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Protected Cultivation

in Horticulture

Genhua Niu

gniu@ag.tamu.edu

Protected Cultivation in Horticulture Genhua Niu gniu@ag.tamu.edu
Protected Cultivation in Horticulture Genhua Niu gniu@ag.tamu.edu
Where is future agriculture?  Agriculture production is threatened by severe climate.  Shortage of

Where is future agriculture?

Agriculture production is threatened by

severe climate.

Shortage of irrigation water affects

organic agriculture. Global climate change models show increases in frequency of extreme drought and wet periods.

organic agriculture.  Global climate change models show increases in frequency of extreme drought and wet
The California Central Valley • The Central Valley is one of the world's most productive

The California Central Valley

The Central Valley is one of the world's most productive agricultural regions.

On less than 1 percent of the

total farmland in the United

States, the Central Valley produces 8 percent of the nation's agricultural output by value.

Water quantity and quality are the biggest threaten

8 percent of the nation's agricultural output by value. • Water quantity and quality are the
8 percent of the nation's agricultural output by value. • Water quantity and quality are the
Outline  Types of protected cultivation - overview  US greenhouse production High Tech Low

Outline

Types of protected cultivation - overview US greenhouse production High Tech Low Tech (low to high tunnel) Chinese style solar greenhouse Closed plant production system Plant factory

Low Tech (low to high tunnel)  Chinese style solar greenhouse  Closed plant production system
Outline  Types of protected cultivation - overview  US greenhouse production High Tech Low

Outline

Types of protected cultivation - overview US greenhouse production High Tech Low Tech (high tunnel) Chinese style solar greenhouse Closed plant production system Plant factory

Tech Low Tech (high tunnel)  Chinese style solar greenhouse  Closed plant production system –
Type of protected cultivation  Rain shelter /screen or net house  Plastic and Glass

Type of protected cultivation

Rain shelter /screen or net house Plastic and Glass greenhouses Plant Factory (Vertical Farming, Urban Agriculture, etc.)

/screen or net house  Plastic and Glass greenhouses  Plant Factory (Vertical Farming, Urban Agriculture,
Screen house for vegetables Plastic house for grape production Jiaxing, China 2012

Screen house for vegetables

Plastic house for grape production

Jiaxing, China 2012

Screen house for vegetables Plastic house for grape production Jiaxing, China 2012
Texas
Texas
Japan – transplant production Multi-layer tunnels to increase protection from heat loss Feb. 2009

Japan transplant production

Multi-layer tunnels to increase protection from heat loss

Feb. 2009

Japan – transplant production Multi-layer tunnels to increase protection from heat loss Feb. 2009
Stand alone greenhouse Multi-span greenhouse

Stand alone greenhouse

Stand alone greenhouse Multi-span greenhouse
Stand alone greenhouse Multi-span greenhouse

Multi-span greenhouse

Stand alone greenhouse Multi-span greenhouse
Solar greenhouse is the main type of greenhouse in northern China North Roof South Roof

Solar greenhouse is the main type of greenhouse in northern China

North Roof

South Roof

North Wall

Outside thermal cover

N S
N
S

South roof

W
W

From Prof. Ma Chenwei of CAU

E
E

¼ of the

greenhouse

in China is solar GH.

Wall Outside thermal cover N S South roof W From Prof. Ma Chenwei of CAU E
Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China

Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China

Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China
Plant factory at Tamagawa University in Japan

Plant factory at Tamagawa University in Japan

Plant factory at Tamagawa University in Japan
Plant Factory, Beijing, China

Plant Factory, Beijing, China

Plant Factory, Beijing, China
Benefits of Protective Structures  Protection against the impact of heavy rainfall  Protection against

Benefits of Protective Structures

Protection against the impact of heavy rainfall Protection against temperature extremes Protection against biotic stresses due to pests and diseases

rainfall  Protection against temperature extremes  Protection against biotic stresses due to pests and diseases
Total areas of greenhouse production (Kacira) The top 10 countries Country Area (ha) 1. China

Total areas of greenhouse production (Kacira)

