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CHAPTER 5

CONSTRUCTION OF RIGID

PAVEMENT

RIGID PAVEMENT

INTRODUCTION

1. Concrete slab on top of base course.

2. Rigid due to its nature to not deflect under a traffic load.

3. Concrete slab constructed in rectangular segment.

4. Thickness depends on design load but tipically around 150mm-300mm with concrete grade of 20, 25 or 40.

5. High initial cost but long lifespan and low maintainance frequency.

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RIGID PAVEMENT

RIGID PAVEMENT 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 3

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RIGID

VS FLEXIBLE

RIGID VS FLEXIBLE 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 4
RIGID VS FLEXIBLE 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 4

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RIGID PAVEMENT

MATERIALS

1.

Concrete

2.

Reinforcement (rebar)

3.

Waterproof layer.

4.

Joint

5.

Joint filler/sealer

6.

Additive.

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RIGID PAVEMENT

ADVANTAGES

1. Rigid (not bend when load is applied)

2. Provide excellent smooth surface for driving.

3. Can deal with very heavy traffic.

4. Considering their life span, maintenance cost etc, it’s cheaper than bituminous roads.

5. Long life span.

6. Can be used as base course after end of life span.

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RIGID PAVEMENT

ADVANTAGES

7.

Doesn’t require aggregates and cement heating .

8.

Working with cement concrete is much easier and safer

than with bituminous materials.

9. In high class cement concrete road heavy rollers are not required for compaction.

10.Satisfactory performance poor types sub grades.

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RIGID PAVEMENT

DISADVANTAGES

1. High initial investment.

2. Lots of joints means lots of weak spot.

3. 28 days curing is required after completion before they can be opened to traffic.

4. The surface will wear after sometime and become slippery.

5. Produce loud noise when vehicle passing.

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RIGID PAVEMENT

TYPES

1. Mass concrete / UnReinforced Concrete (URC)

2. Joined reinforced concrete (JRC)

3. Continuous reinforced concrete (CRCP)

4. Pre-stress concrete (PSC)

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URC

1. Unreinforced mass concrete pavements consist of a system of rectangular panels connected together by transverse and longitudinal joints.

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2. A concrete slab without

reinforcement steel

URC

3. Have a transverse connection every 5 m to prevent cracking

URC 3. Have a transverse connection every 5 m to prevent cracking 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 11
URC 3. Have a transverse connection every 5 m to prevent cracking 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 11

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URC modes of failure

4. The typical crack patterns found in a URC pavement are corner breaks and longitudinal cracks.

4. The typical crack patterns found in a URC pavement are corner breaks and longitudinal cracks.

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JRC

1. Jointed Reinforced Concrete Pavements (JRCP) contain steel mesh reinforcement

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2. Constructed in a similar manner to URC pavements.

JRC

2.

The reinforcement provides two functions;

i. Controls cracking

ii. Holds joints tightly closed

3.

Reinforced concrete slabs are frequently used in place

of mass concrete when:

i. pavement could be subjected to large unplanned loadings;

ii. sub grade strength is weak or ill- defined.

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JRC modes of failure

1. JRC crack and degrade in a similar manner to URC pavements except the pavement is more tolerant to cracking.

2. Poorly placed reinforcement.

3. Long slab systems are less reliable than short slab systems as they are more likely to suffer from mid-panel cracking. joint sealant problems and consequent erosion of sub-base.

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JRC

Typical JRC spec for long slab and short slab

JRC Typical JRC spec for long slab and short slab 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 16

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CRCP

1. CRCP is a type of Portland cement concrete pavement reinforced with steel rebars throughout its length.

2. Do not require any transverse contraction joints.

with steel rebars throughout its length. 2. Do not require any transverse contraction joints. 28/1/2015 11:08

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CRCP

3.

May cost slightly more than JRC or URC due to increased quantities of steel but design thinner than URC.

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CRCP modes of failure

1. Transverse cracks are expected in the slab, at 11.5 m intervals

2. Punch-outs; caused by excessive wheel loading applications and insufficient structural capacity

3. Spalling; breaking, chipping, or fraying of concrete at the

cracks.

4. Steel corrosion & rupture across transverse cracks.

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CRCP modes of failure

CRCP modes of failure PUNCH OUT SPALLING 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 20

PUNCH OUT

CRCP modes of failure PUNCH OUT SPALLING 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 20

SPALLING

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PSC

1. Precast pavement components are fabricated or assembled offsite, transported to the project site, and installed on a prepared foundation.

2. Compressive stress is induced in longitudinal and transverse directions prior to the application of a live load.

stress is induced in longitudinal and transverse directions prior to the application of a live load.

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PSC

3.

Pavements may be pre-stressed using :

i. Pre-tensioning; tendons are stressed BEFORE concrete placement

ii. Post-tensioning: tendons are installed before concrete placement and stressed AFTER concrete placement.

4.

Require minimal field curing time to achieve strength

before opening to traffic.

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PSC placement

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PSC modes of failure

1. Temperature gradients cause the ends of the slab to curl upward or downward.

2. Moisture gradient will cause upward warping of the ends of the slab

3. Pre-stress losses; Elastic shortening of the concrete,

relaxation of the stressing tendons.

