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Chapter 5:

Operating Systems

IT Essentials 5.0

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Chapter 5 Objectives
5.1 Explain the characteristics and basic functions of
modern operating systems

5.1 Describe and compare types of operating systems


to include purpose, limitations, and compatibilities
5.1 Determine operating system based on customer
needs
5.2 Install an operating system
5.3 Navigate a GUI (Windows)
5.4 Explain the advantages of Virtualization and install
Virtual PC

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Chapter 5 Objectives (continued)


5.5 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance
techniques for operating systems
5.6 Troubleshoot operating systems

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The Purpose of an Operating System


The operating system (OS) controls almost all
functions on a computer.
In this chapter, you will learn about the components,
functions, and terminology related to the Windows 7,
Windows Vista , and Windows XP operating systems.

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Characteristics of an Operating System


Multi-user Two or more users have individual accounts that
allow them to work with programs and peripheral devices at the
same time.

Multitasking The computer is capable of operating multiple


applications at the same time.
Multiprocessing The operating system can support two or
more CPUs.

Multithreading A program can be broken into smaller parts


that are loaded as needed by the operating system. Multithreading
allows individual programs to be multitasked.

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Basic Function of an Operating System


All computers rely on an operating system (OS) to
provide the interface for interaction between users,
applications, and hardware.

The operating system boots the computer and


manages the file system.
The operating system has four main roles:
Control hardware access
Manage files and folders
Provide user interface
Manage applications

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Processor Architecture
32-bit Windows Operating System and x86 Processor
Architecture
Capable of addressing 4 GB of RAM
x86 uses a Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC)
x86 processors use fewer registers than x64 processors

64-bit Windows Operating System and x64 Processor


Architecture
Capable of addressing 128+ GB of RAM
Enhanced performance for memory management

Additional security features


x64 architecture is backward compatible with x86
Process much more complex instructions at a much higher rate

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32-bit and 64-bit Compatibility in


Windows OS

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Types of Operating Systems


Desktop Operating
System

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Network Operating
System

Supports a single user

Supports multiple users

Runs single-user
applications

Runs multi-user
applications

Shares files and folders

Robust and redundant

Shares peripherals

Provides increased security

Used on a small network

Used on a network

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Types of Operating Systems


Desktop operating systems:
Microsoft Windows: Windows 7
Macintosh: Mac OS X
Linux
UNIX

A desktop OS has the following


characteristics:
Supports a single user
Runs single-user applications
Shares files and folders on a small
network with limited security
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Network Operating Systems (NOS)


Common NOS include:
Microsoft Windows Server
Linux
UNIX
Mac OS X Server

NOS has the following characteristics:


Supports multiple users
Runs multi-user applications
Robust and redundant
Provides increased security compared to desktop operating
systems

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Customer Requirements for an OS


To select the proper operating system for a
customer first determine:
Budget constraints
Compatibility with current hardware
Compatibility with new hardware
How the computers will be used
Compatibility with existing applications
Types of new applications to be used

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Identify Minimum Hardware Requirements


Customer may need to upgrade or purchase additional
hardware to support the required applications and OS.
A cost analysis will indicate if purchasing new
equipment is a better idea than upgrading.
Possible hardware upgrades:
RAM capacity
Hard drive size
CPU
Video card memory and speed
Motherboard

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Hardware Compatibility
Most operating systems have an HCL.
HCLs can be found on the manufacturer's website.
HCL includes list of hardware that is known to work with
the operating system.

Use Microsoft Compatibility Center for Windows 7 and


Vista.

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Operating System Upgrades


Operating systems must be upgraded periodically.
To remain compatible with the latest hardware and software.
Because support for older OS is eventually withdrawn.

Ensure that the new OS is compatible with the computer.


Use Microsoft Upgrade Advisor to scan the system for incompatibility
issues before upgrading. Upgrade Advisor is free and downloadable
from the Microsoft Windows website.

Backup all data prior to beginning the upgrade.

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Data Migration
One of the following tools can be used to migrate data
and settings:
User State Migration Tool migrates all user files and
settings to the new OS.

Windows Easy Transfer migrates personal files and


settings when switching from an old computer to new.
Note: Windows Easy Transfer replaced the Windows
XP File and Settings Transfer Wizard.

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Installing the Operating System


Reasons to perform a clean installation of an OS:
When a computer is passed from one employee to another.
When the operating system is corrupted.
When the primary hard drive is replaced in a computer .

Before performing a clean installation:


Back up all data first.

Explain to the customer that existing data will be erased.


Confirm that all needed data has been successfully
transferred.

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Hard Drive Setup Procedures


Operating system setup methods:
Install an OS over a network from a server.

Install from OS files stored on CDs or DVDs.


Partitioning and Formatting:
Hard drive must be logically divided (partitioned).
File system must be created on the hard drive.
During the installation phase, most operating
systems will automatically partition and format the
hard drive.

