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N. Aljovi, 22/05/2009.

The Verb and its Complementation
Complements of copular verbs
current predicate appear, feel, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, taste
resultative predicate become, get, go, grow, turn, make
Subject complement, or predicational complement: He turned plumber.
He has gone socialist.
Adverbial complement (Q's "predicative adjunct") : - The party will be
at 11 o'clock. The drinks are for you.
Monotransitive VP frame: V+Complement
Direct object: NPs, finite clauses, non-finite clauses. Passivization. A group
of transitive verbs that
cannot undergo passivization (12.16): They have a nice house, They
lack confidence, Will this suit you?
Adjunct (adverbial) as complement (Ac): HE lives in China, He lives
comfortably, They live on rice, They
lived in the nineteenth century. I'll get into the car. The book
is selling badly, The door unlockes easily. weigh five
pounds, cost a doller, contain much...
Adjunct (adverbial) as a second complement (V+DO+Ac) (note p. 358) The
hostess showed me to the
door, He saw Mary home.
Intransitive VP frame (V (A))
John snores. Mary is slimming. Your friends have arrived. He smokes every
day. The tomatoes are growing well.
Ditransitive verbs
IO + DO : He offered the boy an icecream; He offered an
icecream to the boy.
IO omissible: This university offers a possibility to take exams
without restrictions.
Variations IO: NP or PP
He asked us questions about the war. He asked a question of
ask of, bring to, do (a favour) for, do (a disservice) to, find for, give to , leave
for/to , lend to, make for, offer to, owe to,
pay for, pour for, promise to, read to, save for, show to, teach to, tell to,
throw to.
No variation:

He wished us all the happiness. * He wished all the happines

for.. us
allow, refuse, wish
Either object omissible:
I paid John. I paid the money. I paid the money to John.
ask, owe, pay, teach, tell, show.
Ditransitive prepositional verbs
Verbs taking two complemenst, the second of which is realised by a PP. EG.
remind somebody of
something. We reminded him.
Prepositional verbs
raditi na neemu, mirisati na neto, gledati u sliku, aliti za nekim; (see
Rianovi 2007, p. 248.)
V transitive + PP complement. Semantics: 'V+P' has more or less idiomatic
meaning (not always
entirely predictible from the meaning of V + P)
Analysis: contra Quirk 73: Two analyses (12.5, p. 350)
1) ...... V A A = PP
2) ...... V DO DO = NP
He looked at the girl
Our analysis 3) .... V O (or C)
Arguments: 1 Confusing use of labels; 2. Analysis 2 predicts that the
preposition and the NP
that follows it do not consitute a phrase. However:
1. The preposition must precede the NP, and cannot follow it:
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a) look at the girl/her vs. b) *look the girl/her at
cf. a') call up the girl/*her vs. b') call her/the girl up
2. Coordination:
a) look at the gril and [at the boy] cf. b) *call [up the girl] and
[up the boy]
3. A shared constituent coordination:
a) He wrote and spoke [about the same problem] vs. b) *He
called and rang [up the same girl] twice
4. Movement: The preposition can be moved with the NP (in questions for
example) or it can
stay behind (preposition stranding)
a) About what problem did he talk? b) What problem did he talk about?
c) *Up what girl did he call? d) What girl did he call up?

Prepositional verbs are transitive verbs that select prepositional objects (PPs
as their objects). live
on vs. ivjeti od; refer to vs.odnositi se na; but: write about - pisati o; rely on
- osloniti se na.
The combination of a verb plus a preposition may have more or less
idiomatic meaning.
look at (gledati u), look for (traiti), look after (brinuti se o), call on
(posjetiti), call for (zahtijevati),
deal with (baviti se ime), account for (objasniti/opisati), stare at (buljiti u),
wait for (ekati), ...
Syntactic properties, summary
1. The preposition follows the verb but must precede its own complement
2. The PP complement can be separated from the verb by an adverb, but not
by the complement of
the preposition: They called early on the man, *They called the
man on
3. Many prepositional verbs allow the noun phrases to become the subject of
a passive
transformation of the sentence, the preposition is stranded: The man was
called on.
But: - The lawn can't be walked on. vs. ?The lawn was/is not
walked on.
Differences: prepositional verbs and V+A (PP)
Prepositional objects demand pronominal questions: with whom, about
what, who, what .... P
Free combination verbs demand adverbial questions (interr. adverbials) :
where, when, how, etc.
They called on Mary - Who did they call on? *Where...
The called at the hotel - Where did they call? *What did they
call at?
Passivization: The man was called on vs. *The hotel was called
at (call (in) at a place - svratiti negdje)
Type II prepositional verbs
Ditransitive verbs Double objects O1 O2, with the second object realized
as a PP
- Please remind me of our meeting? Passive: - She was
reminded of her duties.
blame something on someone, provide smt. for someone, supply something
for/to someone

