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1 Physics of small room sound fields.............................................

................. 25
1.1 Basic sound field quantities........................................
...................... 25
1.1.1 Speed of sound............................................
.......................... 26
1.2 Wave equation for free waves........................................
...................... 27
1.2.1 Eulers equation............................................
........................ 27
1.2.2 Equation of continuity....................................
.......................... 28
1.2.3 Thermodynamic law and wave equation.......................
.......................... 30
1.3 Wave equation for forced waves......................................
...................... 31
1.4 Wave equation solutions.............................................
...................... 32
1.4.1 Plane waves...............................................
.......................... 32
1.4.2 Spherical waves...........................................
.......................... 33
1.5 Acoustic energy density.............................................
...................... 35
1.6 Sound levels........................................................
...................... 36
1.7 Frequency analysis..................................................
...................... 37
1.7.1 Impulse function..........................................
.......................... 40
1.7.2 Correlation...............................................
.......................... 41
1.7.3 Autocorrelation...........................................
.......................... 41
1.7.4 Cross correlation.........................................
.......................... 42
1.7.5 Convolution and correlation...............................
.......................... 43
1.7.6 Correlation and convolution of aperiodic functions........
.......................... 43
1.7.7 Convolution integral applied on linear systems............
.......................... 45
1.8 Sound intensity.....................................................
...................... 45
1.9 Sound sources.......................................................
...................... 50
1.10 Radiation of sound power from small sources........................
...................... 52
1.10.1 Radiation impedance......................................
.......................... 55
1.11 Sound radiation from multiple small sources........................
...................... 56
1.11.1 Coupling of two sources..................................
.......................... 56
References..............................................................
...................... 59
2 Sound fields in enclosures....................................................
.................. 61
2.1 Free sound waves in enclosures......................................
...................... 61

2.1.1 Modal density.............................................


.......................... 68
2.1.2 Energy in modes...........................................
.......................... 71
2.2 Modes in enclosures with damping....................................
...................... 72
2.2.1 Effects of boundary conditions as expressed by wall impeda
nce....................... 73
2.3 Forced waves in an enclosure........................................
...................... 75
2.3.1 General formulation.......................................
.......................... 75
2.3.2 Effects of damping........................................
.......................... 76
2.3.3 Bandwidth of modes........................................
.......................... 77
2.3.4 Reverberation and modal bandwidth.........................
.......................... 78
2.3.5 Room excitation and frequency response....................
.......................... 78
2.3.6 Room response at frequencies lower than the first mode....
.......................... 82
2.4 Statistical properties of the sound fields..........................
...................... 83
2.5 Effects of boundaries on the sound field and source radiation.......
...................... 88
2.6 Sound propagation as a function of time.............................
...................... 96
2.6.1 Sound power output dependence on time.....................
.......................... 97
2.7 Reverberation in enclosures.........................................
......................100
2.7.1 Sound energy incidence on walls...........................
..........................100
2.7.2 Growth of energy in enclosure.............................
..........................102
2.7.3 Decay of energy in enclosure..............................
..........................102
2.7.4 Reverberation time........................................
..........................103
2.7.5 Mean free path............................................
..........................105
2.7.6 Fitzroys formula...........................................
........................109
2.8 Direct and reverberant sound field in enclosure.....................
......................110
2.A Appendix: Forced waves in enclosures................................
......................114
2.B Appendix: Approximate solution of k_x...............................
......................118
References..............................................................
......................120
3 Geometrical acoustics.........................................................
..................123
3.1 Hearing and impulse response........................................
......................123
3.2 Geometrical acoustics...............................................
......................125
3.2.1 Ray tracing and mirroring.................................
..........................125

