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The purpose of this study is to establish a modeling approach that can be used to predict bulk

powder flowability of pharmaceutical materials from their particle size and shape
distributions. To build and validate the model, 23 commonly used pharmaceutical excipients
and 38 binary blends were fully characterized for their particle size and shape distributions.
The particle size and shape of each sample was characterized by multiple descriptors to fully
reflect their morphological characteristics. The flow properties of these materials were
analyzed using the Schulze Ring Shear Tester at a fixed humidity condition. A partial least
squares (PLS) approach was used to build the mathematical model. Several different
modeling approaches were attempted and the best method was identified as using a
combination of formulation composition and particle size and shape distributions of singlecomponent powder systems. The PLS model was shown to provide excellent predictions of
powder flow function coefficient (FFC) of up to approximately 20. The results also revealed
that both particle size and shape play an important role in determining the powder flow

The dissolution rate of a homologous series of parabens and their dispersions in PEG

4x 10

was examined. In light of these measurements, the release behavior of the

substances from extended release hydrophilic matrix tablets based on PEO 5x 10


studied. Tablet release was examined formatrices comprising either a physicalmixture of

PEG, paraben, and PEO, or a solid solution of each paraben in PEG, incorporated in the PEO
matrix. Considerable increase of the dissolution rate for the eutectic and in particular solid
solution formof the parabenswas observed. The hydration rate of allmatrices, aswell as
polymer release, was the same. The release rate of methyl, ethyl, and butyl parabens in solid
solution form was similar to that of their crystalline form. However, the release rate of the
solid solution form of propyl paraben was higher than that of its crystalline form, especially
in the initial part of the release. The results indicate that all parabens crystallized in the gel
layer of the solid solution formulations upon the process of tablet dissolution. This was
proposed to be an effect of differences in the dissolution and crystallization kinetics of the

The key to waste minimization in fine chemicals manufacture is the widespread substitution
of classical organic syntheses employing stoichiometric amounts of inorganic reagents with

cleaner, catalytic alternatives. The E factors (by waste per kg product) of chemical processes
increase dramatically on going downstream from bulk to fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals,
mainly owing to the use of stoichiometric methods. The concept of atom efficiency is a
useful tool for rapid evaluation of the amount of aste generated by alternative processes. The
general theme of atom-efficient, catalytic processes is illustrated with industrially elevant
examples. These include catalysis by solid acids and bases, catalytic reductions and
oxidations, catalytic CC bond formation, asymmetric catalysis, biocatalysis,
and catalysis in novel media (aqueous and fluorous biphasic systems, supercritical fluids,
and ionic liquids)