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Brecht on Theatre THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AESTHETIC — edited and wranslated by JOHN WILLETT o BILL 419 WANG «Naw Your METHUEN Lovwow ‘Abate Popa 38 A Short Organum for the Theatre (Sesion mate ethos wh tgibe reer aspen pase essen need modiing ‘The fellonng ses out to define a athtc drawn fom «pereulaeLnd| of thecal pefrmance which bas bez worked ot in preci er the ts: few decades, Inthe heave stemest, excuson, technic id Eston ocstoralypublised inthe form af notes fo the writer's plays, seats have ony been ouhed on cast and wih comparative ato ines. There you sw parla species of thee extending o sm ‘recting its socal Funeon, perfecting sing it arene methods nd ‘Sublshing or maltaining iz aewtcr-if the question arose by ‘ejecting oavering toto we the damnan coavenone of moray rate aecoring wis actal aed. This thee atid einai to sci eommitmen by pining to the scl ennmitient in wniversly acceped wks a st, which ony fil to ss the ee becuse twas the accepted commitment Af fo the products of to tine i ed tht thet nck of ny wortble coment war sign of dvadene ie aeesed Utes emermentemporiome af having degenerated ito betiches of the bourpais narcotics busines. The wag's incense repesetton of oar saci fe, inclading tote ceed a wad Nara ed ell Tur scien excerepreseotions; the atl remhing of empty ‘val or spt pains, fr teal ogi of he mulisan ag ‘The eat of beat, condaced with hsliy towards lamning and core temp for the useful was domed by ia el contempt eel nothing bei relted. The Bate was for theatre Bt for the inte from th armory of asthe conept nogh ne eles against the aestheis of the Pre they ssl thetene oan form the means of exoyment ino an isment fists, a8 0 ‘munication’ (Notte opers Mahagony [ae Nog) roomie fram the rem of the merely enjoyable Asti, tat eon of by tw depraved and pusiteca, asin sucha lmensble sate tat t there mould certain hae gained bo ia reputation odin elbowroom i it had recrieed ite hatter And ye wha we ahd nthe thease fore sent ge wast mene but ete, andthe scwated| 1% f Snowations worked out during the Nas period andthe war ~when peace ‘ial demantration wat imposible~compel sme atempt to se is Species of theatre ini sett background, ot srybow fo tc for ie ‘te otines os conevablesebeicTo expan the theory of tetra Alienation except within an aesthetic Mmenock would be inpoibiy vhs "Tolay one could go 20 frat to compile am aesthetics of the eset sciences Galle spe ofthe eegance of crtsn formulae ad the point of a experiment; Ensen sugges thet the sng of beauty hs apr pay in the making of see dneoverieg while the atomic physica Oppencimer pases the siete sttude, which “ae is tm ind OF ‘enury and seems to sie mains poston on eth Tet therefore aus genera dismay by revoking our decison wer trate from the elm of the merel enol, anderen mare genta disny by announcing out deciion to take up Idging there. Lt os treat the theatre asa ple of entrainment as is proper ina sete dissin, sd ty to dover whch aye of eoertinent sits ue Bes “Theat? consis inthis: in making ve representation of reported oe inven hnppeings between humen beings and ding eo wit «view 0 fhveraiest. Atay at tht ir what we sll ean when we sper thaave, wheter ad a new ‘To extend thie denition we might add happesings between huss snd ods, bot awe ate ony seeiog (0 estblah the minimum we can leaveruch mats ide. Even ifwe dd acept och extension me should sti bave 1 sy that he "heare” stags ede uncon ast pve east, Iie he ooblest Fain that we ee found fr ea xt From the fs ithe ben the heats bine a entertin peopl, a ie also has ofall he other ace Tes hit business which sayy ges its fcr digi ie noes no other passport tha fon, bt heist fave, Weshould no by any ears be giving ita higher tare wee fo faerie int s purveyor of era, i wold on the coetrary run the Fk of Beg debated, and this wuld coeur atone iit ed to wale it Ira eson enjoyable, and erjyable tothe sac thas pine, dite, by whch ocliy ex oly gin. Not even into can be dernanded of is ny ate, 20 more wlitaran lesion than how to move plesuraby,wiete ie the physio inthe spiital sphere, The tetre Ios in tems someting entinlysuperfons, thesph Ss ined ets hat it the sipeslunis for which we lve, Noding needs er [isin than plese iy ‘Thus what de ancien, flowing Artoue, demanded of tragedy is thing highs of lowe ha tt esould etn pape Theat sy be sid tobe deve fom sna, bu tht ony aay thai ezomes "hate nee the Oo have separated; what fe brought ave fom the yee ‘eis wn ott forme itl fn, but purely ad simply he pleas whieh accompacid! this And he clr of whieh Antone writes leaning by fa and pty, of fom fear and pty isa puriion wich is perered not only ina plasurable way, ba presi fr the purpre of pleasure, To ask or fo acee moe of tether to et ons tooo es = Even when people speak of higher and lower degree of pleasure, att stares impasely back atthe for thes thigh and ow and fo be Ietin pees ong tam ge please o people 6 Yet there are weaker (ipl) ad srooee (comple) plesees which the theatre can crete Taelneramed, whi are what ne ate eng wih in great drama, aia ther cimaxey rater as cohen des trough love: they are mere inet cher in commun, move contactor std more productive fees ‘And dierent pigs’ pleasures ard naturaly acceding to the system under ich prople ive sey athe tine, The Gres demos teal the demos of de Greek crear rl by tyrants Rad tobe entertained erent fom the fea cart of Louie XIV. The tea wa equi 1a deliver diferent repesemtions of men’s fe tgetber: ott Fepre= seaion ofa ilret Hf but ato representations of diferent sre. Accoding tthe srt of entertainment which was posible