that arches and sofit of the arches should

be of same shapes. Dome should also be of same shape.

Next thing of structural after architectural design is the structural design. This the

actual work of the Civil Engineer. It is starts from top to the bottom. Structural design

mean to make the architectural design feasible to construct and applicable with durability,

reliability, and safety with economy.

For a project the basic objective is the safety and economy and to meet these

requirements side by side a complete systematic procedure is adopted consisting of

following steps.

1.1.3 Proportioning

When architectural works are completed

1.1.4 Analysis

From proportioning we get some dimensions of the different components and

from here we can get the dead load. From codes of practice we get live load and we start

analysis in this manner. By using different soft wares or by manual calculations we find

the internal forces due to external loading i.e. the dead and live loading.

1.1.5 Design:

This stage includes determination of most economical and exact sizes,

reinforcements and exact location of reinforcements, According to the requirement of

loads and moments for each component. This is also done by manual calculations or by

using soft wares.

1.1.6 Reanalysis:

Design of structure is a cyclic process so after designing the members we

determine the their nominal capacities and compare it with the requirements of loads and

moments if capacity is less then the applied loading then we change the dimension and

redesign the member. If capacity is more then the applied loads and moments then it is

consider as final design of the member.

1.2.1 DOMES

A member made in the form of a thin shell whose shape is a surface of revolution,

the axis of revolution being vertical is called dome. This type of structure may resist

applied loads by a series of pure tension and compression under certain conditions.

1.2.2 Minarets:

Greenhouses, lath houses, Radio towers and other towers of trussed construction

shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind pressures specified.

For the purpose of wind-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of

the occupancy categories.

1.3 Objectives

1.3.1. To gain knowledge about practical design:

Up to the bachelor level of Engineering, the knowledge about the design of

domes, minarets and two way joist slab was poor but after this project Structural

for such design.

1.3.2. To Study The Design And Construction Of Domes:

The design of domes is different from design of slabs. Domes are designed

against meridional thrust and tangential stresses. At crown magnitude of each of

the stresses is Wr/2 and at base it is Wr. Meridional steel can be curtailed at

different location according to the magnitude of stresses acting. Tangential

stresses are zero at an angle of

angle of 510 48 from the crown, then again starts increasing. Meridional stresses

are maximum at base and minimum at crown.

1.3.4. To Study The Design And Construction Of Minaret:

The design of minaret is different from simple column design. Two square

minarets are designed, each of size 9ft 9ft. Height of minaret is kept 100 ft each

minaret consist of four columns. Since the wind effect is also there and wind

throughout the column same.

To provide enough stiffness, ring beams are provided at constant spacing

throughout the minaret. Wall panels are provided between columns of minaret.

Footing of minaret is set at the depth of height / 7 from the ground level.

The base slab of footing was designed against overturning, shear and bearing

capacity of soil.

1.3.6. To Study The Design Of Two-Way Joist:

Design of two-way joist is different from simple flat slab, because in this

case depth of slab is reduced and hence economy is achieved, infact by removing

the chunk of concrete from bottom, as steel in joist is enough to bear the tension at

bottom of equivalent flat slab. The joists are designed just like T-beams in both the

directions to provide sufficient stiffness to the slab system. The slab system in

prayer hall of basement is two-way joist.

1.3.7. Preparation Of Structural Drawings:

In the construction phase of any Civil Engineering projects, structural

drawings play an important role. It is easier for the Site Engineer to continue his

work with elaborated drawings. So the drawings must be clear and easy to

understand. Manual drawings are not comparable to the computer aided drawings.

In our project all the structural drawings are prepared using computer software

Auto-CAD. The advantages of using this software are enormous.

The main advantage to us is that we are now well aware of the detailing and

curtailment of reinforcement.

Chapter 2:

ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES

2.1. Domes

A member made in the form of a thin shell whose shape is a surface of revolution,

the axis of revolution being vertical is called dome. This type of structure may resist

applied loads by a series of pure tension and compression under certain conditions given

below :

1.

2.

Consider a spherical dome under vertical loads as represented by the fig 2.1. At

the crown dome is carrying a point load F along with its own weight, the surface of dome

is considered to have uniform thickness very less in magnitude compared with other

dimensions.

Let

F

Fig. 2.1

The dome is supported along the circular perimeter EF of a horizontal crosssection of dome. The direction of supporting force is, by first assumption, tangent to the

surface.

6

Take an annular ring DCKG bounded by two horizontal cross-sections, separately

shown in fig.2.2, the length of ring DC equal to r d and is the angle measured from the

pole or crown to point C. The stresses on the ring are.

1.

2.

3.

Self wt

4.

rd

+ d

Fig. 2.2

paper

The horizontal radius of ring at horizontal section through C is CK = r sin

Now at upper perimeter through point C

Total resisting force =

=

N Area

N t 2 r sin

= 2r N t sin2

This must be equal to the total wt. above the section.

Wt. of dome itself

W Area of surface

W (BK) 2r

W 2r r (1-cos)

2r2 (1-cos)W +F

7

2r2 (1-cos) W + F = 2r N t Sin2

N

Wr (1-cos) +

F

2

t sin

2r t sin2

2.1

The outward horizontal component is N t cos

As the horizontal radius of ring is r sin. This would cause, if acting alone , a

hoop tension equal to

N t cos r sin

The stresses on lower surface would cause a hoop compression

(N + dN) t cos ( + d) r sin ( + d)

The difference would be total hoop tension which would be

T (t. r. d)

Nt cos r sin

cos 2

F

(r (1-cos)W +

sin

2

T'=

Wr 1 cos cos 2

F

cos ec 2

+

2

t

2rt

sin

....2.2

A dome having a height less than the radius of the dome is called a segmental

dome.

Consider :

T

8

N

1 Cos Cos 2

Wr

2.3

1 + Cos

1 Cos

Wr

2

Sin

Wr

1 + Cos

T (INTO THE

PAPER)

5148

..2.4

Fig. 2.3

AT CROWN:

T

Wr (Compression)

T

F

Cos 2

2r

2.5

F

2rCos 2

.....2.6

APPROX. METHOD :

r

d2 1

a

8a 2

2r

Fig. 2.5

At springing

2Rr

.d 2

Tr

R(r a )

.d

Example :

Analyze a hemispherical dome of 50 ft diameter, having a wall thickness of 5 in.

An external load of 10,000 lbs is applied over the crown spread over a circle of 5 ft

diameter.

Dia of dome =

50ft

Hemispherical Dome

Thickness

5in

So wt =

63 lb /sq ft

Fig. 2.5

We have

N

Wr (1 Cos )

F

+

2

tSin

2rtSin 2

Wr

F

+

t (1 + cos ) 2rt sin 2

Suppose

F

10

So total force

=

10000 4

= 512lb / sqft

(5) 2

63 + 512

575 lb/sq ft

25

25/12 ft

Wi.r

t (1 + Cos )

542

17300 lb/sqft

Wi

Cos =

0.595

Taking the whole dome

N

F

Wr

+

t (1 + Cos ) 2rtSin 2

/2

63 25 12

10000 12

+

2r 25 5 1

1 5

3780 + 153

3933 lb/sq ft

cos

sin

11

Hoop tension

Wr 1 cos cos 2 F

+

cos ec 2

t

1 + cos

2rt

3933 lb/sqft

3933 5

12

=

For steel having Fy

fs

20,000 Psi

As

1630

20,000

0.1 Sq in

1630 lbs

40,000 Psi

Taking 3/8 bars f C/C both in horizontal & vertical planes and are placed at middle of

the section i.e., centre of slab.

12

2.2. Beams

2.2.1. Strength Design Of Rectangular Beams For Moment

From the basic principles and equations established in the preceding sections we

now develop a procedure for designing a beam with a rectangular cross section. Since

most reinforced concrete beams used in construction are rectangular, this procedure will

be used repeatedly by the designer. All steps-are consistent with the requirements of .the

current ACI Code 318-99.

All beams are designed to ensure that the moment produced by factored loads

does not exceed the available flexural design strength of the cross section at any point

along the length of the beam. If the flexural design strength Mn just equals the required

flexural strength Mu (which ensures the most economical design), the criterion for design

can be stated as

Mu

Mn

(2.21)

where 0.9 and Mn is the nominal moment capacity of the cross section.

This criterion can be developed into a design equation if we express Mn in terms of the

material and the geometric properties of a rectangular cross section (Fig. 2.7d). If we sum

moments about the centroid of the tension steel, Mn can be expressed as

a

Mn = C d

2

(2.22)

where C is the resultant of the compressive stresses and a is the depth of the

rectangular stress block. As indicated in Fig. 2.20 d, C = 0.85fcab. Substituting this value

of C into Eq. (2.12)

13

underreinforced beam at failure;

(b) strains, (c) stresses, (d)

internal couple

Mn = 0.85 f ' c ab d

2

(2.23)

To express a in Eq. (2.13) in terms of the dimensions-of the cross section and the

properties of the material, and fy, we set T = C and solve for a, to give

a=

As f y

(2.24)

b(0.85 f ' c

Multiplying both top and bottom of Eq. (2.14) by d and setting AJbd = p leads to

a=

As f y d

b(0.85 f ' c )

f y d

(2.25)

0.85 f ' c

fy

Mn = f y bd 2 1

1.7 f ' c

(2.26)

Finally, Eq. (2.15) is substituted into Eq. (2.11) to give the basic beam design equation

fy

Mn = f y bd 2 1

1.7 f ' c

(2.27)

where must not be greater than b, or less than min associated with As,min. The first

requirement ensures that the beam will be underreinforced and will fail in a ductile

manner; the second requirement prevents a brittle failure, i.e., the rupture of the steel

when the beam cracks initially.

14

Equation (2.17) can be used either to investigate the capacity of a cross section if

the dimen sions and material properties are known or to design a cross section (i.e., to

establish the width b, the depth d, and the area of steel As) if the value of the factored

moment A is specified. Although Eq. (2.17) can be used to establish the flexural design

strength of a cross-section since all terms on the right side of-the equation are known, the

designer may prefer to work directly with the internal forces on the rectangular cross

section to evaluate Mn because of the simplicity, of the calculations. In the latter

procedure, T = Asfy is first evaluated, then the depth of the stress block a is computed by

equating T = C, and finally the internal couple is evaluated by multiplying T by the arm

d - a/2 between T and C.

If a beam designed in accordance with the ACI Code is reinforced with tension

steel only, the maximum flexural capacity the cross section can develop is achieved when

an area of steel equal to three-fourths of the balanced steel area is used. When restrictions

are placed on the dimensions moment capacity of a member (even when reinforced with

three-fourths of the balanced steel area) may not be adequate to supply the required

moment capacity. Undo such conditions, additional moment capacity can be created

without producing a brittle, over reinforced beam by adding additional reinforcement to

both the tension and compression sides the cross section. As shown by Eq.(As,max. (3/4

Cc+Cs)/fy), the maximum area of tension steel that can be used to reinforce a cross section

is a direct function of both the strength of the concrete compression zone and the area of

the compression steel A's.

Figure 2.21 illustrates two situations in which compression steel can be used

advantageously. In Fig. 2.21a compression steel is used to increase the flexural capacity

of the compression zone of a prefabricated beam whose sides have been cut back to

provide a seat to support beams framing in from each side". Figure 2.21b shows a

common design situation it which compression steel is used to reduce the size of a

continuous T-beam of constant cross section by adding flexural capacity in the region

where the effective cross section is smallest and the moment greatest. Near midspan of a

15

continuous beam (see section 1 of Fig. 2.21b), where the positive moment creates

compression in the flange, the beam behaves as if it were rectangular beam with a width

equal to that of the flange. Even if the beam is shallow, the large compression zone

supplied by the flange provides the potential for a large moment capacity. If the moment

produces tension in the flange and compression in the web (the situation at the supports

where negative bending occurs), the beam, which now behaves like a narrow rectangular

beam with a width equal to that of the web, has a much smaller flexural capacity than the

flanged section at midspan. If compression steel is added to the compression zone (see

section 2 of Fig. 2.21), the flexural strength can be substantially raised without increasing

the width of the web or the depth of the cross section. By using compression steel to raise

the capacity of the compression zone the dead weight can be reduced and the headroom

increased.

