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Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis


• Introducing Adams/Chassis
• Working with Half-Suspension Models
• Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes
• Working with Full-Vehicle Models
• Working with Leaf Springs
• Integrating Control Systems in Your Model
2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis

Introducing Adams/Chassis
Introducing Adams/Chassis 3
Overview

Overview
This chapter contains the basics of the Adams/Chassis analysis environment and introduces the tutorials
found in later chapters:
• About Adams/Chassis
...
• What You Will Learn
• Starting Adams/Chassis
• Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis
4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
About Adams/Chassis

About Adams/Chassis
Adams/Chassis provides a complete analysis environment for automotive Adams analysis. It does this
by providing standard model types, two analysis types, and post-processing. You run Adams/Chassis in
conjunction with Adams/Solver and Adams/PostProcessor.
Adams/Chassis comes with many standard suspensions such as:
• Short-long arm
• MacPherson
• Hotchkiss
• 4 Link
• Quadralink

Using Adams/Chassis, you can perform the following types of analyses, also referred to as events:
• Half-vehicle analyses - During half-vehicle analyses you examine the behavior of suspensions.
Half-vehicle analyses include:
• Ride motion
• Roll motion
• Steering
• Compliance
• Full-vehicle analyses - During full-vehicle analyses you examine the behavior of complete
vehicles. Full-vehicle analyses include:
• Step steer
• Frequency response
• Oncenter handling
• Constant radius

The majority of these standard events come with standard postprocessing; that is, plots or reports or both.
Adams/Chassis also helps you with the virtual prototyping process by:
• Substituting rigid bodies with flexible bodies through Adams/Chassis Makeflex and
Adams/Flex.
• Modeling complex leaf spring interactions with Adams/Chassis Makeleaf.
• Using Adams/SmartDriver to learn how to best drive a course.
Introducing Adams/Chassis 5
What You Will Learn

What You Will Learn


This guide contains five tutorials that step you through the traditional iterative analysis process, which is
one of the many ways you can solve complex system problems using Adams/Chassis. The first three
tutorials build on each other and assume that you work through them in sequence. The last two tutorials
in the final chapter are independent of the other tutorials. However, they still assume that you have
learned the Adams/Chassis interface by running through the other tutorials.
In the tutorials, you will perform the following tasks:
• Build half-suspension, full-vehicle models, and leaf-spring models.
• Analyze models in different virtual tests.
• Review analyses using animation, plotting, and reports.
• Modify models and review the effects of your design changes.
• Iterate your design to achieve performance targets for your model.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Starting Adams/Chassis

Starting Adams/Chassis
In this section you learn how to start Adams/Chassis in the UNIX and the Windows environment. You
must run Adams/Chassis in a directory to which you have write permissions. The example models in the
installation are always write protected. You must use Database Utilities to copy the example model from
the installation directory to your working directory. Database utilities automatically changes the
permission for you so that the files can be overwritten.

To start Adams/Chassis in the UNIX environment:


1. At the command prompt, enter the command to start the Adams Toolbar, and then select Enter.
The standard command that MSC.Software provides is mdadamsx, where x is the version
number, for example mdadams2010.
The Adams Toolbar appears.
2. Select the Adams/Chassis tool .
3. Select OK.
The Adams/Chassis main window appears as shown in the figure below.

To start Adams/Chassis in the Windows environment:


1. From the Start menu, point to Programs, point to MSC.Software, point to MD Adams 2010,
point to AChassis, and then select Adams - Chassis.
2. Select OK.
The Adams/Chassis window appears as shown below.
Introducing Adams/Chassis 7
Starting Adams/Chassis

Treeview

Property Editor

Figure 1 Adams/Chassis Build Mode


8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis

Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis


Here you will learn about the Adams/Chassis work modes and toolbars.

Adams/Chassis Work Modes


Adams/Chassis is divided into four work modes:
• Build
• Test
• Review
• Improve

Build
The Build mode allows you to edit model data and change system configuration. You can also work on
multiple models at once. The Build mode is the default for starting Adams/Chassis.

Test
The Test mode allows you to build and run your model.

Review
The Review mode allows you to visualize analysis results using Adams/PostProcessor. You can
postprocess the output of standard Adams/Chassis events. Postprocessing has two formats: reports and
plots. A majory of standard Adams/Chassis events have either a report, a plot, or both. You can also create
an animation of your event.

Improve
The Improve mode allows you to refine models with Adams/Insight. Here you can use the features from
Adams/Insight to create sophisticated experiments for measuring the performance of your model. It also
provides a collection of statistical tools for analyzing the results of your experiments so that you can
better understand how to refine and improve your model.

Learning About the Toolbars


The toolbars in Adams/Chassis change according to the work mode. Below is the basic toolbar that is
available in all work modes.
Introducing Adams/Chassis 9
Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis

Figure 2 Adams/Chassis Basic Toolbar

The following figures show the toolbars that are available in each work mode:

Figure 3 Adams/Chassis Build Mode Toolbar

Figure 4 Adams/Chassis Test Mode Toolbar


10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis

Figure 5 Adams/Chassis Review Mode Toolbar

Figure 6 Adams/Chassis Improve Mode Toolbar


Introducing Adams/Chassis 11
Familiarizing Yourself with Adams/Chassis

Learning about the Treeview


The Adams/Chassis treeview changes according to the work mode. The treeview has different features
in each work mode. Below are the two basic sections of the treeview:

Bookshelf

Treeview
12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Learning About Preferences

Learning About Preferences


You set preferences to define the work environment specific to the machine you are using. Before running
Adams/Chassis, you must either set up the preferences or load an existing preferences file. Incorrect
preference settings can prevent Adams/Chassis from performing even the most basic functions.
You must have the following preferences set for Adams/Chassis to work properly:
• Working directory - specifies the directory for all output files
• Temporary file directory - must be a valid directory

To set preferences:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
The Preferences window appears.
2. In the Preferences window, select the Find tool next to Current Working Directory.
The Browse for Folder window appears.
3. Select a current working directory from the list, and then select OK.
4. In the Preferences window, make sure that a text editor is present for Text Editor Command.
5. Optionally, enter a Graphical Difference Command to launch a graphical differencing tool such
as SGI/usr/sbin/gdiff or freeware tool, ExamDiff for Windows.
6. In the Preferences window, select the Find tool next to Temporary Files Directory.
7. Select a directory from the Browse for Folder window, and then select OK.