and necessary under the ven conditions of men’s fe together the charces had to be ven varying proportion, the tuations fo be constructed seceding to varying points of view. Stare: have tobe marcted in vatoas way, ‘that thse patiaar Grsks may be tle to amuse themes th theineiabilc af divine ls where ignorance aver mites te pis ‘neat; these French with he rie sel- spline emo of eget tne ofthis earch by aco eade of ty the Englishmen of the Ela ‘ethan age with the elanreness ofthe new individ! penalty which vas then uncontalby bring os ° ‘And we must vay remember tht the plese piven by representations ofsech diferent sors hel ever depended o the representations ever to the hing poteayed. Tncivectnery, or conden impratailiy even, washardy or ne atall curing, olan asthe incorrecmese had cea onsseney andthe ipeobabiky emsined of «constant ind. Al at Imrtered wa he ilson of eompeling monet inthe sey lend this was crated by ll sor of pote ad theta mens, Eve oy me are lnppy to verlok such nacre swe can gt something Othe ‘piel purifenins of Sophocer or the scifi at of Racine othe lubed frenses of Shalespeare, by eying eo grap the inmmene or Splendid Feeling ofthe principal characters in shee trie, For of all the many aurs of representation of happenings between humans which ee thats la made since ancient tm and which have {es enrainmen despite thei inerrectnes a improbabliy, thee ave fen ody an actrishing numer tat ln gv etersinment to n estubishing the extent to which we cn be satis by representations fiom so many aizet pride smcthing that an hal ve bor se sible wo the children of thor vigorous periods therslven ate we nts the ame tine cresting the suspcon eat we have filed ta disse he sil pleases che prope enteriament for own ie? at ‘And out exjoymect ofthe theatre must fave become weaker than that ofthe ancien, eve four ay of living totes i il suticen Te ‘ei frit tobe fatal. We gap theo mes by x comparatively new method ~ pathy on whch they ely Je, Thos the gree pat of ‘ut enjymen is draws fom other sorts thin those which our pre= decsors wer alee explit ofl. Weare etsy dependent on ‘beauty af haguage, on eleance of mitt, ca usages which simulate cow rive pinion shorn the incidental te od works ‘Theat are preiely he postal and thestreal meant which ide theme tins ofthe sary. ur theaes np longer have ether he capacity the vis to tel hese stares, een the relatively rete ones of Ge get Shakespeare, all ery ito mike the connection of vets rede ‘And according to Aristle—and we agree there marae isthe sl af deuma. We te more and more dtarbed toss how eral ad cae ley men's fe gether i repented, and chat nt oy in ld nals but alsin contemporary ones contacted acurding to the ld recipe, (Our whole may of appreciation ating ogo ot of date 8 9 ts the inecarate way im whic bappeingsbetnen human beings ate represenced ta estes or plasre nthe theatre Th reason: we and ur forebears havea diferent elton owt i being show, For when we lok about w for an enteriament whe impact sme Aint, for comprebensive and penzting please suche ovetheate 15 ‘A few hunded eae ago «handilof peopl, working in diferent coun tris bat incorespondesce with one aneher, reformed extn exper tens by which hey hoped wing fom Nate her secre, Member | 1 asf enfsman inte aed powerfl ci they tated thi ‘Facveis to peopl who made pects ue of tem, with expecting ‘was mee ne sings than gens profit for thames ‘rafts which bd progres by mtd vial vackangeé daring a ‘housed years sow developed hogy, in many ples, mich became Tike by competi they extbered om al eons great mane of ‘met and thee, adopting new forms of rani, sated producing ont {ian sae: Soon mankond was showing powers wha exten it would {at ine scarey ave dared to dream of 6 te mat if mankind forthe eet ee now bean conscious and co tinued ely to make the planet etwas home fio live oo. Many Uttbe cans component sucha ca, te, naw Beare treasures. Stem wus made to shift eile» few eal pars end the twitching of op log reese taurl Force which produced ot eatied sounds ‘Tots county, ete. In alliretons ma looked abou Hise! with & ow vison tet how Be ould adap tobi eonverence fae bata htayited bjeau His proundigs changed ieresigly fom decade to deeae, the fom yao yar then almost fom ay to ay. T who am ‘lungs write ona machine which tthe tine of my Bn wa n= naw Twelfth new vehi with a mpiity tat my grandfather ‘ld ot mie, nthe days ting moved fast. And Tie nthe Sve hing my Gtr wat bl a, With my father Tardy spoke see wideh of comincat, but twas tgeter with my ao that Fear sa the moving pstures of he exlson a Hireshinn the new wcenes may ave made possible ke wst alteration and alle pont aera our srrandings, ex cart be sid the heir tpaitdeermines everything that we Jo\ Te resson why the new way of ‘Roakingand fing has ote peotated the preatnzss of men tha the ‘incor all her seces i exlting and dominating rue, have teen stopped by the clans which thay Brought co power the Boogie om cpeaing in saber eld where dares il eign, mney hat Fite td wlich people have to one another daring the exploiting Se dominating proses This bins on which all ake depended was Putrmed withwt the new intelectual methods hat made tps Per uniaing the mut reaps of he peopl Who eid it out “The new apron omar mi ot applied 16 sce. 8 Io decent pols maa restos have become harder eo isangle tances before The giants on onderaking on whch they ae engaged ‘ena read core apterous; incre in radon fend to ntemes in misery, ony ancy gun fram the explosion of ratte, and hey oly dos bron hey expt men, What might be po iro for al then bevomes advancement Fea fen and an ever-increasing fof te productive proces gets appli ro