The top 10

countries

Country Area (ha) 1. China 2,760,000 2. S. Korea 57,444 3. Spain 52,170 4. Japan
Country
Area (ha)
1.
China
2,760,000
2.
S. Korea
57,444
3.
Spain
52,170
4.
Japan
49,049
5.
Turkey
39,400
6.
Italy
26,500
7.
Mexico
11,759
8.
Holland
10,370
9.
France
9,620
10.
United States
8,425
Protected cultivation in China (by 2008) Plastic GH 大中型塑料 38.9% 棚38.9% Low tunnels 小拱棚 38.2%

Protected cultivation in China (by 2008)

Plastic GH 大中型塑料 38.9% 棚38.9% Low tunnels 小拱棚 38.2% 38.2%
Plastic GH
大中型塑料
38.9%
棚38.9%
Low tunnels
小拱棚
38.2%
38.2%

Solar GH

节能型日光

温室18.5%

18.5%

普通日光温

GH, 3.46%

室3.46%

简易加温温

0.58%

室0.58%

大型连栋温

0.38%

室0.39%

Simple Solar

Simple heating GH,

Multi-span GH,

室0.58% 大型连栋温 0.38% 室0.39% Simple Solar Simple heating GH, Multi-span GH, Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Tunnels in China

Tunnels in China Credit: Dr. M GU

Credit: Dr. M GU

Tunnels in China Credit: Dr. M GU

Tunnels in China

Tunnels in China Credit: Dr. M GU

Credit: Dr. M GU

Tunnels in China

Credit: Dr. M GU

Tunnels in China

Credit: Dr. M GU

Outline  Types of protected cultivation - overview  US greenhouse production High Tech Low

Outline

Types of protected cultivation - overview US greenhouse production High Tech Low Tech (high tunnel) Chinese style solar greenhouse Closed plant production system Plant factory

Tech Low Tech (high tunnel)  Chinese style solar greenhouse  Closed plant production system –
U.S. Greenhouse production

U.S. Greenhouse production

U.S. Greenhouse production
Challenges of the US Greenhouse Growers (based on 2010 survey, Kacira) Item West M_West S_West

Challenges of the US Greenhouse Growers

(based on 2010 survey, Kacira)

Item

West

M_West

S_West

N_East

S_East

Competition

22.6%

22.0%

26.7%

19.6%

23.9%

Energy costs

9.7%

20.3%

0%

39.1%

10.9%

Input costs

9.7%

20.3%

0%

17.4%

26.1%

Transportation

6.5%

0%

13.3%

4.3%

2.2%

Labor costs

29%

25.4%

40.0%

8.7%

23.9%

Water

9.7%

0%

6.7%

0%

2.2%

Other

12.9%

11.9%

12.9%

10.9%

10.9%

1. Labor costs 25.4%, 2 Competition 23%, 3 Energy costs 16%

2.2% Other 12.9% 11.9% 12.9% 10.9% 10.9% 1. Labor costs 25.4%, 2 Competition 23%, 3 Energy
 2014 Survey results show :

2014 Survey results show:

 2014 Survey results show :
 2014 Survey results show :
U.S. Greenhouse Technology (High Technology)

U.S. Greenhouse Technology (High Technology)

U.S. Greenhouse Technology (High Technology)
High Tech Greenhouses • Climate is controlled automatically • Ebb and flood floors or benches

High Tech Greenhouses

Climate is controlled

automatically

Ebb and flood floors or benches

Automation and

operation

Thermal screen, bug screens

automatically • Ebb and flood floors or benches • Automation and operation • Thermal screen, bug
automatically • Ebb and flood floors or benches • Automation and operation • Thermal screen, bug
EuroFresh Farms, Wilcox, Arizona

EuroFresh Farms, Wilcox, Arizona

EuroFresh Farms, Wilcox, Arizona
EuroFresh Farms, Wilcox, AZ  Founded in PA in 1990 by third generation Dutch greenhouse

EuroFresh Farms, Wilcox, AZ

Founded in PA in 1990 by third generation Dutch greenhouse owners. 1992, moved to Wilcox, Arizona with abundant light. In 2002, expanded to 318 acres in Snowflake, AZ.

owners.  1992, moved to Wilcox, Arizona with abundant light.  In 2002, expanded to 318
 Glass venlo type, automatically controlled climate.  Tomatoes and cucumbers and other crops

Glass venlo type, automatically controlled climate. Tomatoes and cucumbers and other crops

 Glass venlo type, automatically controlled climate.  Tomatoes and cucumbers and other crops
Village Farms Marfa, Texas US, Mexico, DR  Hydroponically grown tomatoes, bell peppers, and cucumbers.
Village Farms Marfa, Texas US, Mexico, DR  Hydroponically grown tomatoes, bell peppers, and cucumbers.

