Sie sind auf Seite 1von 136

STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF MOSQUE

Designed By

Adnan Riaz

(2001-civil-952)

Muhammad Yousaf

(2001-civil-959)

Adnan Ahmed

(2001-civil-962)

Imran Malghani

(2001-civil-948)

PROJECT ADVISOR

---------------- Prof. Dr. Zahid Ahmed Siddiqi

EXTERNAL EXAMINER ----------------

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY LAHORE

IN THE NAME OF ALLAH,


THE MOST BENEFICENT,
THE MOST MERCIFUL.

Read: In the name of your Lord


Who created, created man from
A clot.

Read: And your Lord is most bounteous.

Who taught by the pen.

Taught man which he did not know.

Al-Quran

DEDICATION
This project is dedicated to
Our beloved parents,
Respected teachers,
And sincere friends.
For their efforts and worthy encouragement.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

All gratitude are due to Almighty Allah most gracious most


merciful, Who is the entire source of all knowledge and wisdom endowed to
mankind and who capacitate us to complete our project.
We are highly indebted to the honorable advisor, Prof. Dr. Zahid
Ahmed Siddiqi for his valuable guidance, and useful suggestion.
Our deepest gratitude to Multi Dimesional Consultants Lahore
who guided us a lot for the successful fulfillment of this task.

Authors

DECLARATION
We hereby declare that we developed this project and this report entirely on
the basis of our personal efforts made under the sincere guidance of our project
supervisor.
It is further declared that no portion of the work presented in this report has
been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification
of this or any other University or institute of learning.
We further declare that this project and all associated documents, reports
and records are submitted as partial requirement for the degree of B.S Civil
Engineering.
We understand and transfer copyrights for these materials to University of
Engineering and Technology Lahore.
Adnan Riaz

(2001-civil-952)

Muhammad Yousaf

(2001-civil-959)

Adnan Ahmed

(2001-civil-962)

Imran Malghani

(2001-civil-948)

Project Advisor
Signature

____________

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page No
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Chapter -1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.1 INTRODUCTON

1.2 SPECIAL MEMBERS IN THE STRUCTURE

1.3 OBJECTIVES

Chapter-2 ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES


2.1 DOMES

2.2 BEAMS

12

2.3 SLABS

26

2.4 COLUMNS

31

2.5 RETAINING WALL

38

2.6 WIND ANALYSIS FOR MINARET DESIGN

44

CHAPTER-3 DESIGN OF SLAB PANELS AND STAIRS


3.1 SLABS

55

3.2 TWO-WAY JOIST SLAB

78

3.3 STAIR DESIGN

81

CHAPTER-4 ANALYSIS OF BEAMS AND COLUMNS


USING SAP 2000
4.1 JOINT REACTIONS

89

4.2 FRAME ELEMENT FORCES

90

CHAPTER-5 DESIGN OF BEAMS

96

CHAPTER-6 DESIGN OF COLUMNS AND


RETAINING WALL
6.1 COLUMN DESIGN

118

6.2 FOOTING DESIGN

121

6.3 RETAINING WALL DESIGN

126

CHAPTER- 7 DOMES AND MINARET


7.1 DESIGN OF DOMES

130

7.2 DESIGN OF MINARET

134

7.3 DESIGN OF FOOTING OF MINARET

135

CHAPTER- 8 DRAWINGS
CHAPTER- 9 CONCLUSIONS
REFRENCES

139

CHAPTER No. 1

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.1 INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 Architectural Consideration of Mosque
Architectural Design is the first step in any constructional work. For a mosque the
architectural consideration should be kept in mind.
Capacity of mosque should be consistent with the community requirements. It
should also depend on the cost of the land in the community that if land is costly the area
may be less and storey # can be increase.2nd thing is the esthetic that should be look like a
mosque. It should be well lit and scene of wideness should be there. There should be
harmony in all the components of the mosque that arches and sofit of the arches should
be of same shapes. Dome should also be of same shape.

1.1.2 Structural Design


Next thing of structural after architectural design is the structural design. This the
actual work of the Civil Engineer. It is starts from top to the bottom. Structural design
mean to make the architectural design feasible to construct and applicable with durability,
reliability, and safety with economy.
For a project the basic objective is the safety and economy and to meet these
requirements side by side a complete systematic procedure is adopted consisting of
following steps.

1.1.3 Proportioning
When architectural works are completed

then proportioning of different

components are made by using guidelines given by codes of practice.

1.1.4 Analysis
From proportioning we get some dimensions of the different components and
from here we can get the dead load. From codes of practice we get live load and we start
analysis in this manner. By using different soft wares or by manual calculations we find
the internal forces due to external loading i.e. the dead and live loading.

1.1.5 Design:
This stage includes determination of most economical and exact sizes,
reinforcements and exact location of reinforcements, According to the requirement of
loads and moments for each component. This is also done by manual calculations or by
using soft wares.

1.1.6 Reanalysis:
Design of structure is a cyclic process so after designing the members we
determine the their nominal capacities and compare it with the requirements of loads and
moments if capacity is less then the applied loading then we change the dimension and
redesign the member. If capacity is more then the applied loads and moments then it is
consider as final design of the member.

1.2 Special Members in the Structure:


1.2.1 DOMES
A member made in the form of a thin shell whose shape is a surface of revolution,
the axis of revolution being vertical is called dome. This type of structure may resist
applied loads by a series of pure tension and compression under certain conditions.

1.2.2 Minarets:
Greenhouses, lath houses, Radio towers and other towers of trussed construction
shall be designed and constructed to withstand wind pressures specified.
For the purpose of wind-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of
the occupancy categories.

1.3 Objectives
1.3.1. To gain knowledge about practical design:
Up to the bachelor level of Engineering, the knowledge about the design of
domes, minarets and two way joist slab was poor but after this project Structural

Design Of Mosque, we found ourselves in a much better and stronger position


for such design.
1.3.2. To Study The Design And Construction Of Domes:
The design of domes is different from design of slabs. Domes are designed
against meridional thrust and tangential stresses. At crown magnitude of each of
the stresses is Wr/2 and at base it is Wr. Meridional steel can be curtailed at
different location according to the magnitude of stresses acting. Tangential
stresses are zero at an angle of

510 48 from the Zenith (crown). Tangential

reinforcement is maximum at base and decreases upward and becomes zero at an


angle of 510 48 from the crown, then again starts increasing. Meridional stresses
are maximum at base and minimum at crown.
1.3.4. To Study The Design And Construction Of Minaret:
The design of minaret is different from simple column design. Two square
minarets are designed, each of size 9ft 9ft. Height of minaret is kept 100 ft each
minaret consist of four columns. Since the wind effect is also there and wind

pressure at the top of minaret is quite high, so we had to provide reinforcement


throughout the column same.
To provide enough stiffness, ring beams are provided at constant spacing
throughout the minaret. Wall panels are provided between columns of minaret.
Footing of minaret is set at the depth of height / 7 from the ground level.
The base slab of footing was designed against overturning, shear and bearing
capacity of soil.
1.3.6. To Study The Design Of Two-Way Joist:
Design of two-way joist is different from simple flat slab, because in this
case depth of slab is reduced and hence economy is achieved, infact by removing
the chunk of concrete from bottom, as steel in joist is enough to bear the tension at
bottom of equivalent flat slab. The joists are designed just like T-beams in both the
directions to provide sufficient stiffness to the slab system. The slab system in
prayer hall of basement is two-way joist.
1.3.7. Preparation Of Structural Drawings:
In the construction phase of any Civil Engineering projects, structural
drawings play an important role. It is easier for the Site Engineer to continue his
work with elaborated drawings. So the drawings must be clear and easy to
understand. Manual drawings are not comparable to the computer aided drawings.
In our project all the structural drawings are prepared using computer software
Auto-CAD. The advantages of using this software are enormous.
The main advantage to us is that we are now well aware of the detailing and
curtailment of reinforcement.

Chapter 2:
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN TECHNIQUES
2.1. Domes
A member made in the form of a thin shell whose shape is a surface of revolution,
the axis of revolution being vertical is called dome. This type of structure may resist
applied loads by a series of pure tension and compression under certain conditions given
below :
1.

That the surface is supported at as horizontal section.

2.

That all loading must be symmetrical about the axis of revolution.


Consider a spherical dome under vertical loads as represented by the fig 2.1. At

the crown dome is carrying a point load F along with its own weight, the surface of dome
is considered to have uniform thickness very less in magnitude compared with other
dimensions.
Let
F

Point load at crown

Self wt per unit area

Thickness of dome (uniform very small)

Radius of the spherical surface

Intensity of direct stress as shown

Intensity of hoop tension or compression (as that of force T)

Fig. 2.1

The dome is supported along the circular perimeter EF of a horizontal crosssection of dome. The direction of supporting force is, by first assumption, tangent to the
surface.

6
Take an annular ring DCKG bounded by two horizontal cross-sections, separately
shown in fig.2.2, the length of ring DC equal to r d and is the angle measured from the
pole or crown to point C. The stresses on the ring are.
1.

A compressive stress N along its upper surface

2.

A compressive stress N + dN along its lower surface

3.

Self wt

4.

Hoop tensile stress T acting perpendicular to the plane of

rd

+ d
Fig. 2.2

paper
The horizontal radius of ring at horizontal section through C is CK = r sin
Now at upper perimeter through point C
Total resisting force =
=

N Area
N t 2 r sin

Total vertical component = 2r N t sin. sin


= 2r N t sin2
This must be equal to the total wt. above the section.
Wt. of dome itself

W Area of surface

W (BK) 2r

W 2r r (1-cos)

2r2 (1-cos)W +F

Total downward force

Total downward force = total resisting force

7
2r2 (1-cos) W + F = 2r N t Sin2
N

Wr (1-cos) +
F
2
t sin
2r t sin2

2.1

Force per unit length of upper surface is N t


The outward horizontal component is N t cos
As the horizontal radius of ring is r sin. This would cause, if acting alone , a
hoop tension equal to
N t cos r sin
The stresses on lower surface would cause a hoop compression
(N + dN) t cos ( + d) r sin ( + d)
The difference would be total hoop tension which would be
T (t. r. d)
Nt cos r sin

cos 2
F
(r (1-cos)W +
sin
2

Putting value of N from eq. 2.1 we get :

T'=

Wr 1 cos cos 2
F

cos ec 2
+
2
t
2rt
sin

....2.2

2.1.2. Segmental Dome


A dome having a height less than the radius of the dome is called a segmental
dome.
Consider :
T

circumferential force (in horizontal plane) in unit strip at S.

8
N

Meridional thrust (acting tangentially).

Uniform load per unit area of surface of dome.

1 Cos Cos 2
Wr
2.3
1 + Cos

1 Cos
Wr
2
Sin

Wr
1 + Cos

T (INTO THE
PAPER)

5148
..2.4
Fig. 2.3

AT CROWN:
T

Wr (Compression)

LOAD F CONCENTRATED AT CROWN


T

F
Cos 2
2r

2.5

F
2rCos 2

.....2.6

Not applicable for small values of

1.1.3. Shallow Segmental Dome


APPROX. METHOD :
r

d2 1
a
8a 2

Total load on supports

2r

Fig. 2.5

At springing

2Rr
.d 2

TENSILE FORCE IN RING BEAM AT SPRINGING :


Tr

R(r a )
.d

Example :
Analyze a hemispherical dome of 50 ft diameter, having a wall thickness of 5 in.
An external load of 10,000 lbs is applied over the crown spread over a circle of 5 ft
diameter.
Dia of dome =

50ft

Hemispherical Dome

Thickness

5in

So wt =

63 lb /sq ft

Fig. 2.5

We have
N

Wr (1 Cos )
F
+
2
tSin
2rtSin 2

Wr
F
+
t (1 + cos ) 2rt sin 2

Suppose
F

10,000 lbs & spread over a circle of 5 ft diameter

10
So total force
=

10000 4
= 512lb / sqft
(5) 2

63 + 512

575 lb/sq ft

25

25/12 ft

Wi.r
t (1 + Cos )

542

17300 lb/sqft

Wi

Cos =

0.595

Tension T does not exist as never exceeds 542


Taking the whole dome
N

F
Wr
+
t (1 + Cos ) 2rtSin 2

/2

63 25 12
10000 12
+
2r 25 5 1
1 5

3780 + 153

3933 lb/sq ft

cos

sin

11
Hoop tension

Wr 1 cos cos 2 F

+
cos ec 2
t
1 + cos
2rt

3933 lb/sqft

Tension per ft. height =

3933 5
12

=
For steel having Fy

fs

20,000 Psi

As

1630
20,000

0.1 Sq in

1630 lbs

40,000 Psi

Taking 3/8 bars f C/C both in horizontal & vertical planes and are placed at middle of
the section i.e., centre of slab.

12

2.2. Beams
2.2.1. Strength Design Of Rectangular Beams For Moment
From the basic principles and equations established in the preceding sections we
now develop a procedure for designing a beam with a rectangular cross section. Since
most reinforced concrete beams used in construction are rectangular, this procedure will
be used repeatedly by the designer. All steps-are consistent with the requirements of .the
current ACI Code 318-99.
All beams are designed to ensure that the moment produced by factored loads
does not exceed the available flexural design strength of the cross section at any point
along the length of the beam. If the flexural design strength Mn just equals the required
flexural strength Mu (which ensures the most economical design), the criterion for design
can be stated as
Mu

Mn

(2.21)

where 0.9 and Mn is the nominal moment capacity of the cross section.
This criterion can be developed into a design equation if we express Mn in terms of the
material and the geometric properties of a rectangular cross section (Fig. 2.7d). If we sum
moments about the centroid of the tension steel, Mn can be expressed as
a

Mn = C d
2

(2.22)

where C is the resultant of the compressive stresses and a is the depth of the
rectangular stress block. As indicated in Fig. 2.20 d, C = 0.85fcab. Substituting this value
of C into Eq. (2.12)

13

Fig2.20 (a) state of stress in an


underreinforced beam at failure;
(b) strains, (c) stresses, (d)
internal couple

Mn = 0.85 f ' c ab d
2

(2.23)

To express a in Eq. (2.13) in terms of the dimensions-of the cross section and the
properties of the material, and fy, we set T = C and solve for a, to give
a=

As f y

(2.24)

b(0.85 f ' c

Multiplying both top and bottom of Eq. (2.14) by d and setting AJbd = p leads to

a=

As f y d
b(0.85 f ' c )

f y d

(2.25)

0.85 f ' c

Substituting Eq. (2.15) into (2.13) and simplifying gives

fy
Mn = f y bd 2 1
1.7 f ' c

(2.26)

Finally, Eq. (2.15) is substituted into Eq. (2.11) to give the basic beam design equation

fy
Mn = f y bd 2 1
1.7 f ' c

(2.27)

where must not be greater than b, or less than min associated with As,min. The first
requirement ensures that the beam will be underreinforced and will fail in a ductile
manner; the second requirement prevents a brittle failure, i.e., the rupture of the steel
when the beam cracks initially.