centing meas of estocion Foc gh aes During hse waste bers of every noon, with hei 8 clidven pressed co ther, scan the skein aro fo he desl iaveatins | sine) ot “The same tna a men one showed in feof unpredicable ata Eaustvophes they now opt tarde ther own sndertaigs. The boo trois cas, whieh ones to seience an advancement that was abe, by nurng tha alone enjoyed th att cooer it damiation, kav Sery wel chat rule would come to amend if the scenic eje mee tured Ua itsova undertakings Jd oat ew cence which wa founded about ‘hod gers ag an Hel with character of toma soit wa born Joke srogl between cues and rl Since then a cextain sine hes developed tthe ttm, sng he AGW EASE OF WOE Ws aval denene & bagels pralotoa: fom dowe Chere tie est inane pled awnings by We rules Fit science andar mest on his ground, chat bath ase hare x mae Ines lie eset, te ove sting otto mati, the ober tetera nemo coment ml eae eteranmen om tat ey prodveiiy hich en to rey improve out rasnteance, and in el, ion it Tetsshacld may prove to be he gents please of them all I we mont nowt sutender ourselves oth geat passion for producing, frit ought aur epreserations of men's ie togtber ro ook hike? What isha pradutive aitue in fee of sauce and of sey which we Children scenic age wold like t ake up pleasuablyinour texte? “Themtitede isa cron. Faced with + cer, icons in regulating the ve, ed with rt tein paring te ries faced with move mens incostucting vier and aeroplanes el with sce in turing {eel upsde down, Ont eetetation of aman sel ete desig fee newly rit ferme, bulers af wiles ard wpumers of toc, whom weave int ur Senter an gat forge thet heer fal ecipatins wie ne baad te wodd over fo thee minds and Beas, fa them lange a they tik ty a The there con only ape such a ee attude i les el ecaied slong by the srnget arene ais society and socites fl wih thane who ae nctsrily mort impatient make rest alerions thre. The are wi if noting cle, to vate a a fit forthe times mus dive or these of the senile age sight ot inthe suburb, whee a stand ait were wide ape, ate espe of thas who ive hard ae pr ‘ce uc, that hey xa be frifly etrined thee with heir great robes. he my Bn hard to pay Tr or ar tl imei co rsp the new sed of sterner, and we sal have ten many ‘specs what they need and how they ned it; bt we ean be sure of hei inert men who seem sfc pat rom ntl sec are ony thar frm it because they ate beng forebly ep apart nd before they Cn gt thei hand on it they have Br to develop and pt into eet = ne Since of scythe ther at the tve children f the scenic ae Irtoalone can gt ie dete moving tito move aall A hee wc inisenscmmroecunneaee s Lb ie ining baaself, a techie gered into ran eal oso / Buc tis make it simpler forthe sere to eg lose as possible to the epprsta fedcatin ed mae carmvneaton For although we esn- tot the it wth the sn tera of Knowledge in le ri, ich ‘old sip it fom being ejoybl, ale to nd enjoy feacing 2nd ingiing Ie conser i workable representations of fociy, which ae thon ina person to influence soery, wholly and tly game for those who are conatrcting toc Vet aut foci’ experince, past and presnt tik, in nc a renner thatthe Shine ean appreciate’ the eli, sgh an impulses which ze di {ld by the wie, mas active and mor psn among ae om the vents day rte ceotry. They sat be entersined withthe wim that comes from the slain of pena, with te anger at pret txpreson of rympay with che underdag, withthe respect duet hase tek reapect humanity, or rater whatever Rind fo Raman in sho, ith whatever delight hoe who are podacng something, And Wis alo means tt the thee cn et sspears gx parr ei of et seth pings rom protacnny/A eae ‘ich cane te eed “pprseh ee proto method it sre nds thing ine cal eld wich mt ads pe ea att an. Bren he nel snarl cn bea sue feet Tost sng is presse ort an onthe und ge the ater prove to fae cosel owes ndertantng dete oe sul sable cpu, sppicd sds esweave ca Laca the bursing Mod fs ax xasophe ane apc ial ie ht yor nt 6 Forsuc an operation this wecan bundy accept the thence as we se itbefore Let ug ator of tes haute ad nerve he ef whe itis on the specators. Looking shout a, we ne somewhat motile figures ina peer contin: hey seem crenuousy tobe ening al ei sures, except where these are fat and exhausted. They searely com rmunkate with each eter; their elton se tho ofa ote lepers, ough of sac as ream relesly becuse, ais poplly sid of those ‘who have nightmares, hey are pga tne bck, Ty tt eye are open, but they ware rahe han oe, jute hey He eater thn ea ‘The lok at the stages iin a tant: anexpessionvbich comes fa she [idle Ages, the days of witches and picts. Seeing and hearing ar scvis, and can be least oes, bat these pete stem rceed af Actvy and ike men & whom someting bing done. This deched| ste, where they seem be give oer vege bt profound seston, ows deper the beer the wark ofthe sets and saneat we dont [rove of hs situation, shal ike them 0 be a ad spose X 7 ror porerayed ther, te wold Som which lies are eu in exer 0 peodoce these moods and movement ofthe eto, taper ance is such, produced fom such sgh and wetted sa as few pees ofeudbuad slit miming» bt often thac one hs tose the etre {ale who with fetes election fhe el wel, cate he eng oftheir audience so much mare tangy than dose the wel el As oc Tnany case we shoul! ecu these thea ft, forthe plesues which they efor mney and fame coud ot be duced by ah exer ep Senbtion of he ris or cud tet eset enerng preset ina ies mpl wo. Th eapey repress epee be ena work ars aaunec is peel te age a the i Fr who r= Teal the knowlege of unary and diflr one from she cer, bt he Sen ures have 0 be kept generals tha is ener for the onbker {een hal ith then, sda al cnt