To be most effective, compression steel should be placed where the compressive

strains at greatest, i.e., as far as possible from the neutral axis. If compression steel is

positioned near the neutral axis, the compressive strains may be too small to stress the

steel to its full capacity. Under this condition the compression steel has little influence on

the flexural strength or behavior of the member.

of beams reinforced with

compression steel; (a)

precast inverted T-beam,

(b) continuous beam with a

portion of the positive steel

extended into the supports

to be used as compression

steel

16

Showing the improvement in ductility

and toughness produced by the

addition of compression steel in an

underreinforced beam.

produces a marked improvement in behavior by raising the amount of compressive strain

the concrete can sustain before crushing and by reducing the tendency of the concrete to

break down at high levels of strain. Stabilizing the compression zone of a highly stressed

beam with compression steel reduces creep and increases ductility. Comparing the loaddeflection curves of two under-reinforced beams of identical proportions (except for the

presence of compression steel in one). Fig. 2.22 illustrates the improvement in ductility

afforded by the addition of compression steel. As indicated in Fig. 2.22, the flexural

capacity is not increased significantly by the addition of compression steel to an

underreinforced beam because the magnitude of, the internal couple is controlled by the

area of the tension steel.

Recognizing the beneficial effect of compression steel on bending behavior, many

building codes require that all flexural members of structures located in seismic zones be

reinforced with a minimum area of compression steel, even when the design calculations

indicate that compression steel is not required for strength. The addition of compression

steel produces tough ductile members that can withstand the large bending deformations

and repeated reversals of "stress produced in building members by cyclic, earthquakeinduced ground motions.

Recognizing that an improvement in the strength and ductility of concrete in

compression can be achieved by providing lateral confinement of the concrete, ACI Code

7.11.1 requires that compression steel be enclosed by closely spaced ties throughout the

region in which it is used. By providing a certain limited amount of lateral confinement to

the concrete in the compression zone, ties increase the ultimate strain required to produce

17

a compression failure and also reduce the rate at which heavily compressed concrete

strained into the inelastic region- breaks down.

When no. 10 (no. 30 metric) or smaller bars are used as compression steel, ACI

Code 7.10.5.1 specifies that ties be at least | in (11.3 mm) in diameter If bundled bars or

no. 11 (no. 35 metric) or larger bars are used as compression steel, ties must be at least in

(16 mm) in diameter. In accordance with ACI Code 7.10.5.2. the maximum spacing of

ties is not to exceed the smallest of the following distances:

1. Sixteen bar diameters of the compression steel

2. Forty-eight tie diameters

3. The least dimension of the cross section

Although inserting compression steel into a cross section permits the use of large

areas of tension steel, the designer must verify (1) that the steel can be fitted into the

tension zone while maintaining the required spacing between bars and the minimum

concrete cover sped-' fled by the ACI Code and (2) that the limit on crack width as

measured by the ACI expression z = 0.6 fy

small number of large-diameter bars increases the spacing between bars, the second

requirement , the control of crack width, is most easily satisfied by specifying a large

number of small-diameter bars.

FIGURE 2.23 Moment capacity of a beam with compression steel; (a) cross section with As =

As1+ As2, where As1 = Asb; (b) Strain distribution at failure based on the cross section

reinforcement with As1 only; (c) concrete couple M1 = T1 (d- a/2); (d) steel couple M2 = T2(d-d)

18

When designing a beam with compression steel, it is convenient to break the total

internal moment into two couples. The first couple M (Fig. 2.23c) represents the nominal

flexural strength of the cross section reinforced with Asb where Asb, applies to the

section without compression steel. The second couple M2 represents the nominal flexural

strength produced by the forces in the compression steel and in the additional tension

steel Asb which is added to balance the force in die compression steel (Fig. 2.23d). The

total moment capacity Mn of the cross section can then be expressed as

Mn

(M1+M2)

where = 0.9 the concrete couple is M1 = T1(d - a/2), and the steel couple is

M2 = T2(d - d')

Step l. Determine the moment <j>M\ that the beam can carry using ASl ^Asf,, where

A,t, represents balanced steel for the cross section without compression steel (see Fig.

2.23c).

Step 2. The excess moment <t>Mi, the difference between the required flexural strength

Mu and the flexural design strength of the concrete couple <A/i, is to be carried by a

couple 'composed of compression steel and additional bottom steel. To compute these

areas of steel, we first establish the stresses in the steel. For tension steel fs = fy; i.e.,

tension steel will always yield at failure since the beam is under reinforced. For

compression steel f,' /v. To establish compute the strain e's in the compression steel

using the strain distribution at failure.. The location of the neutral axis can be closely

approximated by using the neutral axis associated with lAst in step 1 (see Fig. 2.23b).

Step 3. Determine the magnitude of the internal tension force T2 of the compression-steel

couple by summing moments about the compression steel and equating to M2 (see Fig.

2.23d)

T2

M2

(d d 2 )

19

M2 =

Where

Mu

M1

Step 4. Compute the areas of the additional tension steel A,2 and the compression steel

AS At bottom:

As2 =

T2

fy

A' S =

Cs

f 's

Where Cs = T2

2.2.3.1. Introduction

Beams with T-shaped cross sections are used extensively as components of

concrete structures. They occur most frequently when concrete beams are poured

monolithically with slabs to form the floors of buildings and the roadways of bridges.

Rigidly joined together by reinforcement, a portion of the slab acts with the beam to

produce a T-shaped flexural member. The slab is termed the flange, and the portion of the

beam that projects below the slab is called the stem (see Fig. 2.24).

Although isolated T-beams of poured-in-place concrete are uncommon, large

quantities of T-beams and double T-beams are produced by the precast concrete industry

for use as components of prefabricated buildings (see Fig. 2.25). These members are

typically placed side by side with their flanges joined to form a floor. Since precast

beams of the same nominal depth differ slightly in height as a result of the manufacturing

process, several inches of concrete topping are often placed on top of the flanges to form

a level-surface. Light reinforcement, such as welded-wire mesh or small-diameter

20

deformed reinforcing bars, is added to the topping to provide continuity and reduce

cracking.

A T-shaped cross section is most efficiently used when the flange is placed in

compression. The wide flange not only permits a large compression force to develop but

also maximizes the arm of the internal couple by positioning the resultant of the

compression stresses near the compression surface (see Fig. 2.26). The elimination of

concrete from the tension zone, where only the steel reinforcement is effective in carrying

tension, reduces the dead weight but does not influence the bending strength of the cross

section. For long-span beams, where a large percentage of the design moment is

produced by the dead weight of the member, use of the T-shaped section will result in a

considerable reduction in weight, which in turn will permit the design of smaller and

lighter members.

double T-beam,

FIGURE 2.24 Floor System with T-beams

Since the flange of the typical T-beam is wide, the depth of the stress block will

normally be small. As a result, when failure occurs, the position of the neutral axis will

usually be located in the flange near the compression surface. As shown in Fig. 2.26, the

strains in the steel failure will be many times greater than those in the concrete because of

the elevated position of the neutral axis; therefore a ductile mode of failure associated

with large deflections and extensive stretching of the steel is assured.

21

FIGURE 2.27

FIGURE 2.26 State of stress in a T-beam at failure; (a)

cross section,(b) strain, (c) stresses, (d) internal couple

In beams with a compact cross section, stress in the compression zone is assumed

to be constant in magnitude across the width of the beam (Fig. 2.27). In T-beams with

long thin flanges, the stresses vary across the flange width because of the shear

deformations of the flange. The approximate variation of stress in the flange is shown in

Fig. 2.28a.

To simplify the design of T-beams, the variable stress distribution acting over the

full width of flange is replaced by an equivalent uniform stress, which is assumed to act

over a reduced width beff , selected so that the uniform stress acting over the reduced

width produces the same resultant compression force in the flange as the actual stress,

which varies over the full width b. To establish the effective width of slab that acts as the

compression zone for a beam that is a component of T-beam-and-slab construction, ACI

Code 8.10 gives the following criteria.

in the flange of a T-beam;(a) actual, (b)

simplified

22

CASE 1: FLANGES ON EACH SIDE OF WEB. The effective width (see Fig. 2.29a) is

given by the smallest value of

1. One-fourth of the beam's span length

2. The stem width plus a flange overhang of eight times the slab thickness on each side of

the stem

3. The stem width plus a flange overhang not greater than half the clear distance to the

next beam.

CASE 2: BEAM WITH AN L-SHAPED FLANGE. The width of flange (see Fig. 2.29b)

is to be taken as the-stem width plus a flange overhang equal to the smallest of

1. One-twelfth the beam's span length

2. Six times the thickness of the slab

3. One-half the clear distance to the next beam

2.2.3.4.1. Longitudinal Reinforcement

When the flanges of T-beams carry tensile stresses (for example, in regions of

negative moment), ACI Code 10.6.6 requires that part of the main reinforcement be

spread over a width equal to the smaller of the effective flange width (Fig. 2.29) or a

width equal to one-tenth of the span. Further, if the effective flange width exceeds onetenth of the span, some reinforcement should be placed in the outer sections of the flange.

This provision will ensure that many fine cracks rather than a few wide cracks

perpendicular to the span of the beam will develop on the ' top surface.

23

2.2.3.4.2. Transverse Reinforcement

Load applied directly to the flange of a T-beam will cause the flanges to bend

downward (Fig. 2.30). To prevent a bending failure of the flange, transverse

reinforcement must be added to the top of the flange overhangs. This reinforcement can

be sized by treating the flange over hangs as cantilevers fixed at the face of the stem and

having a span equal to the length of the flange "overhang (fig. 2.30b). ACI Code

8.10.5.2 requires that the spacing of the transverse reinforcement not exceed five times

the slab thickness or 18 in (500 mm). Additional longitudinal steel will be required in the

flange to hold the transverse steel in position when concrete is poured.

Figure 2.30 (a) transverse bending of Tbeam flange, (b) shear and moment curves

for flange overhange.

Most T-beams occur as part of continuous floor systems (see Fig. 2.24). The

dimensions of these beams are normally determined by the strength required to carry the

shear and moment at the supports, where the compression zone is at the bottom of the

stem and the member acts as a rectangular beam whose width is equal to that of the web

(see Fig. 2.26). To ensure that deflections are not excessive, the designer should verify

that the depth of the T-beam is not less than the minimum values specified in Table 2.2.2.

In regions of positive moment, where the flange is in compression, the designer

has only to select the area of the flexural steel and verify that it can be placed in the web

with the required spacing between bars. The minimum area of flexural steel equals, but

cannot be less than 2006K. In T-beam design, as in rectangular-beam design, the

maximum area of steel to be used as flexural reinforcement is equal to, (the procedure for

computing As is given in Sec. 2.13).

24

CASE 1: STRESS BLOCK CONFINED TO FLANGE

The design procedure for determining the moment capacity of a particular Tshaped cross section will depend on the position of the bottom of the stress block. If the

stress block lies completely in the flange, the most common case, the beam is designed

exactly like a rectangular beam (Fig. 2.31). On the other hand, if the bottom of the stress

block falls in the web, the stress block must be divided into known areas, the forces on

these areas computed, and the moment capacity of the cross section established by

summing the forces in the compression zone about the centroid of the tension steel (Fig.

2.32). As an alternative, the trial method discussed in Sec. 2.12 can be used to select-the

reinforcement.

CASE 2: STRESS BLOCK EXTENDED INTO STEM.

Break the total internal moment capacity into two couples (Fig. 2.32). One couple

MI

represents the moment capacity of the flange overhangs, and the second

MI

represents

the moment capacity of the rectangular beam portion. The total moment capacity is

Mn

(M1+M2)

hf

M 1 = 0.85 f ' c A f d

2

(2.27)

(2.28)

M 2 = 0.85 f ' c Aw d

2

(2.29)

strains at failure, (c) stresses (a hf),

(d) internal couple.