blame someone for something, provide someone with smt, supply someone
with smt.
Phrasal verbs (p. 347, 12.2,3)
a verb plus a particle (preposition/adverblike). Very often have
unpredictible idiomatic meanings.
They can be intransitive as well as transitive.
Intransitive phrasal verbs:
sit down, drink up, take off, break down, give in, etc.
The particle: adverb that can function as a place adjuncts otherwise;
Analysis: V + particle.
Transitive phrasal verbs:
set up a new unit, find out whether they are coming, drink
up your milk
Syntactic properties
1. the particle can precede or follow the direct object NP: set a new unit
up; drink your milk up
but: *find whether they are coming out
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2. the particle must follow a pronominal direct object: set it up vs. *set
up it
Besides, no adverbial can appear between the verb and a particle following
it: - *set immediately up a
new unit
Phrasal-prepositional verbs
[[catch up] with], come up with, cut down on, give in to, keep up with, look
down on, put up with,
stay away from
The first particle is a particle, the second is a preposition: V+particle +
- Who does he puts up with ? (stranding)
- We look forward eagerly to your next party. (adverb before
the preposition)
*We are looking forward it to.
transitive phrasal verbs selecting for a PP complement
Which of the sentences below contain phrasal verbs and which contain
prepositional verbs?
1. No one can account for William's extraordinary behaviour.
2. The Ministry turned down our proposal.

3. You can always rely on Philip.

4. The boys waited patiently for their mothers.
5. You will have to allow for a slight loss of quality in the
6. Dorothy's mother will look after the baby while she is
7. No one had reckoned with William's opposition to the plan.
8. He looked up all the difficult words in this dictionary.
9. Mrs. Carey put on her nicest dress.
10. They could think of no better solution.
Similarity: prepositional verbs and transitive phrasal verbs look very much
alike when passivized:
They rang up the telephone company.
They looked after her child.
c. The telephone company was rung up several times this
morning. (preposition stranding)
d. The child was very well looked after. (verb-particle combination)
Note that there is no other alternative to (d) above, where the preposition
could be pie-piped along
with the NP that moves to the subject position of the sentence; in other
words the (e) is
ungrammatical: e) *After the child was well looked.
Complex transitive complementation
Predicative-adverbial complement : DO oC intensive relationship
1. Obama set the prisoners free 2. Obama flung the door
TASK: - Bracket the major constituents. - Label the major constituents of the
VPs. - What kind of constituents are they:
obligatory or optional? What is the function of the AP 'free'?
1' set [NP the prisoners] [AP free]
A complex function: V DO "Pc+Ac". Traditional name: complex transitive
complementation: V
2. She called her baby George. 2. She called the proposal
3. Her baby was called George. 4. *George was called her
Complex transitive verbs (such as call, set, fling) require two Complements:
a DO, + another which

has an adverbial function relating it to the verb, and more importantly a

predicative function relating
it to the Direct object.
TASK: Bracket the Pc+Ac in the following sentences and inicate how they
are realized:
- Who left the door open? - They elected Obama president. Jim treated the whole affair as a joke.
- She threw the window open.
2. Predicative adjuncts
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Bracket constituents in the following sentences. Label the VP constituents.
Try to determine which
VP-constituents are Complements and which are optional Adjuncts (i.e.
[They [have [painted [the house] [red] ]]].
They have appointed John Brown their new manager.
I always eat vegetables raw.
She married young.
The queen named the ship Margo II.
He returned her all her letters unopened.
They elected you their chairman.
paint the house red
set the prisoners free
red is omissible, free is not:
- They have painted the house, and more specifically they
painted it red.
- *Obama set the prisoners, and more specifically he set
them free.
- If they have painted the house red, they have painted the
- *If they set the prisoners free, they set them.
Also consider:
He left the house angry with his wife
[[Unaware of the danger] [he] [walked [into the building]]].
Functions: the house DO; angry with his wife A (how he left the house)
+ P (what state of mind
he was in) dual function: P+A predicative adjunct.