Village Farms Marfa, Texas US, Mexico, DR

Hydroponically grown tomatoes, bell peppers, and cucumbers.

Fresh, Sustainable, Sweet, Quality

Leading grower and marketer of branded, high- quality hydroponic greenhouse grown produce in North America.

Quality  Leading grower and marketer of branded, high- quality hydroponic greenhouse grown produce in North
Village Farms  Water conservation. Water and fertilizer are recycled for four times. Use 86%

Village Farms

Water conservation. Water and fertilizer are recycled for four times. Use 86% less water than field grown tomatoes.

Land Preservation. Use reusable coconut fiber

to support the plants.

Integrated pest management. Use beneficial

insects to control pests. Recycling CO 2 . Pump the CO 2 from heat boilers back to the greenhouse.

insects to control pests.  Recycling CO 2 . Pump the CO 2 from heat boilers
BACKYARD FARMS  Built in recent years in Maine.  Glass greenhouse, venlo type. 
BACKYARD FARMS  Built in recent years in Maine.  Glass greenhouse, venlo type. 
BACKYARD FARMS  Built in recent years in Maine.  Glass greenhouse, venlo type. 

BACKYARD FARMS

Built in recent years in Maine. Glass greenhouse, venlo type. Rock wool hydroponic Vine-ripened tomatoes.

Built in recent years in Maine.  Glass greenhouse, venlo type.  Rock wool hydroponic 
Other high-Tech greenhouse production companies  Houweling’s Tomatoes, CA (family owned)  Windset Farms, NV

Other high-Tech greenhouse production companies

Houweling’s Tomatoes, CA (family owned) Windset Farms, NV (Many kinds of vegetables) Wholesum Harvest, AZ (many kinds of vegetables)

CA (family owned)  Windset Farms, NV (Many kinds of vegetables)  Wholesum Harvest, AZ (many
Plastic Greenhouses (High Tunnel, Low Technology)

Plastic Greenhouses (High Tunnel, Low Technology)

Plastic Greenhouses (High Tunnel, Low Technology)
High Tunnels  Growing system between greenhouse and row covers; inexpensive.  No precision control

High Tunnels

High Tunnels  Growing system between greenhouse and row covers; inexpensive.  No precision control of

Growing system between greenhouse and row covers; inexpensive.

No precision control of environment. But do modify the environment to improve yield, quality, and extend the

growing season (spring, fall.

Prevention of rain, wind, creatures, etc. Reduce the use of pesticide.

Other names: hoop houses, poly- houses, or cold-frames

of rain, wind, creatures, etc. Reduce the use of pesticide.  Other names: hoop houses, poly-
Status of High Tunnels in the U.S.  It is relatively new using HT for

Status of High Tunnels in the U.S.

It is relatively new using HT for the

production of vegetables, fruits and

flowers.

It is not until early 90s the potential

benefits of HT was reported for

production.

A few years ago, USDA NRCS started a

HT initiative program (subsidizing

growers).

Thousands of HTs have been built

through this program.