25

Figure 2.32 (a) cross section with As = Asf + Asw, where Asf is the portion of As

used to balance compression force in flange overhangs and Asw is the portion of As

used to balance compression force in web; (b) stresses, (c) moment: flange

overhangs and Asf; (d) moment: web and Asw

hf

Mn = 0.85 f ' c A f d

2

a

+ 0.85 f ' c Aw d

2

(2.30)

26

2.3. Slabs

slab is a broad flat plate usually horizontal with top and bottom surface parallel or

nearly so, it may be supported by reinforced concrete beams by masonry or reinforced

concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns or continuously by the

ground. It used to provide a flat, useful surface. Slabs may be supported on opposite sides.

Slabs may be of different types such as, one way slabs, two way slabs, flat slab, flat plate

slab, grid slabs or waffle slab.

These are the types of slabs which are only on two opposite sides as shown in

figure in which the structural action of the slab is essentially on e way the load is carried

by the in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beams. one way slab action is

produced if the ratio of length to width of one slab panel is lager then about two (2) most

of the load is carried in the short direction to the supporting beams and one way action is

obtained in effect, even though supports are provided on all sides.

1m

S

Figure 2.31

27

1.0 m

Main reinforcement

Figure 2.32

if the length to width ratio is greater than two it is referred as two way slab

generally in this case load is being carried by the slab in the direction perpendicular to the

supporting beams. There may be beams on all four directions so that two way direction is

obtained

Figure 2.33

28

Concrete slabmay in some cases becarried directly by the columns without use of

beam and girder .such slabs are considered as and are commonly used whereare not

larger and loads are perpendiculare directly .it may be beamless but incorporates are

thickened slab region in the vicinity of column and often employs flared columns top

A slab supported directly on columns without beams and having recesses on the

soffit so that comprises a series of ribs in the two direction is known as Waffle Slab.

Generally the width of web in the waffle slab shall not be more then 3.5 inches and clear

spacing should not exceed 3 ft and dept should not be more then 3.5 times the minimum

width of web of the rib. It is provided with a solid head on the column.

Figure 2.34

Waffle slab is consists of series of small, closely spaced reinforced concrete Tee

beams framing into monolithically cast concrete girder, which are in turn carried by the

building columns. These beams are formed by the Void space in what other wise would

be a solid slab. Usually these voids are formed using special steel pans. For the most parts

the concrete remove is in tension and ineffective. So the lighter weight concrete floor

having same structural characteristics as the corresponding solid floor. Voids are usually

formed by using domes shaped steel pans that are removed for re use after the slabs have

hardened. Near the column the form work are removed so as to get the solid face on the

29

column in the region of negative bending moments and high shear. A waffle like

appearance (these slabs are therefore called waffle slabs) is imparted to the underside of

the slab, which can feature to architectural advantage.

Two way joist slabs are designed following the usual procedure for two way slab

system( i.e. the conventional slab design with the solid region in the column considered

as dropped panel. The design of the waffle slab is same as the design of a tee beam.

Joists(tee beam) in each direction is divided in two strips i.e. column strip joist and

middle strip joist, the former includes all joists that framed into the solid head and later

includes all joists in the middle potion of the slab. Each joists usually includes two bars

for positive moment resistance and one may be discontinuous where it no longer

required. Negative steel is provided by separates bars running in each direction straight

over the columns.

In the design process the self-weight of two way joists floor is considered to be

uniformly distributed, based on the equivalent slab of uniform thickness having the same

volume of concrete as the actual ribbed slab.

Figure 2.35

30

2.4 Columns

Columns are the members that carry loads chiefly in compression. Usually

columns carry bending moments about one and both axis of the cross section as well as

the compressive forces. That bending may also creates tensile forces on the one face of

the column. Even in such cases columns are generally referred to as compression

member, because the compression forces domain their behavior. In addition to the most

common type if compression member i.e. vertical element in structure, compression

members includes columns, arches, or inclined members of the trusses etc. etc.

Compression members may of any type below.

1. member reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.

2. members reinforced with longitudinal bars and continuous spirals.

3. composite compression members reinforced longitudinally bars with structural

steel shapes, pipes, or tubing with or without additional longitudinal bars, and

various types of lateral reinforcements

The main reinforcement in columns are longitudinal one, parallel to the direction of

the load and consists of the bars arrange in a square, rectangular, or circular pattern.

The design of eccentrically loaded columns using the strain compatibility method of

analysis described requires that a trial column be selected. The trial column is then

investigated to determine if it is adequate to carry any combination of Pu and Mu that may

act on it should the structure be overloaded, i.e., to see if Pu and Mu from the analysis of

the. Structure, when plotted on a strength interaction diagram, fall within the region

bounded by the curve labeled "ACI design strength." Furthermore," economical design

requires that the controlling combination of Pu and Ag be close to the limit curve. If these

conditions are not met, a new column must be selected for trial. While a simple computer

program can be written, based on the strain compatibility analysis, to calculate points on the

design strength curves, and even to plot the curve for ant trial column, in practice design

aids are used such as are available in hand books and special volumes published by the

American Concrete Institute and Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute .They cover the most

frequent practical cases, such as symmetrically reinforced rectangular and square columns

31

and circular spirally reinforced columns. There are also a number of commercially

available computer programs (e.g., PCACOL, Portland Cement Association, Skokie,

Illinois, and HBCOLUMN, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute* Schaumburg, Illinois).

The graphs are seen to consist of strength interaction curves labeled "ACI design

strength," i.e. the ACI safety provisions are incorporated. However, instead of plotting Pu vs.

Mu, corresponding parameters have been used to make the charts more generally applicable,

i.e. load is plotted as Pu / Ag while moment is expressed as Pu / Ag (e/h). Families of curves are

drawn for various values of g = Ast / Ag. They are used in most cases in conjunction, with

the family of radial lines representing different eccentricity ratios e/h.

Charts such as these permit the direct "design of eccentrically loaded columns

throughout the common range of strength and geometric variables. They may be used in

one of two ways as follows, For a given factored load Pu and equivalent eccentricity.

1. (a) Select trial cross section dimensions b and h .

(b) Calculate the ratio based on required cover distances to the bar centroids, and

select the corresponding column design chart.

(c) Calculate Pu / A and Mu / Ag h, where Ag = bh

(d) From the graph, for the values found in (c), read the required steel ratio pH.

(e) Calculate the total steel area AS = pg b h.

2. (a) Select the steel ratio pg.

(b) Choose a trial value of h and calculate e/h and y.

(c) From the corresponding graph, read Pu / Ag and calculate the required Ag:

(d) Calculate b = Ag / h

(e) Revise the trial value of h if necessary to obtain a well-proportioned section.

(f) Calculate the total steel area Ast = g b h

32

Footings are structural members used to support columns and walls and to

transmit and distribute their loads to the soil in such a way that the load bearing

capacity of the soil is not exceeded, excessive settlement, differential settlement, or

rotation are prevented

maintained.

superstructure and the substructure. The latter is often called as foundation.

It supports the superstructure, but it may contain various parts or units of its own.

There are many special types of foundations for which concrete is used. Scope

here is limited to RC footings.

Sometimes, as in retaining walls, it is used to designate the material upon which

wall is supported.

It must not be confused with the word FOOTING, which is generally applied only

to that portion of the structure which delivers the load to the earth.

2.4.3.1.1. Isolated Spread Footing

Isolated or single footings are used to

support single columns. This is one of

the most economical types of footings

and is used when columns are spaced

at relatively long distances.

Combined footings usually support

two columns, or three columns not

in a row. Combined footings are

used when tow columns are so close

that single footings cannot be used

or when one column is located at or

33

near a property line.

They consist of two single footings

connected with a beam or a strap and

support two single columns. This type

replaces a combined footing and is

more economical.

They consists of one footing

usually placed under the entire

building area. They are used,

when soil bearing capacity is

low, column loads are heavy

single footings cannot be used,

piles are not used and differential

settlement must be reduced.

When the column load P is applied on the centroid of the footing, a uniform

pressure is assumed to develop on the soil surface below the footing area. However the

actual distribution of the soil is not uniform, but depends on may factors especially the

composition of the soil and degree of flexibility of the footing.

Footings must be designed to carry the column loads and transmit them to the soil

safely while satisfying code limitations.

The area of the footing based on the allowable bearing soil capacity

34

One-way bearing

Dowel requirements

Differential settlement

The area of footing can be determined from the actual external loads such that the

allowable soil pressure is not exceeded.

Area of footing =

allowable soil pressure

For two-way shear in slabs (& footings) Vc is smallest of

4

Vc = 2 +

c

f c b0 d

where,

bc =

b0 =

When b >2 the allowable Vc is reduced.

35

For footings with bending action in one

direction the critical section is located a distance d

from face of column

Vc = 2 f c b0 d

The ultimate shearing force at section m-m

can be calculated if no shear reinforcement is to be

used, then d can be checked

L c

Vu = q u b d

2 2

2.4.5.4.

Flexural

Strength

and

Footing

reinforcement

Another approach is to calculated Ru = Mu /

2

bd

calculated a

36

a=

f y As

0.85 f c b

minimum area and maximum spacing of steel bars in the direction of bending shall be as

required for shrinkage temperature reinforcement.

The reinforcement in one-way footings and twoway footings must be distributed across the entire

width of the footing.

Reinforcement in band width

2

=

Total reinforcement in short direction + 1

short side of footing

The loads from the column act on the footing at the base of the column, on an

area equal to area of the column cross-section. Compressive forces are transferred to the

footing directly by bearing on the concrete.

the base of the column must not exceed the bearing strength of the concrete

N 1 = (0.85 f c A1 )

Where f = 0.7 and

A1 =bearing area of column

The value of the bearing strength may be multiplied by a factor

on footing when the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area.

The modified bearing strength

N 2 (0.85 f c A1 ) A2 / A1

N 2 2 (0.85 f c A1 )

37

A minimum steel ratio r = 0.005 of the column section as compared to r = 0.01 as

minimum reinforcement for the column itself. The number of dowel bars needed is four

these may be placed at the four corners of the column. The dowel bars are usually

extended into the footing, bent at the ends, and tied to the main footing reinforcement.

The dowel diameter shall not =exceed the diameter of the longitudinal bars in the column

by more than 0.15 in.

The development length for compression bars was given

l d = 0.02 f y d b /

but not less than

fc

0.003 f y d b 8 in.

1. A site investigation is required to determine the chemical and physical properties

of the soil.

2. Determine the magnitude and distribution of loads form the superstructure.

3. Establish the criteria and the tolerance for the total and differential settlements of

the structure.

4.

5. Determine the depth of the footings below the ground level and the method of

excavation.

6. Establish the allowable bearing pressure to be used in design.

7. Determine the pressure distribution beneath the footing based on its width

8. Perform a settlement analysis.

38

2.5.1. General

Retaining walls are used to provide lateral support for a mass of earth or other

material the top of which is at a higher elevation than the earth or rock in front of the wall

as shown in Fig 1. Gravity retaining walls such as shown in Fig 2.50 (a) depend mostly

upon their own weight for stability. They are usually low in height and are expensive

because of their inefficient use of materials; sometimes they may be cheapened by using

cyclopean concrete.

In contrast to them, Fig. 2.50 (b) pictures an ordinary cantilever retaining wall.

Part of its stability is obtained from the weight of earth mass on heel, but the wall's

resistance to collapse depends upon the strength of its individual parts as cantilever beams.

(a)

(b)

(b) Cantilever retaining wall

39

2.5.2. Definition Of Parts

The various portions of a typical reinforced concrete retaining wall are defined

as follows, using Fig.2.51 for reference:

Stem or Wall

Back fill

Front

Toe

Key

Heel

2.5.3. Functions

Retaining walls are structures used to retain earth or other materials, which would

not be able to stand vertically unsupported. These walls are used to hold back masses of

earth or other loose material where conditions make it impossible to let those masses

assume their natural slopes. Such conditions occur when the width of an excavation, cut,

or embankment is restricted by conditions of ownership, use of structure, or economy.

