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1 Preliminaries: Computer Strategies.............................................

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1.1 Introduction........................................................
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1.2 Hardware............................................................
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1.3 Memory management...................................................
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1.4 Vector processors...................................................
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1.5 Parallel processors.................................................
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1.6 BLAS libraries......................................................
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1.7 MPI libraries.......................................................
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1.8 Applications software...............................................
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1.8.1 Arithmetic................................................
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1.8.2 Conditions................................................
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1.8.3 Loops.....................................................
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1.9 Array features......................................................


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1.9.1 Dynamic arrays............................................
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1.9.2 Broadcasting..............................................
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1.9.3 Constructors..............................................
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1.9.4 Vector subscripts.........................................
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1.9.5 Array sections............................................
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1.9.6 Whole-array manipulations.................................
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1.9.7 Intrinsic procedures for arrays...........................
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1.9.8 Additional Fortran 95 features............................
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1.9.9 Subprogram libraries......................................
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1.9.10 Structured programming...................................
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1.10 Conclusions........................................................
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References..............................................................
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2 Spatial Discretisation by Finite Elements.....................................
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2.1 Introduction........................................................
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2.2 Rod element.........................................................
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2.2.1 Rod stiffness matrix......................................
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2.2.2 Rod mass element..........................................
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2.3 The eigenvalue equation.............................................
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2.4 Beam element........................................................
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2.4.1 Beam element stiffness matrix.............................
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2.4.2 Beam element mass matrix..................................
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2.5 Beam with an axial force............................................
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2.6 Beam on an elastic foundation.......................................
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2.7 General remarks on the discretisation process.......................


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2.8 Alternative derivation of element stiffness.........................
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2.9 Two-dimensional elements: plane strain and plane stress.............
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2.10 Energy approach....................................................
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2.11 Plane element mass matrix..........................................
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2.12 Axisymmetric stress and strain.....................................
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2.13 Three-dimensional stress and strain................................
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2.14 Plate-bending element..............................................
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2.15 Summary of element equations for solids............................
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2.16 Flow of fluids: Navier-Stokes equations............................
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2.17 Simplified flow equations..........................................
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2.17.1 Steady state.............................................
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2.17.2 Transient state..........................................


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2.17.3 Advection................................................
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2.18 Further coupled equations: Biot consolidation......................
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2.19 Conclusions........................................................
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References..............................................................
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3 Programming Finite Element Computations.......................................
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3.1 Introduction........................................................
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3.2 Local coordinates for quadrilateral elements........................
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3.2.1 Numerical integration for quadrilaterals..................
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3.2.2 Analytical integration for quadrilaterals.................
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3.3 Local coordinates for triangular elements...........................
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3.3.1 Numerical integration for triangles.......................
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3.4 Multi-element assemblies............................................


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3.5 "Element-by-element" or "Mesh-free" techniques......................
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3.5.1 Conjugate gradient method.................................
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3.5.2 Preconditioning...........................................
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3.5.3 Unsymmetric systems.......................................
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3.5.4 Symmetric non-positive definite equations.................
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3.5.5 Symmetric eigenvalue systems..............................
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3.6 Incorporation of boundary conditions................................
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3.7 Programming using building blocks...................................
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3.7.1 Black box routines........................................
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3.7.2 Special purpose routines..................................
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3.7.3 Plane elastic analysis using quadrilateral elements.......
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3.7.4 Plane elastic analysis using triangular elements..........


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3.7.5 Axisymmetric strain of elastic solids.....................
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3.7.6 Plane steady laminar fluid flow...........................
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3.7.7 Mass matrix formation.....................................
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3.7.8 Higher-order 2D elements..................................
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3.7.9 Three-dimensional elements................................
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3.7.10 Assembly of elements.....................................
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3.8 Solution of equilibrium equations...................................
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3.9 Evaluation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors..........................
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3.9.1 Jacobi algorithm..........................................
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3.9.2 Lanczos algorithm.........................................
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3.10 Solution of first order time dependent problems....................
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3.11 Solution of coupled Navier-Stokes problems.........................