ach it fect mst ‘ean om te aro Bel within hich eveyone can ay at one: that For the spectator wants ob po in pomsion of quite definite sexsi sian jnats id does when tn ono one he ess ound Sut the sension of pre thats id, nd has ahora cheplearre of Ting aid and hie yst ter len, he adventurous ayreses Itvlih pues there is pared, ee: In edig the ch exper nal ithe dee o which tr woden set eels x hoe oes rst th hie conned al cs Toe ingen poi fe ein the es hat ey sd Be SESS onnisey old orem "aie one That they Tiel loo Gor om ot ohh ganda “Thais tbesrof tate which we sin ot operations, ad 2 i tas been fal ae to ansmate optic fats, whom we fave Cle the cir of he sentient owed credo, pied » Tron, fc sbout als ecuy the ave bees able tose mtr more ial ress of horn il ie, wall a india Ses Sth were ee apt cart sl el or even git thes ASE Hac ke. The eines cgh pow we rary on exept esiinn of ang, ot en pia Bee {Sette wind of scene pt may withered the bars ich {hey had plows sed. The sce was not epecaly worth whe, The free stay ofthe eres sara from one ae ithe Ee mtjng tout Tae fl of aman elton sxe within oor Slew tnt wan cr ap. Ost elng,bving Wren rtd in the loi) voy, nete bound heaves train sae. x For abaya and everywhere theres were che amurement centres of 3 char which sexrted the xen spit othe oat ei, tng Jett ose on he el haan restanshps The ay paleevian section ofthe publi, infeed to a nelle ad unceia exten by renegade Tne iis il eeded he old bind of etersinmes eet Som i eedrenined ay fi So lt us are ahead! Away with all obec! Since we ate to hve Inde ins bt, lets Bp Have we nc seen haw dhl can move ‘movntie? e eno epnaph tat we shold have foud ta some i ‘ing ep orn us? Before one thing and anther thee bang ext Teer dae tpl “The theatre as we know esos the rue of society (epresented on ‘he sige) a incapable f being influenced by soci (ithe atria), ‘Ocdipu, whe offended asin sern princes underlying he sey of Kite, sr executed: the gos see that they ae beyond fim ‘Shakepar’s reat soltary Fyre, bearing on he rex the stro thi fae erry though with esti fore the fle and daly tbr they prepare he own dwafal fe, nat det, becomes obscene they ‘cellar te estan beyond ceca. Homan series al ous Favbare digit! We Inow dia de Brbariane fave their ar. Let we crete note, “ How mach ger ar our sue, ving or ‘ner? bodis undercover of| the dane, plunge ino tote deri gure p on these, re te ake putin he crescendo and cites wee normal’ ens 0? ‘What kind of rela fateh end af alte ple (which it Bay ‘dels fr the conventions of he prod -suitable meses the retra- ion of ede), when we experience he dreamie excutoner sae which ‘as shore such ereender #0 many excises? We sink ito Oey, Tor abo sll ent and ignorance it no eacuse before the Ia. Ino (thy For jel sll cues us wouble and everything depends ot estes, Into Walt for we ned tobe fre forthe eompeitve ugg ad o observe the rules, oiewoud peer out. This endweight of fd abit ial nnd fr paps ke Ghosts and The Wasce, asoogh 8 here the soci strut, nthe shape of sein resents ise as more pena guestion ‘The felng, sigh dimple the chi earacers [Tetorel on usyand sows nn acting moresbou sce than wecan get ftom the sein hich ut oly eee he esting, iss We ota a ype of thee which tony rece dhe ings, nis Thu tapes Pie mine presen elf ban lx ane whi the acon aks plc, bu engogs ad eneaurges thre {hough and fekgs which help afm the ld el. Fa “The Sha 9 be defied in hstoriclly relive tems, In other words sre muse drop on habit of king the diferent soc sucares of past Frnt, hen stpping sem of everthing that aks them dierent thr they alos eeu ese ike aur ova, which een segues fom {bi pros cea aif fsving been sere al lng nother wor of es Rone pure end simple. Tend we mat leave them cet isi~ E tins belve cores, #0 {uhing mare apd hep thir impermanence abv ‘ {ta at own ptod eon beacon oe impermanent to. (cv of eneae Fle ome se fancy xara oiloe fer hich sar theres fnply gees inode to mphsie the snr in human beaviout ite ies, WA shal nine the central meds below) Xr we comee hoe cies he age ene yl i isan! hat hier secordng the pvd then we make are tau gccu tien inset wh thm He aot spf ‘Roenhew weld a bt at moe can ef 7 Bad ved and ow sone Ae pr efi itr om in sth SEPTETtathen ple the cvs une hi be i ‘ecru him er hyo weet ce ios vege et ined il “the Micra? mas of cures ste maine (por ih tebocostta)mnyeies Pes te sgouny oo he ty hey arsed an mine! by en el Wl in a coe SORTA RPAESS Ri te sce grb ota allow wo emu ne » Ua character responds in s manner sri Hn keeping wid his io, and woud respond atherwse nother perio, ots that man hat ‘ete nt spy "Everyman? Te sre has ran weep dere accovng tos cecmatancs and isc, if he wee living 3 another time or mis youth on he darker sieo il, he mold naib ge = sien response, hough oe ill deerme bythe ue fcr ke anyone eles response in destution att ine. So hold we otek it thre are ny free dfeencesof ego’ What i hema hse, thelving uamisaeabe mn, who ne quite dential with se de fl with im? Teas ler ht hig stage mst ring im oi se ‘his wll ore about i this parle antraiton i reseed ithe inage. The inage haves itr danicon wri sein ofthe rough thing which acts taco eter movements and fees a sound the fllf-weladout fire. Or imagine aan sanding in ley tnd making speech in which he ces change i wo imply ‘ier sentences which comrade one another 0 thatthe secmnpaayig ‘cho freshen ina contain Such images cerinly demand « way of sting which will lave the Spectator’ nallet Ge and igh able. He as finan ain to ake ‘tht on might ll hypothe ajstents to our satay rewtaly Sviching of he matire fre of or any or by sbatating ote for them xpress which lee real conduct to acuie an