14
Equation (2.17) can be used either to investigate the capacity of a cross section if
the dimen sions and material properties are known or to design a cross section (i.e., to
establish the width b, the depth d, and the area of steel As) if the value of the factored
moment A is specified. Although Eq. (2.17) can be used to establish the flexural design
strength of a cross-section since all terms on the right side of-the equation are known, the
designer may prefer to work directly with the internal forces on the rectangular cross
section to evaluate Mn because of the simplicity, of the calculations. In the latter
procedure, T = Asfy is first evaluated, then the depth of the stress block a is computed by
equating T = C, and finally the internal couple is evaluated by multiplying T by the arm
d - a/2 between T and C.

2.2.2. Design Of Beams With Compression Steel


If a beam designed in accordance with the ACI Code is reinforced with tension
steel only, the maximum flexural capacity the cross section can develop is achieved when
an area of steel equal to three-fourths of the balanced steel area is used. When restrictions
are placed on the dimensions moment capacity of a member (even when reinforced with
three-fourths of the balanced steel area) may not be adequate to supply the required
moment capacity. Undo such conditions, additional moment capacity can be created
without producing a brittle, over reinforced beam by adding additional reinforcement to
both the tension and compression sides the cross section. As shown by Eq.(As,max. (3/4
Cc+Cs)/fy), the maximum area of tension steel that can be used to reinforce a cross section
is a direct function of both the strength of the concrete compression zone and the area of
the compression steel A's.
Figure 2.21 illustrates two situations in which compression steel can be used
advantageously. In Fig. 2.21a compression steel is used to increase the flexural capacity
of the compression zone of a prefabricated beam whose sides have been cut back to
provide a seat to support beams framing in from each side". Figure 2.21b shows a
common design situation it which compression steel is used to reduce the size of a
continuous T-beam of constant cross section by adding flexural capacity in the region
where the effective cross section is smallest and the moment greatest. Near midspan of a

15
continuous beam (see section 1 of Fig. 2.21b), where the positive moment creates
compression in the flange, the beam behaves as if it were rectangular beam with a width
equal to that of the flange. Even if the beam is shallow, the large compression zone
supplied by the flange provides the potential for a large moment capacity. If the moment
produces tension in the flange and compression in the web (the situation at the supports
where negative bending occurs), the beam, which now behaves like a narrow rectangular
beam with a width equal to that of the web, has a much smaller flexural capacity than the
flanged section at midspan. If compression steel is added to the compression zone (see
section 2 of Fig. 2.21), the flexural strength can be substantially raised without increasing
the width of the web or the depth of the cross section. By using compression steel to raise
the capacity of the compression zone the dead weight can be reduced and the headroom
increased.
To be most effective, compression steel should be placed where the compressive
strains at greatest, i.e., as far as possible from the neutral axis. If compression steel is
positioned near the neutral axis, the compressive strains may be too small to stress the
steel to its full capacity. Under this condition the compression steel has little influence on
the flexural strength or behavior of the member.

FIGURE 2.21 Examples


of beams reinforced with
compression steel; (a)
precast inverted T-beam,
(b) continuous beam with a
portion of the positive steel
extended into the supports
to be used as compression
steel

16

FIGURE 2.22 Load-deflection curves


Showing the improvement in ductility
and toughness produced by the
addition of compression steel in an
underreinforced beam.

Besides increasing the flexural capacity of a cross section, compression steel


produces a marked improvement in behavior by raising the amount of compressive strain
the concrete can sustain before crushing and by reducing the tendency of the concrete to
break down at high levels of strain. Stabilizing the compression zone of a highly stressed
beam with compression steel reduces creep and increases ductility. Comparing the loaddeflection curves of two under-reinforced beams of identical proportions (except for the
presence of compression steel in one). Fig. 2.22 illustrates the improvement in ductility
afforded by the addition of compression steel. As indicated in Fig. 2.22, the flexural
capacity is not increased significantly by the addition of compression steel to an
underreinforced beam because the magnitude of, the internal couple is controlled by the
area of the tension steel.
Recognizing the beneficial effect of compression steel on bending behavior, many
building codes require that all flexural members of structures located in seismic zones be
reinforced with a minimum area of compression steel, even when the design calculations
indicate that compression steel is not required for strength. The addition of compression
steel produces tough ductile members that can withstand the large bending deformations
and repeated reversals of "stress produced in building members by cyclic, earthquakeinduced ground motions.
Recognizing that an improvement in the strength and ductility of concrete in
compression can be achieved by providing lateral confinement of the concrete, ACI Code
7.11.1 requires that compression steel be enclosed by closely spaced ties throughout the
region in which it is used. By providing a certain limited amount of lateral confinement to
the concrete in the compression zone, ties increase the ultimate strain required to produce

17
a compression failure and also reduce the rate at which heavily compressed concrete
strained into the inelastic region- breaks down.
When no. 10 (no. 30 metric) or smaller bars are used as compression steel, ACI
Code 7.10.5.1 specifies that ties be at least | in (11.3 mm) in diameter If bundled bars or
no. 11 (no. 35 metric) or larger bars are used as compression steel, ties must be at least in
(16 mm) in diameter. In accordance with ACI Code 7.10.5.2. the maximum spacing of
ties is not to exceed the smallest of the following distances:
1. Sixteen bar diameters of the compression steel
2. Forty-eight tie diameters
3. The least dimension of the cross section
Although inserting compression steel into a cross section permits the use of large
areas of tension steel, the designer must verify (1) that the steel can be fitted into the
tension zone while maintaining the required spacing between bars and the minimum
concrete cover sped-' fled by the ACI Code and (2) that the limit on crack width as
measured by the ACI expression z = 0.6 fy

d c A can be satisfied. While the use of a

small number of large-diameter bars increases the spacing between bars, the second
requirement , the control of crack width, is most easily satisfied by specifying a large
number of small-diameter bars.

FIGURE 2.23 Moment capacity of a beam with compression steel; (a) cross section with As =
As1+ As2, where As1 = Asb; (b) Strain distribution at failure based on the cross section
reinforcement with As1 only; (c) concrete couple M1 = T1 (d- a/2); (d) steel couple M2 = T2(d-d)

18
When designing a beam with compression steel, it is convenient to break the total
internal moment into two couples. The first couple M (Fig. 2.23c) represents the nominal
flexural strength of the cross section reinforced with Asb where Asb, applies to the
section without compression steel. The second couple M2 represents the nominal flexural
strength produced by the forces in the compression steel and in the additional tension
steel Asb which is added to balance the force in die compression steel (Fig. 2.23d). The
total moment capacity Mn of the cross section can then be expressed as
Mn

(M1+M2)

where = 0.9 the concrete couple is M1 = T1(d - a/2), and the steel couple is
M2 = T2(d - d')

2.2.2.1. Design Procedure


Step l. Determine the moment <j>M\ that the beam can carry using ASl ^Asf,, where
A,t, represents balanced steel for the cross section without compression steel (see Fig.
2.23c).
Step 2. The excess moment <t>Mi, the difference between the required flexural strength
Mu and the flexural design strength of the concrete couple <A/i, is to be carried by a
couple 'composed of compression steel and additional bottom steel. To compute these
areas of steel, we first establish the stresses in the steel. For tension steel fs = fy; i.e.,
tension steel will always yield at failure since the beam is under reinforced. For
compression steel f,' /v. To establish compute the strain e's in the compression steel
using the strain distribution at failure.. The location of the neutral axis can be closely
approximated by using the neutral axis associated with lAst in step 1 (see Fig. 2.23b).
Step 3. Determine the magnitude of the internal tension force T2 of the compression-steel
couple by summing moments about the compression steel and equating to M2 (see Fig.
2.23d)

T2

M2
(d d 2 )

19
M2 =

Where

Mu

M1

Step 4. Compute the areas of the additional tension steel A,2 and the compression steel
AS At bottom:

As2 =

T2
fy

A' S =

Cs
f 's

Where Cs = T2

2.2.3. Design Of T-Beams


2.2.3.1. Introduction
Beams with T-shaped cross sections are used extensively as components of
concrete structures. They occur most frequently when concrete beams are poured
monolithically with slabs to form the floors of buildings and the roadways of bridges.
Rigidly joined together by reinforcement, a portion of the slab acts with the beam to
produce a T-shaped flexural member. The slab is termed the flange, and the portion of the
beam that projects below the slab is called the stem (see Fig. 2.24).
Although isolated T-beams of poured-in-place concrete are uncommon, large
quantities of T-beams and double T-beams are produced by the precast concrete industry
for use as components of prefabricated buildings (see Fig. 2.25). These members are
typically placed side by side with their flanges joined to form a floor. Since precast
beams of the same nominal depth differ slightly in height as a result of the manufacturing
process, several inches of concrete topping are often placed on top of the flanges to form
a level-surface. Light reinforcement, such as welded-wire mesh or small-diameter

20
deformed reinforcing bars, is added to the topping to provide continuity and reduce
cracking.

2.2.3.2. State of Stress at Failure


A T-shaped cross section is most efficiently used when the flange is placed in
compression. The wide flange not only permits a large compression force to develop but
also maximizes the arm of the internal couple by positioning the resultant of the
compression stresses near the compression surface (see Fig. 2.26). The elimination of
concrete from the tension zone, where only the steel reinforcement is effective in carrying
tension, reduces the dead weight but does not influence the bending strength of the cross
section. For long-span beams, where a large percentage of the design moment is
produced by the dead weight of the member, use of the T-shaped section will result in a
considerable reduction in weight, which in turn will permit the design of smaller and
lighter members.

FIGURE 2.25 Precast beams; (a) T-beam, (b)

double T-beam,
FIGURE 2.24 Floor System with T-beams

Since the flange of the typical T-beam is wide, the depth of the stress block will
normally be small. As a result, when failure occurs, the position of the neutral axis will
usually be located in the flange near the compression surface. As shown in Fig. 2.26, the
strains in the steel failure will be many times greater than those in the concrete because of
the elevated position of the neutral axis; therefore a ductile mode of failure associated
with large deflections and extensive stretching of the steel is assured.

21

FIGURE 2.27
FIGURE 2.26 State of stress in a T-beam at failure; (a)
cross section,(b) strain, (c) stresses, (d) internal couple

2.2.3.3. Effective Width of Flange


In beams with a compact cross section, stress in the compression zone is assumed
to be constant in magnitude across the width of the beam (Fig. 2.27). In T-beams with
long thin flanges, the stresses vary across the flange width because of the shear
deformations of the flange. The approximate variation of stress in the flange is shown in
Fig. 2.28a.
To simplify the design of T-beams, the variable stress distribution acting over the
full width of flange is replaced by an equivalent uniform stress, which is assumed to act
over a reduced width beff , selected so that the uniform stress acting over the reduced
width produces the same resultant compression force in the flange as the actual stress,
which varies over the full width b. To establish the effective width of slab that acts as the
compression zone for a beam that is a component of T-beam-and-slab construction, ACI
Code 8.10 gives the following criteria.

Figure 2.28 variation of compressive stresses


in the flange of a T-beam;(a) actual, (b)
simplified

22

Figure 2.29 Effective flange width

CASE 1: FLANGES ON EACH SIDE OF WEB. The effective width (see Fig. 2.29a) is
given by the smallest value of
1. One-fourth of the beam's span length
2. The stem width plus a flange overhang of eight times the slab thickness on each side of
the stem
3. The stem width plus a flange overhang not greater than half the clear distance to the
next beam.
CASE 2: BEAM WITH AN L-SHAPED FLANGE. The width of flange (see Fig. 2.29b)
is to be taken as the-stem width plus a flange overhang equal to the smallest of
1. One-twelfth the beam's span length
2. Six times the thickness of the slab
3. One-half the clear distance to the next beam

2.2.3.4. Distribution of Flexural Reinforcement in the Flanges


2.2.3.4.1. Longitudinal Reinforcement
When the flanges of T-beams carry tensile stresses (for example, in regions of
negative moment), ACI Code 10.6.6 requires that part of the main reinforcement be
spread over a width equal to the smaller of the effective flange width (Fig. 2.29) or a
width equal to one-tenth of the span. Further, if the effective flange width exceeds onetenth of the span, some reinforcement should be placed in the outer sections of the flange.
This provision will ensure that many fine cracks rather than a few wide cracks
perpendicular to the span of the beam will develop on the ' top surface.

23
2.2.3.4.2. Transverse Reinforcement
Load applied directly to the flange of a T-beam will cause the flanges to bend
downward (Fig. 2.30). To prevent a bending failure of the flange, transverse
reinforcement must be added to the top of the flange overhangs. This reinforcement can
be sized by treating the flange over hangs as cantilevers fixed at the face of the stem and
having a span equal to the length of the flange "overhang (fig. 2.30b). ACI Code
8.10.5.2 requires that the spacing of the transverse reinforcement not exceed five times
the slab thickness or 18 in (500 mm). Additional longitudinal steel will be required in the
flange to hold the transverse steel in position when concrete is poured.

Figure 2.30 (a) transverse bending of Tbeam flange, (b) shear and moment curves
for flange overhange.

2.2.3.5. T-Beam Design


Most T-beams occur as part of continuous floor systems (see Fig. 2.24). The
dimensions of these beams are normally determined by the strength required to carry the
shear and moment at the supports, where the compression zone is at the bottom of the
stem and the member acts as a rectangular beam whose width is equal to that of the web
(see Fig. 2.26). To ensure that deflections are not excessive, the designer should verify
that the depth of the T-beam is not less than the minimum values specified in Table 2.2.2.
In regions of positive moment, where the flange is in compression, the designer
has only to select the area of the flexural steel and verify that it can be placed in the web
with the required spacing between bars. The minimum area of flexural steel equals, but
cannot be less than 2006K. In T-beam design, as in rectangular-beam design, the
maximum area of steel to be used as flexural reinforcement is equal to, (the procedure for
computing As is given in Sec. 2.13).