For example, in railway or highway construction the width of the right of way is fixed

and the cut or embankment must be contained within that width. Similarly, the

basement walls of buildings must be located within the property and must retain the soil

surrounding the basement.

40

2.5.4. Types Of Retaining Walls

There may be several types of retaining structures, the main types being:

(a) Gravity wall, where stability is provided by the weight of concrete in the wall;

(b) Cantilever wall, where the wall slab acts as a vertical cantile ver and

stability is provided by the weight of earth on the base and/or the weight of

the wall;

(c) Counter fort and buttress walls, where the slab is supported on its sides by the

counter forts. Stability is provided by the weight of the structure in the case of

the buttress wall and by the weight of earth on the base as well in the counter

fort wall.

A gravity wall is usually of plain concrete and is used for walls updo about 10 ft

high. The cantilever is the most common type of retaining walls and is used in the range

of 10-25 ft in height. The main parts of a cantilever retaining wall are the stem, heel,

toe, wall slab and base slab.

It is every day knowledge that sound rock, evenly bedded, will stand with a sheer

face to considerable heights. This can be seen in artificial form in deep railway cuttings.

Soils on the other hand cannot stand more steeply than their natural angle of repose,

as evidenced again in railway work where engineers have cut back to slopes ranging

from about 1 in 1.5 to 1 in 3, depending on the nature of soil, and other physical

considerations. Where there are practical objections to sloping back in this manner (as

for example at basements to city buildings or where industrial materials like sand and

stone have to be stored in limited areas), a wall has to be built to retain all material

required to lie above the natural angle of repose.

The main problem in designing the retaining walls lies in determining the

pressures on the back of the wall from the material to be retained and the capability of

the ground in front of the wall and under the base to resist the lateral and vertical

41

forced arising from those pressures. Knowledge of the properties and behavior of soils is

therefore fundamental to the design of retaining walls and the problem is closely allied

to foundation engineering. References should be made to the literature related to

foundation design.

2.5.5.1. Variation Of Earth Pressures

In liquid retaining structures, the applied forces (pressures) are directly related to

the density of the liquid retained and the head at which it acts. This is because liquids are

both friction less and cohesion less. Soils behave differently. Sand, for example, when dry,

acts as a fictional material without cohesion and has a well-defined angle of repose. If

the same sand is now moistened, it develops a certain amount of cohesive strength and its

angle of repose increases, somewhat erratically. Further wetting will break down the

internal friction forces until the sand slumps and will hardly stand at any angle at all.

Clay on the other hand when first exposed in situ stands vertically to considerable

depths when reasonably dry, but after time will subside, depending on its moisture

content. And clay, in dry seasons, gives up its moisture to atmosphere with subsequent

shrinkage, so that at depths less than about 4 or 5 feet it may be unreliable as a stop to

react the forward movement of a retaining wall.

Thus the pressures from soils can vary very widely depending on the moisture

content. If a unit volume of soil is considered at a depth h below the free surface, the

lateral pressures can vary from about 30h to 90h in sands, and from Oh to about 90h

in clays. And within these ranges, the pressures behind retaining walls may vary due to

seasonal or other periodic changes. Indeed the construction of the retaining wall itself

may cause major changes in the ground conditions blocking a natural drainage path, or

exposing to shrinkage otherwise stable clay. Similarly the fictional resistance to sliding

under the base of a retaining wall is critical of moisture content. This is particularly true of

clay, which when dry can be rough and hard, but when wet can be smooth and slippery.

When the soil behind the wall is prevented from lateral movement (towards or

away from soil) of wall, the pressure is known as earth pressure at rest. This is the case

when wall has a considerable rigidity. Basement walls generally fall in this category. If a

retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil accompanied by a lateral soil

42

expansion, the earth pressure decreases with the increasing expansion. A shear failure

of the soil is resulted with any further expansion and a sliding wedge tends to move

forward and downward. The earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the

minimum pressure is known as active earth pressure. Contrary to that if the retaining wall

could be forced to move toward the soil causing the lateral contraction of soil, a state of

failure is reached with the formation of an upward and backward sliding wedge. The

earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the maximum and termed as

passive earth pressure.

2.5.5.1.2. Earth Pressure at Rest

pa = Ca w h

2 .51

and Co the constant known as the coefficient of earth pressure at rest.

2.5.5.1.3. Active Earth Pressure

pa =Ca w h

2.52

Pp = Cp w h

2.53

PRESSURE FORCE

43

2.5.6. Stability And Safety Factor

The stability of a retaining wall is its ability to hold its position and to perform

its function safely. The safety factor is a measure of the magnitude of the forces that are

required to cause failure of the structure compared with the forces that are really acting

upon it. Thus, if safety factor is 1, the wall will be upon the point of failure. If, for any

given design, it is 2, then the overturning moment or horizontal forces may be doubled

before the wall will fail. The magnitude of safety factor to be used in design will depend

upon the engineer's judgment, the specifications, or the building code that is to be

followed. In general, it may vary from 1.5 to 2.

A retaining wall may fail in one of the four ways: by the collapse of its

component parts, by overturning about its toe, by excessive pressure upon its

foundation, or by sliding upon its foundation. In a well-balanced design, the wall should

be equally safe in all respects.

2.5.7. Critical Sections For Bending And Shear

The bending is critical at the junction of base and wall slabs. In normal

circumstance the shear should have been critical at a distance equal to effective depth of

base slab from face of wall. However, the shear is critical at the junction of heel and wall

slabs, because both wall and heel slab are in tension at the junction.

2.5.8. The Critical Loading Conditions

The surcharge loading on the heel slab should not be considered effective

while stability -against sliding or overturning is being investigated. Care must be

exercised in considering the presence of earth in front of wall while stability against

sliding is checked. The pressure under the heel slab and burden over the toe slab can

be neglected while designing these slabs for strength.

44

2.6.1. General

Every building or structure and every portion thereof shall be determined and

constructed to resist the wing effects determined in accordance with the requirements of

this division. Wind shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction. No reduction

in the wind pressure shall be taken for the shielding effect of the adjacent structures.

Structures sensitive to dynamic effects, such as buildings with the height to width

ratio greater than five, structures sensitive to wind-excited oscillations, such as vortex

shedding and icing, and building over 400 feet in height, shall be, and any structure may

be designed in accordance with approved national standards.

Provision of this section do not apply to building and foundation systems in those

areas to scour and water pressures by wind and wave action. Buildings and foundations

subject to such loads shall be designed in accordance with approved national standards.

2.6.2. Definitions

BASIC WIND SPEED is the fastest mile wind speed associated with an annual

probability of 0.02 measured at a point 33 feet (10000 mm) above the ground for an area

having exposure category C.

EXPOSURE B has terrain with buildings, forest or surface irregularities,

covering at least 20 percent of the ground level area extending one mile (1.61 Km) or

more from the side.

EXPOSURE C has terrain that is flat and generally open, extending half mile

(0.81 Km) or more from the side in any full quadrant.

EXPOSURE D represents the most severe exposure in areas with basic wind

speed of 80 miles per hour (129 Km/h) or greater and has terrain that is flat and

unobstructed facing large bodies of water over one mile (1.61 km) or more in width with

45

relative to any quadrant of building side. Exposure D extends inland from the shoreline

mile (0.40 Km) or ten times the building height, which ever is greater.

FASTEST-MILE WIND SPEED is the wind speed obtained from wind velocity

maps prepared by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and is

the highest sustained average wind speed based on the time required for a mile-long

sample of air to pass a fix point.

OPENINGS OR APERTURES OR HOLES in the exterior walls boundary of the

structures. All windows or doors or other openings shall be considered as openings unless

such openings and their frames are specifically detailed and designed to resist the loads

on elements and components in accordance with the provisions of this section.

PARTIALLY ENCLOSED STRUCTURES OR STOREY is a structure or storey

that has more than fifteen percent of any windward projected area open and the area of

openings on all other projected areas is less than half of that on the windward projections.

SPECIAL WIND REGION is an area where local records and terrain features

indicate fifty year fastest-mile basic wind speed is higher.

UNENCLOSED STRUCTURE OR STOREY is a structure that has eighty five

percent or more openings on all sides.

The following symbols and notations apply to the provisions of

this

division.

Ce = combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient as given in

table 16-G

Cq = pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure under

consideration as given in table 16-H

Iw = importance factor as set forth in table 16-K

P = design wind pressure

Qs = wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet (10,000

mm) as set forth in Table 16-F.

46

2.6.4. Basic Wind Speed

The minimum basic wind speed at any site shall not be less than for those areas

designated as special wind regions and other areas where local records or terrain

indicate higher 50-year (mean recurrence interval) fastest- mile wind speeds, these

higher values shall be the minimum basic wind speeds.

2.6.5. E x posure

is to b e designed.

Design wind pressures for buildings and structures and elements therein shall

be determined for any height in accordance with the following formula:

P = Ce.Cq.qs.Iw

(2.60)

2.6.7.1. General

designed for the pressures calculated using Formula (2.60) and the pressure

coefficients, Cq, of either Method 1 or Method 2. In addition, design of the overall

structure and its primary load-resisting system shall conform to Section 1605.

The base overturning moment for the entire structure, or for anyone of its

individual primary lateral-resisting elements, shall not exceed two-third of the dead

load-resisting moment. For an entire structure with a height-to-width ratio of 0.5 or less

in the wind direction and a maximum height of 60 feet, the combination of the effects

of uplift and overturning may be reduced by one-third. The weight of earth

superimposed over footings may be used to calculate the dead-load-resisting moment.

47

2.6.7.2. Method I (Normal Force Method)

Method 1 shall be used for the design of gabled rigid frames and may be used for

any structure. In the Normal Force Method, the wind pressures shall be assumed to act

simultaneously normal to all exterior surfaces. For structure pressures on roofs and

leeward walls, Ce, shall be evaluated at the mean roof height.

2.6.7.3. Method 2 (Projected area method)

Method 2 may be used for any structure less than 200 feet (60960 mm) in

height except those using gabled rigid frame. This method may be used in stability

determination for any structure less than 200 feet (60960 mm) high. In the projected

area method, horizontal pressures shall be assumed to act upon the full vertical

projected area of the structure, and the vertical pressure shall be assumed to act

simultaneously upon the full horizontal projected area.

2.6.7.4. Elements and Components of Structures

determined from Formula (2.60) and Cq values from Table 2.60-H, and shall be applied

perpendicular to the surface. For outward acting forces the. Value of Ce shall be obtained

from Table 2.60-G based on the mean roof height and applied for the entire height of

the structure. Each element or component shall be designed for the more severe of the

following loadings:

1. The pressures determined using Cq values for elements and components

acting over the entire tributary area of the element.

2. The pressures determined using Cq values for local areas at discontinuities

such as corners, ridges and eaves. These local pressures shall be applied over a

distance from a discontinuity of 10 feet (3048 mm) or 0.1 times the least width of the

structure, whichever is less.

The wind pressures from 2.6.7.3.and 2.6.7.4. need not be combined.

48

2.6.8. Open-Frame Towers

Radio towers and other towers of trussed construction shall be designed and

constructed to withstand wind pressures specified in this section, multiplied by the

shape factors set forth in Table 2.60-H.

less in height shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 16, Division 111. However,

three fourths of qs, but not less than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m2), may be substituted for qs in

Formula (2.60). Pressures on local areas at discontinuities need not be considered.

For the purpose of wind-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of

the occupancy categories listed in Table 2.60-K. Table 2.60-K lists importance factors,

Iw for each category.