element of he ature thu allowing the rel motive Forest Ue sharh of the naturales and become capable of ripen, * {eis the same as when a ipution expert ooks at a river tether wih isformerbedandvarnas ype cures hich tight have lowed ifthe had been» dierent tt othe platen ar + dfleret lume of ater. And whieh in i ied ilooking at new svete soil in is isearing new Kinds of alk fom the borers who work ty Aad sii In inthe theaie ou sector shené nd tat he insets et among sch abourers are ln szompanid hy echoes an by tc akevchings ‘The ind of acting wich wat tried out athe SchiTbsserdanm Theater in erin between the Fit and Seed World Ware with ie objet of 1 |“ prodacing ch mee, based onthe'aenatin fer (Aes). Arepre= Setanta azote i one which lows us recognize ts sabe, but ihe same time maker ie oem uoiilir The easel and medieve ‘eae alcatel is carers by mang them west huran oan ‘muy Ge Aste thease cron today wot mal end patonoue A ‘ects. Sach devies were coral bare to rp, and ye tht ie owed more, sas, to hype suggestion us do thse by which tipi achieved. The soils of thee old devices wee ently ‘iret om our om, a “The old Acsets quite remove the jer seresented rom the spect lee gas, tuning ino something tat xt be tered the ew te not ‘ld in themselves thogh the uiete ey ammpanthing sanz Ui "The new slznaons a aly designed fre mel. condoned ‘ncn from tat stump of fee wich protects tem agaist our Foc ic sxe imple to ser wit has Jog aot ben alered. We are slays coming om tings tat ston vou fru to ether ondersad them. Whatmen experince sang theses thy tik of 5 "he? human ‘pence Acid ving in «werd od men, rs ow things work there He knows the run of dng before be can walle If anyone i bold nou 0 want something fore, be oly wae wo hae ica an exception, ‘Evenihe reaac that the auangements made for hin by Provident ate only wt has been provided by aacety he is bound ko se sity, eae ‘as cllectin of beings ke himself aes whol tat sett than thes ie pare and therefore notin any way to be alee. Moreover, be Sul be se to things tat could ao be inuend aed who mistrass ‘That heb wed to? To tensfrm hel fom gene ps acoeptance tos carepundg sae of eupisour inquiry be would need w develop tha detached ee ith whi he ret Galle observed 2 swinging chan ele te was ama by ts penn atin, aif he had wo expected itand cold not undertnd te curing, ths enabled hi 1 eome on the eles by wich it ma governed ere th ook, iconcerting but fei, woh the Snes povote with te represeaton of human sacl is Temata tpi nd scan Ue eieved bya tehniqae aliepatig the far. rs st ‘This technique avs the ete mike tin ts reresenios of thee scene meg Known a daectcal macan Tnrg tone sey’ vs of maton his meted eats sation 2 proess, and eas ot ll tr nomen, Ie reat nto 2 Sing eacpin ay rant changen in her words sin disecrny ih iat Tis a gos ho na feogy opons tn ay though which any tne te Br Wee tpt nde so “ ox ov pid, whichis tastringoatice i © many ad irene as ues porn nde ins th ween atch {ea fret loan, wera sage deca be nade oto Fi. He doer ot tae ty te wa he wy or Sse hve tb er ely ‘eis now, bur ab as fe might became, We mists sa hh ‘me sare him. TH ean, hoes ta mt ot Sing ‘ye in hs cy, but mit tu igh, epee Thats why the hee mt este wha stone Inarder to produce Act the act hat to discard whatever means he aslo of eting the asdienes oes with he charcers whieh te ae Aiming otto pt hsm see ms ot one = inl, mies cu an tam teen wit utened neck mus, wil pil ed the pecston? pe aad een the eds tn with ad thn onl eat fen ay ‘peclatn or reac which the gesture may bing aout Hs my of Speaking tas to be fer Gorn pusnal Sngong snd fom all oes ‘Scns which ite sero athe spn, Erne lps ‘mn posed he mat nose tobe posed Hine fr bow the Speer dacone what prea hin he doe? [At po monn mist he go 30 fatto be whol arsformad int 5] tharacer played, The verdict "he dd ct Let, he was Lea? le be sant blow ohm, fe as ju ta show the character or rather be | so do more han just eit this des not meen Sa ihe ago | sion prs he ms bil enain cole I only at his eclgy mst not at botom be toe ofthe chat, so tat he sues’ may ‘ot at batom be those of he character iter. The audience mus hve empl rendambee o This principle ut the ator apps onthe stage in dole rl Laughion andes Galley hat the showman Laughton Geno spe in the Gallen whom he showing from which hs way af sig gee name of pc'=comes to mean simply thatthe tangible, mateo ar rosso anger hidlen Behind 2 vei ht Langton actly there, Standing on the sage and showing us wht he imapines Cale to Pane teen. OF course the adince wuld not fret Lavgito i he tempted ‘he fll change of personaly, hat they would amie is fori ve ‘hey woul inn eae isis om opinions and seston, which would have been completely swalbwed up by the chaser He mould ave ‘ake its opinions and serstan ad made them hs own, alse hamogenees paren woud emerge, which be would then me oe Tn ‘oes to prevent this abuse the ator met lo pot sme erty into the acto showing. Aniston may bp: weds gear whch expresses ‘onehafe hisatitade tit ofshowing if we male him smoke ders ‘hen nage kn hyig ie down now td agin inorder show oe same rte arctic atcode the figure inthe play. If we hen sbenet sy element of humy rom the image and do no ead slchess int Felualto be ut west ave an actor wh aly cpa feng uso ar thot his own “here neds to be yet s further change in the str’ commuizaton of "heseimags andittoo mala th pros more ater ae Jat ante scr nolongerhas to persuade the audience that isthe suhoe character 4d not hms that standing onthe sage 0 ale he eed pretend Ute evntsaking place onthe sage have neve bee earn, ne "tow happening forte Sand oly tine Scie’ distinction ger vali ha che