24
CASE 1: STRESS BLOCK CONFINED TO FLANGE
The design procedure for determining the moment capacity of a particular Tshaped cross section will depend on the position of the bottom of the stress block. If the
stress block lies completely in the flange, the most common case, the beam is designed
exactly like a rectangular beam (Fig. 2.31). On the other hand, if the bottom of the stress
block falls in the web, the stress block must be divided into known areas, the forces on
these areas computed, and the moment capacity of the cross section established by
summing the forces in the compression zone about the centroid of the tension steel (Fig.
2.32). As an alternative, the trial method discussed in Sec. 2.12 can be used to select-the
reinforcement.
CASE 2: STRESS BLOCK EXTENDED INTO STEM.
Break the total internal moment capacity into two couples (Fig. 2.32). One couple
MI

represents the moment capacity of the flange overhangs, and the second

MI

represents

the moment capacity of the rectangular beam portion. The total moment capacity is
Mn

(M1+M2)

hf

M 1 = 0.85 f ' c A f d
2

(2.27)

(2.28)

M 2 = 0.85 f ' c Aw d
2

(2.29)

Figure 2.31 (a) cross section, (b)


strains at failure, (c) stresses (a hf),
(d) internal couple.

25

Figure 2.32 (a) cross section with As = Asf + Asw, where Asf is the portion of As
used to balance compression force in flange overhangs and Asw is the portion of As
used to balance compression force in web; (b) stresses, (c) moment: flange
overhangs and Asf; (d) moment: web and Asw

Substituting Eqs.(2) and (3) into (1) gives

hf

Mn = 0.85 f ' c A f d
2

a
+ 0.85 f ' c Aw d
2

(2.30)

26

2.3. Slabs
slab is a broad flat plate usually horizontal with top and bottom surface parallel or
nearly so, it may be supported by reinforced concrete beams by masonry or reinforced
concrete walls, by structural steel members, directly by columns or continuously by the
ground. It used to provide a flat, useful surface. Slabs may be supported on opposite sides.
Slabs may be of different types such as, one way slabs, two way slabs, flat slab, flat plate
slab, grid slabs or waffle slab.

2.3.1 One Way Slab


These are the types of slabs which are only on two opposite sides as shown in
figure in which the structural action of the slab is essentially on e way the load is carried
by the in the direction perpendicular to the supporting beams. one way slab action is
produced if the ratio of length to width of one slab panel is lager then about two (2) most
of the load is carried in the short direction to the supporting beams and one way action is
obtained in effect, even though supports are provided on all sides.

1m

S
Figure 2.31

27

1.0 m

Main reinforcement

Figure 2.32

2.3.2 Two Way Slab


if the length to width ratio is greater than two it is referred as two way slab
generally in this case load is being carried by the slab in the direction perpendicular to the
supporting beams. There may be beams on all four directions so that two way direction is
obtained

Figure 2.33

28

2.3.3. Flat Slab


Concrete slabmay in some cases becarried directly by the columns without use of
beam and girder .such slabs are considered as and are commonly used whereare not
larger and loads are perpendiculare directly .it may be beamless but incorporates are
thickened slab region in the vicinity of column and often employs flared columns top

2.3.4. Waffled Slab


A slab supported directly on columns without beams and having recesses on the
soffit so that comprises a series of ribs in the two direction is known as Waffle Slab.
Generally the width of web in the waffle slab shall not be more then 3.5 inches and clear
spacing should not exceed 3 ft and dept should not be more then 3.5 times the minimum
width of web of the rib. It is provided with a solid head on the column.

Figure 2.34

Waffle slab is consists of series of small, closely spaced reinforced concrete Tee
beams framing into monolithically cast concrete girder, which are in turn carried by the
building columns. These beams are formed by the Void space in what other wise would
be a solid slab. Usually these voids are formed using special steel pans. For the most parts
the concrete remove is in tension and ineffective. So the lighter weight concrete floor
having same structural characteristics as the corresponding solid floor. Voids are usually
formed by using domes shaped steel pans that are removed for re use after the slabs have
hardened. Near the column the form work are removed so as to get the solid face on the

29
column in the region of negative bending moments and high shear. A waffle like
appearance (these slabs are therefore called waffle slabs) is imparted to the underside of
the slab, which can feature to architectural advantage.
Two way joist slabs are designed following the usual procedure for two way slab
system( i.e. the conventional slab design with the solid region in the column considered
as dropped panel. The design of the waffle slab is same as the design of a tee beam.
Joists(tee beam) in each direction is divided in two strips i.e. column strip joist and
middle strip joist, the former includes all joists that framed into the solid head and later
includes all joists in the middle potion of the slab. Each joists usually includes two bars
for positive moment resistance and one may be discontinuous where it no longer
required. Negative steel is provided by separates bars running in each direction straight
over the columns.
In the design process the self-weight of two way joists floor is considered to be
uniformly distributed, based on the equivalent slab of uniform thickness having the same
volume of concrete as the actual ribbed slab.

Figure 2.35

30

2.4 Columns
Columns are the members that carry loads chiefly in compression. Usually
columns carry bending moments about one and both axis of the cross section as well as
the compressive forces. That bending may also creates tensile forces on the one face of
the column. Even in such cases columns are generally referred to as compression
member, because the compression forces domain their behavior. In addition to the most
common type if compression member i.e. vertical element in structure, compression
members includes columns, arches, or inclined members of the trusses etc. etc.
Compression members may of any type below.
1. member reinforced with longitudinal bars and lateral ties.
2. members reinforced with longitudinal bars and continuous spirals.
3. composite compression members reinforced longitudinally bars with structural
steel shapes, pipes, or tubing with or without additional longitudinal bars, and
various types of lateral reinforcements
The main reinforcement in columns are longitudinal one, parallel to the direction of
the load and consists of the bars arrange in a square, rectangular, or circular pattern.

2.4.1. Design Of Column By Using Design Aids ( Charts )


The design of eccentrically loaded columns using the strain compatibility method of
analysis described requires that a trial column be selected. The trial column is then
investigated to determine if it is adequate to carry any combination of Pu and Mu that may
act on it should the structure be overloaded, i.e., to see if Pu and Mu from the analysis of
the. Structure, when plotted on a strength interaction diagram, fall within the region
bounded by the curve labeled "ACI design strength." Furthermore," economical design
requires that the controlling combination of Pu and Ag be close to the limit curve. If these
conditions are not met, a new column must be selected for trial. While a simple computer
program can be written, based on the strain compatibility analysis, to calculate points on the
design strength curves, and even to plot the curve for ant trial column, in practice design
aids are used such as are available in hand books and special volumes published by the
American Concrete Institute and Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute .They cover the most
frequent practical cases, such as symmetrically reinforced rectangular and square columns

31
and circular spirally reinforced columns. There are also a number of commercially
available computer programs (e.g., PCACOL, Portland Cement Association, Skokie,
Illinois, and HBCOLUMN, Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute* Schaumburg, Illinois).
The graphs are seen to consist of strength interaction curves labeled "ACI design
strength," i.e. the ACI safety provisions are incorporated. However, instead of plotting Pu vs.
Mu, corresponding parameters have been used to make the charts more generally applicable,
i.e. load is plotted as Pu / Ag while moment is expressed as Pu / Ag (e/h). Families of curves are
drawn for various values of g = Ast / Ag. They are used in most cases in conjunction, with
the family of radial lines representing different eccentricity ratios e/h.
Charts such as these permit the direct "design of eccentrically loaded columns
throughout the common range of strength and geometric variables. They may be used in
one of two ways as follows, For a given factored load Pu and equivalent eccentricity.
1. (a) Select trial cross section dimensions b and h .
(b) Calculate the ratio based on required cover distances to the bar centroids, and
select the corresponding column design chart.
(c) Calculate Pu / A and Mu / Ag h, where Ag = bh
(d) From the graph, for the values found in (c), read the required steel ratio pH.
(e) Calculate the total steel area AS = pg b h.
2. (a) Select the steel ratio pg.
(b) Choose a trial value of h and calculate e/h and y.
(c) From the corresponding graph, read Pu / Ag and calculate the required Ag:
(d) Calculate b = Ag / h
(e) Revise the trial value of h if necessary to obtain a well-proportioned section.
(f) Calculate the total steel area Ast = g b h

32

2.4.2. Column Footings


Footings are structural members used to support columns and walls and to
transmit and distribute their loads to the soil in such a way that the load bearing
capacity of the soil is not exceeded, excessive settlement, differential settlement, or
rotation are prevented

and adequate safety against overturning or sliding is

maintained.

A building or bridge is generally considered to have two main portionsthe


superstructure and the substructure. The latter is often called as foundation.

It supports the superstructure, but it may contain various parts or units of its own.

There are many special types of foundations for which concrete is used. Scope
here is limited to RC footings.

The term foundation generally includes the entire supporting structure.


Sometimes, as in retaining walls, it is used to designate the material upon which
wall is supported.

It must not be confused with the word FOOTING, which is generally applied only
to that portion of the structure which delivers the load to the earth.

2.4.3.1 Types of Column Footing


2.4.3.1.1. Isolated Spread Footing
Isolated or single footings are used to
support single columns. This is one of
the most economical types of footings
and is used when columns are spaced
at relatively long distances.

2.4.3.1.2. Combined Footings


Combined footings usually support
two columns, or three columns not
in a row. Combined footings are
used when tow columns are so close
that single footings cannot be used
or when one column is located at or

33
near a property line.

2.4.3.1.3. Cantilever Or Strap Footings


They consist of two single footings
connected with a beam or a strap and
support two single columns. This type
replaces a combined footing and is
more economical.

2.4.3.1.4. Raft Or Mat Foundation


They consists of one footing
usually placed under the entire
building area. They are used,
when soil bearing capacity is
low, column loads are heavy
single footings cannot be used,
piles are not used and differential
settlement must be reduced.

2.4.4 Distribution of Soil Pressure


When the column load P is applied on the centroid of the footing, a uniform
pressure is assumed to develop on the soil surface below the footing area. However the
actual distribution of the soil is not uniform, but depends on may factors especially the
composition of the soil and degree of flexibility of the footing.

2.4.5 Design Considerations

Footings must be designed to carry the column loads and transmit them to the soil
safely while satisfying code limitations.

The area of the footing based on the allowable bearing soil capacity

34

Two-way shear or punching shear.

One-way bearing

Bending moment and steel reinforcement required

Bearing capacity of columns at their base

Dowel requirements

Development length of bars

Differential settlement

2.4.5.1. Size Of Footing


The area of footing can be determined from the actual external loads such that the
allowable soil pressure is not exceeded.
Area of footing =

Total load (including self - weight )


allowable soil pressure

2.4.5.2. Two-Way Shear (Punching Shear)


For two-way shear in slabs (& footings) Vc is smallest of

4
Vc = 2 +
c

f c b0 d

where,
bc =

long side/short side of column concentrated load or reaction area < 2

b0 =

length of critical perimeter around the column


When b >2 the allowable Vc is reduced.

35

2.4.5.3. One-Way Shear Or Beam Shear


For footings with bending action in one
direction the critical section is located a distance d
from face of column

Vc = 2 f c b0 d
The ultimate shearing force at section m-m
can be calculated if no shear reinforcement is to be
used, then d can be checked

L c
Vu = q u b d

2 2

2.4.5.4.

Flexural

Strength

and

Footing

reinforcement
Another approach is to calculated Ru = Mu /
2

bd

and determine the steel percentage required.

Determine As then check if assumed a is close to


calculated a

36

a=

f y As
0.85 f c b

The minimum steel percentage required in flexural members is 200/fy with


minimum area and maximum spacing of steel bars in the direction of bending shall be as
required for shrinkage temperature reinforcement.
The reinforcement in one-way footings and twoway footings must be distributed across the entire
width of the footing.
Reinforcement in band width
2
=
Total reinforcement in short direction + 1

long side of footing


short side of footing

2.4.5.5 Bearing Capacity of Column at Base


The loads from the column act on the footing at the base of the column, on an
area equal to area of the column cross-section. Compressive forces are transferred to the
footing directly by bearing on the concrete.

Tensile forces must be resisted by

reinforcement, neglecting any contribution by concrete. Force acting on the concrete at


the base of the column must not exceed the bearing strength of the concrete
N 1 = (0.85 f c A1 )
Where f = 0.7 and
A1 =bearing area of column
The value of the bearing strength may be multiplied by a factor

A2 / A1 2.0 for bearing

on footing when the supporting surface is wider on all sides than the loaded area.
The modified bearing strength
N 2 (0.85 f c A1 ) A2 / A1
N 2 2 (0.85 f c A1 )

37

2.4.5.6. Dowels In Footings


A minimum steel ratio r = 0.005 of the column section as compared to r = 0.01 as
minimum reinforcement for the column itself. The number of dowel bars needed is four
these may be placed at the four corners of the column. The dowel bars are usually
extended into the footing, bent at the ends, and tied to the main footing reinforcement.
The dowel diameter shall not =exceed the diameter of the longitudinal bars in the column
by more than 0.15 in.

2.4.5.7. Development Length Of The Reinforcing Bars


The development length for compression bars was given
l d = 0.02 f y d b /
but not less than

fc

0.003 f y d b 8 in.

Dowel bars must be checked for proper development length.

2.4.5.8. General Requirements For Footing Design


1. A site investigation is required to determine the chemical and physical properties
of the soil.
2. Determine the magnitude and distribution of loads form the superstructure.
3. Establish the criteria and the tolerance for the total and differential settlements of
the structure.
4.

Determine the most suitable and economic type of foundation.

5. Determine the depth of the footings below the ground level and the method of
excavation.
6. Establish the allowable bearing pressure to be used in design.
7. Determine the pressure distribution beneath the footing based on its width
8. Perform a settlement analysis.

38

2.5. Retaining Wall


2.5.1. General

Retaining walls are used to provide lateral support for a mass of earth or other
material the top of which is at a higher elevation than the earth or rock in front of the wall
as shown in Fig 1. Gravity retaining walls such as shown in Fig 2.50 (a) depend mostly
upon their own weight for stability. They are usually low in height and are expensive
because of their inefficient use of materials; sometimes they may be cheapened by using
cyclopean concrete.
In contrast to them, Fig. 2.50 (b) pictures an ordinary cantilever retaining wall.
Part of its stability is obtained from the weight of earth mass on heel, but the wall's
resistance to collapse depends upon the strength of its individual parts as cantilever beams.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.50 (a) Gravity Retaining Wall,


(b) Cantilever retaining wall

39
2.5.2. Definition Of Parts

The various portions of a typical reinforced concrete retaining wall are defined
as follows, using Fig.2.51 for reference:
Stem or Wall

Back fill
Front

Toe

Key

Heel

Fig 2.51 Definition of Parts of wall

2.5.3. Functions

Retaining walls are structures used to retain earth or other materials, which would
not be able to stand vertically unsupported. These walls are used to hold back masses of
earth or other loose material where conditions make it impossible to let those masses
assume their natural slopes. Such conditions occur when the width of an excavation, cut,
or embankment is restricted by conditions of ownership, use of structure, or economy.
For example, in railway or highway construction the width of the right of way is fixed
and the cut or embankment must be contained within that width. Similarly, the
basement walls of buildings must be located within the property and must retain the soil
surrounding the basement.