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PSC modes of failure

PSC modes of failure 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 25
PSC modes of failure 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 25

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METHODS OF PAVING RIGID

PAVEMENT

RIGID PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION MANUAL MECHANICAL FIXED FORM PAVER SLIP FORM PAVER 28/1/2015 11:08 AM
RIGID PAVEMENT
CONSTRUCTION
MANUAL
MECHANICAL
FIXED FORM PAVER
SLIP FORM PAVER
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MANUAL METHOD

1.

Prepare base course

 

2.

Side form constructed

3.

Hand place reinforcing bar (for JRC & CRCP)

i.

Transverse Bar (supported by “chair”)

ii.

Longitudinal Bar

iii.

Tying LB to TB

4.

Place dowel bar (for URC & JRC).

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MANUAL METHOD

5.

Place concrete (PCC)

6.

PCC consolidation.

7.

Place tie bars (for URC and JRC)

8.

Finishing

9.

PCC curing.

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METHODS OF PAVING RIGID

PAVEMENT

METHODS OF PAVING RIGID PAVEMENT 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 29
METHODS OF PAVING RIGID PAVEMENT 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 29
METHODS OF PAVING RIGID PAVEMENT 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 29

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FIXED FORM PAVER

1. Fixed form function as;

i.

Concrete retainer

ii.

Paver machine support

iii.

Route alignment for paver machine.

2. Spreading, compacting and finishing of concrete

performed by paver machine.

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TYPICAL TYPES OF MACHINERY USED

IN A FIXED-FORM PAVING TRAIN

1. Feeder ; receives concrete

2. Spreader ; distributes the concrete

3. Rotary strike off paddles and compaction beams ;

regulate the concrete by trimming and vibrate its surface.

4. Dowel/tie-bar placers; place these elements in appropriate

joints either manually or by vibration.

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TYPICAL TYPES OF MACHINERY USED

IN A FIXED-FORM PAVING TRAIN

5.

6.

7.

8.

Feeder ; Joint groove formers and finishers – grooves formed by a knife travelling within the plastic concrete.

Final finishing equipment – additional compaction and regulation of concrete after dowel and tie-bars have been put in place.

Curing compound sprayer

Protective tentage.

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FIXED FORM PAVER

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FIXED FORM PAVER

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FIXED FORM PAVER

FIXED FORM PAVER 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 35
FIXED FORM PAVER 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 35
FIXED FORM PAVER 28/1/2015 11:08 AM 35

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SLIP FORM PAVER

1. Paver machine provide mobile side forms.

2. PCC placement, consolidation, finishing and curing performed within the leghth of paver.

3. The paver movement, alignment and gradient controlled

by sensor .

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SLIP FORM PAVER

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JOINTS IN RIGID PAVEMENTS

1. To allow for movement caused by changes in moisture content and slab temperature.

2. Transverse joints across the pavement permit the release of shrinkage and temperature stresses.

3. Longitudinal joints, deal with induced stresses across

the width of the pavement.

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

1. There are four main types of transverse joints:

i.

Contraction joints

ii.

Expansion joints

iii.

Warping joints

iv.

Construction joints.

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

2. Contraction & Expansion joints;

i. Contraction occurs when water is lost or temperatures drop.

ii. Expansion occurs when water is absorbed or the temperature rises.

iii. The joints permit movement to happen.

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

3. Warping joints;

i.

required in plain unreinforced concrete slabs only.

ii.

permit small angular movements to occur between

adjacent concrete slabs.

iii.

Warping stresses are very likely to occur in long narrow slabs.

iv.

tie-bars used to restrict any widening and hold the sides together

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

4. Construction joints;

i.

Construction is normally organised so that work on any

given day ends at the location of an intended contraction

or expansion joint.

ii.

If it’s not possible, a construction joint can be used.

iii.

No relative movement is permitted across the joint.

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TRANSVERSE JOINTS

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LONGITUDINAL JOINTS

1.

Longitudinal joints may also be required to counteract

the effects of warping along the length of the slab.

2.

They’re broadly similar in layout to transverse warping joints.

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URC 1. Crack Control: Contraction joints, both transverse and longitudinal 2. Joint Spacing: Typically between

URC

1. Crack Control: Contraction joints, both transverse and longitudinal

2. Joint Spacing: Typically between 3.7 m and 6.1 m.

3. Reinforcing Steel: None

4. Load Transfer: Aggregate interlock and dowel bars.

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JRCP 1. Crack Control: Contraction joints as well as reinforcing steel . 2. Joint Spacing:

JRCP

1.

Crack Control: Contraction joints as well as reinforcing steel.

2.

Joint Spacing: Longer than JPCP and up to a maximum of about 15 m

3.

Reinforcing Steel: A minimal amount is included mid-slab to hold cracks tightly together. can be in the form of deformed reinforcing bars or a thick wire mesh

4.

Load Transfer: Dowel bars and reinforcing steel. Dowel bars assist in load transfer

across transverse joints while reinforcing steel assists in load transfer across mid-panel cracks.

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CRCP

CRCP 1. 2. 3. 4. Crack Control: Reinforcing steel Joint Spacing: Not applicable. Reinforcing Steel: Typically

1.

2.

3.

4.

Crack Control: Reinforcing steel

Joint Spacing: Not applicable.

Reinforcing Steel: Typically about 0.6 - 0.7 percent by cross-sectional area.

Load Transfer: Reinforcing steel, typically No. 5 or 6 bars, grade 60.

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