Note: This directory must already exist and the directory path must not contain spaces.

8. The remaining options in the Preferences window are optional.


Working with Half-Suspension Models 1

Working with Half-Suspension Models


2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Overview

Overview
In this chapter you complete a build-run-modify-compare analysis cycle. Adams/Chassis has been
developed to make this process as quick and easy as possible.
This chapter contains the following sections:
• Copying Example Vehicle Database
• Registering a Database
• Selecting a Vehicle System File
• Running an Analysis
• Animating a Model
• Plotting Analysis Results
• Running an Analysis with Alignment
• Comparing Results

The tutorial takes about 45 minutes to complete.


Working with Half-Suspension Models 3
Copying Example Vehicle Database

Copying Example Vehicle Database


In this section, you load example data files for your Adams/Chassis session. Data files are the inputs to
Adams/Chassis. They contain the full set of parameters for vehicle models.

To copy a database:
1. In the Build mode, from the Utilities menu, select Database Utilities.
The Database Utilities window appears.
2. In the Copy Database tab, select the Find tool .
The Select .vdb Directory to Copy window appears.
3. In the Select .vdb Directory to Copy window, select achassis_gs.vdb, and then select OK.
4. In the Database Utilities window, select Copy Database to Working Directory.
Adams/Chassis copies the achassis_gs example database to your working directory.
5. At the prompt, select OK.
6. Close the Database Utilities window.
4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Registering a Database

Registering a Database
You can reference multiple registered databases for access. Databases are registered in
the Preferences window. Here you register achassis_gs.vdb.

To register a database:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. In the Database Registration section, select Add New.
3. Select achassis_gs.vdb from your working directory, and then select Ok.
4. Select Save to save these settings.
Working with Half-Suspension Models 5
Selecting a Vehicle System File

Selecting a Vehicle System File


Here you will select your vehicle system file.

To select a vehicle system file:


1. From the toolbar, select the Load Model button.
2. In the Select File window, select achassis_gs from the Registered Databases section.

3. Select achassis_gs_front_sys.xml, and then select Open.


Adams/Chassis loads the model into the treeview.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Running an Analysis

Running an Analysis
You now run an analysis on the front suspension to exercise the left and right wheel centers 20 mm into
jounce, then 20 mm into rebound.

To run an analysis:
1. From the main toolbar, select the Test mode .
2. In the bookshelf, expand Suspension.
3. Double-click Front Ride Motion.
You will see that the event, achassis_gs_front_sys_fride has been added to the
fingerprint tree and displayed in the property editor.

4. Do one of the following:


• Right-click achassis_gs_front_sys_fride and then select Build and Run Selected Events.
• Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool .
5. When the event is complete, close the command window.
Working with Half-Suspension Models 7
Animating a Model

Animating a Model
You animate the model to see the effects of the analysis, to check that your model is being assembled as
you like, and to check model geometry.

To animate your model:


1. From the toolbar, select the Review mode .

2. In the treeview, select achassis_gs_front_sys_fride.


3. From the toolbar, select the Execute Selected Animations tool .
Adams/Chassis launches Adams/PostProcessor, a post-processing tool that lets you view the
results of simulations you performed. See the online help for Adams/PostProcessor for more
information.
4. On the menu toolbar, select the Play tool .
This animates the ride motion simulation.
5. After the suspension goes through a complete animation, select the Pause tool .
6. To exit Adams/PostProcessor, from the File menu, select Exit, and then select Exit, Don’t Save.
8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Plotting Analysis Results

Plotting Analysis Results


Most Adams/Chassis standard analyses have plots or reports, or both, associated with them. For the half-
suspension ride motion analysis, there are plots and reports.
To check if there are plots or reports associated with the analysis you just ran, look for checkboxes in the
property editor, next to analysis name, under Plots and Reports.
Notice that there are plots and reports associated with the achassis_gs_front_sys_fride
analysis.

To plot analysis results:


1. In the Adams/Chassis window, make sure that achassis_gs_front_sys_fride is selected in the
treeview.
2. From the toolbar, select the Execute Selected Plots tool .
To display the plots, Adams/Chassis launches Adams/PostProcessor. The standard plots for ride
motion include:
Toe, caster, and camber versus wheel travel
Wheel rate versus wheel travel
Vertical force versus wheel travel
The figure below shows some of the standard plots.
Working with Half-Suspension Models 9
Plotting Analysis Results

Figure 7 Standard Plots for Ride Motion

3. To review the different plot pages, in the treeview on the left, click each page.
4. From the File menu, select Exit.
Adams/PostProcessor asks you if you want to save the plots.
5. Select Exit, don’t save.
10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Running an Analysis with Alignment

Running an Analysis with Alignment


In this section, you run an analysis with the same model data, but with toe, caster, and camber alignment.
Before you run the analysis, you add an event to your session. We call this a fingerprint session. You can
save and load fingerprints. In Adams/Chassis you can create an unlimited number of events in a single
session.
When using a fingerprint, you can refer to the same vehicle configuration files for all the analyses, or use
different vehicle configuration files.

To add an event tab to the current fingerprint:


1. From the toolbar, select the Test mode tool .
2. From the bookshelf, double-click Front Ride Motion.
Adams/Chassis adds another analysis to your fingerprint tree. The second analysis refers to the
same vehicle configuration files as the first analysis. If you modify one of the vehicle
configuration files, the modification will affect future builds for both events. Adding an event did
not create copies of the vehicle configuration file or database, that is, the
second analysis will use the same files.