40
2.5.4. Types Of Retaining Walls

There may be several types of retaining structures, the main types being:
(a) Gravity wall, where stability is provided by the weight of concrete in the wall;
(b) Cantilever wall, where the wall slab acts as a vertical cantile ver and
stability is provided by the weight of earth on the base and/or the weight of
the wall;
(c) Counter fort and buttress walls, where the slab is supported on its sides by the
counter forts. Stability is provided by the weight of the structure in the case of
the buttress wall and by the weight of earth on the base as well in the counter
fort wall.
A gravity wall is usually of plain concrete and is used for walls updo about 10 ft
high. The cantilever is the most common type of retaining walls and is used in the range
of 10-25 ft in height. The main parts of a cantilever retaining wall are the stem, heel,
toe, wall slab and base slab.

2.5.5. Earth Pressures

It is every day knowledge that sound rock, evenly bedded, will stand with a sheer
face to considerable heights. This can be seen in artificial form in deep railway cuttings.
Soils on the other hand cannot stand more steeply than their natural angle of repose,
as evidenced again in railway work where engineers have cut back to slopes ranging
from about 1 in 1.5 to 1 in 3, depending on the nature of soil, and other physical
considerations. Where there are practical objections to sloping back in this manner (as
for example at basements to city buildings or where industrial materials like sand and
stone have to be stored in limited areas), a wall has to be built to retain all material
required to lie above the natural angle of repose.
The main problem in designing the retaining walls lies in determining the
pressures on the back of the wall from the material to be retained and the capability of
the ground in front of the wall and under the base to resist the lateral and vertical

41
forced arising from those pressures. Knowledge of the properties and behavior of soils is
therefore fundamental to the design of retaining walls and the problem is closely allied
to foundation engineering. References should be made to the literature related to
foundation design.
2.5.5.1. Variation Of Earth Pressures

In liquid retaining structures, the applied forces (pressures) are directly related to
the density of the liquid retained and the head at which it acts. This is because liquids are
both friction less and cohesion less. Soils behave differently. Sand, for example, when dry,
acts as a fictional material without cohesion and has a well-defined angle of repose. If
the same sand is now moistened, it develops a certain amount of cohesive strength and its
angle of repose increases, somewhat erratically. Further wetting will break down the
internal friction forces until the sand slumps and will hardly stand at any angle at all.
Clay on the other hand when first exposed in situ stands vertically to considerable
depths when reasonably dry, but after time will subside, depending on its moisture
content. And clay, in dry seasons, gives up its moisture to atmosphere with subsequent
shrinkage, so that at depths less than about 4 or 5 feet it may be unreliable as a stop to
react the forward movement of a retaining wall.
Thus the pressures from soils can vary very widely depending on the moisture
content. If a unit volume of soil is considered at a depth h below the free surface, the
lateral pressures can vary from about 30h to 90h in sands, and from Oh to about 90h
in clays. And within these ranges, the pressures behind retaining walls may vary due to
seasonal or other periodic changes. Indeed the construction of the retaining wall itself
may cause major changes in the ground conditions blocking a natural drainage path, or
exposing to shrinkage otherwise stable clay. Similarly the fictional resistance to sliding
under the base of a retaining wall is critical of moisture content. This is particularly true of
clay, which when dry can be rough and hard, but when wet can be smooth and slippery.
When the soil behind the wall is prevented from lateral movement (towards or
away from soil) of wall, the pressure is known as earth pressure at rest. This is the case
when wall has a considerable rigidity. Basement walls generally fall in this category. If a
retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil accompanied by a lateral soil

42
expansion, the earth pressure decreases with the increasing expansion. A shear failure
of the soil is resulted with any further expansion and a sliding wedge tends to move
forward and downward. The earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the
minimum pressure is known as active earth pressure. Contrary to that if the retaining wall
could be forced to move toward the soil causing the lateral contraction of soil, a state of
failure is reached with the formation of an upward and backward sliding wedge. The
earth pressure associated with this state of failure is the maximum and termed as
passive earth pressure.
2.5.5.1.2. Earth Pressure at Rest
pa = Ca w h

2 .51

Where w is unit weight of soil, h the depth at which pressure is estimated


and Co the constant known as the coefficient of earth pressure at rest.
2.5.5.1.3. Active Earth Pressure
pa =Ca w h

2.52

2.5.5.1.4. Passive Earth Pressure


Pp = Cp w h

2.53

PRESSURE FORCE

43
2.5.6. Stability And Safety Factor

The stability of a retaining wall is its ability to hold its position and to perform
its function safely. The safety factor is a measure of the magnitude of the forces that are
required to cause failure of the structure compared with the forces that are really acting
upon it. Thus, if safety factor is 1, the wall will be upon the point of failure. If, for any
given design, it is 2, then the overturning moment or horizontal forces may be doubled
before the wall will fail. The magnitude of safety factor to be used in design will depend
upon the engineer's judgment, the specifications, or the building code that is to be
followed. In general, it may vary from 1.5 to 2.
A retaining wall may fail in one of the four ways: by the collapse of its
component parts, by overturning about its toe, by excessive pressure upon its
foundation, or by sliding upon its foundation. In a well-balanced design, the wall should
be equally safe in all respects.
2.5.7. Critical Sections For Bending And Shear

The bending is critical at the junction of base and wall slabs. In normal
circumstance the shear should have been critical at a distance equal to effective depth of
base slab from face of wall. However, the shear is critical at the junction of heel and wall
slabs, because both wall and heel slab are in tension at the junction.
2.5.8. The Critical Loading Conditions

The surcharge loading on the heel slab should not be considered effective
while stability -against sliding or overturning is being investigated. Care must be
exercised in considering the presence of earth in front of wall while stability against
sliding is checked. The pressure under the heel slab and burden over the toe slab can
be neglected while designing these slabs for strength.

44

2.6. Wind Analysis For Minaret Design


2.6.1. General

Every building or structure and every portion thereof shall be determined and
constructed to resist the wing effects determined in accordance with the requirements of
this division. Wind shall be assumed to come from any horizontal direction. No reduction
in the wind pressure shall be taken for the shielding effect of the adjacent structures.
Structures sensitive to dynamic effects, such as buildings with the height to width
ratio greater than five, structures sensitive to wind-excited oscillations, such as vortex
shedding and icing, and building over 400 feet in height, shall be, and any structure may
be designed in accordance with approved national standards.
Provision of this section do not apply to building and foundation systems in those
areas to scour and water pressures by wind and wave action. Buildings and foundations
subject to such loads shall be designed in accordance with approved national standards.

2.6.2. Definitions

The following definitions apply only to this division:


BASIC WIND SPEED is the fastest mile wind speed associated with an annual
probability of 0.02 measured at a point 33 feet (10000 mm) above the ground for an area
having exposure category C.
EXPOSURE B has terrain with buildings, forest or surface irregularities,
covering at least 20 percent of the ground level area extending one mile (1.61 Km) or
more from the side.
EXPOSURE C has terrain that is flat and generally open, extending half mile
(0.81 Km) or more from the side in any full quadrant.
EXPOSURE D represents the most severe exposure in areas with basic wind
speed of 80 miles per hour (129 Km/h) or greater and has terrain that is flat and
unobstructed facing large bodies of water over one mile (1.61 km) or more in width with

45
relative to any quadrant of building side. Exposure D extends inland from the shoreline
mile (0.40 Km) or ten times the building height, which ever is greater.
FASTEST-MILE WIND SPEED is the wind speed obtained from wind velocity
maps prepared by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and is
the highest sustained average wind speed based on the time required for a mile-long
sample of air to pass a fix point.
OPENINGS OR APERTURES OR HOLES in the exterior walls boundary of the
structures. All windows or doors or other openings shall be considered as openings unless
such openings and their frames are specifically detailed and designed to resist the loads
on elements and components in accordance with the provisions of this section.
PARTIALLY ENCLOSED STRUCTURES OR STOREY is a structure or storey
that has more than fifteen percent of any windward projected area open and the area of
openings on all other projected areas is less than half of that on the windward projections.
SPECIAL WIND REGION is an area where local records and terrain features
indicate fifty year fastest-mile basic wind speed is higher.
UNENCLOSED STRUCTURE OR STOREY is a structure that has eighty five
percent or more openings on all sides.

2.6.3. Symbols And Notations.


The following symbols and notations apply to the provisions of

this

division.
Ce = combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient as given in
table 16-G
Cq = pressure coefficient for the structure or portion of structure under
consideration as given in table 16-H
Iw = importance factor as set forth in table 16-K
P = design wind pressure
Qs = wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet (10,000
mm) as set forth in Table 16-F.

46
2.6.4. Basic Wind Speed

The minimum basic wind speed at any site shall not be less than for those areas
designated as special wind regions and other areas where local records or terrain
indicate higher 50-year (mean recurrence interval) fastest- mile wind speeds, these
higher values shall be the minimum basic wind speeds.
2.6.5. E x posure

An e xposure shall be assigned at each site for which a building or structure


is to b e designed.

2.6.6. Design Wind Pressures

Design wind pressures for buildings and structures and elements therein shall
be determined for any height in accordance with the following formula:
P = Ce.Cq.qs.Iw

(2.60)

2.6.7. Primary Frames And Systems


2.6.7.1. General

The primary frames or load-resisting system of every structure shall be


designed for the pressures calculated using Formula (2.60) and the pressure
coefficients, Cq, of either Method 1 or Method 2. In addition, design of the overall
structure and its primary load-resisting system shall conform to Section 1605.
The base overturning moment for the entire structure, or for anyone of its
individual primary lateral-resisting elements, shall not exceed two-third of the dead
load-resisting moment. For an entire structure with a height-to-width ratio of 0.5 or less
in the wind direction and a maximum height of 60 feet, the combination of the effects
of uplift and overturning may be reduced by one-third. The weight of earth
superimposed over footings may be used to calculate the dead-load-resisting moment.

47
2.6.7.2. Method I (Normal Force Method)

Method 1 shall be used for the design of gabled rigid frames and may be used for
any structure. In the Normal Force Method, the wind pressures shall be assumed to act
simultaneously normal to all exterior surfaces. For structure pressures on roofs and
leeward walls, Ce, shall be evaluated at the mean roof height.
2.6.7.3. Method 2 (Projected area method)

Method 2 may be used for any structure less than 200 feet (60960 mm) in
height except those using gabled rigid frame. This method may be used in stability
determination for any structure less than 200 feet (60960 mm) high. In the projected
area method, horizontal pressures shall be assumed to act upon the full vertical
projected area of the structure, and the vertical pressure shall be assumed to act
simultaneously upon the full horizontal projected area.
2.6.7.4. Elements and Components of Structures

Design wind pressures for each element or component of a structure shall be


determined from Formula (2.60) and Cq values from Table 2.60-H, and shall be applied
perpendicular to the surface. For outward acting forces the. Value of Ce shall be obtained
from Table 2.60-G based on the mean roof height and applied for the entire height of
the structure. Each element or component shall be designed for the more severe of the
following loadings:
1. The pressures determined using Cq values for elements and components
acting over the entire tributary area of the element.
2. The pressures determined using Cq values for local areas at discontinuities
such as corners, ridges and eaves. These local pressures shall be applied over a
distance from a discontinuity of 10 feet (3048 mm) or 0.1 times the least width of the
structure, whichever is less.
The wind pressures from 2.6.7.3.and 2.6.7.4. need not be combined.

48
2.6.8. Open-Frame Towers

Radio towers and other towers of trussed construction shall be designed and
constructed to withstand wind pressures specified in this section, multiplied by the
shape factors set forth in Table 2.60-H.

2.6.9. Miscellaneous Structures

Greenhouses, lath houses, agricultural buildings or fences 12 feet (3658 mm) or


less in height shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 16, Division 111. However,
three fourths of qs, but not less than 10 psf (0.48 kN/m2), may be substituted for qs in
Formula (2.60). Pressures on local areas at discontinuities need not be considered.

2.6.10. Occupancy Categories

For the purpose of wind-resistant design, each structure shall be placed in one of
the occupancy categories listed in Table 2.60-K. Table 2.60-K lists importance factors,
Iw for each category.
TABLE 2.60-FWIND STAGNATION PRESSURE (qs) AT STANDARD HEIGHT OF
33 FEET (10,058 mm)
Basic wind speed (mph)1

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

12.6

16.4

20.8

25.6

31.0

36.9

43.3

(x 1.61 for km/h)


Pressure qs (psf)
2

(x 0.0479 for kN/m )

49
TABLE 2.60-GCOMBINED HEIGHT, EXPOSURE AND GUST FACTOR
COEFFICIENT (Ce)
HEIGHT ABOVE
AVERAGE LEVEL OF
ADJOINING GROUND

EXPOSURE D

EXPOSURE C

EXPOSURE B

0-15

1.39

1.06

0.62

20

1.45

1.13

0.67

25

1.50

1.19

.72

30

1.54

1.23

0.76

40

1.62

1.31

0.84

60

1.73

1.43

0.95

80

1.81

1.53

1.04

100

1.88

1.61

1.13

120

1.93

1.67

1.20

160

2.02

1.79

1.31

200

2.10

1.87

1.42

300

2.23

2.05

1.63

400

2.34

2.19

1.80

(feet)
x 304.8 for mm

Values for intermediate heights above 15 feet (4572 mrn) may be interpolated.