NRCS started a HT initiative program (subsidizing growers).  Thousands of HTs have been built through
12-05-2009; Crystal Springs, MS Credit: Dr. M GU

12-05-2009; Crystal Springs, MS

Credit: Dr. M GU

7:18 am; 12-05-2009 Crystal Springs Credit: Dr. M GU

7:18 am; 12-05-2009 Crystal Springs

Credit: Dr. M GU

High Tunnel in Lubbock Credit: Dr. Wallace

High Tunnel in Lubbock

Credit: Dr. Wallace

HT Strawberries 4.12.13 Credit: Dr. Wallace

HT Strawberries 4.12.13

Credit: Dr. Wallace

Peppers Bell Credit: Dr. Wallace

Peppers Bell

Credit: Dr. Wallace

Peppers Slide credit: Wallace

Peppers

Slide credit: Wallace

Multi Color Snapdragons HT Stocks Feb. 2013 SlideCredit:credit:Dr.J.WallaceMasabni

Multi Color Snapdragons

Multi Color Snapdragons HT Stocks Feb. 2013 SlideCredit:credit:Dr.J.WallaceMasabni

HT Stocks Feb. 2013

Multi Color Snapdragons HT Stocks Feb. 2013 SlideCredit:credit:Dr.J.WallaceMasabni

SlideCredit:credit:Dr.J.WallaceMasabni

Blackeyes 7.31.13 Credit: Dr. Wallace

Blackeyes 7.31.13

Credit: Dr. Wallace

Mississippi Purple 8.6.13 Credit: Dr. Wallace

Mississippi Purple 8.6.13

Credit: Dr. Wallace

Outline  Types of protected cultivation - overview  US greenhouse production High Tech Low

Outline

Types of protected cultivation - overview US greenhouse production High Tech Low Tech (high tunnel) Chinese style solar greenhouse Closed plant production system Plant factory

Tech Low Tech (high tunnel)  Chinese style solar greenhouse  Closed plant production system –
Protected Cultivation in China (with emphasis on Solar GH) Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Protected Cultivation in China (with emphasis on Solar GH)

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Chinese Style Solar Greenhouse Credit: Credit: Prof. Prof. Ma Ma of of CAU CAU

Chinese Style Solar Greenhouse

Chinese Style Solar Greenhouse Credit: Credit: Prof. Prof. Ma Ma of of CAU CAU

Credit: Credit: Prof. Prof. Ma Ma of of CAU CAU

North wall

N

North wall N Main Components of a Solar GH Outside thermal cover North Roof Wall height
North wall N Main Components of a Solar GH Outside thermal cover North Roof Wall height

Main Components of a Solar GH

Outside thermal cover

North Roof

Wall height

Roof height

Width

N. Roof

South Roof

S

Span

Span

Slide Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Characteristics of Solar GH  Single Span, East – West.  Length: 50-100 m; Width:

Characteristics of Solar GH

Single Span, East West.

Length: 50-100 m; Width: 6-12 m.

North wall: opaque, heavy material for thermal insulation and heat retention.

South roof: arch shape with good light interception.

Use thermal blanket on the roof at night.

good light interception.  Use thermal blanket on the roof at night. Credit: Credit: Prof. Prof.

Credit: Credit: Prof. Prof. Ma Ma of of CAU CAU

Min temp outside -15 ~ -10℃ Minimum temp inside 5 ~ 10℃ N S Average
Min temp outside -15 ~ -10℃ Minimum temp inside 5 ~ 10℃ N S Average
Min temp outside
-15 ~ -10℃
Minimum temp inside
5 ~ 10℃
N
S
Average temp inside 21-25 C without

heating during the day

Minimum temp inside 5 ~ 10℃ N S Average temp inside 21-25 C without heating during

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

气温(℃)

气温(℃) Sunny day 35 30 25 25 ~30℃ 20 15 10 室内气温 5 18 ~ 20℃
Sunny day 35 30 25 25 ~30℃ 20 15 10 室内气温 5 18 ~ 20℃
Sunny day
35
30
25
25 ~30℃
20
15
10
室内气温
5
18 ~ 20℃
0
0
4
8
12
16
20
0
4
8
-5
-10
室外气温
-15

时刻(时)

0 0 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8 -5 -10 室外气温 -15 时刻(时) Credit:

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

气温(℃)

气温(℃) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Cloudy day 室内气温 18

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

-5

-10

-15

Cloudy day

室内气温

18 ~22℃
18 ~22℃
25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Cloudy day 室内气温 18 ~22℃ 0 4
25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 Cloudy day 室内气温 18 ~22℃ 0 4
0 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8
0
4
8
12
16
20
0
4
8

室外气温

15 ~ 18

时刻(时)

day 室内气温 18 ~22℃ 0 4 8 12 16 20 0 4 8 室外气温 15 ~

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Reasons for a better thermal environment 1. Better light interception Average light transmission 45%~60% Conventional

Reasons for a better thermal environment

1. Better light interception

Average light transmission

45%~60%

Better light interception Average light transmission 45%~60% Conventional GH 60%~80% Solar GH South-facing wall; fewer

Conventional GH

60%~80%

Average light transmission 45%~60% Conventional GH 60%~80% Solar GH South-facing wall; fewer structures On average, 15%

Solar GH

South-facing wall; fewer structures On average, 15% higher.