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Hard Drive Formatting


The first portion of the installation process deals with
formatting and partitioning the hard drive.

The second portion prepares the disk to accept the file


system.
The file system provides the directory structure that
organizes the user's operating system, application,
configuration, and data files.
Examples of file systems:
The New Technology File System (NTFS) - Supports
partition sizes up to 16 exabytes
The FAT32 file system - Supports partition sizes up to 2 TB.
Used by Windows XP and earlier OS versions.
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Install the Operating System


When a computer boots up with the Windows installation CD, the
Windows 7 installation process starts with three options:
Install now - Sets up and installs the Windows 7 OS.
What to know before installing Windows - Opens Help.
Repair your computer - Opens the System Recovery Options.

Under Install now three options are available:


Upgrade - Upgrades Windows but keeps your current files, settings,
and programs. You can use this option to repair an installation.
Custom (advanced) - Installs a clean copy of Windows in your choice
of location and allows you to change disks and partitions. It is also
known as a clean installation.
Quit - Exits Setup.

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Account Creation
Windows 7 has three types of user accounts:
Administrator, Standard, and Guest.

The Administrator Account must be created


when Windows 7 is installed.
To create or remove a user account in Windows 7 use the
following path :

Start > Control Panel > User Accounts > Add or


remove user accounts

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Complete the Installation


When Windows 7 installation
completes:
Computer will reboot
Prompts to create user account
Register Windows 7 and verify that you
are using a legal copy of the OS
Verification enables you to download
patches and service packs

Use Microsoft Update Manager to


scan for new software.

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Custom Installation Options Disk Cloning


With Microsoft System Preparation
Follow these steps for disk cloning:
1. Create a master installation on one computer.
2. Run Sysprep.
3. Create a disk image of the configured computer using thirdparty disk-cloning software.
4. Copy the disk image onto a server.

When the destination computer is booted:

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A shortened version of the Windows setup program runs.

Setup installs drivers, creates user accounts, and


configures network settings.

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Custom Installation Options


Windows 7 has several different types of custom
installations.
Network Installation - Requires all setup files to be copied to a
network server.
Preboot Execution Environment (PXE) Installation - Uses a
PXE boot program and a clients network card to access the
setup files.
Unattended Installation - Uses a network distribution point that
uses an answer file.
Image-based Installation - Uses Sysprep and a disk-imaging
program, that copies an image of the OS directly to the hard
drive with no user intervention.
Remote Installation - Downloads the installation across the
network.
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System Recovery Options


Repair Disc- For Windows 7. Use the system repair disc to
boot the computer
System Image Recovery For Windows 7. It allows users
to back up the contents of their hard drive, including
personal files and settings.
Factory Recovery Partition Some computers with
Windows 7 preinstalled from the factory contain a hidden
recovery partition with an image of the bootable partition.
Automated System Recovery (Windows XP Professional
only) The ASR is a backup of the system state, services,
and OS components. Used with Windows installation disc to
recover computer.
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The Boot Sequence for Windows 7

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Startup Modes
Pressing the F8 key during the boot process opens the
Windows Advanced Startup Options menu, which allows
you to select how to boot Windows.
Safe Mode Starts Windows but only loads drivers for basic
components, such as the keyboard and display.
Safe Mode with Networking Support Starts Windows
identically to Safe Mode and also loads the drivers for network
components.

Safe Mode with Command Prompt Starts Windows and loads


the command prompt instead of the GUI interface.
Last Known Good Configuration Enables a user to load the
configurations settings of Windows that was used the last time that
Windows successfully started. It does this by accessing a copy of
the registry that is created for this purpose.
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The Windows Registry Files

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Multiboot Procedures
Multiple OS can be installed on one computer
To create a dual-boot system in Microsoft Windows:
Must have more than one hard drive or a hard drive with more than
one partition.
Install the oldest OS on the primary partition or the hard drive
marked with an active partition.

Install the second OS on the second partition or hard drive.


The boot files are automatically installed in the active partition.

During the dual-boot process:


The BOOTMGR file indicates that more than one OS is present.
You are prompted to choose the OS that you want to load.
NOTE: In Windows XP, the BOOT.INI file fills the role of the
BOOTMGR file.
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Disk Management Utility


This utility can be to used to complete the following
tasks:
View drive status
Extend partitions
Split partitions
Assign drive letters
Add drives
Add arrays

To access the Disk Management utility in Windows 7 and Windows


Vista, use the following path:
Select Start > right-click Computer > Manage > select Disk
Management
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Directory Structures
The root level of the Windows directory structure, the
partition, is usually labeled drive C.
Contains a set of standardized directories, called folders, for the
operating system, applications, configuration information, and
data files.
Directories may contain subdirectories. Subdirectories are
commonly called subfolders.