3.2.2 Sources and receivers.....................................


..........................126
3.2.3 Planes....................................................
..........................127
3.2.4 Multiple reflecting planes................................
..........................128
3.2.5 Visibility................................................
..........................130
3.2.6 Mean-free-path length.....................................
..........................131
3.2.7 Geometrical impulse response..............................
..........................132
3.3 Diffraction and scattering..........................................
......................132
3.4 Surface dimensions and Fresnel zones................................
......................134
3.5 Impulse response of real rooms......................................
......................137
3.6 Room frequency response.............................................
......................139
3.7 Diffuse sound field.................................................
......................140
3.7.1 Rooms having extreme shape and/or absorption distribution.
..........................142
References..............................................................
......................142
4 Sound absorption in rooms.....................................................
..................145
4.1 Absorption Mechanisms...............................................
......................145
4.2 Fundamental quantities and their measurement........................
......................146
4.2.1 Measurement of absorption coefficient for normal sound inc
idence....................149
4.2.2 Measurement for random incidence..........................
..........................149
4.3 Porous absorbers....................................................
......................151
4.3.1 Principal characteristics of porous materials: Flow resist
ance......................151
4.3.2 Principal characteristics of porous materials: Porosity...
..........................152
4.3.3 Effects of flow resistance and porosity on porous material
s.........................152
4.3.4 Acoustic impedance and propagation constant...............
..........................153
4.3.5 Porous materials in front of a rigid wall and effects of a
ir gap....................156
4.3.6 Limp porous layers........................................
..........................158
4.4 Sound absorption by resonators......................................
......................158
4.4.1 Basic principles and properties of individual Helmholtz re
sonators..................163
4.4.1.1 Power absorbed by the resonator.................
..............................164
4.4.2 Perforated panels.........................................
..........................167
4.4.3 Microperforated sound absorbers...........................
..........................170

4.4.4 Plate and membrane absorbers..............................


..........................174
4.5 Absorption by compliant porous materials............................
......................177
4.6 Examples of materials for absorption........................
..........................184
References......................................................
..........................184
5 Diffusion.....................................................................
..................187
5.1 Introduction........................................................
......................187
5.2 Basic principles of sound diffusers.................................
......................188
5.3 Scattering and diffusion coefficients and their measurement.........
......................194
5.3.1 Scattering coefficient....................................
..........................194
5.3.2 Effects of distance.......................................
..........................196
5.3.3 Random-incidence scattering coefficient...................
..........................197
5.3.4 Diffusion coefficient.....................................
..........................198
5.4 Modification of diffusers...........................................
......................200
5.4.1 Optimization of profiled diffusers........................
..........................201
5.5 Sound absorption by diffusers.......................................
......................202
5.6 Actively controlled diffusers.......................................
......................204
5.7 Volume diffusers....................................................
......................206
References..............................................................
......................209
6 The ear.......................................................................
..................213
6.1 Sound at the ears...................................................
......................213
6.1.1 Introduction..............................................
..........................213
6.1.2 Head-related coordinate system............................
..........................213
6.1.3 Head-related transfer functions...........................
..........................214
6.1.4 Interaural level and time differences.....................
..........................217
6.2 Parts of the ear....................................................
......................218
6.2.1 Pinnae....................................................
..........................218
6.2.2 Ear canal, eardrum, and middle ear........................
..........................220
6.2.3 Cochlea...................................................
..........................221
6.2.4 Hair cells................................................
..........................222
References..............................................................
......................224

7 Psychoacoustics...............................................................
..................225
7.1 Human response to sound.............................................
......................225
7.2 Properties of sound sources and signals.............................
......................225
7.2.1 Meaning...................................................
..........................225
7.2.2 Periodic and nonperiodic signals..........................
..........................226
7.2.3 Different forms of modulation.............................
..........................227
7.2.4 Voice and music as test signals...........................
..........................229
7.2.5 Source center.............................................
..........................235
7.3 Signals and hearing.................................................
......................235
7.3.1 Signal length and audibility..............................
..........................235
7.3.2 Threshold, just noticeable difference, and equality.......
..........................236
7.3.3 Loudness level............................................
..........................237
7.3.4 Loudness..................................................
..........................239
7.3.5 Timbre....................................................
..........................240
7.3.6 Coloration................................................
..........................240
7.3.7 Pitch.....................................................
..........................241
7.3.8 Virtual pitch.............................................
..........................241
7.4 Critical bands and modulation.......................................
......................242
7.4.1 Critical band filters.....................................
..........................242
7.4.2 Start and stop transients.................................
..........................244
7.4.3 Roughness and fluctuations................................
..........................245
7.5 Masking.............................................................
......................246
7.5.1 Spectral masking..........................................
..........................246
7.5.2 Detection of signals in noise.............................
..........................247
7.6 Temporal resolution.................................................
......................248
7.7 Auditory objects, restoration, and continuity.......................
......................248
7.7.1 Perceptual restoration....................................
..........................248
7.7.2 Continuity................................................
..........................249
7.7.3 Auditory objects..........................................
..........................250
References..............................................................
......................251