50
TABLE 2.60-HPRESSURE COEFFICIENTS {Cq)
STRUCTURE OR PART THEREOF
DESCRIPTION
1.Primary frame and systems

2. Elements and components not in


area of discontinuity2

3. Elements and components in area


of discontinuity2,4,5

Method 1 (Normal force method)


Walls:
Windward wall
Leeward wall
Roofs1:
Wind perpendicular to ridge
Leeward roof or flat roof
Windward roof
Less than 2:12(16.7%)
Slope 2:12(16.7%) to less
than 9:12(75%)
Slope 9:12(75%) to 12:12
(100%)
Slope > 12:12 (100%)
Wind parallel to rigid and flat
roofs
Method 2 (Projected area
method)
On vertical projected area:
Structure 40 feet(12192 mm)
or less in height
Structure over 40 feet (12192
mm) in height
On horizontal projected area1
Wall elements
All structures
Enclosed and unenclosed
structures
Partially enclosed structures
Parapet walls
Roof elements3
Enclosed and unenclosed
structures
Slope< 7:12(58.3%)
Slope 7:12(58.3%) to
12:12(100%)
Partially enclosed structures
Slope < 2:12(16.7%)
Slope 2:12(16.7%) to
7:12(58.3%)
Slope> 7:12(58.3%) to
12:12(100%)
Wall corners6
Roof eaves, rakes or ridges
without overhangs6
Slope < 2:12(16.7%)
Slope 2:12(16.7%) to
7:12(58.3%)
Slope> 7:12(58.3%) to
12:12(100%)

Cq FACTOR
0.8 inward
0.5 inward
0.7 outward
0.7 outward
0.9 outward or 0.3 inward
0.4 inward
0.7 inward
0.7 outward

1.3 horizontal any direction


1.4 horizontal any direction
0.7 upward
1.2 inward
1.2 outward
1.6 out ward
1.3 inward or outward

1.3 outward
1.3outward or inward
1.7 outward
1.6 outward or 0.8 inward
1.7 outward or inward
1.5 outward or 1.2 inward
2.3 upward
2.6 out ward
1.6 outward

51

4. chimneys, tanks and solid towers


5. open-frame towers7,8

6. Tower accessories (such as


ladders, conduits, lights and
elevators)

For slope <2:12(16.7%)


Overhangs at roof eaves,
rakes or ridges and canopies
Square or rectangular
Hexagonal or octagonal
Round or elliptical
Square or rectangular
Diagonal
Normal
Triangular
Cylindrical members
2 inches(51mm) or less in
diameter
over 2 inches (51mm) in
diameter
Flat or angular members

7.Signs, flagpoles, lightpoles, minor


structures8

0.5 added to values above


1.4 any direction
1.1 any direction
0.8 any direction
4.0
3.6
3.2
1.0
0.8
1.3
1.4 any direction

For one story or the top story of multistory partially enclosed structures, an additional

value of 0.5 shall be added to the outward Cq. The most critical combination shall be used
for design. For definition of partially enclosed structures, see Section 1616.
2

Cq, values listed are for 10-square-foot (0.93 m2) tributary areas. For tributary areas of 100

square feet (9.29 m2), the value of 0.3 may be subtracted from Cq, except for areas at
discontinuities with slopes less than 7 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (58.3% slope)
where the value of 0.8 may be subtracted from Cq. Interpolation may be used for tributary
areas between 10 and 100 square feet (0.93 m2 and 9.29 m2). For tributary areas greater
than 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2). use primary frame values.
3

For slopes greater than 12 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (100% slope), use wall

element values.
4

Local pressures shall apply over a distance from the discontinuity of 10 feet (3048 mm)

or 0.1 times the least width of the structure, whichever is smaller.


5

Discontinuities at wall corners or roof ridges are defined as discontinuous breaks in the

surface where the included interior angle measures 170 degrees or less.
6

Load is to be applied on either side of discontinuity but not simultaneously on both

sides.
7

Wind pressures shall be applied to the total normal projected area of all elements on one

face. The forces shall be assumed to act parallel to the wind direction.
8

Factors for cylindrical elements are two thirds of those for flat or angular elements.

52

TABLE 2.60-I SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR Z


ZONE

2A

2B

0.075

0.15

0.2

0.3

0.4

TABLE 2.60-J SOIL PROFILE TYPES


SOIL
PROFILE
TYPE

Average Soil properties for top 100 feet (30480 mm)


SOIL
PROFILE
for soil profile
NAME /
GENERIC
Shear
wave Standard
Undrained
DESCRIPTION
velocity, Vs
Penetration test Shear Strength ,
Feet/sec(m/sec)

N (Blows/Ft)

Su ,psf (KPa)

SA

Hard rock

> 5000 (1500)

SB

Rock

2500 to 5000
(760 to 1500)

SC
SD

Very dense soil 1200 to 2500 > 50


and soft rock

(360 to 760)

Stiff soil profile

600

to

1200 15 to 50

(180 to 360)

> 2000 (100)


1000 to 2000
(50 to 100)

SE1

Soft soil profile

SF

Soil requiring site-specific evaluation. See Section 1629.3.1.

<600 (180)

< 15

< 1000 (50)

Soil Profile Type SE also includes any soil profile with more than 10 feet (3048

mm) of soil clay defined as a soil with a plasticity index, PI > 20 and wmc >= 40 %
S u < 500 psf (24 kPa). The Plasticity Index, PI, and the moisture content, w mc ,
shall be determined in accordance with approved national standards.

53
TABLE 2.60-K OCCUPANCY CATEGORY
Occupancy
Category
1

Essential
Facilities2

Hazardous
Facilities

Occupancy

or

function

of Seismic

structure
Group
I,
Division
1
Occupancies having surgery
and emergency treatment
areas.
Fire and police stations.
Garages and shelters for
emergency
vehicles
and
emergency aircrafts.
Structures and shelters in
emergency-preparedness
centers.
Aviation control towers.
Structures an d equipment in
government communication
centers and other facilities
required
for
emergency
response.
Standby
power-generating
equipment for Category 1
facilities.
Tanks or other structures
containing
housing
or
supporting water or other
fire-suppression material or
equipment required for the
protection of Category 1, 2 or
3 structures.
G r o u p H , Divisions 1, 2, 6
and 7 Occupancies and
structures therein housing or
supporting toxic or explosive
chemicals or substances.
Nonbuilding
structures
housing,
supporting
or
containing quantities of toxic
or explosi ve substances that,
if
cont ained
within
a
building, would cause that
building to be classified as a
Group H, Division 1, 2 or 7
Occupancy.

Seismic

Wind
1

importance

importance

importance

factor, I

factor, IP

factor, IW

1.25

1.50

1.15

1.25

1.50

1.15

54
3

Group A, Divisions 1,2 and


2.1 Occupancies.
Buildings housing Group E,
Divisions
1
and
3
Occupancies with a capacity
greater than 300 students.
Buildings housing Group B
Occupancies used for college
or adult education wit h a
capacity greater than 500
students.
Group I, Divisions 1 and 2
Occupancies with 50 or more
incapacitated
resident
patients, but not included in
Category 1.
Division
3
Group
I,
Occupancies.
All structures with an
occupancy greater than 5,000
persons.
Structures and equipment in
power-generating
stations,
and other public utility
facilities not included in
Category 1 or Category 2
above, and required for
continued operation.

1.00

1.00

1.00

All
structures
housing
occupancies
or
having
functions not listed in
Category 1, 2 or 3 and Group
U Occupancy towers.

1.00

1.00

1.00

Miscellaneous Group U Occupancies except


for towers
Structures

1.00

1.00

1.00

Special
Occupancy
Structures3

Standard
Occupancy
Structures3

Th e limitation of IP for panel connections in Section 1633.2.4 shall be 1.0 for the

entire connector.
2

Structural observation requirements are given in Section 1702.

For anchorage of machinery and equipment required for life-safety systems, the

value of IP s h a l l be taken as 1.5

55

CHAPTER 3
DESIGN OF SLAB PANELS AND STAIRS
3.1 SLABS
Slab Panel S1 :
m

0.71

Slab thickness =

Slab wt

DEAD LOAD =

Live load

Wu

16x 22-6

perimeter/180

5.13 5.5

5.5/12 150

69 psf

1 .5 + 5
120
12

65 psf

40 + 20

60 psf

1.2 Wu + 1.6 WLL

1.2 (69 + 65) + 1.6 60

257 psf

MOMENTS
Ma+DL =

0.046 161 162 12

Ma+LL =

0.057 96 162 12 =

16810 lb-in

Ma+

39561 lb-in

Macout =

0.081 257 162 12

22,751 lb-in

63,950

56
MaDis =

39561/3

Mb+DL =

0.011 161 22.52 12

10760 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.014 96 22.52 12

8165 lb-in

Mb+

18925 lb-in

Mb

29665 lb-in

4.75

SHORT SPAN
R

Mu/db2

Ra+

39561
12 4.75 2

146.12 lb-in/in2

0.0028

As

0.0028 12 4.75

0.16 in2

#3 @ 8 C/C
As

0.17

Ra

63950
12 4.75 2

236.19 lb-in/in2

0.0047

As

0.268 in2

# 3 @ 4 C/C

13,187

57
=

0.29 in2

4.25 in

Rb+

18925
12 4.25 2

87.3 lb-in/in2

0.0018

As

0.0918 in2

As
LONG SPAN

#3 @ 10 C/C
As

0.13 in2

Rb

29665
12 4.25 2

136.86 lb-in/in2

0.0028

As

0.143 in2

# 3 @ 9 C/C

58
SLAB PANEL S2 :
One way slab panel
16-6x 8

Wul 2
24

257 8 2 12
24

M+

8,224 lb-in

16448 l

16448
12 4.75 2

60.75

min

As

0.11 in2

M+

0.0018

# 3 @ 10 C/C
+ve Steel

As

0.13 in2

#3 @ 10 C/C

DISTRIBUTION STEEL
As

0.0018 12 4.25

0.092 in2

# 3 @ 14 C/C
As

0.094 in2

59
Slab Panel S3 :
m

WuDL =

0.85
161 psf
16-6x14

Wu LL =

96 psf

Wu

257 psf

MOMENTS
Ma+DL =

0.031 161 142 12=

11739 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.041 96 142 12 =

9258 lb-in

Ma+

20997 lb-in

Ma

0.082 257 142 12

Mb+DL =

0.011 1 16.52 12 =

5786 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.019 96 16.52 12

Mb+

11745 lb-in

STEEL
SHORT SPAN
=

20997
12 4.75 2

77.55 lb-in/in2

0.0018

As

0.10 in2

Ra+

#3 @ 10 C/C

49,566 lb-in

5,959 lb-in

60
Ra

49566
12 4.75 2

0.0036

As

0.205 in2

183 lb-in/in2

SHORT SPAN
# 3 @ 6 C/C
LONG SPAN
# 3 @ 10 C/C

SLAB PANEL S4

0.55

Wu

2.57 psf
12-6x 22-6

WuDL =

161 psf

WuLL =

96 psf

MOMENTS
Ma+DL =

0.031 161 12.52 12

11471 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.063 96 12.52 12

11340 lb-in

Ma+

22812 lb-in

Ma

0.089 257 12.52 12

42887 lb-in

61
STEEL
SHORT SPAN
Ra

42887
12 4.75 2

0.003

As

0.171 in2

158.4 lb-in/in2

#3 @ 7 C/C
LONG DIRECTION
+ve steel # 3 @ 10 C/C

SLAB PANEL S5 :
m

12-6x 14

0.90

MOMENTS
Ma+DL =

0.025 161 12.52 12

7547 lb-in

Ma+LL =

0.035 96 12.52 12

6300 lb-in

Ma+

13842 lb-in

Ma

Mb+DL =

0.024 161 142 12=

9088 lb-in

Mb+LL =

0.027 96 142 12 =

6096 lb-in

Ma+

15185 lb-in

Ma

42313 lb-in

62
STEEL
SHORT SPAN
Rb

42313
12 4.75 2

0.0030

As

0.153 in2

156.3 lb-in/in2

#3 @ 8 C/C

S 6:
TWO WAY SLAB:
LOADING:
DEAD LOAD:

S6
12 x 12

Wt of slab

Perimeter
180

12 4
180

3.2

In this zone one slab have dimensions 16.5 16.5 taking that slab critical
h

Wt. of slab

16.5 4
180

4.4

5/12 150

62.5 lb/sq ft

63
4 earth filling =
Total dead load

4/12 120

15 lb/sq ft

625 + 40 + 15

117.5 lb/sq ft

335 lb/sq ft

LIVE LOAD
100 lb sq ft
FACTORED LOAD
Wu

1.4 WD + 1.7 WL

1.4 117.5 + 1.7 100

Ratio of slab spans

La/Lb

NEGATIVE MOMENT (LB) ONLY

M Ubve =
=

0.071 WL2b
0.07 1 335 122 12

41,101 lb-in

7675 lb-in

POSITIVE MOMENTS
La SPAN

M U+dlve =
=

M a+lLve =
=

0.027 WL2a
0.027 164.5 122 12
0.032 WL2a
0.032 170 122 12

M a+lLve =

9400 lb-in

M a+ ve =

7675 + 9400 =

17,075 lb-in

64
Lb SPAN
M b+ ve dl =

=
M b+ ve lL =

=
M b+ ve =

0.033 Wdl La2


0.033 164.5 122 12

9381 lb in

10282 lb in

0.035 WlL La2


0.035 170 122 12
9381 + 10282 =

19663 lb-in

REINFORCEMENT
Lb span
POSITIVE MOMENT
h

5-0.75-0.25 ( = # 4 bar)

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
fy
0.85 fc'