Drive Mapping - letters are used to name physical or


logical drives.
Mounting a Volume - mapping a drive to an empty
folder on a volume. Mounted drives are assigned drive
paths instead of letters.
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File Extensions and Attributes


Windows file system naming conventions:
Maximum of 255 characters may be used.
Characters such as a period (.) or a slash (\ /) are not allowed.
An extension of three or four letters is added to the filename to
identify the file type.
Filenames are not case sensitive.

Windows filename extension examples:


.docx- Microsoft Word
.txt - ASCII text only

.jpg - graphics format


.pptx - Microsoft PowerPoint
.zip - compression format
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Windows Desktop
A GUI provides graphical representations of all the files,
folders, and programs on a computer.
Windows 7 and Windows Vista have a default theme called Aero.
Aero has translucent window borders, numerous animations, and
icons that are thumbnail images of the contents of a file
Windows 7 includes the following new Aero features:
Shake -Minimize all windows that are not being used by clicking the title bar
of one window and shaking the mouse.
Peek - View the icons and gadgets on the desktop by pointing the mouse at
the right edge of the taskbar to make all windows transparent.
Snap - Resize a window by dragging it to one edge of the screen.

Gadgets -Windows 7 and Windows Vista users can place Gadgets


on the desktop. Gadgets are small applications such as games,
sticky notes, or a clock.

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Windows Desktop Properties


To customize the desktop in Windows 7 and
Windows Vista, right-click anywhere on the
desktop and choose Personalize to:
change desktop icons, mouse pointers, and
your account picture.
modify a themes background, color, sound,
and screensaver.

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Windows Desktop, Tools, and Applications


To customize the Start Menu or the Taskbar,
right-click it and choose Properties.
The Task Manager allows you to view all
applications that are running and to close any
applications that have stopped responding:
CTRL-ALT-DEL and select Start Task Manager.
right-click the taskbar and select Start Task
Manager.

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Computer and Windows Explorer


Computer allows access to the various installed drives (My Computer
in Windows XP)
Windows Explorer - used to navigate the file system includes:
Search box - Access previous searches. Filter search results.
New folder button - Create new folders with one click.
Arrange by - Organize items easily according to different criteria.
Preview pane button - Turn the preview pane on or off.

Applications can be launched in several ways:


Click the application on the Start menu or Taskbar.
Double-click the application shortcut icon on the desktop.
Double-click the application executable on the desktop or in Windows
Explorer.
Launch the application from the Run window or command line.
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Windows 7 Libraries
Allows for easy organization of content from storage
devices on local computer and network.
Are virtual folders that present content from different
locations within the same view.
Include four default Libraries - Documents, Music, Pictures,
and Videos.
To add a file to a library, right-click it, select Include in
library, and then choose which library to add the item.
To create a new library, open a folder and select Include in
Library > Create new library
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Control Panel Utilities


System and Security - To configure system and security settings
Network and Internet - To configure network connection types
Hardware and Sound - To configure devices connected to the
computer and settings for sound
Programs - To remove, change, and repair applications
User Accounts and Family Safety - To create and remove user
accounts and set up parental controls
Appearance and Personalization - To control the look and feel of
the Windows GUI
Clock, Language, and Region - To specify location and language
Ease of Access - To configure Windows for vision, hearing, and
mobility needs
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User Accounts
User Accounts Utility:
Create a user account.
Manage password, change picture, change account
name and type, manage another account, and
change User Account Control (UAC) settings.
Start > Control Panel> select User Accounts
User Account Control (UAC):

Monitors programs on a computer and warns users


when an action might present a threat to the system.

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Internet Options
To access Internet Options select Start > Control
Panel > Internet Options

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Action Center
Used to configure security settings in Windows 7 and
Vista.
Select Start > Control Panel > Action Center.

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Windows Firewall
The Windows Firewall Utility implements a security
policy by adjusting the following settings :

Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall


Change notification settings
Turn Windows Firewall on or off
Restore defaults
Advanced settings

Start > Control Panel > Windows Firewall.

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The System Utility


View basic system information, access tools and
configure advanced settings including:
Computer Name -View or modify the name and workgroup
settings for a computer, as well as change the domain or
workgroup.
Hardware - Access the Device Manager or adjust the device
installation settings.
Advanced -Configure settings for performance, user profiles,
startup, and recovery.
System Protection - Access System restore and configure
protection settings.
Remote -Adjust settings for Remote Assistance and Remote
Desktop.

Start > Control Panel > System


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Device Manager
View settings for devices
in the computer and:
Update a driver - Change
the currently installed driver.
Roll back a driver - Change
the currently installed driver
to the previously installed
driver.
Uninstall a driver
Disable a device
Start > Control Panel >
System > Device Manager
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Computer Management Console


Provides utilities to manage
your computer including:
Task Scheduler
Event Viewer
Shared Folders
Local Users and Groups
Performance
Device Manager
Disk Management

Start > Control Panel >


Administrative Tools > Computer
Management
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Event Viewer
Logs a history of events
regarding applications,
security, and the system.