To run an analysis with alignment:


1. In the property editor, select Front Auto-Alignment.
2. Set Total Toe to 0.1.
3. Set Avg. Caster to 4.0.
4. Set Avg. Camber to -0.5.
5. Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool .
Adams/Chassis analyzes your model. At the beginning of the analysis, Adams/Chassis invokes
the auto-aligner. The auto-aligner adjusts various parts of the front suspension to iteratively
achieve the desired values for toe, caster, and camber.
6. When the analysis is complete, close the window.
Working with Half-Suspension Models 11
Comparing Results

Comparing Results
In this section, you compare the results of the two analyses you ran.

To compare results:
1. From the toolbar, select the Review mode .
Note that both analyses appear in the fingerprint tree.
2. Shift-click to select both analyses in the fingerprint tree.
3. Verify that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked.
This option overlays the plot data for the two analyses so you can easily compare results.
4. Select Execute Selected Plots .
Adams/PostProcessor displays two curves in every plot, similar to the figure below.

Figure 8 Comparison Plots


12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Comparing Results

Notice that for achassis_gs_front_sys_fride_2:


achassis_gs_front_sys_fride_2 is aligned at zero wheel travel.
The curve for LF wheel travel versus toe intersects the x-axis at 0.05 degrees. You input 0.1 total
toe, which is left toe plus right toe.
Caster intersects at 4.0 degrees.
Camber intersects at -0.5 degrees.
5. From the File menu, select Exit, and then select Exit, don’t save.
Adams/Chassis returns to the main window.
Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 1

Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes


2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Overview

Overview
In this chapter, you modify model components to analyze the effects of design changes. You will modify
tie-rod geometry and bushing stiffness.
This chapter contains the following sections:
• Inspecting Data Elements
• Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry
• Running a Compliance Analysis
• Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

The tutorial takes about 45 minutes to complete.


Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 3
Inspecting Data Elements

Inspecting Data Elements


Before you modify the example data, you will first focus on the different data elements in the vehicle
configuration files. Adams/Chassis has a set of utilities that gives you visual access to the XML
subsystem.
You use the property editor to gain quick access to every data element in your model.

To inspect data elements:


1. Select the Build mode .
2. In the toolbar, select achassis_gs_front_sys.
The property editor allows access to all the vehicle data, as shown below.
4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry

Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry


In this section, you modify the front suspension tie-rod geometry and analyze the effect of the changes,
as outlined next:
• Modifying Tie-Rod Geometry Hardpoints
• Running an Analysis
• Plotting Analysis Results

Modifying Tie-Rod Geometry Hardpoints


To modify tie-rod geometry hardpoints:
1. In the treeview, expand achassis_gs_front_suspension, and then expand Hardpoints.
2. Select tierod_outer.
3. In the box common to tierod_outer and Left Z, enter 548.
4. Select Save As.
The Select File window appears.
5. At the bottom of the window, in the File name text box, enter
achassis_gs_front_suspension_new.xml.
6. Select Save.
A dialog box appears and asks if you want to update references to this data in the system file.
7. Select Yes.
The .xml file you just created appears in the treeview.

Note: These changes will only be in effect during this session since you are not saving the system
file.

Running an Analysis
You now run an analysis on the modified tie rod to assess the effect of the changes to its geometry.

To run an analysis:
1. From the toolbar, select Test mode.
2. In the bookshelf, double-click Front Ride Motion.
3. In the property editor, select Front Auto-Alignment and set the following:
4. Total Toe to 0.1
5. Avg. Caster to 4.0
6. Avg. Camber to -0.5
Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 5
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry

7. Select Build and Run Selected Events.


Adams/Chassis runs the analysis and, in the Adams run Python window, shows you the analysis
steps.
8. When the analysis is complete, close the window.

Plotting Analysis Results


To plot the analysis results:
1. From the toolbar, select the Review mode.
2. In the treeview, select fingerprint_1.
3. Clear the selection of achassis_gs_front_sys_fride by clicking the checkbox under Plots.
4. Verify that Overlay data of same events is selected.
5. Select Execute Selected Plots.
The overlay plot shows the effect of the new tie-rod geometry (see Figure 9). The change made
the toe curve more vertical. Later in this guide, you analyze how that change affects full-vehicle
performance.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry

Figure 9 Plot of Modified Tie-Rod Geometry

6. Exit the Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots.


7. Return to Adams/Chassis.
Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 7
Running a Compliance Analysis

Running a Compliance Analysis


In this section, you modify the compliance of the front suspension, run a compliance analysis, and
examine the analysis results.
• Starting a New Fingerprint
• Running an Analysis
• Animating the Model
• Creating a Report
• Plotting Analysis Results

Starting a New Fingerprint


To start a new fingerprint:
1. From the toolbar, select the Test mode.
2. From the toolbar, select the New Fingerprint tool .

Running an Analysis
In this analysis you will model a series of loads applied to the suspension. This will enable you to
calculate various suspension compliances.

To run an analysis:
1. Make sure that fingerprint_2 is selected in the treeview.
2. In the bookshelf, expand Suspension.
3. From the list in the bookshelf, double-click Front Compliance.
4. In fingerprint_2, select achassis_gs_front_sys_fcomp.
5. Select the Build and Run Selected Events tool.
6. When the analysis is complete, close the window.

Animating the Model


You animate the model to see the effects of the analysis.

To animate the model:


1. From the toolbar, select the Review mode.
2. Select fingerprint_2 in the treeview.
3. Select the Animate tool.
4. On the menu toolbar, select the Play tool.
8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Running a Compliance Analysis

5. After the suspension goes through a complete animation, select the Pause tool.
6. Exit Adams/PostProcessor and return to Adams/Chassis.

Creating a Report
You can create a report for the front compliance analysis. The analysis consisted of several 2-second
subevents where forces were applied at various points and in various directions on the wheel. The report
tabulates the results of the subevents and calculates different front wheel compliances.

To create a report:
1. In the Review mode, verify that Reports is selected.
2. Select Execute Selected Reports tool .
Adams/Chassis creates the report and opens it in your default text editor.
3. After viewing the report, exit the report window.