8 Spatial hearing...............................................................
..................253
8.1 Auditory event and sound source.....................................
......................253
8.2 Binaural hearing....................................................
......................254
8.3 Correlation and sound field.........................................
......................255
8.3.1 Sound fields..............................................
..........................255
8.3.2 Interaural correlation....................................
..........................257
8.4 Localization........................................................
......................258
8.4.1 Localization using spectrum and level.....................
..........................258
8.4.2 Sound sources in the median plane.........................
..........................260
8.4.3 Localization using binaural information...................
..........................261
8.5 Multiple sound field components.....................................
......................263
8.5.1 Introduction..............................................
..........................263
8.5.2 Threshold for a single frontal repetition.................
..........................264
8.6 Comb filter effects and coloration..................................
......................266
8.6.1 Periodic interference in the frequency response...........
..........................266
8.6.2 Cone of confusion.........................................
..........................268
8.6.3 Random reflections........................................
..........................269
8.6.4 Echo......................................................
..........................269
8.6.5 Spatial effects of sound pairs............................
..........................270
8.6.6 Influence of off-center arrival angle.....................
..........................272
8.6.7 Phantom sources, time, and level trading..................
..........................273
8.6.8 Precedence effect.........................................
..........................276
8.6.9 Precedence effect and Gestalt.............................
..........................279
8.6.10 Fusion and analysis time.................................
..........................279
8.6.11 Precedence effect and reverberation......................
..........................280
8.6.12 Cocktail party effect....................................
..........................281
8.6.13 Spatial impression.......................................
..........................282
8.7 Spatial attributes with reflected sound.............................
......................283
8.7.1 Spaciousness..............................................
..........................283
8.7.2 Spaciousness and diffusivity..............................
..........................285

8.7.3 Auditory source width and image precision.................


..........................286
8.7.4 Envelopment...............................................
..........................287
8.7.5 Simulated diffusivity.....................................
..........................289
8.8 Reverberation.......................................................
......................290
8.8.1 Ratio of direct to reverberant sound......................
..........................290
8.8.2 Modulation and masking....................................
..........................291
8.8.3 Distance perception.......................................
..........................293
References..............................................................
......................294
9 Sound reproduction in small rooms.............................................
..................299
9.1 Small space.........................................................
......................299
9.2 Two approaches......................................................
......................300
9.2.1 Low- and high-frequency room acoustics....................
..........................300
9.3 Low frequencies.....................................................
......................301
9.3.1 Modes.....................................................
..........................301
9.3.2 Radiated power and source placement.......................
..........................301
9.3.3 Frequency response........................................
..........................302
9.3.4 Frequency shift...........................................
..........................307
9.3.5 Room aspect ratios........................................
..........................307
9.3.6 Mode damping..............................................
..........................310
9.3.7 Modulation transfer function..............................
..........................311
9.3.8 Source or sources.........................................
..........................312
9.4 Mid- and high frequencies...........................................
......................312
9.4.1 Reflections: Single and multiple..........................
..........................312
9.4.2 Reverberation.............................................
..........................313
9.4.3 Early reflections.........................................
..........................316
9.4.4 Sound absorption..........................................
..........................317
9.4.5 Sound diffusion...........................................
..........................319
9.4.6 Flutter echo..............................................
..........................319
9.4.7 Timbre and coloration.....................................
..........................323
9.4.8 Echo......................................................
..........................326

9.5 Loudspeaker and room................................................


......................327
9.5.1 The room and its acoustical filter response...............
..........................327
9.5.2 Loudspeaker characteristics at low frequencies............
..........................327
9.5.3 Loudspeaker characteristics at mid- and high frequencies..
..........................328
9.5.4 Arrays and large-diaphragm loudspeakers...................
..........................331
9.6 Stereo..............................................................
......................332
9.6.1 Stereo sound reproduction.................................
..........................332
9.6.2 Sound recording for stereo................................
..........................333
9.7 Binaural sound reproduction.........................................
......................336
9.8 Surround sound systems..............................................
......................337
References..............................................................
......................341
10 Low-frequency sound field optimization.......................................
..................345
10.1 Basic statistics of steady-state spatial and frequency distribution
of sound pressure....345
10.2 Modes in small rooms...............................................
......................346
10.3 Sound field optimization by multiple sources at listening area.....
......................347
10.3.1 Sound pressure level metrics.............................
..........................348
10.4 Sound field optimization by wave modification......................
......................350
10.5 Modification of room geometry......................................
......................354
References..............................................................
......................358
11 Rooms for sound reproduction.................................................
..................359
11.1 Introduction.......................................................
......................359
11.2 Room standardization...............................................
......................360
11.3 Control rooms for stereo...........................................
......................360
11.3.1 Symmetry.................................................
..........................360
11.3.2 Loudspeakers.............................................
..........................363
11.3.3 Control room types.......................................
..........................363
11.3.4 Nonenvironment...........................................
..........................363
11.3.5 Live enddead end..........................................
........................366
11.3.6 Reflection-free zone.....................................
..........................368
11.3.7 Controlled image design..................................
..........................371