2 19663

2
0.85 3000
1 1 0.9 12 4
4000
0.85 3000

0.0029

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

# 4 bars @ 12 C/C

0.0029 12 4

65
S max

So

2h =

15

3 5

S < S max OK

SHEAR CHECK
=

1.15 335 12
5
335
2
12

2172 lbs

Vc= 2 fc bd ,= 2 3000 12 5

6573 lbs

Vc

0.85 6573

So

Vu > Vc

Vu

Vn

5586 lbs

OK

Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

Mu

41,101 lb-in

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.00625

As

bd

As

0.200 in2

SPACING
# 3 bars @ 6 C/C

0.00625 12 4

66
La SPAN

For this span


=

4 of bars

4 0.5

17075 lb-in

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.0033

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

Mu

3.5

0.0033 12 3.5

# 3 bars @ 9 C/C

S7:
Two way slab :
LOADING
=

117.5 lb/sq ft

Wu dL =

164.5 lb/sq ft

WdL

100 lb/sq ft

Wu LL =

170 lb/sq ft

Wu

335 lb/sq ft

WlL

12 x 12

Lb

La

67
MOMENTS
La SPAN
M b+ ve dl =

=
M b+ ve lL =

0.018 Wdl La2


0.018 164.5 122 12

5117 lb in

7932 lb in

0.027 WlL La2


0.027 170 122 12

M b+ ve =

7932 + 5117 =

Ma

13049 lb-in

Lb SPAN
M b+ ve dl =

=
M b+ ve lL =

0.027 Wudl Lb2


0.027 164.5 122 12

7675 lb in

9400 lb in

0.032 WulL Lb2


0.032 170 122 12

M b+ ve =

7675 + 9400 =

Ma

0.076 Wu lb2

0.076 335 122 12

REINFORCEMENTS
Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

Mu

41,101 lb-in

17075 lb-in

43995 lb-in

68

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.00625

As

bd

As

0.300 in2

0.00625 12 4

3.5

SPACING
# 4 bars @ 7.5 C/C
La SPAN

For this span


=

4 of bars

4 0.5

17075 lb-in

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.0033

As

bd

As

0.14 in2

Mu

SPACING
# 4 bars @ 12 C/C

0.0033 12 3.5

69
Ve MOMENTS
Lb SPAN
Lb SPAN ve MOMENT

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.00672

As

bd

As

0.322 in2

0.00627 12 4

SPACING
# 4 bars @ 7 C/C

S8:
Two way slab :
Size Of slab = 16.5 X 16.5
LOADING
16.5 x 16.5
2

WdL

117.5 lb/ft

WlL

100 lb/ft2

Wu dL =

164.5 lb/sq ft

Wu LL =

170 lb/sq ft

WU

335 lb/sq ft

Lb

La

70
ve MOMENTS:
La SPAN
M a ve =

0.018 WU La2

M a ve =

54722 lb in

Lb SPAN
M b ve =

54722 lb-in

REINFORCEMENT
+ ve MOMENTS
Lb SPAN

0.00478

As

0.229 in2

# 4 @ 9 C/C
La SPAN

3.5

Mu

31812 lb-in

0.00632

As

0.265 in2

# 4 @ 8 C/C

0.05 335 16.52 12

71
ve MOMENTS
Lb SPAN

Mu

54722 lb-in

0.00848

As

0.407 in2

# 4 @ 5 C/C
As

0.43 in2

La SPAN

3.5

Mu

54722 lb in

0.0113

As

0.476 in2

# 4 @ 5 C/C

As

0.47 in2

S8a:
La

12

Lb

16

12/16

0.75

Slab thickness =

(12 + 16) 2
180

12 x 16.5

La
=

Lb

72
MuLL =

102 psf

Wu DL =

1.2 127.8

Wu

280.5 psf

(60 1.6)
=

178.5 psf

Ma+DL =

0.043 175 122

13300 lb in

Ma+LL =

0.052 102 122

9165 lb in lb in

Ma

0.076 281 122

369.3 lb in

Mb+DL =

0.013 179 162

7149 lb in

Mb+LL =

0.016 102 162

5013.5 lb in

Mb

0.024 281 162

20718 lb in

REINFORCEMENT
SHORT SPAN
+ve STEEL

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.00196

As

bd

As

0.1 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C
ve STEEL

Ma

369093

0.00328

0.00196 12 5

73
As

0.167 in2

# 3 @ 8 C/C
LONG SPAN
M+b

12163

0.00136

# 3 @ 10 C/C
Ve MOMENTS

Mb

20718

0.00233

As

0.105 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

S9:
Span =

12-9 15 9

0.8

Slab thickness =
wt

12.75 x 15.75

5.5

69 psf

Dead load above slab =


=

1 .5 + 5
120
12

La

65 psf

Wu DL

1.4 (69 + 65)

Wu LL

102 psf

1876 psf

Lb

74
MOMENTS
SHORT SPAN
Ma+DL =

0.039 188 12.752

14303 lb in

Ma+LL =

0.048 102 12.752

9551 lb in

Ma

0.071 290 12.752

40166 lb in

Mb+DL =

0.016 188 15.752 12

8954 lb in

Mb+LL =

0.020 102 15.752

12

6072.6 lb in

Mb

0.029 290 15.752

12

25035 lb in

LONG SPAN

REINFORCEMENT
SHORT SPAN (+ve STEEL)

0.85 fc'
2Mu / bd 2
1 1
0.85 fc'
fy

0.00196

As

bd

As

0.1 in2

0.00196 12 5

# 3 @ 10 C/C
ve STEEL

Ma

40166 lb in

0.00284

As

0.162 in2

( # 3 @ 8 C/C )

75
LONG SPAN
Mb+

15027 lb in

0.0013

As

0.066

# 3 @ 10 C/C
Mbv

25035 lb-in

0.0022

As

0.11 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C

S10:
Size

27 14

Depth =

5.5

0.518

WuDL =

188 psf

WuLL =

102psf

Wu

290 psf

27x14

Lb

MOMENT
SHORT SPAN
Ma+DL

0.039 188 142 12

17245

La

76
Ma+LL

0.067 102 142 12

Ma+

31639 lb in

Ma

Mb+DL

14394

0.09 290 142 12

61387 lb-in

0.001 188 272 12

1644 lb-in

Mb+LL

0.004 102 272 12

3568 lb-in

Mb+

0 lb in

LONG SPAN

STEEL
SHORT SPAN
Ma+

31639 lb-in

0.0022

As

0.126 in2

# 3 @ 10 C/C
ve STEEL

Ma

61387

0.0044

As

0.252 in2

# 3 @ 5 C/C

77

S11 :
Size of panel = 13 27 ft
One way slab
13x 27
Slab thickness = 6 inch
Total dead load on slab = 75 + 6.5/12 120
= 140 lbs / sq. ft
Live load

= 80 PSF

Wu = 140 1.2 + 80 1.6 = 332 PSF


M+=

9
WL2 = (9/128) 332 13 2 12 = 47341 lb-in
128

M-=

WL2
= 332 13 2 12 /8 = 84162 lb-in
8

STEEL CALCULATIONS :
MAIN STEEL :
R+ =

47341
= 143.13 ib-in /in3
2
12 5.25

0.0028

As

0.176 in2

# 4 @ 10 C/C
R-=

84162
= 254.46 lb-in /in3
2
12 5.25

0.005

As

0.315 in2

( # 4 @ 7 C/C )

78
TEMPERATURE AND SHRINKAGE REINFORCEMENT :

0.0018

As

0.1134 in2

Size

12 9 16 6

0.77

( # 3 @ 10 C/C )

SB1:

16.5x12.75

Same design as for toilets can be adopted


lb

SHORT SPAN
+ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve steel

# 3 @ 8 C/C

LONG SPAN
+ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

ve steel

# 3 @ 10 C/C

3.2. TWO-WAY JOIST SLAB ( SJ ) :

(Two way Joist slab)


Size of slab = 60 78
m

60
78

21.5 in.

self weight

132 psf

0.77

la

79

dead load (2 P.C.C.) =

2
140
12

23.5 psf

187 psf

Live load

100 psf

WDL

(132 + 23.5) 1.2

WLL

100 1.6

160 psf

Wu

(132 + 23.5) 1.2 + 100 1.6

347 psf

Ma+DL+LL

0.059 347 602 12

Ma+

884434 lb-in

Ma

Mb+DL+LL

Mb+

532010 lb-in

Mb

MOMENTS

0.021 347 782 12

STEEL
SHORT SPAN
=

42313
12 212

159.44 lb-in/in3

0.0030

Asa

0.774 in2

Ra+

884434 lb-in

532010 lb-in

80
Rb+

42313
12 212

0.0019

Asb

0.49 in2

95.9 lb-in/in3

STEEL IN RIBS :
SHORT SPAN :
Total steel for one rib = 3 Asa

= 0.774 3 = 2.32 in2

2 # 8 + 2 # 6 bars
LONG SPAN :
Total steel for one rib = 3 Asb

= 0.49 3 = 1.47 in2

2 # 8 bars
Check for shear :
Wu for 3 ft width of panel

347 3

1041 lbs

SHORT SPAN:
Distribution of load in short direction

73 %

Vu

1041 0.73 60 2 =

22,797.9 lbs

Vc

0.75 2 fc bd

0.75 2 3000 12 21

14131 lbs

Vu Vc

8667 lbs

81
Max spacing for shear reinforcement:
1. 24 in.
2. d / 2
3.

AV f y

10.5 in.

50bw

Vu Vc

0.22 40,000
=
50 8

16.5 in.

Av f y d
S

0.75 0.22 40,000 21


8867

16 in.

So providing # 3 bars @ 10 C/C both ways

3.3. STAIR DESIGN

Sec. 1-1 :
Number of risers

10

(7.5 each)

Number of treads

(11 each )

Width of landing

Clear span

4 + 9 11 / 12

Assuming thickness of slab


Effective span =

12.25 + 0.5

LOAD CALCULATIONS:
LANDING :
L.L.

100 lb /ft2

12.25 ft

5 in.
=

12.75 ft

82
Dead loads:
=

62.5 lb/ft2

Floor finish

Wu

100 1.6 + 72.5 1.2 =

247 lb/ft2

Slab weight

5/12 150
10 lb/ft2

STEPS :

Weight of inclined slab

Weight of concrete in steps

slab weight in horizontal

62.5 1.216 =

76 lb/ft2

7.5 11
12
150
2 144
11

Wu

1.6 100 +1.2 (76 + 47+ 10 )

Taking Wu

47 lb/ft2

10 lb/ft2

Floor finish
=

R2 + T 2
T

320 lb/ft2

320 lb/ft2 for simplicity in calculations and to be on safer side

MOMENTS:
Mu+

W uL2
24

2167 lb-ft

Mu-

W uL2
12

4334 lb-ft

136 lb in/in3

Depth of slab =

5 in.

4 in.

12 in.

Ra+

2167 12
12 4 2

83

0.0028

As+

0.134 in2

Ra-

4334 12
12 4 2

0.0056

As+

0.27 in2

( # 3 @ 9 C/C )
=

271 lb in/in3

(# 3@ 9 C/C )

DISTRIBUTION STEEL :
=

0.0018 12 5

0.108 in2

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Sec. 2-2 :
Number of risers

10

(7.5 each)

Number of treads

(11 each )

Width of landing

Clear span

4 + 4 + 9 11 / 12

Assuming thickness of slab


Effective span =

16.25 + 0.5

5 in.
=

16.75 ft

62.5 lb/ft2

LOAD CALCULATIONS:
LANDING :
L.L.

100 lb /ft2

Dead loads:
Slab weight

5/12 150

16.25 ft

84
10 lb/ft2

Floor finish

Wu

100 1.6 + 72.5 1.2 =

247 lb/ft2

STEPS :

Weight of inclined slab

Weight of concrete in steps

slab weight in horizontal

62.5 1.216 =

76 lb/ft2

7.5 11
12
150
2 144
11

Wu

1.6 100 +1.2 (76 + 47+ 10 )

Taking Wu

47 lb/ft2

10 lb/ft2

Floor finish
=

R2 + T 2
T

320 lb/ft2

320 lb/ft2 for simplicity in calculations and to be on safer side

MOMENTS:
Mu+

W uL2
24

3741 lb-ft

Mu-

W uL2
12

7482 lb-ft

234 in/in3

Depth of slab =

5 in.

4 in.

12 in.

Ra+

3741 12
12 4 2

0.0048

As+

0.23 in2

85
# 4 @ 10 C/C
Ra-

7482 12
12 4 2

0.0096

As+

0.46 in2

467 lb in/in3

# 4@ 5 C/C
DISTRIBUTION STEEL :
=

0.0018 12 5
# 3 @ 12 C/C

0.108 in2

96

CHAPTER 5
DESIGN OF BEAMS

41.7 k

BEAM B-1:

40.57 k
2.57 k/ft

Span =

51.3 k

50.7 k

60

21
=

at slab

Wu =

51.3 k

58
218.54 k

Wu

50.7 k

60

257 PSF

2.57 k / ft

21

M+

3700.7 k-ft ( Sap analysis)

RN

Mu +
bd 2

699 lb-in/in3

.016

As

bd

18.48in2

19#9 bars

(As

218.54 k

7#9 bars in each layer


Three layers are provided

19in2 )

97

CHECK FOR SHEAR


Vc

Vu

0.75 2 3000 21 55

47.5 Kips.

218.54 kips

Vu at distance d

206.76 kips

Criteria for max. spacing


=
d/2

AV f y
50bw

55/2

24

7.5

27

22#4 @ 7.5 C/C +17 # 4@ 12 C/C (4 legged stirrups)

BEAM B-2:

6.95 k/ft

Span = 30 ft
M

RN

12.9 k

1.17 k/ft

wl 2
8

3.6 30 2
8

405 k-ft

Mu
bd 2

889 lb-in/in3

51.3 k

12.9 k

30

51.3 k

30
15

98

0.0182

M+

3.72 30 2
8

419 k.ft

RN

646.2

0.014

As = 5.04 in2
12 # 6 bars
CHECK FOR SHEAR
Vc = 0.75 2 3000 15 27

Vu

37.7 kips

57 kips

Vu at dist d
=
Vu Vc

57 1.125

55.875 kips
=

18.175 Kips

Criteria for max. spacing


=
d/2

Vu Vc =

AV f y
50bw

27/2
Av f y d
S

24

.22 40,000
50 27

13.5

= 11.73 = 11

99

0.75 0.22 40,000 13.5


= 11.11
18.175

So 12 # 3 @ 11 C/C + 5 # 3 @ 18 C/C

BEAM B-3 :
4.51 k/ft

Span

22.5
50.74 k

21

15

Dead load

Wt

21

151 16

2576 lb/ft

21"15"
150
11 14

328 lb/ft

328 1.2

15

394 lb/ft

Total DL

Wu lL =

2970 lb/ft

Live load

Wu DL =

9616

Wu

4506 lb/ft

4506 22.5 2 12
8

3421744 lb/ft

3421744
15 192

50.74 k

1536 lb/ft

100
=

631.9 lb in/in2

0.0138

As

3.93 in2

10# 6 bars in two layers


CHECK FOR SHEAR
Vu
Vu at d

Vc

50692 lb

50692 4506

43558

26537

Vu - Vc

Smax

Avfy
50bw

19
12

43506 26537

17021 lbs

11.25 284

8.38-4

d/2

24

17.6

0.75 0.22 60000 19


17021

12.52

First bar at 4.5 from support

9.5

( 11 bars @ 9 C/C )