Plotting Analysis Results


To plot the analysis results:
1. In the Review mode, make sure Plots is selected.
2. Select Execute Selected Plots.
Adams/PostProcessor displays a series of plots with force/moment versus displacement/rotation,
as shown in Figure 10.
Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 9
Running a Compliance Analysis

Figure 10 Compliance Test Plots

3. Exit Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots.


4. Return to Adams/Chassis.
10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness


You now increase the stiffness rate for the front lower control arm bushing and view the results, as
explained next:
• Modifying Bushing Stiffness
• Running an Analysis
• Plotting Analysis Results

Modifying Bushing Stiffness


To modify the bushing stiffness:
1. From the toolbar, select the Build mode.
2. Make sure achassis_gs_front_suspension_new is selected.
3. In the property editor, select the Connectors tab.
A table of bushings appears.
4. Select lca_front and then click in the Left_K-X box.
5. Change the Left _K-X stiffness for the Spring Rate to 6.450E+04.
Since this is symmetrical, the right side also changes.

Running an Analysis
To run the analysis:
1. From the toolbar, select the Test mode.
2. Double-click Front Compliance to add a new event to the fingerprint.
3. Select Build and Run Selected Events.

Plotting Analysis Results


To see the effect of increasing the bushing’s stiffness, you now plot the analysis results.

To plot analysis results:


1. In the Review mode, make sure Plots is selected for fingerprint_2.
2. Select Execute Selected Plots.
The figure below shows the resulting plots. The plots show that your design change affected steer
compliance (toe change per unit force) and lateral compliance. For example, in the plot named LF
Parallel Lat Force vs. Toe, the overall toe change is less than the toe change.
Analyzing the Effect of Design Changes 11
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness

Figure 11 Compliance Test Plots (Modified)

3. Exit Adams/PostProcessor without saving the plots.


4. Return to Adams/Chassis.
12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Bushing Stiffness
Working with Full-Vehicle Models 1

Working with Full-Vehicle Models


2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Overview

Overview
In this chapter, you work with a full-vehicle model and perform full-vehicle analyses.
This chapter contains the following sections:
• Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model
• Performing a Swept Steer Analysis
• Performing a Constant Radius Analysis
• Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change
• Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling

The tutorial takes about one hour to complete.


Working with Full-Vehicle Models 3
Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model

Setting Up a Full-Vehicle Model


In this section, you set up a full-vehicle model.

Loading a Full-Vehicle Model


To load a full-vehicle model:
1. In the Build mode, select the Load Model button.
2. Select achassis_gs_full_sys.xml from the achassis_gs database.

Creating a New Fingerprint


To create a new fingerprint:
1. From the toolbar, select the Test mode.
2. From the toolbar, select the New Fingerprint tool .
4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Performing a Swept Steer Analysis

Performing a Swept Steer Analysis


When you perform a swept steer analysis, Adams/Chassis applies a steering wheel input to your model
and stops when it reaches the specified lateral acceleration.

Running the Analysis


To run the analysis:
1. In the test mode, make sure the new fingerprint you created is selected in the treeview.
2. From the bookshelf, expand Full Vehicle and then expand Handling Analyses.
3. Double-click Swept Steer.
4. In the treeview, select achassis_gs_full_sys_swpt, and then Build and Run Selected Events..
5. After the event is complete, close the command window.

Animating the Model


To animate the model:
1. Select the Review mode.
2. Select the swept steer event in the treeview, and then select Execute Selected Animations..
3. Play the animation, exit Adams/PostProcessor, and then return to the Adams/Chassis window.
Working with Full-Vehicle Models 5
Performing a Constant Radius Analysis

Performing a Constant Radius Analysis


One of the most useful full-vehicle analyses is the constant radius analysis. You can use this analysis to
measure the steady-state performance of your vehicle and calculate such measures as understeer and roll
gradient.
In this section, you do the following:
• Running the Analysis
• Animating the Model
• Creating a Report
• Plotting Analysis Results

Running the Analysis


To run the analysis:
1. From the Test mode bookshelf, expand Full Vehicle, expand Handling Analyses, and then
double-click Constant Radius.
2. In the property editor, in the Turn radius text box, enter 60.0.

Note: The constant radius event turns bold in the treeview to indicate that changes have been
made.

3. Select the constant radius event in the treeview and then Build and Run Selected Events.
4. When the event is complete, close the command window.

Animating the Model


To animate the model:
1. In the Review mode, select the constant radius event, and then select Execute Selected
Animations.
2. Return to the Adams/Chassis window.

Creating a Report
You now create a report to view the numerical results of the analysis. You can use numerical results in
optimization and design sensitivity studies.

To create a report:
1. In the Review mode, make sure that the correct fingerprint is selected in the treeview.
2. Verify that Reports is selected.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Performing a Constant Radius Analysis

3. Select Execute Selected Reports.


Adams/Chassis creates the report. When reviewing the report, focus on the section named
Understeer Budget. This section lists the relative contributions of different subsystems to
understeer, and can help point out which parameters you can modify to cause the greatest change
in understeer.
4. Exit the report window.

Plotting Analysis Results


To plot the analysis results:
1. In the Review mode, select Plots.
2. Select Execute Selected Plots.
Adams/PostProcessor displays a series of plots, as shown in Figure 12.
3. Return to the Adams/Chassis window.

Figure 12 Constant Radius Plots


Working with Full-Vehicle Models 7
Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change

Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry


Change
Now you review the effects of the tie-rod geometry change to see how that change affects the understeer.
Remember that in Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod Geometry, the change made the toe curve
more vertical.
In this section, you do the following:
• Performing an Analysis
• Plotting Results of Both Analyses
• Comparing Reports

Performing an Analysis
You create a new event, modify the turn radius, and run another analysis. You later compare this analysis
to the analysis you performed in Performing a Constant Radius Analysis.

To perform an analysis:
1. Select the Build mode.
2. In the treeview, select the front suspension.
3. In the property editor, select the Hardpoints tab.
4. Select tierod_outer, and in the Left-Z column, enter 548.
5. Select the Test mode.
6. In the bookshelf, double-click Constant Radius.
7. Enter 60.0 for Turn radius.
8. Make sure the constant radius event is selected in the treeview, and then Build and Run Selected
Events.
9. When the event is complete, close the command window.