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3.12 Solution of coupled transient problems.............................
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3.12.1 Absolute load version....................................
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3.12.2 Incremental load version.................................
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3.13 Solution of second order time dependent problems...................
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3.13.1 Modal superposition......................................
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3.13.2 Newmark or Crank-Nicolson method.........................
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3.13.3 Wilson's method..........................................
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3.13.4 Explicit methods and other storage-saving strategies.....
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References..............................................................
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4 Static Equilibrium of Structures..............................................
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4.1 Introduction........................................................
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Program 4.1 One-dimensional analysis of axially loaded elastic r


ods using 2-node rod elements...................................................
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Program 4.2 Analysis of elastic pin-jointed frames using 2-node
rod elements in two or three dimensions.........................................
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Program 4.3 Analysis of elastic beams using 2-node beam elements
(elastic foundation optional)..................................................
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Program 4.4 Analysis of elastic rigid-jointed frames using 2-nod
e beam/rod elements in two or three dimensions..................................
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Program 4.5 Analysis of elastic-plastic beams or rigid-jointed f
rames using 2-node beam or beam/rod elements in one, two or three dimensions....
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Program 4.6 Stability (buckling) analysis of elastic beams using
2-node beam elements (elastic foundation optional).............................
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Program 4.7 Analysis of plates using 4-node rectangular plate el
ements. Homogeneous material with identical elements. Mesh numbered in x- or y-d
irection........................................................................
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4.2 Concluding remarks..................................................
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4.3 Exercises...........................................................
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References..............................................................
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5 Static Equilibrium of Linear Elastic Solids...................................
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5.1 Introduction........................................................
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Program 5.1 Plane or axisymmetric strain analysis of an elastic


solid using 3-, 6-, 10-, or 15-node right-angled triangles or 4-, 8-, or 9-node
rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)- or y(z)-direction............
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Program 5.2 Non-axisymmetric analysis of an axisymmetric elastic
solid using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in r- or z-directi
on..............................................................................
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Program 5.3 Three-dimensional analysis of an elastic solid using
8-, 14-, or 20-node brick hexahedra. Mesh numbered in x-z planes then in the ydirection.......................................................................
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Program 5.4 General two- (plane strain) or three-dimensional ana
lysis of elastic solids.........................................................
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Program 5.5 Three-dimensional strain of an elastic solid using 8
-, 14-, or 20- node brick hexahedra. Mesh numbered in x-z planes then in the y-d
irection. No global stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditioned conjuga
te gradient solver..............................................................
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Program 5.6 Three-dimensional strain of an elastic solid using 8
-, 14-, or 20- node brick hexahedra. Mesh numbered in x-z planes then in the y-d
irection. No global stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditioned conjuga
te gradient solver. Vectorised version..........................................
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5.2 Exercises...........................................................
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References..............................................................
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6 Material Non-linearity........................................................
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6.1 Introduction........................................................
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6.2 Stress-strain behaviour.............................................
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6.3 Stress invariants...................................................
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6.4 Failure criteria....................................................


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6.4.1 Von Mises.................................................
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6.4.2 Mohr-Coulomb and Tresca...................................
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6.5 Generation of body loads............................................
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6.6 Viscoplasticity.....................................................
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6.7 Initial stress......................................................
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6.8 Corners on the failure and potential surfaces.......................
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Program 6.1 Plane strain bearing capacity analysis of an elastic
-plastic (von Mises) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Viscoplas
tic strain method...............................................................
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Program 6.2 Plane strain bearing capacity analysis of an elastic
-plastic (von Mises) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Viscoplas
tic strain method. No global stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditione
d conjugate gradient solver.....................................................
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Program 6.3 Plane strain slope stability analysis of an elasticplastic (Mohr-Coulomb) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Viscopl
astic strain method.............................................................
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Program 6.4 Plane strain earth pressure analysis of an elastic-p
lastic (Mohr-Coulomb) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Initial
stress method...................................................................
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6.9 Elasto-plastic rate integration.....................................
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6.9.1 Forward Euler method......................................


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6.9.2 Backward Euler method.....................................
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6.10 Tangent stiffness approaches.......................................
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6.10.1 Inconsistent tangent matrix..............................
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6.10.2 Consistent tangent matrix................................
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6.10.3 Convergence criterion....................................
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Program 6.5 Plane strain bearing capacity analysis of an
elastic-plastic (von Mises) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. I
nitial stress method. Tangent stiffness. Consistent return algorithm............
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Program 6.6 Plane strain bearing capacity analysis of an
elastic-plastic (von Mises) material using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. I
nitial stress method. Tangent stiffness. Consistent return algorithm. No global
stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditioned conjugate gradient solver..
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6.11 The geotechnical processes of embanking and excavation.............
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6.11.1 Embanking................................................
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Program 6.7 Plane strain construction of an elastic-plas
tic (Mohr-Coulomb) embankment in layers on a foundation using 8-node quadrilater
als. Viscoplastic strain method.................................................
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6.11.2 Excavation.......................................................
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Program 6.8 Plane strain construction of an elastic-plastic (Moh