rhpudit has to et hi teri whl nthe ast the me hs as whl ere and new! I shouldbe apparent al heh his ‘sfornarce tat ‘even tthe tar and in he ele he knows how tends ‘nde masts minanseal ndependencethvughou. Honest {he story of his career by vivid portrayal always Knowing more that it des and eating it ‘na and "herent pretence made pe by thers of the ame but something tobe ding fom esterday and some other lc, 50a 0 sake vise the hnoting-opeter of the ater Gd, 8:9 ed on Fi This aters parc in the portrayal of lees events or one where the oatide words abropy changed sin wars and cevltons ‘The specatr ean then have the whol sain ad the whale cor of ‘ents et tfore him. He can fr lnsance ha 4 oman sesing vad Imagine her speaking dire, let ws sayin afew wes ties ov ce women speaking differen a tha nent ut tn another ple, hss would be possible if he acess were co play a thoagh the woman ad lined tog the ete ped and were om ot of her memory ad hee ‘now of what happened net, recalng thow wera of he whch ere important at therm; for wlat mpartn here i what tree important. To aeate ainda! in hie way as Being“ parle ‘nid and his partelarindvidol at hs prt unmet oy ‘ose ifthee ae nilsson that the player ieee wahtve urate 2nd the performance with th eileen s We stall od hat his fas meen Serapping yet anche isin: chat everyonetichveslte he hamter concen Tar angi hs bears "1 id tht anda he did eh ae got bere he id this cae sight ave dane wmething ele’ io reat simpleton we tae ‘heaton litte charac od the characte fhe stony the nee ies which ae t be found inthe acne and characters fr pol taanot be shown lke his. The ws of tin of soy rena be sdemonsrted by pret examples for pein Ginearseney) sa essential part of motion and ofthe thing moved Ie i ony neesmy - bot bsoltly necessary ~ Ut tere shold be somehingapposshing ape metal cntong ie. that» counter-expeiment soul now and then bo cable. Altogether hs isa way of eating socely a ils ston were pion a experiment, sot Even ifempthy,oselienicnion withthe care, can be fll inl in reeasl Gomeching tobe aod in eto) tc 10 be teed usa ne of aunbe of mths of eocraon,Tehelge the ebesing, for nen shoogh the contemporary tere fas spplcd in an indiscriminate way i as none the le ed subtle delineaon of ssonaity, But its the cudet frm of empathy when the str stony ‘sks what should Ie lief hie hat meee happen ome! wat weed ‘tok ike if were tomy hin and othe = insted ef aso. bee eee TT in onder to pace eter a ew character rich woud and good deal ee, Thecaherenceat ‘he ay in wich india qatces ‘sor part of acting. "The actor aberes his fellow ‘ea with ll his nerves and muslin an act a ninnos is ioe w st thou pon and ei ean rere sahing a a Withoottnonede oe can show mehngy bow eld one Pe wy eld wor Knowing Unit soe oe, key et oar ur per ino ha nt ‘himself joining in the wat ofthe clases. Same people may eel this to eqn, Ine hey rk ons he enya oneehchighet dingy bat ainsi nap stench tnt rca eee at fev Nihody cn sued sth wing ces eat Soca nan sre mm eee sem lng isn wanng es Te ola? ers oy ty wank ee © 6 Ste chic of viewpoints lo «major cament of the actor's art and it fu be deed oie the dae. Like the nsertono ans that of scey ia Heating cand i ithe jn af Mboraoe ek thease af scene age he ge cone. ‘et 4s go on to examine how, fr nsance, this viompoin acts the ‘tor’ erretion a his par. Ke then becomes ingore tha Reon not etch onto quickly. Even if he sraightmny exten nhc eae 196 satura cadence for his prt, he es awkward way of peaking it He sil fanor regedit acal pronouncements being ideally nat, ut art think wie and tke his own ger pinion nt aceant, then oie ‘sous ote conceable pronouncement ake op the ate fazun who just wonders This nt only preent him om ang areal enact eematrey so at chs oe fe out withers ‘hough Because he as not waited eit ll theater pronounce= ‘mens, ad especialy those of the ter characters bata ad principally in cdr obit the character at elemento "Not~ But on which rch depends if in nthe shape af he asic, be able to ook st what tks place in soc « nay'as to beable to aet i Each ator, Imoener, sted of cane on what utah ad calling homa ata], as osbove lor whet doesnt ht ot hi peli ‘And lag with his par he mar comit o meory his a vein fe sere cess, socks, sha hey ae bt dsroyed by being valle pint final version Bure preserved and percep fr carne nd all st no grow on the sence so moth sti, ‘And the leering proces mst be brated otha the seo eta 5, ‘he other ators are ering sed develops his characte: they ae Jereop- ing thes. Pr the smalls cl unt it atthe singe peson but to ropl a ie 20 we deep one anche, E Here we can Kern something fom our own theatre’ deplorable fab ot keing the dariant a, he rar, ‘cme to th ont’ y geting al oe ther aoe 9 work for hin: he makes bis characte tele oe se by Focig his pares otk thee erie or attentive. Even i ony secure this advange forall and hu lp the try, the ators should ‘omeimes swap cles with their partners daring rears so tha the Charactescan get wat they ned frm one anther Bt itis aso good for the ators when they se their characters copied or potayed in nate for, I the pats played by somebody of neopets he x of he character willbe mare cel brought ou if i payed by « cei, whether conical ot wgicelly, ic wil gin fresh apts, By belpng fo evel the parts that correspond ta his, a any ate sain i fr ‘her players the actor semen he all-dceesoial stander, whieh fast present his chercer, The maser nly the sot of ‘ater his servant as hi be te 197 es cme A mf 2 ts of person dry sh ce acre out wen stoi tng eters i a en ‘nem nat is cpt it es rao t tnve Sr ech nese Sointn mich epee hana ee @ ‘he actor mats his charter by poyng ee