TASK : Identify the Predicative Adjuncts in the following examples. How

are the PAs realized?
- They painted the door green.
- She married the Prince of Wales young.
- Curious, he opened the letter.
- Lord Soames died a Catholic at the age of 85.
- My friends from New York have arrived safe and sound.
Summarizing, DO can be followed by elements that appear to be predicative
and/or adverbial and
that can be obligatory or optional:
V DO p+aC obligatory, with complex transitive verbs
V DO pA optional, similar to p+aC semantically (predicative relation to S
or DO)
V DO Ac obligatory, with certain transitive verbs (put...)
Common feature : passivization
TASK: Identify the elements that follow Dos in the following sentences:
John put the money in the box.
He worded the letter very carefully.
The children always remind me *(of their grandfather).
The doctor put her on a diet.
He kept his money in a shoe-box.
The Government has brought the country close to
economic ruin.
The police posted 20 men around the house.
Non-finite clauses as direct object
Without subject: He wants [to talk to you], He likes [talking]
With subject:
He wants [her to come] He saw her come
He saw her coming He found the seats occupied.
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Complex transitive complementation.
Analysis: S V DO Pc(or OC), .... DO ... her; OC to-inf. clause (S) V
to come
- She was seen coming, They are considered to be very
honest people. Etc.
Sections 12.20-27, present similar cases as involving complementation by
non-finite clauses with an overt subject.
1. Infinitival clauses with subject

Factual main verbs: assume, believe, consider, feel, find, imagine, know,
suppose, think.
John believed that the stranger was a policeman
John believed the stranger to be a policeman
The stranger was believed to be a policeman
*The stranger was believed that ... was a policeman
The professor assumed [that the student knew some French]
The professor assumed [the student to know some French]
The student was assumed [ ... to know some French]
Non-factual: allow, appoint, cause, compell... p. 351 check 'expletive there
test' and correferential
John intended Mary to sing an aria. They elected her to be
the next treasurer.
Attention: passivization is not always possible
Correferential subjects:
- factual and causative verbs - reflexive,
I believed that I had won I believed myself to have won
- some volitional, attutudinal verbs: zero
I intended that I should go I intended [zeroS] to go
2. Bare infinitive clauses with subject
1. Three causative verbs: have (=cause), let, make
2. Some verbs of perception: feel, hear, notice, observe, see, smell, watch
(also with ing
participial clause)
3. Help and know may occur with the bare infinitive or the to-infinitive
They had Bob teach Mary. I watched Bob teach Mary.
Passive transformation: bare inf. to-infinitive : Bob was made/seen to
clean his room.
No passive: feel, let, have, watch (see NOTE p. 352)
3. -ing participial clauses with subject
1- perception (many with bare inf. too): feel, hear, notice, observe, overhear,
percieve, see,
smell, spot, spy, watch.
2- of encounter: catch, discover, find, have
3- causative: get, have