Plotting Results of Both Analyses


To plot:
1. In the Review mode, select both constant radius analyses.
2. In the property editor, make sure that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked.
3. Select Execute Selected Plots.
4. Close the command window.
The first plot shows that modifying the tie-rod geometry had an effect on steering wheel angle
versus lateral acceleration.
8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change

Figure 13 Constant Radius Comparison Plots


Working with Full-Vehicle Models 9
Reviewing the Effects of the Tie-Rod Geometry Change

5. Return to Adams/Chassis.

Comparing Reports
To look at the numerical data associated with the analyses, you generate a second report and compare it
to the one you generated in Creating a Report.

To compare reports:
1. Create a report for the second constant radius event.
2. In the property editor, make sure that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is checked.
3. Compare the two reports (achassis_gs_full_sys_cnrd and
achassis_gs_full_sys_cnrd_2).
The front roll steer in the second report is less than the roll steer in the first report. Roll steer is
approximately toe change versus roll angle, and because the tie-rod geometry modification caused
a more vertical toe curve, the roll steer has been reduced. Consequently, the understeer gradient
is also reduced.
10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling

Optimizing Full-Vehicle Handling


In this section, you modify vehicle parameters to try to achieve a specific numerical analysis result. For
instructional purposes, you will use the target value of 2.4 deg/g for the understeer gradient.

To optimize full-vehicle handling:


1. Modify the tie-rod geometry just as you did in Analyzing the Effect of Changes to Tie-Rod
Geometry.
2. Generate reports.
3. Repeat this process until you achieve the target value.
Working with Leaf Springs 1

Working with Leaf Springs


2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Overview

Overview
Adams/Chassis supports two types of leaf springs: SAE 3-link and beam element. This chapter
introduces you to the different types of leaf springs and contains two tutorials for modeling leaf springs
in Adams/Chassis.
• Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs
• Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs
Working with Leaf Springs 3
Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs

Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs


When you work with 3-link leaf springs, you use the VisEdit Property Spring Tab to display and edit
rotation spring and second stage rates, as shown Figure 14. The next two sections explain the data
displayed in the table.

Figure 14 Adams/Chassis Dataview Table


4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs

Rotational Spring Rates


• KT X = Longitudinal twist stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. It is important for
roll stiffness.
• KT Y = Lateral bending stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. It is important for
the lateral stiffness of the suspension.
• KT Z = Vertical bending stiffness of that section (front or rear) of the spring. This value is
important since it defines the spring rate of the spring.
• TO Z = The torque applied to the interleaf bushings (that is, front-to-middle link and middle-to-
rear link). This value is important in defining the spring rate of the leaf spring.

Second Stage Rates


• If the vehicle has a second stage (auxiliary leaf), Adams/Chassis models the second stage as a
single-component force (SFORCE) between the body and the axle.
• You can enter a simple linear rate (denoted by a positive value) or a nonlinear rate.

SAE 3-Link Leaf Spring Model Tutorial


This tutorial explains how to select the files associated with 3-link beam elements, integrate them into a
rear suspension, and run an analysis and view the results.
Note that you will use the model that you create here in next tutorial, Beam Element Leaf Spring Model
Tutorial. In the Beam tutorial, you will integrate a beam element spring in place of the 3-link leaf spring.

The tutorial takes about one hour to complete.

Loading Example Vehicle Database and System File


In this section, you will copy over an example vehicle database that uses a hotchkiss rear supension for
study.
1. From the Utilities menu, select Database Utilities.
2. Select the Find tool next to the Vehicle Database text box. Choose the big_truck.vdb
database by double-clicking the selection and selecting OK in the Selection dialog box.

Hint: The path is: <adams_install_directory>\achassis\examples\vehicles\big_truck.vdb

3. Select Copy Database to Working Directory.


4. Select OK at the prompt, and then close the Database Utilities window.
5. Select the Load Model button.
6. In the Select File window, select big_truck.vdb for the Registered Database.
Working with Leaf Springs 5
Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs

7. Select big_truck_rear_sys.xml, and then select Open.

Viewing Leaf Spring Data


Before you run the simulation, view the data in the VisEdit Property Editor.

To view the data:


1. In the treeview, select big_truck_rst..
2. In the property editor, select the Springs tab as shown below.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs

3. View the data.

Figure 15 Leaf Spring Visual Editing Panel


Working with Leaf Springs 7
Working with SAE 3-Link Leaf Springs

Running an Analysis

To run an analysis:
1. Select the Test mode.
2. In the bookshelf, expand Suspension, and the double-click Rear Ride Motion.
3. Select the rear ride motion event in the treeview, and then Build and Run Selected Events.
4. When the event is complete, close the command window.

Animating the Model

To animate the model:


1. Select the Review mode.
2. In the treeview, select big_truck_rear_sys_rride.
3. Select Execute Selected Animations.
4. From the dashboard, select the Play tool .
5. After the suspension goes through a complete animation, select the Pause tool .
6. Exit Adams/PostProcessor, and return to Adams/Chassis.

Modifying the Leaf Spring


You modify 3-link leaf springs using the same methods you have already learned for suspensions and full
vehicles: modify properties in the property editor, save the changes as a new file, and compare the
results.
8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs


A beam element leaf spring model is a series of small parts connected by beams based on first principles.
Adams/Chassis provides a Leaf Spring Preprocessor in which you can quickly and efficiently prepare the
beam element leaf spring. You run the Preprocessor whenever you change the leaf properties.
The next sections explain more about working with beam element leaf springs and provide a tutorial that
steps you through the process of adding and analyzing leaf springs:
• Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial
• Viewing and Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs

The following is a flowchart that shows how to generate a model containing beam element leaf springs.
The tutorial, Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial, runs you through the steps needed to generate
the model in Adams/Chassis.
Working with Leaf Springs 9
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

Gather Data
Measure the leaf spring geometry in the
free position.