ten fds alo to thie of ener ance ved of is counterparts aed ofall he ther 6 es wg don ke em of ican y cc emt by rami ea UE opting ans of iy mdf, aoe ei ee Te Wotan ie fd ot ip he a ee py bp man ats na hoo ol ang in ols sn bys ren he ene Ahira Stas hor. Topi ny ute tllbecndig whe mm aces pci Eee nes lehed patie emer oe ph Hea ered tha this passage of tine eo pesbly have root see ‘ol his 8 wth otesnined gr seer tns nig head he hints dtl min nse scan ek i wr «bude: eho one dank hi mong mil whoa Breed to teach the boy. But does he really drink it without caze? Isn't che Pere fk an wang on ih te planer wick ake ‘he new idea? Don’ forge he thinks ot of elndugence. I that ‘edo fed wuld aie you represent ica gon snc on tis point So wld necking nthe whol yt butm soy, and more espe fens you yours ae 1 hope, allan chi of the scenic age. But take crf ance many horrible things il happen this comection. ‘The {acta the man who ere ache the new age wl be ed at heed 10 beg this geo dsown hin as cotempable, ever a dsposses i all Us Will be elerane. Ase the eson, you my like to decide weber he rman’ eat to Fl ha is moxth i ovecfoing 0 tha he st alk {0 anybody aboot ven acid or wheter decid bas est oda the Lnonialge eto i, by knowing hi snd showing intrest. Agua there sry be wo of them wha canoe ren thelr, the one fom aking, the ee fm ging th anemer: a bond of ther wuld be iatcesing, for on day is ging be dey sapped. OF course you wil wan the Azmonseton of she ext’ ron round then to he cdot ‘lysine i gen for nthing, nd ow the wealthy unknown pop ‘roar eding the scholar’ tine s monetary value, Hethowe no inet, ‘the hasta be served Galen ch rears, and x0 he wl tnd be ‘wees the wealthy popl and te itelient on, and igh ae kes is hie. Dee ite hat he en ech ise student, 2 he leaas om im insted he hers of cheese which fas been vere in Holand in kis owe way be ges something ot of he dsturbanc of his mornings ‘work, The Rector ofthe univers aries. Gale's aplication fr a Increase ine es bea tired down; the urivesy reluctant fo poy ‘mach forthe tories of physic for those of tesa it mhes sho fier ais oprtag on geeel-ccepted Tow eel af schol, Produce something seal here and now. You wl te Fam the wy in hic he of it thes that he ed 0 being eased an corrected. ‘The Recioe eminds im thatthe Republic gurantesfredom of esearch sensfahe der’ py eels tht becannot make macho thi reed it he les the etre which god payment permis. Here you shuld not fd his impatience too peremptory, rhs pore will no be given due weight For shard afer thar you nd him having dss which need some ‘planation: she prophet a new age feet th eonsdes how he ‘an swiale some money ov the Republic by ofeing her the eco | "row invencon Al he ses ia the oewieveton you wil be surprize’ 0 heats Tew seh and be xaises simply wih «vw oanteng t inl Bat iyo moe on the cod scene you wl nd tht while be issling the invention a the Venetian Sinaia with apech ha igi him byt alschoods beh lead seas forgotten the mane, erase 9 ne - ‘he has realized that the instrument os as at oly miliary but astronomical has been Bchaled it ein ronda! tnd the marvelous dcoera in Rew ie at the shetcal way in which Be dost os his = you wil fd a he ‘ofound escent than the sap af oe ch Pee aps, ted at in his wy, ican ae a P= {tishos hor daemined is man stake cay coe aah i ron in tase a well s+ ace manner Ar nee Bean smaner. A nore sguien ee dos not vy citing te necon ne OI soo oe ex afer anober, the ctor masters hie See fi maering he sy’ sony sewing a mt he can at were bys single np, seks he ts inva features, Once be a done Spliting rch mater characte y fe lem amaze the aude, tog he icosinences tpt {atheson ing le panier aspedic rn ee ee ‘esi ation of alte incest en a 4 "seg gs onthe eye het ofthe sess. Frits nhac happen een pepe ati tht ey can deans eee terested bythe rer hs “neti ly cae ‘hs Talla ine pte 1S commana an iene etrainmen Provides them witha he ite, ales. Even ithe pra pore imately of ito moe than jum theo pve willbe all te more seine Se ero, The ary isthe thane pe Eh ingle aciden a its basic ide. The child's tre moter set with th De or Dr Pas 19 a swe in. The grouping rovemensof he oups mst be sch tha he essary bent satin ‘hoe all bythe eegnce wih which the material eonve}ing at et fut and hid Bare tothe understanding ofthe audience, @ Acre cannot invite he audience o Hogtslfint the stony aR were 2 ever and let il be cried apuly hither and hither, he inva ‘pies have tobe Rte together cach away tht the kate easy ‘oie The episodes most ot secede another ndings but Ime give va chance to nterpose oe jdgment (Ut were above a che stscurty ofthe orginal ntereltons that need then ut th Sicumstance woul have wo be sulleenly alienated.) The pa ofthe sory have to beers off ob sit nother by giving each toa Seusure spy within the ply. To tha end te best to agree to wie ier ie thor inthe preceding pargraph, The sles vt code the Soc pin, saying st he suse ine something shou he ind of portal sented shal copy the tne of shri or a bald ce a newspaper rma. For insane, simple way of aerating something ft ‘orealiyapalitd customs and mel penile A vn, the reste sn enemy, + lover’ mesing agreements aboot ple or bung, can be poral api ey mere simply asain o general princi vad forthe pace in qusion. Shown that, the parelar and unrepetbi incident acques& dsconering loo, beeaee i appears a something fener, something that has esnme a prin As soon as weak whether Inficcshood have become such, or what abo it should fave one ve ae abemting the icdere. The pote apach to kstary can be Seid inthe sled panranasatsishows in i, A alicration hike ise meas 4 Kind of fe certain inert can jum be represented