I found him driving my car. Genitive disallowed: *I found his driving my car
- Passivization regular: He was found driving my car.
1 only ing participle clause (catch, hate, find, keep, leave, start, stop;
cannot afford, enjoy, forget, not mind,
regret, remember, resent, risk, cannot stand (allow genitive, too))
2 either an ing participle clause or a bare infinitive cl. (have (=cause),
feel, hear, notice, observe, see,
smell, watch)
3 either an ing participle clause or a to-infinitive clause (get; dislike, hate,
like, love, prefer (allow
genitive too))
4. ed (passive) participle clauses with subject
1 perception (see, hear, feel, watch)
2 volitional (like, need, want)
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3 causative (get, have)
Eg. He got the watch repaired. - He saw the watch stolen.
Verbless clauses (small clauses) with subject (Q's DO OC)
Underlying be clauses (containing the verb BE, as copula or as aux)
I hate him (to be) driving my car. They found the chairs (to
be) occupied.
and I consider that John is a good driver.
I consider John to be a good driver
I consider John a good driver
Passivization prallelism with non-finite clausal complements of CTC: John
is considered (to be) a good
Semantic properties of NP/AP predicational complement (Pc, OC)
Current attribute I called him stupid
Verbs: call, consider, declare, find, have, keep, leave, like, prefer, think,
Resulting attribute I made her very angry
Verbs: get, make, (?paint), set; call, declare, (performative, formal, use)
For more detailed presentation of infinitive, gerund, participle forms, and
participial and verbless clauses Rianovi
Rianovi 2007, ch: 23, 27, 28, 29.
Complementation of adjectives
PPs as adjectival complements
1. averse to, bent on, conscious of, fond of.

2. angry about, angry at/with.

about happy annoyed, reasonable, worried
at alarmed, clever, good, hopeless
for grateful, sorry
from different distant, distinct, free
of afraid, fond, full, tired,
on/upon dependent, keen based, set,
to close, due grateful, similar, opposed
with bored, friendly, happy, pleased
Clausal adjectival complements
certainty aware, certain, confident, sure indicative
volition anxious, eager, willing 'putative' should or subjunctive
emotive adj. angry, annoyed glad, pleased surprised 'putative' should or
We were confident that Karen was still alive.
I am anxious that he be/should be /?is permitted to resign.
I am sorry (that) you have to leave so early (indicative refers to
an event as an established fact)
I am surprised (that) you didn't call the doctor before/ (that)
anyone of your intelligence should swallow a lie like
It is true that she is a vegetarian that-c. extraposed subject, not
compl. of A.
It is essential that the ban (should) be lifted tomorrow.
It is strange that she is/should be so late.
It is unclear what they would do.
Wh-clause complements
I was doubtfull (as to) whether I should stay.
- careful about, fussy about, unclear about, uncertain of, unsure of,
To-infinitival complements
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Bob is splendid to build a house. (careful, careless, crazy,
foolish, nice, wrong...)
Bob is slow to build a house. (quick, prompt a small group
of A)
Bob is sorry to make a mistake (afraid, ashamed, glad,
interested, relieved, worried...)


Bob is hesitant to build a house. (able, anxious, certain,

eager, keen, willing...)
- Unspecified embedded S:
Bob is hard to convince (extrp: It is hard to convince Bob, To
convince Bob is hard) (difficult,
easy, impossible...)
The food is ready (for you) to eat. (available, free, soft...)
It is important to be accurate. (extrp) (fortunate, possible,
surprising, wrong)
- Bob must be a splendid craftsman to have built this house.
(discontinuous comp. of A)
-Ing clause complements
I'm busy (with) getting the house redecorated
We're fortunate (in) having Aunt Mary as a baby-sitter.
We are used to not having a car.
I'm hopeless at keeping the garden tidy.
She's not capable of looking after herself.
2. Identify the functions and categorial status of the constituents in
the following sentences and phrases
following the model answer: (4X5p)
MODEL: Two loaves will be sufficient.
S = S V SC
S = NP two loaves
V = aux + copula will be
SC = AP sufficient
1. Panda live entirely off bamboo shoots.
2. They say he's extremely intelligent.
3. I merely wanted to know his name.
4. The picture was looked at by many tourists.
3. Use labeled bracketing to identify the grammatical category of
each word in the following sentence (10p):
- It finally hit me some dozen or so years later. I had gone to Santa Fee to
interview a painter
and was sitting in a local pizza parlour, drinking beer and eating pizza and
watching a
miraculously beautiful sunset.
4. Say for each of the following syntactic notions whether it is (a) a
functional category , (b) a lexical

category, or (c) a sentential function (10).

- preposition, complement, adverbial, adjective, modifier, conjunction,
pronoun, predicate,
determiner, adverb.