Conventional GH 60%~80% Solar GH South-facing wall; fewer structures On average, 15% higher. Credit: Prof. Ma

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

2. North Wall accumulates and store solar energy Solar heat absorbed by north wall Solar

2. North Wall accumulates and store solar energy

Solar heat absorbed by north wall Solar energy absorbed by the floor N S a
Solar heat
absorbed by
north wall
Solar energy
absorbed by
the floor
N
S
a

For the same area, Solar GH absorbed 40- 70% more solar energy.

absorbed by the floor N S a For the same area, Solar GH absorbed 40- 70%

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

3. Better thermal insulation Heat transfer coefficient 3~5 W/(m 2 · ℃ ) Conventional GH

3. Better thermal insulation

Heat transfer coefficient

3~5W/(m 2 ·)

insulation Heat transfer coefficient 3~5 W/(m 2 · ℃ ) Conventional GH 1.2~1.6 W/(m 2 ·

Conventional GH

1.2~1.6W/(m 2 ·)

transfer coefficient 3~5 W/(m 2 · ℃ ) Conventional GH 1.2~1.6 W/(m 2 · ℃ )
transfer coefficient 3~5 W/(m 2 · ℃ ) Conventional GH 1.2~1.6 W/(m 2 · ℃ )

Solar GH

transfer coefficient 3~5 W/(m 2 · ℃ ) Conventional GH 1.2~1.6 W/(m 2 · ℃ )

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

4 . Heat storage and “heating” 1/2~2/3 1/3~1/2 150~350W/m 2 N S 100~250W/m 2 Solar

4. Heat storage and “heating”

1/2~2/3 1/3~1/2 150~350W/m 2 N S 100~250W/m 2
1/2~2/3
1/3~1/2
150~350W/m 2
N
S
100~250W/m 2

Solar heat stored during the day releases back to the greenhouse.

150~350W/m 2 N S 100~250W/m 2 Solar heat stored during the day releases back to the

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Protected cultivation in China Plastic GH 大中型塑料 38.9% 棚38.9% Low tunnels 小拱棚 38.2% 38.2%

Protected cultivation in China

Plastic GH 大中型塑料 38.9% 棚38.9% Low tunnels 小拱棚 38.2% 38.2%
Plastic GH
大中型塑料
38.9%
棚38.9%
Low tunnels
小拱棚
38.2%
38.2%

Solar GH

节能型日光

温室18.5%

18.5%

普通日光温

GH, 3.46%

室3.46%

简易加温温

0.58%

室0.58%

大型连栋温

0.38%

室0.39%

Simple Solar

Simple heating GH,

Multi-span GH,

室0.58% 大型连栋温 0.38% 室0.39% Simple Solar Simple heating GH, Multi-span GH, Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Credit: Prof. Ma of CAU

Problems and Challenges  Most solar GHs are built by growers themselves, no standard, leading

Problems and Challenges

Most solar GHs are built by growers

themselves, no standard, leading to variations in performance.

Low temperature and cold injury are common.

Lack of control facility and instruments

Low efficiency in management; laborious.

Use too much soil to build north wall.

Low land use efficiency.

Not well-documented in theory (design,

theoretical analysis, modeling, etc.)

wall.  Low land use efficiency.  Not well-documented in theory (design, theoretical analysis, modeling, etc.)
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently

Low land use efficiency (< 50%)

Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently

Shading part can’t be used efficiently

Low land use efficiency (< 50%) Shading part can’t be used efficiently
Trends for future development  Number of solar GH is increasing steadily in various locations

Trends for future development

Number of solar GH is increasing steadily in

various locations and quality is also improving.