TABLE 2.60-FWIND STAGNATION PRESSURE (qs) AT STANDARD HEIGHT OF

33 FEET (10,058 mm)

Basic wind speed (mph)1

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

12.6

16.4

20.8

25.6

31.0

36.9

43.3

Pressure qs (psf)

2

49

TABLE 2.60-GCOMBINED HEIGHT, EXPOSURE AND GUST FACTOR

COEFFICIENT (Ce)

HEIGHT ABOVE

AVERAGE LEVEL OF

ADJOINING GROUND

EXPOSURE D

EXPOSURE C

EXPOSURE B

0-15

1.39

1.06

0.62

20

1.45

1.13

0.67

25

1.50

1.19

.72

30

1.54

1.23

0.76

40

1.62

1.31

0.84

60

1.73

1.43

0.95

80

1.81

1.53

1.04

100

1.88

1.61

1.13

120

1.93

1.67

1.20

160

2.02

1.79

1.31

200

2.10

1.87

1.42

300

2.23

2.05

1.63

400

2.34

2.19

1.80

(feet)

x 304.8 for mm

Values for intermediate heights above 15 feet (4572 mrn) may be interpolated.

50

TABLE 2.60-HPRESSURE COEFFICIENTS {Cq)

STRUCTURE OR PART THEREOF

DESCRIPTION

1.Primary frame and systems

area of discontinuity2

of discontinuity2,4,5

Walls:

Windward wall

Leeward wall

Roofs1:

Wind perpendicular to ridge

Leeward roof or flat roof

Windward roof

Less than 2:12(16.7%)

Slope 2:12(16.7%) to less

than 9:12(75%)

Slope 9:12(75%) to 12:12

(100%)

Slope > 12:12 (100%)

Wind parallel to rigid and flat

roofs

Method 2 (Projected area

method)

On vertical projected area:

Structure 40 feet(12192 mm)

or less in height

Structure over 40 feet (12192

mm) in height

On horizontal projected area1

Wall elements

All structures

Enclosed and unenclosed

structures

Partially enclosed structures

Parapet walls

Roof elements3

Enclosed and unenclosed

structures

Slope< 7:12(58.3%)

Slope 7:12(58.3%) to

12:12(100%)

Partially enclosed structures

Slope < 2:12(16.7%)

Slope 2:12(16.7%) to

7:12(58.3%)

Slope> 7:12(58.3%) to

12:12(100%)

Wall corners6

Roof eaves, rakes or ridges

without overhangs6

Slope < 2:12(16.7%)

Slope 2:12(16.7%) to

7:12(58.3%)

Slope> 7:12(58.3%) to

12:12(100%)

Cq FACTOR

0.8 inward

0.5 inward

0.7 outward

0.7 outward

0.9 outward or 0.3 inward

0.4 inward

0.7 inward

0.7 outward

1.4 horizontal any direction

0.7 upward

1.2 inward

1.2 outward

1.6 out ward

1.3 inward or outward

1.3 outward

1.3outward or inward

1.7 outward

1.6 outward or 0.8 inward

1.7 outward or inward

1.5 outward or 1.2 inward

2.3 upward

2.6 out ward

1.6 outward

51

5. open-frame towers7,8

ladders, conduits, lights and

elevators)

Overhangs at roof eaves,

rakes or ridges and canopies

Square or rectangular

Hexagonal or octagonal

Round or elliptical

Square or rectangular

Diagonal

Normal

Triangular

Cylindrical members

2 inches(51mm) or less in

diameter

over 2 inches (51mm) in

diameter

Flat or angular members

structures8

1.4 any direction

1.1 any direction

0.8 any direction

4.0

3.6

3.2

1.0

0.8

1.3

1.4 any direction

For one story or the top story of multistory partially enclosed structures, an additional

value of 0.5 shall be added to the outward Cq. The most critical combination shall be used

for design. For definition of partially enclosed structures, see Section 1616.

2

Cq, values listed are for 10-square-foot (0.93 m2) tributary areas. For tributary areas of 100

square feet (9.29 m2), the value of 0.3 may be subtracted from Cq, except for areas at

discontinuities with slopes less than 7 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58.3% slope)

where the value of 0.8 may be subtracted from Cq. Interpolation may be used for tributary

areas between 10 and 100 square feet (0.93 m2 and 9.29 m2). For tributary areas greater

than 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2). use primary frame values.

3

For slopes greater than 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100% slope), use wall

element values.

4

Local pressures shall apply over a distance from the discontinuity of 10 feet (3048 mm)

5

Discontinuities at wall corners or roof ridges are defined as discontinuous breaks in the

surface where the included interior angle measures 170 degrees or less.

6

sides.

7

Wind pressures shall be applied to the total normal projected area of all elements on one

face. The forces shall be assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.

8

Factors for cylindrical elements are two thirds of those for flat or angular elements.

52

ZONE

2A

2B

0.075

0.15

0.2

0.3

0.4

SOIL

PROFILE

TYPE

SOIL

PROFILE

for soil profile

NAME /

GENERIC

Shear

wave Standard

Undrained

DESCRIPTION

velocity, Vs

Penetration test Shear Strength ,

Feet/sec(m/sec)

N (Blows/Ft)

Su ,psf (KPa)

SA

Hard rock

SB

Rock

2500 to 5000

(760 to 1500)

SC

SD

and soft rock

(360 to 760)

600

to

1200 15 to 50

(180 to 360)

1000 to 2000

(50 to 100)

SE1

SF

<600 (180)

< 15

Soil Profile Type SE also includes any soil profile with more than 10 feet (3048

mm) of soil clay defined as a soil with a plasticity index, PI > 20 and wmc >= 40 %

S u < 500 psf (24 kPa). The Plasticity Index, PI, and the moisture content, w mc ,

shall be determined in accordance with approved national standards.

53

TABLE 2.60-K OCCUPANCY CATEGORY

Occupancy

Category

1

Essential

Facilities2

Hazardous

Facilities

Occupancy

or

function

of Seismic

structure

Group

I,

Division

1

Occupancies having surgery

and emergency treatment

areas.

Fire and police stations.

Garages and shelters for

emergency

vehicles

and

emergency aircrafts.

Structures and shelters in

emergency-preparedness

centers.

Aviation control towers.

Structures an d equipment in

government communication

centers and other facilities

required

for

emergency

response.

Standby

power-generating

equipment for Category 1

facilities.

Tanks or other structures

containing

housing

or

supporting water or other

fire-suppression material or

equipment required for the

protection of Category 1, 2 or

3 structures.

G r o u p H , Divisions 1, 2, 6

and 7 Occupancies and

structures therein housing or

supporting toxic or explosive

chemicals or substances.

Nonbuilding

structures

housing,

supporting

or

containing quantities of toxic

or explosi ve substances that,

if

cont ained

within

a

building, would cause that

building to be classified as a

Group H, Division 1, 2 or 7

Occupancy.

Seismic

Wind

1

importance

importance

importance

factor, I

factor, IP

factor, IW

1.25

1.50

1.15

1.25

1.50

1.15

54

3

2.1 Occupancies.

Buildings housing Group E,

Divisions

1

and

3

Occupancies with a capacity

greater than 300 students.

Buildings housing Group B

Occupancies used for college

or adult education wit h a

capacity greater than 500

students.

Group I, Divisions 1 and 2

Occupancies with 50 or more

incapacitated

resident

patients, but not included in

Category 1.

Division

3

Group

I,

Occupancies.

All structures with an

occupancy greater than 5,000

persons.

Structures and equipment in

power-generating

stations,

and other public utility

facilities not included in

Category 1 or Category 2

above, and required for

continued operation.

1.00

1.00

1.00

All

structures

housing

occupancies

or

having

functions not listed in

Category 1, 2 or 3 and Group

U Occupancy towers.

1.00

1.00

1.00

for towers

Structures

1.00

1.00

1.00

Special

Occupancy

Structures3

Standard

Occupancy

Structures3

Th e limitation of IP for panel connections in Section 1633.2.4 shall be 1.0 for the

entire connector.

2

For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety systems, the

55

CHAPTER 3

DESIGN OF SLAB PANELS AND STAIRS

3.1 SLABS

Slab Panel S1 :

m

0.71

Slab thickness =

Slab wt

DEAD LOAD =

Live load

Wu

16x 22-6

perimeter/180

5.13 5.5

5.5/12 150

69 psf

1 .5 + 5

120

12

65 psf

40 + 20

60 psf

257 psf

MOMENTS

Ma+DL =

Ma+LL =

0.057 96 162 12 =

16810 lb-in

Ma+

39561 lb-in

Macout =

22,751 lb-in

63,950

56

MaDis =

39561/3

Mb+DL =

10760 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.014 96 22.52 12

8165 lb-in

Mb+

18925 lb-in

Mb

29665 lb-in

4.75

SHORT SPAN

R

Mu/db2

Ra+

39561

12 4.75 2

146.12 lb-in/in2

0.0028

As

0.0028 12 4.75

0.16 in2

#3 @ 8 C/C

As

0.17

Ra

63950

12 4.75 2

236.19 lb-in/in2

0.0047

As

0.268 in2

# 3 @ 4 C/C

13,187

57

=

0.29 in2

4.25 in

Rb+

18925

12 4.25 2

87.3 lb-in/in2

0.0018

As

0.0918 in2

As

LONG SPAN

#3 @ 10 C/C

As

0.13 in2

Rb

29665

12 4.25 2

136.86 lb-in/in2

0.0028

As

0.143 in2

# 3 @ 9 C/C

58

SLAB PANEL S2 :

One way slab panel

16-6x 8

Wul 2

24

257 8 2 12

24

M+

8,224 lb-in

16448 l

16448

12 4.75 2

60.75

min

As

0.11 in2

M+

0.0018

# 3 @ 10 C/C

+ve Steel

As

0.13 in2

#3 @ 10 C/C

DISTRIBUTION STEEL

As

0.0018 12 4.25

0.092 in2

# 3 @ 14 C/C

As

0.094 in2

59

Slab Panel S3 :

m

WuDL =

0.85

161 psf

16-6x14

Wu LL =

96 psf

Wu

257 psf

MOMENTS

Ma+DL =

11739 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.041 96 142 12 =

9258 lb-in

Ma+

20997 lb-in

Ma

Mb+DL =

0.011 1 16.52 12 =

5786 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.019 96 16.52 12

Mb+

11745 lb-in

STEEL

SHORT SPAN

=

20997

12 4.75 2

77.55 lb-in/in2

0.0018

As

0.10 in2

Ra+

#3 @ 10 C/C

49,566 lb-in

5,959 lb-in

60

Ra

49566

12 4.75 2

0.0036

As

0.205 in2

183 lb-in/in2

SHORT SPAN

# 3 @ 6 C/C

LONG SPAN

# 3 @ 10 C/C

SLAB PANEL S4

0.55

Wu

2.57 psf

12-6x 22-6

WuDL =

161 psf

WuLL =

96 psf

MOMENTS

Ma+DL =

11471 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.063 96 12.52 12

11340 lb-in

Ma+

22812 lb-in

Ma

42887 lb-in

61

STEEL

SHORT SPAN

Ra

42887

12 4.75 2

0.003

As

0.171 in2

158.4 lb-in/in2

#3 @ 7 C/C

LONG DIRECTION

+ve steel # 3 @ 10 C/C

SLAB PANEL S5 :

m

12-6x 14

0.90

MOMENTS

Ma+DL =

7547 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.035 96 12.52 12

6300 lb-in

Ma+

13842 lb-in

Ma

Mb+DL =

9088 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.027 96 142 12 =

6096 lb-in

Ma+

15185 lb-in

Ma

42313 lb-in

62

STEEL

SHORT SPAN

Rb

42313

12 4.75 2

0.0030

As

0.153 in2

156.3 lb-in/in2

#3 @ 8 C/C

S 6:

TWO WAY SLAB:

LOADING:

DEAD LOAD:

S6

12 x 12

Wt of slab

Perimeter

180

12 4

180

3.2

In this zone one slab have dimensions 16.5 16.5 taking that slab critical

h

Wt. of slab

16.5 4

180

4.4

5/12 150

62.5 lb/sq ft

63

4 earth filling =

Total dead load

4/12 120

15 lb/sq ft

625 + 40 + 15

117.5 lb/sq ft

335 lb/sq ft

LIVE LOAD

100 lb sq ft

FACTORED LOAD

Wu

1.4 WD + 1.7 WL

La/Lb

M Ubve =

=

0.071 WL2b

0.07 1 335 122 12

41,101 lb-in

7675 lb-in

POSITIVE MOMENTS

La SPAN

M U+dlve =

=

M a+lLve =

=

0.027 WL2a

0.027 164.5 122 12

0.032 WL2a

0.032 170 122 12

M a+lLve =

9400 lb-in

M a+ ve =

7675 + 9400 =

17,075 lb-in

64

Lb SPAN

M b+ ve dl =

=

M b+ ve lL =

=

M b+ ve =

0.033 164.5 122 12

9381 lb in

10282 lb in

0.035 170 122 12

9381 + 10282 =

19663 lb-in

REINFORCEMENT

Lb span

POSITIVE MOMENT

h

5-0.75-0.25 ( = # 4 bar)

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

fy

0.85 fc'

2 19663

2

0.85 3000

1 1 0.9 12 4

4000

0.85 3000

0.0029

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

# 4 bars @ 12 C/C

0.0029 12 4

65

S max

So

2h =

15

3 5

S < S max OK

SHEAR CHECK

=

1.15 335 12

5

335

2

12

2172 lbs

Vc= 2 fc bd ,= 2 3000 12 5

6573 lbs

Vc

0.85 6573

So

Vu > Vc

Vu

Vn

5586 lbs

OK

Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

Mu

41,101 lb-in

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.00625

As

bd

As

0.200 in2

SPACING

# 3 bars @ 6 C/C

0.00625 12 4

66

La SPAN

=

4 of bars

4 0.5

17075 lb-in

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.0033

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

Mu

3.5

0.0033 12 3.5

# 3 bars @ 9 C/C

S7:

Two way slab :

LOADING

=

117.5 lb/sq ft

Wu dL =

164.5 lb/sq ft

WdL

100 lb/sq ft

Wu LL =

170 lb/sq ft

Wu

335 lb/sq ft

WlL

12 x 12

Lb

La

67

MOMENTS

La SPAN

M b+ ve dl =

=

M b+ ve lL =

0.018 164.5 122 12

5117 lb in

7932 lb in

0.027 170 122 12

M b+ ve =

7932 + 5117 =

Ma

13049 lb-in

Lb SPAN

M b+ ve dl =

=

M b+ ve lL =

0.027 164.5 122 12

7675 lb in

9400 lb in

0.032 170 122 12

M b+ ve =

7675 + 9400 =

Ma

0.076 Wu lb2

REINFORCEMENTS

Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

Mu

41,101 lb-in

17075 lb-in

43995 lb-in

68

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.00625

As

bd

As

0.300 in2

0.00625 12 4

3.5

SPACING

# 4 bars @ 7.5 C/C

La SPAN

=

4 of bars

4 0.5

17075 lb-in

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.0033

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

Mu

SPACING

# 4 bars @ 12 C/C

0.0033 12 3.5

69

Ve MOMENTS

Lb SPAN

Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.00672

As

bd

As

0.322 in2

0.00627 12 4

SPACING

# 4 bars @ 7 C/C

S8:

Two way slab :

Size Of slab = 16.5 X 16.5

LOADING

16.5 x 16.5

2

WdL

117.5 lb/ft

WlL

100 lb/ft2

Wu dL =

164.5 lb/sq ft

Wu LL =

170 lb/sq ft

WU

335 lb/sq ft

Lb

La

70

ve MOMENTS:

La SPAN

M a ve =

0.018 WU La2

M a ve =

54722 lb in

Lb SPAN

M b ve =

54722 lb-in

REINFORCEMENT

+ ve MOMENTS

Lb SPAN

0.00478

As

0.229 in2

# 4 @ 9 C/C

La SPAN

3.5

Mu

31812 lb-in

0.00632

As

0.265 in2

# 4 @ 8 C/C

71

ve MOMENTS

Lb SPAN

Mu

54722 lb-in

0.00848

As

0.407 in2

# 4 @ 5 C/C

As

0.43 in2

La SPAN

3.5

Mu

54722 lb in

0.0113

As

0.476 in2

# 4 @ 5 C/C

As

0.47 in2

S8a:

La

12

Lb

16

12/16

0.75

Slab thickness =

(12 + 16) 2

180

12 x 16.5

La

=

Lb

72

MuLL =

102 psf

Wu DL =

1.2 127.8

Wu

280.5 psf

(60 1.6)

=

178.5 psf

Ma+DL =

13300 lb in

Ma+LL =

9165 lb in lb in

Ma

369.3 lb in

Mb+DL =

7149 lb in

Mb+LL =

5013.5 lb in

Mb

20718 lb in

REINFORCEMENT

SHORT SPAN

+ve STEEL

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.00196

As

bd

As

0.1 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve STEEL

Ma

369093

0.00328

0.00196 12 5

73

As

0.167 in2

# 3 @ 8 C/C

LONG SPAN

M+b

12163

0.00136

# 3 @ 10 C/C

Ve MOMENTS

Mb

20718

0.00233

As

0.105 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

S9:

Span =

12-9 15 9

0.8

Slab thickness =

wt

12.75 x 15.75

5.5

69 psf

=

1 .5 + 5

120

12

La

65 psf

Wu DL

Wu LL

102 psf

1876 psf

Lb

74

MOMENTS

SHORT SPAN

Ma+DL =

14303 lb in

Ma+LL =

9551 lb in

Ma

40166 lb in

Mb+DL =

8954 lb in

Mb+LL =

12

6072.6 lb in

Mb

12

25035 lb in

LONG SPAN

REINFORCEMENT

SHORT SPAN (+ve STEEL)

0.85 fc'

2Mu / bd 2

1 1

0.85 fc'

fy

0.00196

As

bd

As

0.1 in2

0.00196 12 5

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve STEEL

Ma

40166 lb in

0.00284

As

0.162 in2

( # 3 @ 8 C/C )

75

LONG SPAN

Mb+

15027 lb in

0.0013

As

0.066

# 3 @ 10 C/C

Mbv

25035 lb-in

0.0022

As

0.11 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

S10:

Size

27 14

Depth =

5.5

0.518

WuDL =

188 psf

WuLL =

102psf

Wu

290 psf

27x14

Lb

MOMENT

SHORT SPAN

Ma+DL

17245

La

76

Ma+LL

Ma+

31639 lb in

Ma

Mb+DL

14394

61387 lb-in

1644 lb-in

Mb+LL

3568 lb-in

Mb+

0 lb in

LONG SPAN

STEEL

SHORT SPAN

Ma+

31639 lb-in

0.0022

As

0.126 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve STEEL

Ma

61387

0.0044

As

0.252 in2

# 3 @ 5 C/C

77

S11 :

Size of panel = 13 27 ft

One way slab

13x 27

Slab thickness = 6 inch

Total dead load on slab = 75 + 6.5/12 120

= 140 lbs / sq. ft

Live load

= 80 PSF

M+=

9

WL2 = (9/128) 332 13 2 12 = 47341 lb-in

128

M-=

WL2

= 332 13 2 12 /8 = 84162 lb-in

8

STEEL CALCULATIONS :

MAIN STEEL :

R+ =

47341

= 143.13 ib-in /in3

2

12 5.25

0.0028

As

0.176 in2

# 4 @ 10 C/C

R-=

84162

= 254.46 lb-in /in3

2

12 5.25

0.005

As

0.315 in2

( # 4 @ 7 C/C )

78

TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE REINFORCEMENT :

0.0018

As

0.1134 in2

Size

12 9 16 6

0.77

( # 3 @ 10 C/C )

SB1:

16.5x12.75

lb

SHORT SPAN

+ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve steel

# 3 @ 8 C/C

LONG SPAN

+ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

Size of slab = 60 78

m

60

78

21.5 in.

self weight

132 psf

0.77

la

79

2

140

12

23.5 psf

187 psf

Live load

100 psf

WDL

WLL

100 1.6

160 psf

Wu

347 psf

Ma+DL+LL

Ma+

884434 lb-in

Ma

Mb+DL+LL

Mb+

532010 lb-in

Mb

MOMENTS

STEEL

SHORT SPAN

=

42313

12 212

159.44 lb-in/in3

0.0030

Asa

0.774 in2

Ra+

884434 lb-in

532010 lb-in

80

Rb+

42313

12 212

0.0019

Asb

0.49 in2

95.9 lb-in/in3

STEEL IN RIBS :

SHORT SPAN :

Total steel for one rib = 3 Asa

2 # 8 + 2 # 6 bars

LONG SPAN :

Total steel for one rib = 3 Asb

2 # 8 bars

Check for shear :

Wu for 3 ft width of panel

347 3

1041 lbs

SHORT SPAN:

Distribution of load in short direction

73 %

Vu

1041 0.73 60 2 =

22,797.9 lbs

Vc

0.75 2 fc bd

0.75 2 3000 12 21

14131 lbs

Vu Vc

8667 lbs

81

Max spacing for shear reinforcement:

1. 24 in.

2. d / 2

3.

AV f y

10.5 in.

50bw

Vu Vc

0.22 40,000

=

50 8

16.5 in.

Av f y d

S

8867

16 in.

Sec. 1-1 :

Number of risers

10

(7.5 each)

Number of treads

(11 each )

Width of landing

Clear span

4 + 9 11 / 12

Effective span =

12.25 + 0.5

LOAD CALCULATIONS:

LANDING :

L.L.

100 lb /ft2

12.25 ft

5 in.

=

12.75 ft

82

Dead loads:

=

62.5 lb/ft2

Floor finish

Wu

247 lb/ft2

Slab weight

5/12 150

10 lb/ft2

STEPS :

62.5 1.216 =

76 lb/ft2

7.5 11

12

150

2 144

11

Wu

Taking Wu

47 lb/ft2

10 lb/ft2

Floor finish

=

R2 + T 2

T

320 lb/ft2

MOMENTS:

Mu+

W uL2

24

2167 lb-ft

Mu-

W uL2

12

4334 lb-ft

136 lb in/in3

Depth of slab =

5 in.

4 in.

12 in.

Ra+

2167 12

12 4 2

83

0.0028

As+

0.134 in2

Ra-

4334 12

12 4 2

0.0056

As+

0.27 in2

( # 3 @ 9 C/C )

=

271 lb in/in3

(# 3@ 9 C/C )

DISTRIBUTION STEEL :

=

0.0018 12 5

0.108 in2

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Sec. 2-2 :

Number of risers

10

(7.5 each)

Number of treads

(11 each )

Width of landing

Clear span

4 + 4 + 9 11 / 12

Effective span =

16.25 + 0.5

5 in.

=

16.75 ft

62.5 lb/ft2

LOAD CALCULATIONS:

LANDING :

L.L.

100 lb /ft2

Dead loads:

Slab weight

5/12 150

16.25 ft

84

10 lb/ft2

Floor finish

Wu

247 lb/ft2

STEPS :

62.5 1.216 =

76 lb/ft2

7.5 11

12

150

2 144

11

Wu

Taking Wu

47 lb/ft2

10 lb/ft2

Floor finish

=

R2 + T 2

T

320 lb/ft2

MOMENTS:

Mu+

W uL2

24

3741 lb-ft

Mu-

W uL2

12

7482 lb-ft

234 in/in3

Depth of slab =

5 in.

4 in.

12 in.