101

BEAM B-4
Span

22.5

21

Dead load

Live load

3.61 k/ft

40.61 k

15
=

161 12.5

2012.5 lb/ft

96 12.5

1200 lb/ft

Self weight = 328 lb / ft


=

1.2 328 + 2012.5 +1200

3606 lb/ft

3606 22.5 2 12
8

2738306 lb/ft

2738306
15 19 2

505.69 lb in/in2

0.011

As

3.13 in2

Wu

8# 6 bars in two layers

22.5

40.61 k

21

12

102
CHECK FOR SHEAR
Vu
Vu at d

Vc

40568 lb

40568 5709.5

34859 lbs

26537

Vu - Vc

34859 26587

8322 lbs

0.75 0.22 60000 19


8322

25.6

# 3bars @ 9 C/C

Vc
2

26537
2

13268

11.25
13268
405.68

3.68

# 3 @ 9 C/C upto 5.6 from support


1.78 k/ft

BEAM B-5:
Span =

12.91 k

14.5

12.91 k

14.5
12

12

103

Self weight =
Wu

RN

As

Wl2/8

1780 14.52/8

Mu +
bd 2

46.8 12000
0.9 9 10.5 2

627 lb-in/in2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

1.22in2
(As

627
779.3

46.8 k-ft

= 0.013

1.32in2 )

CHECK FOR SHEAR


Vc

135 lb/ft

1780 lb/ft

3#6 bars

257 PSF

1644 + 135 =
M+

(112.5 lb/ft) 1.2

0.75 2 3000 9 10.5

8.8 Kips.

104

Vu

1967 14.5/2

14.3 kip

Vu at distance d

14.3-1.97 0.88

Criteria for max. spacing


=
d/2
Vu Vc

Vu

=
=

AV f y
50bw

10.5/2

12.6 kips

24

.22 40,000
50 9

= 19

5.25

= 5

Av f y d
S

0.75 .22 40,000 10.5


10

7.85cm

16.65 kip

12#3 @ 5 C/C + 3 # 3@ 11 C/C

1.98 k/ft

BEAM B-6:
16.34 k

Span =

16.5

15

16.5

16.34 k

15

105

Self weight =
Wu

257 PSF

1644 + 169 =

M+

(141 lb/ft) 1.2

1813 lb/ft

wl2/8 =

61.69 k-ft

RN

Mu
bd 2

0.0112

As

1.37 in2

1813 16.5 2
8

548 lb-in/in3

4 # 6 bars
CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vc = 0.75 2 3000 9 13.5

Vu

11.31 kips

16.3 kips

Vu at dist d
=

14.07 kips

Max spacing =
Vu Vc

16.3 1.125 1.98

Av f y d
S

169 lb/ft

106

Vu

0.75 0.22 40,000 13.5


6

16.83 + 11.31

28.14 kips

# 3 @ 6 C/C (10 IN NUMBER )

16.5

BEAM B-7
15

Span = 16.5

7 2.5 + 78 + 4 4 + 8.5 4

116.5 sq-ft

Width of loading

7.06

Dead load

161 706

1130 lb/ft

Live load

96 7.06

678 lb/ft

Self wt

15 4
150
144

140.6 lb/ft

140.6 1.2 + 1137

1306 lb/ft

Area of loading

Total D.L.

Wu

1306 + 678

1984 16.5 2 12
8

1984 lb/ft

107
=

6751812

810216 lb-in

810216
9 13 2

532.68

0.0113

As

0.0113 9 13

1.32 in2

3 # 6 bars
CHECK FOR SHEAR
Vu

Vc

16.5
12

1984

16368 lbs

16368-1984

13883 lbs

0.75

10894 lbs

Vu Vc

5.48

d/2

6-5

15
12

3000 9 13

2994 lbs

First bar # @ 3.25 from support next 10 bars @ 6.5 C/C

108

BEAM B-8

1.25 k/ft

Wl2

320 k-ft

M+

22.85 k.ft

32 k.ft

20 k.ft

RN

32 12000
12 13.5 2

0.004

As

0.648 in2

16

12.5

12.5

15

12

189.34 lb-in/in3

2# 6 bars
CHECK FOR SHEAR
Vu

Vc =

115k
0.75 2 3000 12 13.5
Av f y

50bw
.22 40,000
50 12

#3 @ 12 C/C

15

14.66

15K. =

7.5 K

109
1.25 k/ft

BEAM B-9
22.5

Mu
bd 2

1.66 12000
=
15 13.5 2

.017

As

3.44in2

max RNmax

ve

7# 6 bars

+ve

7# 6 bars

+ve

2# 6 bars

RN

14

15

Vc

0.75 2 3000 15 16 =

Vu

24.7kip ,39.75 kip

SPACING
(i)

24

(ii)

Avfy/50 bw

(iii)

d/2 =
=

9
Av f y d
S

11

22.5

17.5

729 lb-in/in3

CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vu Vc

22.31 cm

110

Vu

0.75 .22 40,000 16


9"

35.6 Kips

13.31 Kips

23# 3 @ 8 C/C 15 # 3 @ 6 C/C + 10 # 3@ 9 C/C + 4 #3 @ 12 C/C + 6@ 9 +


15@6 + 13@ 9 C/C + 3@ 12 C/C

BEAM B-10
Span =

12

Span
18.5

15
9

Self weight =

9 15
150
144

Total dead load

Live load

80 lb/ft

15

14012 +141

Wu

18211.2 +80121.6

M+

WL2/14

3721 12 2
12
14

M-interior

M-exterior

140.6 lb/ft

Wl2/9

3721 12 2
12
9

WL2/16

1821 lb/ft

3721 lb/ft

459,278 lb-in

714,432 lb-in

111

3721 12 2
12
16

401,868 lb-in

Steel :
=

Mu +
bd 2

459,278
9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

0.70 in2

2 # 6 bars

(As

0.88 in2 )

RN-interior

Mu
bd 2

RN+

As

280
779.3

280 lb-in/in2

= 0.0057

714,432
9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

1.087 in2

3 # 6 bars

(As

1.32 in2 )

RN-exterior

Mu
bd 2

As

435.6
779.3

435.6 lb-in/in2

= 0.00894

112

As

401,868
9 13.5 2

max RN/RNmax

0.016

bd

0.61 in2

(As

0.88 in2 )

2 # 6 bars

245 lb-in/in2

245
779.3

= 0.00503

CHECK FOR SHEAR


Vc

Vu

0.75 2 3000 9 13.5

9.98 Kips.

3721 12 / 2

22.33 kips

Vu at distance d

22.33-3.721 13.5/12

Criteria for max. spacing


=

AV f y
50bw

24

.22 40,000
50 9

d/2

13.5 / 2

Av f y d
Vu - Vc

0.75 .22 40,000 13.5


8.16 10 3

10.92 in

= 6.75

= 19
6.5

18.14 kips

113

Vu

16.65 kip

12 # 3 @ 6 C/C + 3 # 3@ 12 C/C
2493 lb/ ft

BEAM B-11

16.5 ft

Span =

16.5

12

12

Self weight =
Wu

(150 lb/ft) 1.2

257 PSF

2313 + 180 =

M+

12

2493 lb/ft

wl /8 =

84.84 k-ft

RN

Mu
bd 2

0.016

As

2.0 in2

5 # 6 bars

2493 16.5 2
8

770 lb-in/in3

180 lb/ft

12

114
CHECK FOR SHEAR

Vc = 0.75 2 3000 12 10.5

Vu

10.31 kips

20.57 kips

Vu at dist d
=

18.39 kips

Max spacing =
Vu Vc

Vu

20.57 10.5/12 2.493

5.25

Av f y d
S

0.75 0.22 40,000 10.5


5 .0

13.86 + 10.31

24.17 kips O.K.

# 3 @ 5 C/C

BEAM B-12
Span =

16

15

Self weight =
Wu

10.86 k

.78 k/ft
16
11.67 k

11.67 k

15

9
(140 lb/ft) 1.2

257 PSF

170lb/ft

115

585+ 170

M1+ =

Wl2/8

780 lb/ft

780 162/8 =

25 k-ft

M2+ = PL/4
= 10.86 k x 16 / 4 =

4.34 k-ft

M+ = 29.34 k-ft
RN

Mu +
bd 2

29.34 x 12000

174

.9 x 9 x 13.52

174 lb-in/in2

0.0036

As

bd

.43 in2

2#6 bars

(As

.88 in2 )

CHECK FOR SHEAR


Vc

Vu

0.75 2 3000 9 13.5

9.98 Kips.

11.67 Kips

116

Vu at distance d

11.67-1.125 0.78 =

Criteria for max. spacing


AV f y

=
d/2
Vu Vc

50bw

24

.22 40,000
50 9

13.5/2
Av f y d

.82 kips

= 19

( #3 @ 7 C/C )

BEAM B-13
11.67 k

Span =

27

21

12

800 + 320

(267 lb/ft) 1.2

257 PSF
=

Mu +
bd 2

212.05 x 12000
12 x 19.52

558 lb-in/in2
.0114

320 lb/ft
12

1120 lb/ft

32.2 k

21

M+ = 212.05 k-ft
RN

27

32.2 k

Self weight =
Wu

11.67 k

10.86 k

1.12 k/ft

558

117

As

bd

2.68 in2

7#6 bars

(As

3.08 in2 )

CHECK FOR SHEAR


Vc

Vu

0.75 2 3000 12 19.5

19.2 Kips.

32.22 Kips

Vu at distance d

11.67-1.625 1.12 =

Criteria for max. spacing


=
d/2
Vu Vc

=
=

AV f y
50bw

19.5/2
Av f y d
S

24

.22 40,000
50 9

30.4 kips

= 14

= .75 x .22 x 40000 x 19.5 / 9

= 14 .3 kips
#3 @ 9 C/C

118

CHAPTER 6
DESIGN OF COLUMNS AND RETAINING WALL
6.1. COLUMNS
Column C-1:
Pu

222 kips

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

Mu

151 kip-ft

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

18 x 18 in.

Pu
222
=
= 0.685
Ag 18 18
Mu
151 12
=
= 0.311
Ag h 18 18 18
=

h 2d 18 5
=
= 0.72
h
18

# 3 @ 12 C/C

From the Column Interaction Diagram (A-7)


g

0.01

As

3.24 in2

8 # 6 bars

(As =

12 #6
bars
3.52 in2 )

Stirrups Design :
Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

18

119
Spacing Min. of the followings :
1.

16 times Diameter of longitudinal bars

12

2.

48 times diameter of lateral bars

18

3.

least dimension of column

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

Column C-2:
Pu

41 kips

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

Mu

61 kip-ft

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

18 x 18 in.

Pu
41
=
= 0.127
Ag 18 18
Mu
61 12
=
= 0.126
Ag h 18 18 18
=

h 2d 18 5
=
= 0.72
18
h

# 3 @ 12 C/C

From the Column Interaction Diagram (A-7)


g

0.01

As

3.24 in2

12 #6
bars

120
8 # 6 bars

(As =

3.52 in2 )

18

Stirrups Design :
Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

Spacing Min. of the followings :


4.

16 times Diameter of longitudinal bars

12

5.

48 times diameter of lateral bars

18

6.

least dimension of column

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

Column C-3:
Pu

41 kips

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

Mu

61 kip-ft

(From SAP2000 Analysis )

fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Size of column

Pu
41
=
= 0.182
Ag 15 15

15 x 15 in.

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Mu
61 12
=
= 0.217
Ag h 15 15 15
=

h 2d 15 4
=
= 0.73
15
h

15

8 #6
bars

121
From the Column Interaction Diagram (A-7)
g

0.01

As

2.25 in2

6 # 6 bars

(As =

3.52 in2 )

STIRRUPS DESIGN
Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

Spacing Min. of the followings :


7.

16 times Diameter of longitudinal bars

12

8.

48 times diameter of lateral bars

18

9.

least dimension of column

18

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

6.2. FOOTING DESIGN

FOOTING F-1:
Pu

222 Kips

Mu

151 Kip-ft

Depth of footing

5 ft

Height of footing

2 ft

Pn

160 Kips

Bearing capacity(qall) =
qnet

(assuming)

1.5 tons / sq. ft

3360 120 x 5

3360 lbs/ft2

122

Area of footing

Pn
q net

Size of footing

8 8 ft

qreq

Pn M y
+
A
I

qreq

4.263 Kip / ft2

160 1000
58 sq. ft
2760

( total area = 64 sq. ft )


160 1000 150 1000 4 12
+
64
8 83

As qreq is greater than qall so increasing the area of footing


A

9 x 9 ft

qreq

160 1000 150 1000 4.5 12


+
81
9 93

qreq

3233 lbs / ft2

qreq

<

qall.

O.K.

Pu 1.5 160 1000


=
=
A
81 12 12

Applied soil pressure (qind. ) =


qind.

20.56 psi

2.96 Kip / ft2

CHECK FOR SHEAR


One-way shear :
d

20.5 in.

qind.

2.96 Kip / ft2

3.75 ft
d
2.04 ft

18

2.96 Kip / ft

Base shear (Vu at a distance d)


=2.961000(3.75 - 20 / 12) 9
=

54,000 lbs

Shear capacity

Vc

0.75 2 3000 12 20 9

10

18
A

= 182,000 lbs
Vu > Vc

O.K.

A
9

Two-way Shear (Punching Shear):

123

20.5 in.

bo

(18+10+10)x4

152 in.

Vu

qind.x (A-A)

Vu

2.96 x (92-382/144)

Vu

236.3 Kips

Vc

0.75 4 3000 152 20.5


1000

Vc

512 Kips

Vu > Vc

O.K.

Flexural reinforcement in foundation:


Mu

qind . 3.75 2
9
2

As

Mu
0.9 f y (0.9d )

2.96 3.75 2
9
2
=

187.3 12000
0.9 60,000 0.9 20.5

2.26 in2
12 # 4 bars Both ways

FOOTING F-2:
Pu

41 Kips

Mu

61 Kip-ft

Depth of footing

5 ft

Height of footing

1.5 ft (assuming)

Pn

30 Kips

Bearing capacity(qall) =
qnet

1.5 tons / sq. ft

3360 120 x 5

187.3 Kip-ft.

3360 lbs/ft2

124

Area of footing

Pn
q net

Size of footing

3.5 3.5 ft

qreq

Pn M y
+
A
I

qreq

10,971 lbs / ft2

30 1000
11 sq. ft
2760

( total area = 12.25 sq. ft )

30 1000 61 1000 1.75 12


+
12.25
3 . 5 3 .5 3

As qreq is greater than qall so increasing the area of footing


A

5.5 x 5.5 ft

qreq

30 1000 61 1000 2.75 12


+
30.25
5 .5 5 .5 3

qreq

3188 lbs / ft2

qreq

<

qall.

O.K.

Pu 1.5 30 1000
=
=
A
30.25

Applied soil pressure (qind. ) =

1.488 Kip / ft2

CHECK FOR SHEAR


One-way shear :

2.125 ft
d
0.96 ft

15

14 in.

qind.