11.4 Control rooms for surround sound...................................


......................371
11.5 Homes..............................................................
......................375
References..............................................................
......................379
12 Small rooms for voice and music practice.....................................
..................383
12.1 Introduction.......................................................
......................383
12.2 Sound power........................................................
......................383
12.3 Hearing impairment and damage......................................
......................384
12.4 Quiet..............................................................
......................385
12.5 Stage versus rehearsal and practice rooms..........................
......................386
12.6 Reverberation time.................................................
......................388
12.7 Room geometry and diffusion........................................
......................389
12.8 Small rooms out of large rooms.....................................
......................395
12.9 Large rooms out of small rooms.....................................
......................395
12.10 Speech............................................................
......................397
References..............................................................
......................400
13 Modeling of room acoustics...................................................
..................405
13.1 Introduction.......................................................
......................405
13.2 Low and high frequencies...........................................
......................406
13.3 Physical modeling..................................................
......................406
13.3.1 Physical scale models....................................
..........................406
13.3.2 Sources and microphones..................................
..........................408
13.3.3 Measurement systems......................................
..........................411
13.3.4 Scale model..............................................
..........................412
13.4 Numerical modeling.................................................
......................414
13.4.1 Numerical versus physical scale models...................
..........................414
13.4.2 Medium and high frequencies..............................
..........................414
13.4.3 Tracing rays and finding mirror images...................
..........................415
13.4.4 Low frequencies..........................................
..........................418
13.4.4.1 Mode superposition.............................
..............................418
13.4.4.2 Finite and boundary element methods............
..............................419

13.4.4.3 Meshing for FEM................................


..............................420
13.4.4.4 Acoustic properties of walls and other boundari
es............................421
13.4.4.5 Source and receiver............................
..............................423
13.4.4.6 Limits of FEM modeling.........................
..............................424
13.4.4.7 Auralization: Audible rendering of room acousti
cs............................426
13.4.4.8 Crossover between low- and high-frequency model
s.............................428
References..............................................................
......................429
14 Measurement..................................................................
..................431
14.1 Introduction.......................................................
......................431
14.2 Microphones and loudspeakers.......................................
......................432
14.2.1 Sound pressure...........................................
..........................432
14.2.2 Particle velocity........................................
..........................435
14.2.3 Sound intensity..........................................
..........................438
14.2.4 Loudspeakers.............................................
..........................439
14.3 Noise and distortion...............................................
......................440
14.3.1 Distortion...............................................
..........................440
14.3.2 Different types of noise.................................
..........................441
14.3.3 Spectrum and measurement uncertainty.....................
..........................441
14.3.4 Practical filters........................................
..........................442
14.3.5 Sound pressure level and sound level: dBA................
..........................444
14.3.6 Room noise...............................................
..........................444
14.3.7 Microphone noise.........................................
..........................448
14.4 Linear systems.....................................................
......................449
14.4.1 Transfer function and impulse response...................
..........................449
14.4.2 Frequency response.......................................
..........................449
14.4.3 Phase response and group delay...........................
..........................451
14.5 Room measurement below the Schroeder frequency.....................
......................452
14.5.1 Frequency response.......................................
..........................452
14.5.2 Reciprocity..............................................
..........................454
14.5.3 Modal damping............................................
..........................455

14.5.4 Spatial response.........................................


..........................456
14.6 Room measurement over the Schroeder frequency......................
......................459
14.6.1 Impulse response measurement and analysis................
..........................459
14.6.2 Spectrogram and wavelet analysis.........................
..........................460
14.6.3 Frequency response.......................................
..........................462
14.6.4 Metrics for room acoustics...............................
..........................463
14.6.5 Reverberation time.......................................
..........................463
14.6.6 Binaural measurement.....................................
..........................468
14.7 Measurements using listeners.......................................
......................469
14.7.1 Simple listening tests...................................
..........................470
14.7.2 Verbal descriptors.......................................
..........................471
References..............................................................
......................473