Measure the mass of the shackle.

Measure the bushing rates of the three leaf


spring bushings.

Measure the height of the leaf spring leaf

Enter Data .ltf


Enter data in the leaf spring .ltf
file.

Generate Model
Run Leaf Preprocessor to exercise leaf
model to design position.

Adams/Chassis creates a leaf .py


file. It contains parts, markers,
beams, and so on, that define the
leaf spring.

Turn off the 3-link leaf spring and


turn on the beam element leaf spring

Figure 16 Flowchart for Working with Beam Element Leaf Spring Models

Viewing and Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs


Just as for the 3-link leaf spring, Adams/Chassis provides you with the ability to view and edit the
information defining the leaf spring. For beam springs, the editor is the Leaf Preprocessor. The next
sections explain the information about beam element leaf springs that you can view and edit in the Leaf
Preprocessor.
• General Leaf Spring Information
• Axle
• Shackle
• Geometry
10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

• Leaf Eyehook
• Bushing
• Leaf Profile

General Leaf Spring Information


You can view and edit the following general information about the beam element leaf spring:
• Number of leaves - The number of leaves in the model.
• Frictional coefficients - Leaf-to-leaf friction.
• Impact exponent - Level of impact.
• Leaf spring mounting - Where the leaf spring will be mounted in the vehicle. Used mainly for
part numbering.
• Fitting algorithm - Polynomial fitting of the leaf profile. (Generally, you use second order.)

Axle
For the axle, you can specify:
• Extra mass on dummy axle - The extra mass used to assemble the spring pack and connect it to
the axle.
• Reference marker to leafpack -The z height of the reference marker for the axle with respect to
the coordinate system used to define the profiles.
• Axle mount type - Either underslung or overslung, as shown in the following figure. If the
leaves are mounted above the axle, it is overslung. If the leaves are mounted below the axle, it is
underslung.
• Front and rear inactive lengths - Sections of the leaf spring regarded as rigid near the point
x=0.0.
• Reference marker height at design load - The z height of reference marker used to stop the
simulation. Once the axle reaches this point, it is at design load.
Working with Leaf Springs 11
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

Figure 17 Illustration of Underslung and Overslung Leaves

Shackle
For the shackle, you can specify:
• Shackle length - The physical length of the shackle part, from eye center to eye center, specified
in millimeters.
• Shackle mass and inertia - The mass and inertial properties of the leaf spring shackle, in the
units shown.
• Shackle location - Whether the shackle is at the front or rear of the leaf spring pack.
• Shackle position - Whether the shackle is used in tension or compression. If the leaf eye is
below the shackle-to-body point, the link is in compression; if the leaf eye is above the shackle-
to-body point, the link is in tension.

Geometry
For geometry, you indicate points in space where the leaf springs will be constructed. Enter the x, y, and
z positions for both the front and rear chassis connection points. You must do this for both LEFT and
RIGHT springs.
You need another entry for the chassis contact points if you define an auxiliary leaf spring in the template.
This information is formatted such that it can be taken directly from the Adams/Chassis templates.
12 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

• Front leaf eye bushing - Corresponds to Points 1 and 2 in the subsystem file.
• Shackle to frame - Corresponds to Points 20 and 21 in the file.

Leaf Eyehook
For the leaf eyehook, you can specify:
• Front and rear eyehook inner diameter - Diameter of the inside of the eyehook.
• Front and rear eyehook shape - The shape of the eyehook, as shown below.

Berliner Downturned Upturned


Eyehook Eyehook Eyehook

Figure 18 Eyehook Shapes

Bushing
For bushings, you specify the translational and rotational spring and damping rates. You can choose to
call the bushing spring rates from the subsystem file by turning on the flag in the lower right corner of
the Leaf Preprocessor. Calling the rate information from the subsystem file reduces bookkeeping, and
allows you to modify the bushings for variation studies.
The leaf-to-leaf bushings keep the leaves from moving laterally or twisting from each other. They should
have rather large values (~1.0 E+9 for translational rates and ~1.0 E+7 for rotational rates).

Leaf Profile
• Auxiliary leaf flag - Whether the leaf is defined as an auxiliary leaf (1) or not (0). The leaf flag
does not apply to Leaf 1, because Leaf 1 is always the leaf with eyehooks. The auxiliary leaf
should generally be the last leaf you specify. An auxiliary leaf is located on top of the leafpack
and, after the leaf spring has been compressed to a point, the auxiliary leaf contacts the chassis
and augments the spring pack.
• Z-offset - The sum of all previous leaf thickness and gap distances.
• Leaf length - The length of the front and rear sections of the leaf from the point x=0.0 defined in
the profile.
• # of elements (<=45) - The leaf being defined will be broken up into discrete sections, each of
which will be modeled using an Adams BEAM element (see the BEAM statement in the online
help for Adams/Solver.)
• Seat thickness and width - Thickness (z-direction) and width (y-direction) of the leaf being
defined at the point X=0.0.
• Emod, Gmod, density - Young’s modulus of elasticity (Emod), Shear modulus of elasticity
(Gmod), and density of leaf spring material. Used to define the beam statements and part masses.
Working with Leaf Springs 13
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

• ASY, ASZ - Correction factor for shear deflection in the y (ASY) and z (ASZ) directions,
according to Timoshenko beam theory.
• Damping ratio - The ratio for calculating the structural damping matrix for the Adams beam.
Adams/Solver multiplies the stiffness matrix by this value to obtain the damping matrix.
• X column - The position along the arc length of the spring, which is determined by flattening the
spring. Negative values are forward with respect to the vehicle.
• Z column - The curvature of the top of the spring at the points on the spring that correspond to x.
• Thickness column - The Thickness column defines the thickness of the leaf at each x value. The
column is flexible about the amount of data entered. You can define data only at desired points or
at all points. The only restriction is that you enter at least one value. Adams/Chassis processes
the data in the following way:
• Empty points between defined points are linearly interpolated.
• Empty points at the ends of the spring (outside of defined points) are held constant at the last
defined value.
• Number of contact points - Used to keep the leaves from passing through each other as they
deflect, in effect modeling the physical contact of the top of the current leaf with the bottom
surface of the one above it.
• Gap distance - The gap between the leaf and the one above it.