Ra+

3741 12

12 4 2

0.0048

As+

0.23 in2

85

# 4 @ 10 C/C

Ra-

7482 12

12 4 2

0.0096

As+

0.46 in2

467 lb in/in3

# 4@ 5 C/C

DISTRIBUTION STEEL :

=

0.0018 12 5

# 3 @ 12 C/C

0.108 in2

96

CHAPTER 5

DESIGN OF BEAMS

41.7 k

BEAM B-1:

40.57 k

2.57 k/ft

Span =

51.3 k

50.7 k

60

21

=

at slab

Wu =

51.3 k

58

218.54 k

Wu

50.7 k

60

257 PSF

2.57 k / ft

21

M+

RN

Mu +

bd 2

699 lb-in/in3

.016

As

bd

18.48in2

19#9 bars

(As

218.54 k

Three layers are provided

19in2 )

97

Vc

Vu

0.75 2 3000 21 55

47.5 Kips.

218.54 kips

Vu at distance d

206.76 kips

=

d/2

AV f y

50bw

55/2

24

7.5

27

BEAM B-2:

6.95 k/ft

Span = 30 ft

M

RN

12.9 k

1.17 k/ft

wl 2

8

3.6 30 2

8

405 k-ft

Mu

bd 2

889 lb-in/in3

51.3 k

12.9 k

30

51.3 k

30

15

98

0.0182

M+

3.72 30 2

8

419 k.ft

RN

646.2

0.014

As = 5.04 in2

12 # 6 bars

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vc = 0.75 2 3000 15 27

Vu

37.7 kips

57 kips

Vu at dist d

=

Vu Vc

57 1.125

55.875 kips

=

18.175 Kips

=

d/2

Vu Vc =

AV f y

50bw

27/2

Av f y d

S

24

.22 40,000

50 27

13.5

= 11.73 = 11

99

= 11.11

18.175

So 12 # 3 @ 11 C/C + 5 # 3 @ 18 C/C

BEAM B-3 :

4.51 k/ft

Span

22.5

50.74 k

21

15

Dead load

Wt

21

151 16

2576 lb/ft

21"15"

150

11 14

328 lb/ft

328 1.2

15

394 lb/ft

Total DL

Wu lL =

2970 lb/ft

Live load

Wu DL =

9616

Wu

4506 lb/ft

4506 22.5 2 12

8

3421744 lb/ft

3421744

15 192

50.74 k

1536 lb/ft

100

=

631.9 lb in/in2

0.0138

As

3.93 in2

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

Vu at d

Vc

50692 lb

50692 4506

43558

26537

Vu - Vc

Smax

Avfy

50bw

19

12

43506 26537

17021 lbs

11.25 284

8.38-4

d/2

24

17.6

17021

12.52

9.5

( 11 bars @ 9 C/C )

101

BEAM B-4

Span

22.5

21

Dead load

Live load

3.61 k/ft

40.61 k

15

=

161 12.5

2012.5 lb/ft

96 12.5

1200 lb/ft

=

3606 lb/ft

3606 22.5 2 12

8

2738306 lb/ft

2738306

15 19 2

505.69 lb in/in2

0.011

As

3.13 in2

Wu

22.5

40.61 k

21

12

102

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

Vu at d

Vc

40568 lb

40568 5709.5

34859 lbs

26537

Vu - Vc

34859 26587

8322 lbs

8322

25.6

# 3bars @ 9 C/C

Vc

2

26537

2

13268

11.25

13268

405.68

3.68

1.78 k/ft

BEAM B-5:

Span =

12.91 k

14.5

12.91 k

14.5

12

12

103

Self weight =

Wu

RN

As

Wl2/8

1780 14.52/8

Mu +

bd 2

46.8 12000

0.9 9 10.5 2

627 lb-in/in2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

1.22in2

(As

627

779.3

46.8 k-ft

= 0.013

1.32in2 )

Vc

135 lb/ft

1780 lb/ft

3#6 bars

257 PSF

1644 + 135 =

M+

8.8 Kips.

104

Vu

1967 14.5/2

14.3 kip

Vu at distance d

14.3-1.97 0.88

=

d/2

Vu Vc

Vu

=

=

AV f y

50bw

10.5/2

12.6 kips

24

.22 40,000

50 9

= 19

5.25

= 5

Av f y d

S

10

7.85cm

16.65 kip

1.98 k/ft

BEAM B-6:

16.34 k

Span =

16.5

15

16.5

16.34 k

15

105

Self weight =

Wu

257 PSF

1644 + 169 =

M+

1813 lb/ft

wl2/8 =

61.69 k-ft

RN

Mu

bd 2

0.0112

As

1.37 in2

1813 16.5 2

8

548 lb-in/in3

4 # 6 bars

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

11.31 kips

16.3 kips

Vu at dist d

=

14.07 kips

Max spacing =

Vu Vc

Av f y d

S

169 lb/ft

106

Vu

6

16.83 + 11.31

28.14 kips

16.5

BEAM B-7

15

Span = 16.5

7 2.5 + 78 + 4 4 + 8.5 4

116.5 sq-ft

Width of loading

7.06

Dead load

161 706

1130 lb/ft

Live load

96 7.06

678 lb/ft

Self wt

15 4

150

144

140.6 lb/ft

1306 lb/ft

Area of loading

Total D.L.

Wu

1306 + 678

1984 16.5 2 12

8

1984 lb/ft

107

=

6751812

810216 lb-in

810216

9 13 2

532.68

0.0113

As

0.0113 9 13

1.32 in2

3 # 6 bars

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

Vc

16.5

12

1984

16368 lbs

16368-1984

13883 lbs

0.75

10894 lbs

Vu Vc

5.48

d/2

6-5

15

12

3000 9 13

2994 lbs

108

BEAM B-8

1.25 k/ft

Wl2

320 k-ft

M+

22.85 k.ft

32 k.ft

20 k.ft

RN

32 12000

12 13.5 2

0.004

As

0.648 in2

16

12.5

12.5

15

12

189.34 lb-in/in3

2# 6 bars

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

Vc =

115k

0.75 2 3000 12 13.5

Av f y

50bw

.22 40,000

50 12

#3 @ 12 C/C

15

14.66

15K. =

7.5 K

109

1.25 k/ft

BEAM B-9

22.5

Mu

bd 2

1.66 12000

=

15 13.5 2

.017

As

3.44in2

max RNmax

ve

7# 6 bars

+ve

7# 6 bars

+ve

2# 6 bars

RN

14

15

Vc

0.75 2 3000 15 16 =

Vu

SPACING

(i)

24

(ii)

Avfy/50 bw

(iii)

d/2 =

=

9

Av f y d

S

11

22.5

17.5

729 lb-in/in3

Vu Vc

22.31 cm

110

Vu

9"

35.6 Kips

13.31 Kips

15@6 + 13@ 9 C/C + 3@ 12 C/C

BEAM B-10

Span =

12

Span

18.5

15

9

Self weight =

9 15

150

144

Live load

80 lb/ft

15

14012 +141

Wu

18211.2 +80121.6

M+

WL2/14

3721 12 2

12

14

M-interior

M-exterior

140.6 lb/ft

Wl2/9

3721 12 2

12

9

WL2/16

1821 lb/ft

3721 lb/ft

459,278 lb-in

714,432 lb-in

111

3721 12 2

12

16

401,868 lb-in

Steel :

=

Mu +

bd 2

459,278

9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

0.70 in2

2 # 6 bars

(As

0.88 in2 )

RN-interior

Mu

bd 2

RN+

As

280

779.3

280 lb-in/in2

= 0.0057

714,432

9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

1.087 in2

3 # 6 bars

(As

1.32 in2 )

RN-exterior

Mu

bd 2

As

435.6

779.3

435.6 lb-in/in2

= 0.00894

112

As

401,868

9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

0.61 in2

(As

0.88 in2 )

2 # 6 bars

245 lb-in/in2

245

779.3

= 0.00503

Vc

Vu

9.98 Kips.

3721 12 / 2

22.33 kips

Vu at distance d

22.33-3.721 13.5/12

=

AV f y

50bw

24

.22 40,000

50 9

d/2

13.5 / 2

Av f y d

Vu - Vc

8.16 10 3

10.92 in

= 6.75

= 19

6.5

18.14 kips

113

Vu

16.65 kip

12 # 3 @ 6 C/C + 3 # 3@ 12 C/C

2493 lb/ ft

BEAM B-11

16.5 ft

Span =

16.5

12

12

Self weight =

Wu

257 PSF

2313 + 180 =

M+

12

2493 lb/ft

wl /8 =

84.84 k-ft

RN

Mu

bd 2

0.016

As

2.0 in2

5 # 6 bars

2493 16.5 2

8

770 lb-in/in3

180 lb/ft

12

114

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu

10.31 kips

20.57 kips

Vu at dist d

=

18.39 kips

Max spacing =

Vu Vc

Vu

5.25

Av f y d

S

5 .0

13.86 + 10.31

# 3 @ 5 C/C

BEAM B-12

Span =

16

15

Self weight =

Wu

10.86 k

.78 k/ft

16

11.67 k

11.67 k

15

9

(140 lb/ft) 1.2

257 PSF

170lb/ft

115

585+ 170

M1+ =

Wl2/8

780 lb/ft

780 162/8 =

25 k-ft

M2+ = PL/4

= 10.86 k x 16 / 4 =

4.34 k-ft

M+ = 29.34 k-ft

RN

Mu +

bd 2

29.34 x 12000

174

.9 x 9 x 13.52

174 lb-in/in2

0.0036

As

bd

.43 in2

2#6 bars

(As

.88 in2 )

Vc

Vu

9.98 Kips.

11.67 Kips

116

Vu at distance d

11.67-1.125 0.78 =

AV f y

=

d/2

Vu Vc

50bw

24

.22 40,000

50 9

13.5/2

Av f y d

.82 kips

= 19

( #3 @ 7 C/C )

BEAM B-13

11.67 k

Span =

27

21

12

800 + 320

257 PSF

=

Mu +

bd 2

212.05 x 12000

12 x 19.52

558 lb-in/in2

.0114

320 lb/ft

12

1120 lb/ft

32.2 k

21

M+ = 212.05 k-ft

RN

27

32.2 k

Self weight =

Wu

11.67 k

10.86 k

1.12 k/ft

558

117

As

bd

2.68 in2

7#6 bars

(As

3.08 in2 )

Vc

Vu

19.2 Kips.

32.22 Kips

Vu at distance d

11.67-1.625 1.12 =

=

d/2

Vu Vc

=

=

AV f y

50bw

19.5/2

Av f y d

S

24

.22 40,000

50 9

30.4 kips

= 14

= 14 .3 kips

#3 @ 9 C/C

118

CHAPTER 6

DESIGN OF COLUMNS AND RETAINING WALL

6.1. COLUMNS

Column C-1:

Pu

222 kips

Mu

151 kip-ft

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

18 x 18 in.

Pu

222

=

= 0.685

Ag 18 18

Mu

151 12

=

= 0.311

Ag h 18 18 18

=

h 2d 18 5

=

= 0.72

h

18

# 3 @ 12 C/C

g

0.01

As

3.24 in2

8 # 6 bars

(As =

12 #6

bars

3.52 in2 )

Stirrups Design :

Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

18

119

Spacing Min. of the followings :

1.

12

2.

18

3.

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

Column C-2:

Pu

41 kips

Mu

61 kip-ft

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

18 x 18 in.

Pu

41

=

= 0.127

Ag 18 18

Mu

61 12

=

= 0.126

Ag h 18 18 18

=

h 2d 18 5

=

= 0.72

18

h

# 3 @ 12 C/C

g

0.01

As

3.24 in2

12 #6

bars

120

8 # 6 bars

(As =

3.52 in2 )

18

Stirrups Design :

Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

4.

12

5.

18

6.

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

Column C-3:

Pu

41 kips

Mu

61 kip-ft

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

Pu

41

=

= 0.182

Ag 15 15

15 x 15 in.

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Mu

61 12

=

= 0.217

Ag h 15 15 15

=

h 2d 15 4

=

= 0.73

15

h

15

8 #6

bars

121

From the Column Interaction Diagram (A-7)

g

0.01

As

2.25 in2

6 # 6 bars

(As =

3.52 in2 )

STIRRUPS DESIGN

Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

7.

12

8.

18

9.

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

FOOTING F-1:

Pu

222 Kips

Mu

151 Kip-ft

Depth of footing

5 ft

Height of footing

2 ft

Pn

160 Kips

Bearing capacity(qall) =

qnet

(assuming)

3360 120 x 5

3360 lbs/ft2

122

Area of footing

Pn

q net

Size of footing

8 8 ft

qreq

Pn M y

+

A

I

qreq

160 1000

58 sq. ft

2760

160 1000 150 1000 4 12

+

64

8 83

A

9 x 9 ft

qreq

+

81

9 93

qreq

qreq

<

qall.

O.K.