oa, thaugh thy ad fr slong while ben common knowledge a care mst be taken noo ofr the nut obec te frter as isin Tn shr: there te many aneiable ways oF eling a stoy, ume them ows ad some sil to be duced « ‘What needs to be lense, nd bow this iso be done, depends onthe xpsiton demanded by th nize episode and thee where the theace J speak up desivey forthe inert often tine. Letustaleas an cuample of uch eposnn the ald play Hank Given te dark and oad Pod in mich Tam ring the eine ruling ce, he widespend Aout in the pone of reson, estnuly being mised —T think tnt 1 (30 read the try thas: I an Beane cz BU an of wie Hulse, igo erat Sem the g of Normayina sent wero pect rishi kes Fors athe cena emacs fi cer on dy into ee he met young i ops Poin. Overs ex ckand in pee of hrs tue is cle maker ad nel eet 1 the Norwegian, Thee see cepancy ih ny vow ee beimees sick resoing and such acon Te wo % Bem a sucess, each ech sep forvar, ts Scored inthe Geldof production and all hse explorations in sme soe mite on inorder soinpove isfy, ge hom a a Jes wo 4 transformation of ss esse of change in al hig i my ew ta the ext is mt male an nor "number and ate of changer od Pocrea go MY of changes and encons which inane St “he eapstion othe sry and ix 2 ee Seam ye ma ein ce ten a the that. Net renin Are lesa, oe hw ong ay be dene gee ne is st, brah fended howe ne theatre «whol, by aay, sage despa e SQEDi nd chrplrs. They amie cron te mest, widow of se meng tt depen et es . Ie emphaszs the oneal gto showing, which always undslsthat sic is being sha, when th bene se mse addresed by means songs. Because ofthis the actors ought net eo at’ song but be ley ark off fom theres te text and thi best enrol by few then meds sich a changing the ihn or inacing a he Forts part the mie mat seonpy rena the snot nceposton ih ic gow expected of it and tures i ito an vathinking savey. sie foes nt ccmpany’ except in the fern of comment Te eanot Sy ‘expres it by discharging the emocione with which the indents of he ple have filled it That Esler, eg elpedadniably in the ting ofthe Tncdent whe nthe aaa ren of Gable he tthe mes preesion of th usta emphan nd heteing muse which showed win ‘evlatiorary twist the lover ders ad given tthe echo’ tatonaneal ‘hea. Simi ia The Cousin Chale Circ the singe by wing ily tnd wneotonl way a ging to desert he even-ges ecae te hill ited on the Soe, kes evident the tte period in ‘hich modhery isis ean become ase wisn, ‘Ths ose can Jae its pia as umber of way and with fl independese nd ean ‘tint own manne to the subjects deal wih the se ine can tho quite simply help led varies to the enema Jost a5 the composer wine back hit fedom by 60 lnger having to ‘rete amosherem the the aulence may be helped to lose illu ‘esr inthe everson the stage, ln the stage dexigner yt on siderble eed as on as eto lenge as oie theilsion of room fora laiy when bes bing his se. tend for him gv ts, though thse must eke stement of retrace scl ners than doeshe el aeting. At the Jeveh These in Mowcow King Zea as alieraed by a structure dat reed « medieval tahemale; Neher se Gale inet of projections of maps, documents xnd Reraiane works far for Hong raul athe PaeatorcTheter Hen sed » Back round of revere Bags bearing insertions, 10 mack changes ie the ‘lo situation f which the pesos on the rae were mines Foe choreography to thee are one again ta x aii Knd Tea slave enn ror supose tat has thing toda wih the epee SEE it raya tae tc i dc wt Dias Art does ot become nc ty charg te on on bu by changing them in sucha way tat he i "epee as pica pet ngs td open ok ‘atayinrel ie 1 ot cour etal at yaaa ha 5 il the ite ar hedaman ede insted wrk oa i which thy sl flr heme op sad ee ‘utc hat gether withthe du they my fhe one the ite diferent way; and thi clations mah oe mea Attshey led mal aman, Mi i And bere ie cnc apn et ws eel hat stilren ofthe scene ag, nd do so wir enorme a The Stonething hace Gamancnal oui tte oth fremting calypso the laubsani sed este an we bain lk of Welonchoan wach te vod alvadr disaed, ren mtr fde mone ea ean Seal pease wih urs ino marl bias hence ry ng ne men oan eae ces igo one nose Ot lors, nd we vata ade a fin wetave goto oot bee hele tsk is to enetin he oF fing ext, ba the Frble shen sexing has rane ofthe pleasure ey pression we not sy hw mach Sw mac er ith co = “Tac is sy, our representations mos take second place to wha i reprteted, ens ie oper in aaiy, andthe please elt in hei Feseion mat be converted tate higher pare le hen the rules Enver ra then spi are treated az irpeect ad provisos Tnhsry te thant ener is pester rode dispsedevenater thespeaces over, Leu ope ha teehee ay allow the ej renteransen tnt erbleand nee ending labour which shoud eese ‘hak maintenance, ropether mth there of tie unceasing ransom thon, Let them bere produce te own ive nthe sles way for the Spl ayo vig iin. [PRs Organ fds The Gen Sin ad Vem Sdn Bee Bret, Possum, oy NOTE; The Stert Organon ws writen in Sica in re we Bree ‘SGouns ona 2h Maver ernie we Ozu conden [ino fe Masago sea ry nota 8 August Buc ifthe Mein aE dered fm sn ny we os ie gly Sylseayth Neem Org of Pane Bam, near grt Renan St near tea oi rete ns (Oe Sb ‘ater Renpol Greet eny nthe sypesion Dat Arges, rin Pree Seo whee be agen hr hsk ced Bh ‘ecu ited a he Organ Arse, Aste es of ose eel he pid sen te soso ra tals tees Viana Gate) ‘When the Shr Ortoum was epi in 963 Vemeke 1 soveing eile is Sven hae theres op ate est wae aogier of apn tl ned ie eof sD Caetano ye Balg Cpl of er Maga, oe ‘Sint Organ’ bem fod veined) Deets mot npr tee = er Palen Ei eee’ expstition with Ire aoa sod aig fam io psp 68 and rs eq see Payor Planing, tsi Tedy Cae il ed Wane, New Yk 960), 10-04