Tips for Using Beam Element Leaf Spring Models


• Increasing the thickness of the leaves increases the ride rate.
• Increasing the number of contacts between the leaves results in an increase in computational
time.
• You define two reference markers that are intended to move the leaf spring to design position:
• The reference marker height at design load is the height of the axle center at design.
• The reference marker to leafpack is the distance from the reference marker to the bottom
of an overslung leaf or the top of the underslung leaf. A positive number indicates overslung,
while a negative number indicates underslung. When Adams/Chassis builds the leaf spring, it
exercises the model until the reference marker to leafpack reaches the height, which is
the sum of the two heights. The leaf will be in its deformed position.

Beam Element Leaf Spring Model Tutorial


This tutorial creates a beam element leaf spring and incorporates it into a rear suspension. It shows you
how you use the Leaf Spring Preprocessor to generate all the necessary flexible parts (beam elements,
parts, markers, and so on) needed to define the leaf spring in your model.
The process for creating a model containing a beam element leaf spring includes gathering data and
entering the data in an.ltf file. For this tutorial, we’ve gathered the data for you and provided you with
a sample .ltf file called example.ltf.
14 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

This tutorial builds upon the model you created in the tutorial earlier in this chapter, SAE 3-Link Leaf
Spring Model Tutorial. Therefore, be sure to run through that tutorial first.

The tutorial takes about one hour to complete.

Viewing the Leaf Spring


You will use the file, example.ltf, which contains a profile of a leaf spring. The leaf spring contains
four leaves.

To run the Leaf Preprocessor:


1. Copy example.ltf located in <achassis_install_dir>/examples/ltf into the springs.tbl folder in
the big_truck database in your working directory.
The data in example.ltf appears in the Leaf Spring Preprocessor, as shown in the following
figure.
2. From the Utilities menu, select the Leaf Spring Editor tool .
3. Select the Find tool for the .ltf text box.

4. Double-click the database to which you copied the example file, double-click springs.tbl, and
then select example.ltf.
Working with Leaf Springs 15
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

General properties
about the entire leaf

Information
about each Plot of
leaf in the leaf
spring
springs

Figure 19 Leaf Spring Preprocessor


16 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

Note: If you modify the leaf spring, you must save the data before you select GO.

5. To view a plot of each leaf in the file, select each of the leaf tabs in the lower portion of the
Preprocessor.
Adams/Chassis highlights the selected leaf in the plot to the right.
6. View the general information about the leaf spring by selecting each tab at the top of the
Preprocessor. For explanations of the information displayed in each of the tabs, see Viewing and
Editing Beam Element Leaf Springs.

Running Makeleaf
To implement the leaf spring into your Adams/Chassis model, you must first run the Leaf Spring
Preprocessor (Makeleaf). The Leaf Spring Preprocessor generates a file called example.py, which
contains the beam elements, parts, markers, and so on, needed to define the leaf spring in your model.

To run Makeleaf from the Leaf Spring Preprocessor:


1. Select GO.
2. In the command window, at the prompt, select Enter.
3. To return to the Adams/Chassis main window, select Exit.

Note: The leaf spring processor can also be executed from the command line by issuing
the following command:

achassis_script -makeleaf example.ltf (where


"achassis_script" is the command to start up Adams/Chassis)

Incorporating the Beam Element Leaf Spring into Your Model

To incorporate the spring into your model:


1. In the treeview, select big_truck_rst.
2. In the property editor, select the Springs tab.
3. Double click on sae3link_leafspring.
4. Under “Select Current Property”, select the Create New button.
5. In the “Enter Name and Type” dialog box, select SpringLeaf under Type.
Enter “beam_leaf” in the Name field.
6. Select the newly created beam_leaf property.
7. Select the Find tool next to the property file, and then select example.py.
Working with Leaf Springs 17
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

8. Select Save as along the bottom, and save your new rear subsystem file as
hotch_beam.xml.
9. Select Yes to update references in the system file.

Running an Analysis and Animating It

To run an analysis of the model with a beam element leaf spring:


1. In the Test mode, expand Suspension in the bookshelf.
2. Double-click Rear-Ride Motion.
3. Select the event in the treeview, and then Build and Run the Selected Event.
Note that this analysis takes significantly longer to run than the 3-link beam analysis because the
model is more complex.
4. When the analysis is completed, close the command window.

To animate the model:


1. Switch to the Review mode.
2. Select the event in the treeview, and then select Execute Selected Animations.
3. Play the animation.
In the animation, you see many more elements than you saw in the previous 3-link leaf spring
model. Adams/Chassis modeled each leaf spring as a series of beam elements.
4. Return to the Adams/Chassis window.

Analyzing Effects of Leaf Spring Design Changes


Now you’ll use the model you created to examine the effect of leaf spring thickness on wheel rate. First,
you’ll change the thickness of Leaf 1 of the leaf spring, and then you’ll run an analysis and compare the
results of analysis with the previous analysis to see the effect of the different thicknesses.

To change the leaf spring thickness:


1. From the Utilities menu, select the Leaf Spring Editor.
2. Load the file example.ltf.
3. Select Leaf 1, and change its thickness to 13 mm by entering 13 in the Thickness column (third
column in the middle table).
For more information about the Thickness column, see Leaf Profile.
4. Select Save as, and change the name of your modified file to example2.ltf.
5. Rebuild the leaf model by selecting GO.
6. Select the rear suspension and select the new spring property.
7. Select Save as along the bottom, and save your new rear subsystem file as
hotch_beam2.xml.
18 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Working with Beam Element Leaf Springs

8. To update references in the system file, select Yes.


9. To save the system file, select Save.

To run an analysis:
1. Switch to the Test mode.
2. Double-click the Rear Ride Motion event.
3. Select Build and Run Selected Events.
4. When the analysis is complete, close the window.