r-Coulomb) excavation in layers using 8-node quadrilaterals. Viscoplastic strain
method.........................................................................
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6.12 Undrained analysis.................................................
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Program 6.9 Axisymmetric "undrained" strain of an elastic-plasti
c (Mohr-Coulomb) solid using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Viscoplastic str
ain method......................................................................
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Program 6.10 Three-dimensional strain analysis of an elastic-pla
stic (Mohr-Coulomb) slope using 20-node hexahedra. Viscoplastic strain method...
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Program 6.11 Three-dimensional strain analysis of an elastic-pla
stic (Mohr-Coulomb) slope using 20-node hexahedra. Viscoplastic strain method. N
o global stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditioned conjugate gradient
solver.........................................................................
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6.13 Exercises..........................................................
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References..............................................................
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7 Steady State Flow.............................................................
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7.1 Introduction........................................................
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Program 7.1 One-dimensional analysis of steady seepage using 2-n
ode line elements...............................................................
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Program 7.2 Plane or axisymmetric analysis of steady seepage usi
ng 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)- or y(z)- direction.
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Program 7.3 Analysis of plane free-surface flow using 4-node qua
drilaterals. "Analytical" form of element conductivity matrix...................
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Program 7.4 General two- (plane) or three-dimensional analysis o


f steady seepage................................................................
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Program 7.5 General two- (plane) or three-dimensional analysis o
f steady seepage. No global conductivity matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditio
ned conjugate gradient solver...................................................
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7.2 Exercises...........................................................
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References..............................................................
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8 Transient Problems: First Order (Uncoupled)...................................
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8.1 Introduction........................................................
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Program 8.1 One-dimensional consolidation analysis using 2-node
line elements. Implicit time integration using the "theta" method...............
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Program 8.2 Plane or axisymmetric consolidation analysis using 4
-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)- or v(z)-direction. Impl
icit time integration using the "theta" method..................................
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8.2 Mesh-free Strategies in Transient Analysis..........................
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Program 8.3 Plane or axisymmetric consolidation analysis using 4
-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)~ or y(z)-direction. Impl
icit time integration using the "theta" method. No global stiffness matrix assem
bly. Diagonal preconditioner conjugate gradient solver..........................
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Program 8.4 Plane or axisymmetric analysis of the consolidation
equation using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)- or v(z)
-direction. Explicit time integration using the "theta = 0" method..............
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Program 8.5 Plane or axisymmetric analysis of the consolidation
equation using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered in x(r)- or v(z)
-direction. "theta" method using an element-by-element product algorithm........
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8.3 Comparison of Programs 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, and 8.5.......................


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Program 8.6 General two- (plane) or three-dimensional analysis o
f the consolidation equation. Implicit time integration using the "theta" metho
d...............................................................................
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Program 8.7 Plane analysis of the diffusion-convection equation
using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Implicit time integration using the "th
eta" method. Self-adjoint transformation........................................
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Program 8.8 Plane analysis of the diffusion-convection equation
using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Implicit time integration using the "th
eta" method. Untransformed solution.............................................
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8.4 Exercises...........................................................
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References..............................................................
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9 Coupled Problems..............................................................
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9.1 Introduction........................................................
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Program 9.1 Analysis of the plane steady state Navier-Stokes equ
ation using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals for velocities coupled to 4-node r
ectangular quadrilaterals for pressures. Mesh numbered in x- or v-direction. Fre
edoms numbered in the order u-p-v...............................................
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Program 9.2 Analysis of the plane steady state Navier-Stokes equ
ation using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals for velocities coupled to 4-node
rectangular quadrilaterals for pressures. Mesh numbered in x- or y-direction. Fr
eedoms numbered in the order u-p-v. Element-by-element solution using BiCGStab(l
) with no preconditioning. No global matrix assembly....428
Program 9.3 Plane strain consolidation analysis of a Biot poro-e
lastic solid using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals for displacements coupled t
o 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals for pressures. Freedoms numbered in the orde
r u-v-uw. Incremental version...................................................
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Program 9.4 Plane strain consolidation analysis of a Biot poro-e
lastic-plastic (Mohr-Coulomb) material using 8_-node rectangular quadrilaterals
for displacements coupled to 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals for pressures. Fr
eedoms numbered in the order u-v-uw. Incremental version. Viscoplastic strain me
thod....................................................441