Variety increased for various climate and usage.

Optimization of design and construction.

New materials to be developed with better

quality for thermal absorption and storage.

New materials for rooftop cover to replace straw and shutter machine for easy operation.

absorption and storage.  New materials for rooftop cover to replace straw and shutter machine for
Trends for future development  Improve solar energy use efficiency; utilize energy from wind and

Trends for future development

Improve solar energy use efficiency; utilize

energy from wind and geothermal.

Adding comprehensive environmental control equipment.

Develop standards for solar GH design and construction.

Fundamental research on thermal environment and modeling.

Develop standards for solar GH design and construction.  Fundamental research on thermal environment and modeling.
Outline  Types of protected cultivation - overview  US greenhouse production High Tech Low

Outline

Types of protected cultivation - overview US greenhouse production High Tech Low Tech (high tunnel) Chinese style solar greenhouse Closed plant production system Controlled environment indoor

(high tunnel)  Chinese style solar greenhouse  Closed plant production system – Controlled environment indoor
Vertical Farming – Indoor Controlled Environment

Vertical Farming

Indoor Controlled Environment

Vertical Farming – Indoor Controlled Environment
Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China

Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China

Greenhouse with multi-layers, Beijing, China
Tamagawa Univ

Tamagawa Univ

Tamagawa Univ
Plant Factory, Beijing, China

Plant Factory, Beijing, China

Plant Factory, Beijing, China
Advantages • Higher production • Higher quality produce • Grow plants anywhere at any season

Advantages

Higher production

Higher quality produce

Grow plants anywhere at any season

Local for local

Higher water use efficiency

Higher space use efficiency

Low use of agrochemicals

• Local for local • Higher water use efficiency • Higher space use efficiency • Low
Challenges • Higher initial investment • Higher degree of management • Not all crops are

Challenges

Higher initial investment

Higher degree of management

Not all crops are suitable to be profitable in a controlled

environment.

investment • Higher degree of management • Not all crops are suitable to be profitable in
TerraSphere  Established in 2003 to develop a highly efficient, environmentally superior, urban based produce

TerraSphere

Established in 2003 to develop a highly efficient, environmentally superior, urban based produce growth system. Between 2003-2007, a pilot facility was built in Vancouver, Canada and was improved in the following years. Boston, MA.

2003-2007, a pilot facility was built in Vancouver, Canada and was improved in the following years.
TerraSphere  Full control of the growth environment (water, nutrient, light, temperature).  Full containment

TerraSphere

Full control of the growth environment (water, nutrient, light, temperature).

Full containment so that plants are not exposed

to pollutants.

Continuous, year-round growth.

The ability to site facilities in virtually any

location.

exposed to pollutants.  Continuous, year-round growth.  The ability to site facilities in virtually any
GREEN APPLIED SCIENCES (https://greenappliedsciences.com/)  Vertical Tower Unit with Spinning lights in the middle.

GREEN APPLIED SCIENCES

(https://greenappliedsciences.com/)

Vertical Tower Unit with Spinning lights in the

middle.

Hydroponics

De-humidification,

heating, cooling

systems.

Vertical Tower Unit with Spinning lights in the middle.  Hydroponics  De-humidification, heating, cooling systems.
High-Tech Greenhouse Planned for Vancouver parking Garage

High-Tech Greenhouse Planned for Vancouver parking Garage

High-Tech Greenhouse Planned for Vancouver parking Garage
Rooftop greenhouse and gardens

Rooftop greenhouse and gardens

Rooftop greenhouse and gardens
Brooklyn, NY (Rooftop GH)  Gothan Greens was founded in 2008  To produce local,

Brooklyn, NY (Rooftop GH)

Gothan Greens was founded in 2008

To produce local, urban farm operation for freshest, high quality culinary ingredients, year-round.

First commercial scale rooftop greenhouse

was built in the U.S. in 2011.

quality culinary ingredients, year-round.  First commercial scale rooftop greenhouse was built in the U.S. in
Rooftop Garden/Farming, Chicago Uncommon Ground, a certified green restaurant in Chicago, hosts an organic farm

Rooftop Garden/Farming, Chicago

Rooftop Garden/Farming, Chicago Uncommon Ground, a certified green restaurant in Chicago, hosts an organic farm on

rooftop.