=

=

A

81 12 12

qind.

20.56 psi

One-way shear :

d

20.5 in.

qind.

3.75 ft

d

2.04 ft

18

2.96 Kip / ft

=2.961000(3.75 - 20 / 12) 9

=

54,000 lbs

Shear capacity

Vc

0.75 2 3000 12 20 9

10

18

A

= 182,000 lbs

Vu > Vc

O.K.

A

9

123

20.5 in.

bo

(18+10+10)x4

152 in.

Vu

qind.x (A-A)

Vu

2.96 x (92-382/144)

Vu

236.3 Kips

Vc

1000

Vc

512 Kips

Vu > Vc

O.K.

Mu

qind . 3.75 2

9

2

As

Mu

0.9 f y (0.9d )

2.96 3.75 2

9

2

=

187.3 12000

0.9 60,000 0.9 20.5

2.26 in2

12 # 4 bars Both ways

FOOTING F-2:

Pu

41 Kips

Mu

61 Kip-ft

Depth of footing

5 ft

Height of footing

1.5 ft (assuming)

Pn

30 Kips

Bearing capacity(qall) =

qnet

3360 120 x 5

187.3 Kip-ft.

3360 lbs/ft2

124

Area of footing

Pn

q net

Size of footing

3.5 3.5 ft

qreq

Pn M y

+

A

I

qreq

30 1000

11 sq. ft

2760

+

12.25

3 . 5 3 .5 3

A

5.5 x 5.5 ft

qreq

+

30.25

5 .5 5 .5 3

qreq

qreq

<

qall.

O.K.

Pu 1.5 30 1000

=

=

A

30.25

One-way shear :

2.125 ft

d

0.96 ft

15

14 in.

qind.

18

1.488 Kip / ft

=1.48810000.965.5

=

7,856 lbs

Shear capacity

Vc

= 75,914 lbs

Vu > Vc

O.K.

15

A

d

20.5 in.

bo

(15+7+7)x4

A

5.5

5.5

125

116 in.

Vu

qind.x (A-A)

Vu

1.488 x (5.52-292/144)

Vu

36.32 Kips

Vc

1000

Vc

266.85 Kips

Vu > Vc

O.K.

Mu

qind . 2.125 2

5.5

2

As

Mu

0.9 f y (0.9d )

0.33 in2

1.488 2.125 2

5.5 =

2

=

18.5 12000

0.9 60,000 0.9 14

1.664 in2

=

0.0018 5.5 12 14

18.5 Kip-ft.

126

9

2

G.L.

10

12

12

WEIGHTS

1

Central Stem =

1350.0 lbs

Base Slab

862.5 lbs

Back Fill

1200.0 lbs

3412.5 lbs

Total Weight

PRESSURE FORCES:

1

=2420.0 lbs

=180.0 lbs

Overturning Moment =

Mo

H(i)xY(i) Lb-ft

2420.0 x 3.667

Wi Xi lb-ft

1350.0 4.375

5906 lb-ft

862.5 2.875

2480 lb-ft

1200.0 x 5.250

6300 lb-ft

8873 lb-ft

127

Total Moment

F.O.S. vs OVERTURNING =

14686 lb-ft

14686 / 8873 =

1.66

Safety vs SLIDING :

(In this case sliding is not critical as there is load coming on the wall from the top)

SO NO NEED OF CHECK FOR SLIDING

Safety vs BEARING :

X

(MR Mo ) / W

3412.5 x (2.875-1.703)

5.75 ft2

5.752 / 6

P/AM/Z

pH

-132 lb/ft2

pT

1319 lb/ft2

1.703 ft

3412.5 lbs

3998 lb-ft

5.51 ft3

pH

PT

5.75 ft

As Pressure at heel is Negative so modifying the pressure at toe we have

pT

2/3W/X

(2/3) 3412.5 / 1.703

FOS vs BEARING

3360/1336

1336 lb/ft2

2.52

128

MOMENTS AND SHEARS IN WALL ELEMENTS

1.7 x (2000.00 x ( 9.542 / 10.0)2 )

3095 lbs

Stem Moment =

11333 lb-ft

Heel Shear

1.4 x 150

Stem Shear

Heel Moment =

1890 lbs

1890x1.00/2 =

945 lb-ft

TOE STRESSES:

Pressure Under Toe

5.75 ft

1336 lb/ft2

290 lb/ft2

Shear at Junction

Toe Moment =

1336

4988 lbs

1.7x2671x2.667+1.7x580x1.333-0.9x600x2.0 =

12345 lb-ft

Shear at Critical Section (Vu)

3095 lbs

Vertical Steels for Stem :

Earth Side

# 4 @ 4 C/C

Exposed Side =

0.5x0.0015x 12x9.0 =

# 3 @ 9 C/C

129

Horizontal Steels for Stem :

=

# 3 @ 9 C/C

DESIGN FOR STEELS IN BASE SLAB :

Shear Capacity of Section

4734 lbs

Main Steel for Heel (Top Face)

Designed on Minimum Steel Ratio (Beam)

0.22 Sq in/ft;

(Min 3 in Cover)

# 4 @ 9 C/C

Main Steel for Toe (Bottom Face) :

Designed on Minimum Steel Ratio (Beam)

0.34 Sq in/ft;

(Min 3 in Cover)

# 4 @ 6 C/C

=

0.0018x12x12.0

# 4 @ 9 C/C

9498 lbs

130

CHAPTER 7

DESIGN OF DOMES AND MINARET

DOME-1

Diameter of Dome =

d2/2

30 ft

=

4/12 150

Total load on dome =

1413.7 sq. ft

4 in.

=

50 psf

108 psf

30 psf

501.2 +301.6

1

1 cos

N = W r

= Wr

2

sin

1 + Cos

1 cos cos 2

T = W r

sin 2

AT CROWN

T

Wr

0.510815 =

810 lbs

Wr =

10815

=1

620 lbs

N

fy 0.7

AT BASE

T

STEEL AREA

fy

40,000 psi

AsT

131

AsT

1620

=

40,000 0.7

0.058 in2

0.058 in2

AsN

3 4 =

12 in.

Providing As

0.15 in2

.O.K.

NOTE : As provided is very larger than the area required ( 3 times more ) so

curtailment can be done appropriately, then check for capacity.

TANGENTIAL STEEL

Number of bars at base

At

126 ( #3 @ 9 C/C )

868 lbs

30 :

1 cos 30

N = 108 15

2

sin 30

As

868

=

40,000 0.7

0.031 in2

Total circumference at 30 =

d1 =

16

Spacing provided

47/16 12

47 ft

36 in.

At

60

1 cos 60

N = 108 15

2

sin 60

1080 lbs

As = 0.039 in2

REQUIRED SPACING # 3 @ 34 C/C

Total circumference at 60 =

d2 =

81.62 ft

132

Spacing provided

32

47/16 12

30 in.

Cut lengths for Tangential Steel :

Diameter of bars

3/8 in.

16 bars

23.56 ft

16 bars

17 ft

32 bars

9.16 ft

63 bars

4 ft

HORIZONTAL STEEL

60 :

1 cos 60 cos 2 60

T = 1620

sin 2 60

As Required =

0.019 in2

Spacing required

# 3 bars @ 65 C/C

Providing # 3 @ 18 C/C

30 :

16

32

63

126

540 lbs

55 25

75

90

133

DOME-2

Diameter of dome

14 ft

Thickness of dome =

4 in.

TANGENTIAL STEEL :

Providing the same steel as in the DOME-1

At the base of dome

# 3 @ 9 C/C

55 :

Total bars

25 :

Total bars

14 12 / 9 =

75 :

Total bars

=

32

16

8

Diameter of bars

3/8 in.

8 bars

12.56 ft

8 bars

9.1 ft

16 bars

6.3 ft

32 bars

2.5 ft

9

HORIZONTAL STEEL :

60 :

17

90 :

30 :

34

68

55 25

75

90

64

134

9 ft

Basic wind speed = 100 miles / hr

qs

25.6 psf

Total q

Wu

(Table .)

=

40.5 9

364.5 lb/ft

40.5 PSF

9 ft

364.5 1.3

473.85 lb/ft

WuL / 2

28431 Kip-in.

3402,756 in4

I/y

21

3402,756 / (3.625 12 )

78,224 in3

M/S =

364 psi

Pu

=f A =

W L2 /10

(473.852) 102 12 / 10 =

=

=

364 21 21

160.28

Kips

Mu

28.43 Kip-in.

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Pu 160.28

=

= 0.83

Ag 21 21

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Mu

28.43

=

= 0.0033

Ag h 21 21 21

h 2d 17

=

= 0.8

h

21

12 #6

bars

g

0.01

As

4.41 in2

21

135

12 # 6 bars

(As

5.28 in2 )

T

0.75 As fy

21

Pu

O.K.

STIRRUPS DESIGN

Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

1. 16 times Diameter of longitudinal bars

12

18

21

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

Weight of walls between the columns

W1

103,500 lbs =

103.5 Kips

1000

211.3 Kips

Kips

Total Weight =

339.6 Kips

Total Including Fill =

Mu

15 (8.6252 100 ) =

111.6 Kips

451.2 Kips

28,431 Kip-in.

Bearing capacity

Area of footing

451.2 1000

140 sq. ft

23.33 144

Size of footing

15 15 ft

23.33 Psi

136

24 in.

=

A

225 12 12

qs

Over turning moment

28,431 Kip-in.

Restoring moments:

Weight above footing

667.2 Kips

6507.512

58500 Kip-in

( F.O.S.

2.05 )

of passive earth pressure.

Bearing Stress

FP

Pu M

A S

15

3 ft

17/3

2 ft

9 ft

15 ft

16.7 psi

137

B 3 15 3

=

12 3

6

6

972,000 in3

Taking one-third of the passive pressure force due to filling

Fp

Cp 0.5soilh2L0.33

30.5100172150.33

216,750 lbs =

216.75 Kips

Mp

216.75 17 / 3 12 =

Net moment =

M u - Mp

Bearing Stress

14739 Kip-in

28431 14739

13692 Kip-in

972,000

15 2 12 2

12.5714.08

As one value is negative and positive value is greater than B.C. of soil so

Taking greater area of foundation

Size of foundation =

S

1818 ft

B 3 18 3

=

12 3

6

6

Bearing Stress

3359232 in3

3359232

18 2 12 2

11.394.07

F.O.S =

23.3

=

11.93 + 4.07

1.45

1.5

O.K.

One-way shear :

d

4.5ft

d

20 in.

new value of qs

=

=

=

A

18 2 12 2

11.6 psi

1.671 Kip / ft

138

qs

=

Shear capacity

1.671000(4.5-20/12)

4731 lbs

Vc =

0.75 2 3000 12 20

= 19,718 lbs

Vu > Vc

O.K.

Mu

W L2

2

1.671 4.5 2

12

2

203.02 Kip-in.

Mu

203.02 1000

12 20 2

0.0018

As R < Rmin

bd

so = min

As = 0.0018 12 20

0.432 in2

139

CHAPTER 9

CONCLUSIONS

There were many options in the selection of different members of the

structure.

Three types of slabs are provided in the design according to the conditions

prevailing. These are one-way slab, two-way slab and two-way joist slab.

The two-way joist slab was provided to achieve economy. Other choices

may be waffle slab and flat slab or flat plate in the main hall of basement.

Design of two-way joist slab is similar to the design of T-beam, but the

calculations of bending moments and shear forces are done using the twoway slab bending moment and shear force Coefficients.

Design of stair is similar to the design of one-way slab. The only difference

is the increase in loads due to the inclination of waist slab.

Analysis of beams and columns is done using SAP 2000 and the results are

comparable to the manual calculations.

In most of the cases, reinforcement in domes is negligible so provided

minimum reinforcement.

The thickness of domes varies from base to the crown, 6 inches to 3 inches.

The depth of minaret footing was kept H / 7 below the ground surface to

get the foundation secure against overturning and suppression in bearing

capacity of soil.

Retaining wall is designed carefully, since the moisture present may cause

dampness problem in the basement.

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