These log files are a


valuable troubleshooting
tool.
Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools >
Event Viewer

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Services and Performance Monitor


Services:

Start, stop, or disable services.


Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools > Services.

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Performance Monitor:
Record performance data and
configure alerts.
Start > Control Panel >
Administrative Tools > Performance
Monitor
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Disk Defragmenter and Disk ErrorChecking Tool


Disk Defragmenter makes files on the hard drive
contiguous and speeds up the reading of files.
To access the Disk Defragmenter in Windows 7, select
Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools
> Disk Defragmenter.
CHKDSK checks the integrity of files and folders by
scanning the hard disk surface for physical errors.

Access CHKDSK from within the Disk Defragmenter or


enter CHKDSK in command line to detect and repair
disk errors.

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System Information Tool


Collect and display information about local and remote
computers
To access the System Information tool, Start > All
Programs > Accessories > System Tools > System
Information

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Remote Desktop
Remote Desktop
View and control a computer from a remote location.

Remote Assistance
Also allows user to view what the remote technician
is doing to the computer.

To access in Windows 7 or Windows Vista, select Start


> All Programs > Accessories > Remote Desktop
Connection

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Control Panel Utilities Unique to Specific


Windows Versions
Windows 7

Windows XP

HomeGroup

Add/Remove Programs

Action Center

Printers and Faxes

Windows Defender

Automatic Updates

RemoteApp and Desktop


Connections

Network Connections
Network Setup wizard

Troubleshooting
Windows Vista
Tablet PC settings
Pen and Input Devices

Offline Files
Problem Reports and Solutions
Printers
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Command-Line Tools
Start > Type Cmd in the search box > Press Enter

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Run Line Utility


Enter commands to configure settings and system
modifications.
To access in Windows 7 select Start > Search box > Type
run > Enter.
Common Commands
CMD Used to execute command line programs.
DXDIAG - Displays details for all DirectX components and drivers.
EXPLORER Opens Windows Explorer.
MMC - Opens the Microsoft Management console (MMC).
MSCONFIG - Opens the System Configuration Utility.
MSINFO32 - Displays complete system summary of the computer.
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Virtualization
Host machine uses its system resources to host a
virtual machine.
Hosting a virtual machine allows users to access the
functionality and resources provided by an OS that is
not on the local PC.
Provides access to applications, file-sharing services,
and other productivity tools.

Users can further increases the functionality of their


system by running multiple virtual machines.

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Virtualization
The software that creates and manages a virtual
machine on a host machine is called the hypervisor,
or Virtual Machine Manager (VMM).
Allocates the physical system resources, such as CPU, RAM,
and hard drive, to each virtual machine as needed.

Windows Virtual PC is the virtualization platform for


Windows 7
Allows you to partition system resources for a Window OS
among virtual machines .

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Virtual Machine PC Requirements

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Preventive Maintenance Planning


Components of a preventive maintenance plan:
Updates to the operating system and applications

Updates to anti-virus and other protective software


Hard drive error checking
Hard drive backup

Hard drive defragmentation


Device drive updates
Firmware updates

Startup programs
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Schedule Tasks
The CLI at command launches tasks at a specified time
using the command line interface.
The Windows Task Scheduler launches tasks at a
specified time using a graphical interface.
To access the Windows Task Scheduler in Windows 7
and Windows Vista, select Start > All Programs >
Accessories > System Tools > Task Scheduler.
Both of these tools allow users to set commands to run
at a certain time just once, or to repeat at selected days
or times.

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Restore Point
If a computer crashes, the OS can roll back to a restore point
using the System Restore Utility.
The restore utility only operates on OS and application files.
Anti-virus software should be run to remove malware before
creating a restore point.

When to create a restore point:


Before updating or replacing
the OS.
When installing or updating
hardware.
When an application or
driver is installed.
Start > All Programs >
Accessories > System Tools >
System Restore

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Backup the Hard Drive


Use the Microsoft Backup Tool to perform backups.
Establish a backup strategy that will allow for the
recovery of data.

Decide how often the data must be backed up and the


type of backup to perform.
It is only necessary to make copies of the files that
have changed since the last backup.

To access the backup utility in Windows 7, select Start


> Control Panel > Backup and Restore.

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Types of Backups
Description

Clear
marker

Normal

Selected files and folders

Yes

Copy

Selected files and folders

No

Differential

Selected files and folders that


changed since the last backup

No

Incremental

Selected files and folders that


changed since the last backup

Yes

Daily

Selected files and folders that


changed during the day

No

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