Chicago Uncommon Ground, a certified green restaurant in Chicago, hosts an organic farm on its rooftop.
Chicago Uncommon Ground, a certified green restaurant in Chicago, hosts an organic farm on its rooftop.
Chicago Uncommon Ground, a certified green restaurant in Chicago, hosts an organic farm on its rooftop.
Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL

Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL

Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL
Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL

Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL

Organic Rooftop Farm, Chicago, IL
Higher Ground Farm – Boston’s First Commercial Roof Farm

Higher Ground Farm

Boston’s First Commercial Roof Farm

Higher Ground Farm – Boston’s First Commercial Roof Farm
Book on Vertical Farm The Vertical Farm : Feeding the world in the 21 s
Book on Vertical Farm The Vertical Farm : Feeding the world in the 21 s

Book on Vertical Farm

The Vertical Farm: Feeding the world in the 21 st Century

By Prof. Dickson Despommier

Public Health in Environmental Health

Sciences at Columbia University

the 21 s t Century By Prof. Dickson Despommier Public Health in Environmental Health Sciences at
the 21 s t Century By Prof. Dickson Despommier Public Health in Environmental Health Sciences at
Indoor Vertical Farming - Microgreens

Indoor Vertical Farming - Microgreens

Indoor Vertical Farming - Microgreens
Indoor Vertical Farming - Microgreens
Vertical farming for Microgreens  Microgreens : salad crop shoots harvested for consumption within 7

Vertical farming for Microgreens

Microgreens: salad crop shoots harvested for

consumption within 7 to 15

days after seeding, between sprouts and baby salads.

: salad crop shoots harvested for consumption within 7 to 15 days after seeding, between sprouts
: salad crop shoots harvested for consumption within 7 to 15 days after seeding, between sprouts
Grower Supply
Grower Supply

Vertical Lettuce and herb growing system

Grower Supply Vertical Lettuce and herb growing system
Grower Supply Vertical Lettuce and herb growing system
Vertical growing plant chambers by Hort Americas
Vertical growing plant chambers by Hort Americas

Vertical growing plant chambers by

Hort Americas

Vertical growing plant chambers by Hort Americas
Books on Microgreens from Amazon.com

Books on Microgreens

from Amazon.com

Books on Microgreens from Amazon.com
Books on Microgreens from Amazon.com
Books on Microgreens from Amazon.com
Books on Microgreens from Amazon.com
ARS News Service – January 23, 2014 Specialty Greens Pack a Nutritional Punch  Scientists

ARS News Service January 23, 2014

Specialty Greens Pack a Nutritional Punch

Scientists at USDA ARS analyzed the key nutrients in 25 different varieties of vegetable microgreens.

Different microgreens contained widely differing amounts of

vitamins and carotenoids.

microgreens contained considerably higher levels of vitamins and carotenoids, about five times greaterthan their mature plant counterparts.

Among the 25 microgreens tested, red cabbage, cilantro, garnet amaranth, and green daikon radish had the highest concentrations of vitamin C, carotenoids, vitamin K and vitamin E, respectively.

Growing, harvesting, and handling conditions may have a considerable effect on nutrient content.

E, respectively.  Growing, harvesting, and handling conditions may have a considerable effect on nutrient content.
Worldwide Movement in Vertical Farming  Interests in controlled environment agriculture are steadily increasing. 

Worldwide Movement in Vertical Farming

Interests in controlled environment agriculture are steadily increasing.

Vertical farming in a indoor controlled facilities is increasing with high value crops leafy greens, baby greens, microgreens, medicinal plants, etc.

Led by Japan, many Asian countries are now growing short-statue vegetables, herbs, and medicinal plants under artificial lighting in controlled environment.

New indoor controlled growing facilities are being (or to be)

built in USA, Canada, The Netherlands, Singapore, Mongolia.

Middle eastern countries are considering …

(or to be) built in USA, Canada, The Netherlands, Singapore, Mongolia.  Middle eastern countries are