1.488 Kip / ft2

18
1.488 Kip / ft

Base shear (Vu at a distance d)


=1.48810000.965.5
=

7,856 lbs

Shear capacity

Vc

0.75 2 3000 12 14 5.5

= 75,914 lbs
Vu > Vc

O.K.

15
A

Two-way Shear (Punching Shear):


d

20.5 in.

bo

(15+7+7)x4

A
5.5

5.5

125

116 in.

Vu

qind.x (A-A)

Vu

1.488 x (5.52-292/144)

Vu

36.32 Kips

Vc

0.75 4 3000 116 14


1000

Vc

266.85 Kips

Vu > Vc

O.K.

Flexural reinforcement in foundation:


Mu

qind . 2.125 2
5.5
2

As

Mu
0.9 f y (0.9d )

0.33 in2

1.488 2.125 2
5.5 =
2
=

18.5 12000
0.9 60,000 0.9 14

1.664 in2

Providing Min. area of steel


=

0.0018 5.5 12 14

10 # 4 bars Both ways

18.5 Kip-ft.

126

6.3. RETAINING WALL DESIGN


9
2

G.L.

10
12

12

WEIGHTS
1

Central Stem =

150 x 0.75 x 12.0

1350.0 lbs

Base Slab

150 x 5.75 x 1.0

862.5 lbs

Back Fill

120 x 1.0 x 10.0

1200.0 lbs

3412.5 lbs

Total Weight

PRESSURE FORCES:
1

Active Earth Pressure

0.50 x 0.33 x 120 x 11.02

=2420.0 lbs

Passive Earth Pressure

0.50 x 3.00 x 120 x 1.002

=180.0 lbs

Overturning Moment =
Mo

H(i)xY(i) Lb-ft
2420.0 x 3.667

Restoring Moment (MR)

Wi Xi lb-ft

1350.0 4.375

5906 lb-ft

862.5 2.875

2480 lb-ft

1200.0 x 5.250

6300 lb-ft

8873 lb-ft

127
Total Moment

F.O.S. vs OVERTURNING =

14686 lb-ft
14686 / 8873 =

1.66

Safety vs SLIDING :
(In this case sliding is not critical as there is load coming on the wall from the top)
SO NO NEED OF CHECK FOR SLIDING
Safety vs BEARING :
X

(MR Mo ) / W

(14686 -8873 ) / 3412.5

3412.5 x (2.875-1.703)

5.75 ft2

5.752 / 6

P/AM/Z

pH

-132 lb/ft2

pT

1319 lb/ft2

1.703 ft

3412.5 lbs

3998 lb-ft

5.51 ft3
pH
PT
5.75 ft

Modified Pressure Diagram


As Pressure at heel is Negative so modifying the pressure at toe we have
pT

2/3W/X
(2/3) 3412.5 / 1.703

FOS vs BEARING

3360/1336

1336 lb/ft2

2.52

128
MOMENTS AND SHEARS IN WALL ELEMENTS
1.7 x (2000.00 x ( 9.542 / 10.0)2 )

3095 lbs

Stem Moment =

1.7 x (2000.00 x 3.333)

11333 lb-ft

Heel Shear

1.4 x 150

Stem Shear

Heel Moment =

1890 lbs

1890x1.00/2 =

945 lb-ft

TOE STRESSES:
Pressure Under Toe

5.75 ft

1336 lb/ft2

Pressure at 4.0 From Toe =

290 lb/ft2

Shear at Junction

1.7 x 2671 + 1.7 x 580- 0.9 x 600

Shear at Critical Section=


Toe Moment =

1336

4988 lbs

4988+0.9x150x1.0x0.708 -1.7x290x0.708= 4734 lbs

1.7x2671x2.667+1.7x580x1.333-0.9x600x2.0 =

12345 lb-ft

DESIGN FOR STEM STEELS :


Shear at Critical Section (Vu)

3095 lbs

Shear Capacity of Section (Vc)

2x0.75x (3000)1/2 x 12 x 5.5 = 5422 lbs

Shear Check for Stem OK


Vertical Steels for Stem :
Earth Side

0.50 Sq in/ft; (Min 3 in Cover)


# 4 @ 4 C/C

Exposed Side =

0.5x0.0015x 12x9.0 =
# 3 @ 9 C/C

0.08 Sq in/ft; (Min 2 in Cover)

129
Horizontal Steels for Stem :
=

0.5 x 0.0025 x 12 x 9.0

0.14 Sq in/ft on Each Face

# 3 @ 9 C/C
DESIGN FOR STEELS IN BASE SLAB :
Shear Capacity of Section

2 x 0.75 x (3000)1/2 x 12 x 8.5

Ciritical Shear in Base

4734 lbs

Shear Check for Base OK


Main Steel for Heel (Top Face)
Designed on Minimum Steel Ratio (Beam)
0.22 Sq in/ft;

(Min 3 in Cover)

# 4 @ 9 C/C
Main Steel for Toe (Bottom Face) :
Designed on Minimum Steel Ratio (Beam)
0.34 Sq in/ft;

(Min 3 in Cover)
# 4 @ 6 C/C

Distribution Steel in Base Slab


=

0.0018x12x12.0
# 4 @ 9 C/C

0.26 Sq in/ft on Each Face

9498 lbs

130

CHAPTER 7
DESIGN OF DOMES AND MINARET

7.1 DESIGN OF DOMES


DOME-1

Diameter of Dome =

Surface area of dome =

d2/2

30 ft
=

Assuming Thickness of dome

Total weight of dome

4/12 150

Assuming Live load on dome


Total load on dome =

1413.7 sq. ft

4 in.
=

50 psf

108 psf

30 psf

501.2 +301.6

Meridional Thrust (acts tangentially)

Circumferential force (acts horizontally)

1
1 cos

N = W r
= Wr
2
sin
1 + Cos
1 cos cos 2
T = W r
sin 2

AT CROWN
T

Wr

0.510815 =

810 lbs

Wr =

10815

=1

620 lbs

N
fy 0.7

AT BASE
T

STEEL AREA
fy

40,000 psi

Steel for Circumferential force ( T )

AsT

131

AsT

1620
=
40,000 0.7

0.058 in2
0.058 in2

Steel for Meridional Thrust ( N ) =

AsN

Max. spacing limited to 3 h

3 4 =

12 in.

So placing # 3 bars @ 9 C/C


Providing As

0.15 in2

.O.K.

NOTE : As provided is very larger than the area required ( 3 times more ) so
curtailment can be done appropriately, then check for capacity.
TANGENTIAL STEEL
Number of bars at base
At

126 ( #3 @ 9 C/C )

868 lbs

30 :

1 cos 30
N = 108 15

2
sin 30

As

868
=
40,000 0.7

0.031 in2

Required spacing : # 3 @ 40 C/C


Total circumference at 30 =

d1 =

Number of bars provided =

16

Spacing provided

47/16 12

47 ft
36 in.

So safe but taking 32 bars up to 25


At

60

1 cos 60
N = 108 15

2
sin 60

1080 lbs

As = 0.039 in2
REQUIRED SPACING # 3 @ 34 C/C
Total circumference at 60 =

d2 =

81.62 ft

132

Number of bars provided =


Spacing provided

32

47/16 12

30 in.

So safe but taking 63 bars up to 55


Cut lengths for Tangential Steel :
Diameter of bars

3/8 in.

16 bars

23.56 ft

16 bars

17 ft

32 bars

9.16 ft

63 bars

4 ft

HORIZONTAL STEEL

60 :

1 cos 60 cos 2 60

T = 1620
sin 2 60

As Required =

0.019 in2

Spacing required

# 3 bars @ 65 C/C

Providing # 3 @ 18 C/C

30 :

Providing # 3 bars @ 36 C/C

16
32
63
126

540 lbs

55 25
75
90

133

DOME-2
Diameter of dome

14 ft

Thickness of dome =

4 in.

TANGENTIAL STEEL :
Providing the same steel as in the DOME-1
At the base of dome

# 3 @ 9 C/C

Total number of bars at the base of the Dome

55 :

Total bars

25 :

Total bars

14 12 / 9 =

75 :

Total bars
=

32

16
8

CUT LENGTHS FOR TANGENTIAL STEEL


Diameter of bars

3/8 in.

8 bars

12.56 ft

8 bars

9.1 ft

16 bars

6.3 ft

32 bars

2.5 ft
9

HORIZONTAL STEEL :

Providing # 3 bars @ 9 C/C

60 :

Providing # 3 bars @ 18 C/C

17

90 :

30 :

Providing # 3 bars @ 36 C/C

34
68

55 25
75
90

64

134

9 ft

7.2. DESIGN OF MINARET


Basic wind speed = 100 miles / hr
qs

25.6 psf

1.13 1.4 25.6

Total q
Wu

(Table .)
=

40.5 9

364.5 lb/ft

40.5 PSF

9 ft

364.5 1.3

473.85 lb/ft

WuL / 2

28431 Kip-in.

4 (21 213 12 ) + 4 (21 21 ) (3.625 12)2

3402,756 in4

I/y

21

3402,756 / (3.625 12 )

78,224 in3

M/S =

28431 1000 / 78,224

364 psi

Pu

=f A =

W L2 /10

(473.852) 102 12 / 10 =

=
=

364 21 21

160.28

Kips
Mu

28.43 Kip-in.

Design of Column of minaret :


fc

4,000 psi

fy

60,000 psi

Pu 160.28
=
= 0.83
Ag 21 21

# 3 @ 12 C/C

Mu
28.43
=
= 0.0033
Ag h 21 21 21

h 2d 17
=
= 0.8
h
21

12 #6
bars

From the Column Interaction Diagram :


g

0.01

As

4.41 in2

21

135

12 # 6 bars

(As

5.28 in2 )

Check for tension :


T

0.75 As fy

21

0.75 5.28 60,0000

237,000 lbs >

Pu

O.K.

STIRRUPS DESIGN
Diameter of stirrups =

3/8 in.

Spacing Min. of the followings :


1. 16 times Diameter of longitudinal bars

12

2. 48 times diameter of lateral bars

18

3. least dimension of column

21

# 3 bars @ 12 C/C

7.3. DESIGN OF FOUNDATION OF MINARET


Weight of walls between the columns
W1

115 0.375 5 120 4 =

height width breadth brick


103,500 lbs =

103.5 Kips

Self weight of columns

(1.75 2 4 115 150)


1000

Weight of Ring beams

11 (912 / 144) 150 5 4 = 24.752

211.3 Kips

Kips
Total Weight =

339.6 Kips

Weight of Fill in the Foundation =


Total Including Fill =
Mu

15 (8.6252 100 ) =

111.6 Kips

451.2 Kips

28,431 Kip-in.

( from the minaret design )

Bearing capacity

1.5 tons / sq. ft

Area of footing

451.2 1000
140 sq. ft
23.33 144

Size of footing

15 15 ft

23.33 Psi

( total area = 225 sq. ft )

136

Assuming depth of footing

24 in.

Applied soil pressure (qs )

Pu 451.2 1.2 1000


=
A
225 12 12

qs

2.32 Kip / ft2

CHECK FOR OVER TURNING


Over turning moment

28,431 Kip-in.

Restoring moments:
Weight above footing

451.2 (152 92 ) 15 100

667.2 Kips

Moment due to Weight about Base Edge a

6507.512

58500 Kip-in

As alone this moment is satisfying the F.O.S. of 2


( F.O.S.

2.05 )

So no need of additional consideration


of passive earth pressure.

CHECK FOR BEARING


Bearing Stress

FP

Pu M

A S

15
3 ft

17/3
2 ft
9 ft
15 ft

16.7 psi

137

B 3 15 3
=
12 3
6
6

972,000 in3

PASSIVE PRESSURE FORCE


Taking one-third of the passive pressure force due to filling
Fp

Cp 0.5soilh2L0.33

30.5100172150.33

216,750 lbs =

216.75 Kips

Moment due to passive pressure force:


Mp

216.75 17 / 3 12 =

Net moment =

M u - Mp

Bearing Stress

14739 Kip-in
28431 14739

13692 Kip-in

339.6 1.2 1000 13692 10 3

972,000
15 2 12 2

12.5714.08
As one value is negative and positive value is greater than B.C. of soil so
Taking greater area of foundation
Size of foundation =
S

1818 ft

B 3 18 3
=
12 3
6
6

Bearing Stress

3359232 in3

339.6 1.2 1000 13692 10 3

3359232
18 2 12 2

11.394.07
F.O.S =

23.3
=
11.93 + 4.07

1.45

1.5

O.K.

CHECK FOR SHEAR


One-way shear :
d

4.5ft
d

20 in.

new value of qs

=
=

Pu 451.2 1.2 1000


=
A
18 2 12 2

11.6 psi

1.671 Kip / ft

138

qs

1.671 Kip / ft2

Base shear (Vu at a distance d) =


=
Shear capacity

1.671000(4.5-20/12)
4731 lbs

Vc =

0.75 2 3000 12 20

= 19,718 lbs
Vu > Vc

O.K.

No need of check for Two way shear

Flexural reinforcement in foundation:


Mu

W L2
2

1.671 4.5 2
12
2

203.02 Kip-in.

Mu

203.02 1000
12 20 2

42.3 lb-in / in3

0.0018

As R < Rmin

bd

so = min

As = 0.0018 12 20

0.432 in2

# 6 @ 10 C/C Both ways Top and bottom

139

CHAPTER 9
CONCLUSIONS
There were many options in the selection of different members of the
structure.
Three types of slabs are provided in the design according to the conditions
prevailing. These are one-way slab, two-way slab and two-way joist slab.
The two-way joist slab was provided to achieve economy. Other choices
may be waffle slab and flat slab or flat plate in the main hall of basement.
Design of two-way joist slab is similar to the design of T-beam, but the
calculations of bending moments and shear forces are done using the twoway slab bending moment and shear force Coefficients.
Design of stair is similar to the design of one-way slab. The only difference
is the increase in loads due to the inclination of waist slab.
Analysis of beams and columns is done using SAP 2000 and the results are
comparable to the manual calculations.
In most of the cases, reinforcement in domes is negligible so provided
minimum reinforcement.
The thickness of domes varies from base to the crown, 6 inches to 3 inches.
The depth of minaret footing was kept H / 7 below the ground surface to
get the foundation secure against overturning and suppression in bearing
capacity of soil.
Retaining wall is designed carefully, since the moisture present may cause
dampness problem in the basement.