Program 9.5 Plane strain consolidation analysis of a Biot poro-e


lastic solid using 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals for displacements coupled t
o 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals for pressures. Freedoms numbered in the orde
r u-v-uw. Absolute load version. No global stiffness matrix assembly. Diagonall
y preconditioned conjugate gradient solver..............447
9.2 Exercises...........................................................
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References..............................................................
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10 Eigenvalue Problems..........................................................
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10.1 Introduction.......................................................
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Program 10.1 Eigenvalue analysis of elastic beams using 2-node b
eam elements. Lumped mass......................................................
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Program 10.2 Eigenvalue analysis of an elastic solid in plane st
rain using 4- or 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Lumped mass. Mesh numbered i
n x- or y-direction.............................................................
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Program 10.3 Eigenvalue analysis of an elastic solid in plane st
rain using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Lanczos Method. Consistent mass. M
esh numbered in x- or y-direction..............................................
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Program 10.4 Eigenvalue analysis of an elastic solid in plane st
rain using 4-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Lanczos Method. Lumped mass. Eleme
nt-by-element formulation. Mesh numbered in x- or y-direction...................
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10.2 Exercises..........................................................
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References..............................................................
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11 Forced Vibrations............................................................
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11.1 Introduction.......................................................
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Program 11.1 Forced vibration analysis of elastic beams using 2node beam elements. Consistent mass. Newmark time stepping......................
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Program 11.2 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic solid in pl
ane strain using 4- or 8-node rectangular quadrilaterals. Lumped mass. Mesh numb
ered in x- or y-direction. Modal superposition..................................
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Program 11.3 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic solid in pl
ane strain using rectangular 8-node quadrilaterals. Lumped or consistent mass. M
esh numbered in jc- or y-direction. Implicit time integration using the "theta"
method.........................................................................
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Program 11.4 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic solid in pl
ane strain using rectangular 8-node quadrilaterals. Lumped or consistent mass. M
esh numbered in x- or y-direction. Implicit time integration using Wilson's meth
od..............................................................................
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Program 11.5 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic solid in pl
ane strain using rectangular uniform size 4-node quadrilaterals. Mesh numbered i
n the x- or y-direction. Lumped or consistent mass. Mixed explicit/implicit time
integration....................................................................
........................................................504
Program 11.6 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic solid in pl
ane strain using rectangular 8-node quadrilaterals. Lumped or consistent mass. M
esh numbered in x- or y-direction. Implicit time integration using the "theta" m
ethod. No global matrix assembly. Diagonally preconditioned conjugate gradient s
olver...................................................509
Program 11.7 Forced vibration analysis of an elastic-plastic (vo
n Mises) solid in plane strain using rectangular 8-node quadrilateral elements.
Lumped mass. Mesh numbered in x- or y-direction. Explicit time integration......
................................................................................
........................................................513
11.2 Exercises..........................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................523
References..............................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................524
12 Parallel Processing of Finite Element Analyses...............................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................526
12.1 Introduction.......................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................526

12.2 Differences between parallel and serial programs...................


................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................528
12.2.1 Parallel libraries.......................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................528
12.2.2 Global variables.........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................528
12.2.3 MPI library routines.....................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................529
12.2.4 The _pp appendage........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................529
12.2.5 Reading and writing......................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................529
12.2.6 Problem-specific boundary condition routines.............
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................530
12.2.7 rest instead of nf.......................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................533
12.2.8 Gathering and scattering.................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................534
12.2.9 Reindexing...............................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................534
12.2.10 Domain composition......................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................534
12.2.11 Load balancing..........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
........................................................536

Program 12.1 Three dimensional analysis of an elastic so


lid. Compare Program 5.5........................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................536
Program 12.2 Three dimensional analysis of an elasto-pla
stic (Mohr-Coulomb) solid. Compare Program 6.11.................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................543
Program 12.3 Three dimensional Laplacian flow. Compare P
rogram 7.5......................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................550
Program 12.4 Three dimensional transient flow- implicit
analysis in time. Compare Program 8.3..........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................554
Program 12.5 Three dimensional transient flow-explicit a
nalysis in time. Compare Program 8.4...........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................558
Program 12.6 Three dimensional steady state Navier-Stoke
s analysis. Compare Program 9.2.................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................560
Program 12.7 Three-dimensional analysis of Biot poro-ela
stic solid. Compare Program 9.2.................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................568
Program 12.8 Eigenvalue analysis of three-dimensional el
astic solid. Compare Program 10.4...............................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................573
Program 12.9 Forced vibration analysis of a three-dimens
ional elastic solid. Implicit integration in time. Compare Program 11.4.........
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................578
Program 12.10 Forced vibration analysis of three-dimensi
onal elasto-plastic solid. Explicit integration in time. Compare Program 11.5...
................................................................................
................................................................................
............................................................582
12.3 Performance data for a "Beowulf PC cluster.........................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................586
12.4 Conclusions........................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................587

References..............................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................593
Appendixes......................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................594
A Equivalent Nodal Loads................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................594
B Shape Functions and Element Node Numbering............................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................600
C Plastic Stress-strain Matrices and Plastic Potential Derivatives......
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................608
D main Library Subroutines..............................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................612
E geom Library Subroutines..............................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................622
F Parallel Library Subroutines..........................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
....................................................626
Author Index....................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................630
Subject Index...................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................632