To plot the analysis results:


1. In the Review mode, select the two rear ride motion analyses in the fingerprint tree.
2. Verify that Overlay Plots/Reports of Same Events is selected.
3. Select Execute Selected Plots.
4. In the treeview of Adams/PostProcessor, select p03_Rear_Ride_motion.
Now you’ll view plots that show the effect of modifying Leaf 1’s thickness from 8 mm to 13 mm
on wheel rate.
5. Exit Adams/PostProcessor and Adams/Chassis.
As you can see from this tutorial, modeling with beam element leaf springs requires one additional
modeling step when investigating design changes.
Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 1

Integrating Control Systems in Your Model


2 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Overview

Overview
This tutorial explains how to integrate a control system into your model. It uses the example of adding
an ABS controller to a brake model to improve the braking performance of the vehicle so that the wheels
do not lock up. It explains:
• About Adding Control Systems
• Loading Example Data Files
• Running an Open-Loop Braking Event
• Creating the Control System Utility
• Building and Running the Model with Control System Included
• Analyzing Effect of the Control System

The tutorial takes about one hour to complete.


Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 3
About Adding Control Systems

About Adding Control Systems


External controllers are becoming more and more common in vehicles today, and it is sometimes
necessary to include them in your model to accurately predict how your vehicle will behave under various
conditions. Therefore, we’ve added the ability for you to add external control systems into your
Adams/Chassis model.
Adams/Chassis standard templates have logic for control systems built directly into them. The logic is
represented as lists of standard control system inputs and outputs. We’ve constructed these lists so they
support some of the most common control systems in use today. You can attach the inputs and outputs
represented in these lists to an external control system with no customization to the Adams/Chassis
preprocessing templates. And, with customization, you can connect anything else in your Adams/Chassis
model to the control system.
You represent the control system as FORTRAN or C code. The code must contain a main calling program
that serves as the interface to your Adams/Chassis model. The calling program's parameter list must
adhere to strict requirements. For more information about control system subroutines, see the
Adams/Chassis online reference.
The following tutorial takes you through the process of adding a simple ABS brake system to your model.
You will set up the inputs and outputs to this control system, create a new custom Adams/Solver library
that contains the ABS system, and compare your model's performance in a braking maneuver with and
without the controller.
4 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Loading Example Data Files

Loading Example Data Files


In this section, you load the component example data files for your Adams/Chassis session.

To load files:
1. In the Build mode, from the Utilities menu, select Database Utilities.
The Database Utilities window appears.
2. In the Copy database tab, select the Find tool next to Database to Copy.
3. In the Browse for Folder window, select f_car.vdb, and then select OK.
4. The path is:
<adams_install_directory>\achassis\examples\vehicles\f_car.vdb.
5. Select Copy Database to Working Directory.
Adams/Chassis copies the f_car example database to your working directory.
6. Select OK at the prompt and then exit the Database Utilities window.

To load example brake subsystem data:


1. Select the Load model tool, double-click f_car.vdb, double-click systems.tbl, and then open
f_car_full_sys.xml.
2. Select f_car_full_sys in the tree.
3. In the property editor, select the Find tool for Brakes.
4. From the list of databases in the Select File window, select shared_chassis_database.
5. Select brake_simple.xml, select Open, and then select Apply in the property editor.
6. Save the system file.
To learn more about the simple brake model, review the Brake System documentation in the
Adams/Chassis online help.
Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 5
Running an Open-Loop Braking Event

Running an Open-Loop Braking Event


In this section, you’ll run an open-loop braking event and then view the results. Before doing so, you’ll
change the default preferences to generate road graphics.

To change preferences:
1. From the Edit menu, select Preferences.
2. In the Preferences window, select Use Road Graphics.
3. Select Save.
4. Go to the Test mode.

To run an open-loop braking event:


1. In the bookshelf, expand Full Vehicle, expand Braking Analyses, and then double-click Open
Loop Braking.
2. In the tree, select the open-loop braking event, and then change Brake Pedal Force to 200 N.
3. Select Build and Run Selected Events.
Adams/Chassis builds your model and runs it through an open-loop braking analysis.
4. When the analysis is complete, close the window.
Now you’ll view the results of the open-loop braking event.

To animate the results:


1. In the Review mode, select the open loop braking event in the tree.
2. Select Execute Selected Animations.
Adams/PostProcessor animates the analysis. During the animation, note the severe braking in the
maneuver.
3. After reviewing the animation, exit Adams/PostProcessor.

To plot the results:


1. Plot the analysis by selecting Execute Selected Plots.
2. Use the Display Next Page tool to view the plots.
Review plots in the lower-left corner of page 3. Notice the tire patch slip ratios for the rear tires
are going to -100%, indicating wheel lockup.
6 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Creating the Control System Utility

Creating the Control System Utility


To add the ABS controller to your model you use the Control System utility. Using the Control utility,
you can add up to five control systems to your model. For each system, you will specify control system
inputs, outputs, and supporting source code files.
• Activating and Setting Up Control System Utility
• Specifying Control System Inputs
• Specifying Control System Outputs
• Specifying Control System Libraries and Saving System Data

Activating and Setting Up Control System Utility


To activate the Control System utility:
1. Return to the Build mode.
2. Select f_car_full_sys, and in the property editor, select the Check box to the left of Controls.
This makes the text box active and allows you to create a new controls file.

To set up the Control System utility:


1. Make sure to activate the Controls subsystem by selecting the check box on the left.
2. Select the Find tool for Controls.
3. In the Select File window, select the shared_chassis_database, and then open
brakes_controls_abs.xml.
4. In the property editor, select Apply.
5. In the treeview, select brakes_controls_abs.
6. Select the Controls tab.
7. In the Name text box, verify that it is ABS_example.
8. In the Subroutine Name text box, verify that it is ABS.
9. In the Step Size text box, verify that it is .01.
10. Select FORTRAN as the Code Type.

Specifying Control System Inputs


Now you’ll specify the inputs to the control system. In the example abs.f that we’ve supplied, the input
parameters to the subroutine are as follows:
• Master cylinder pressure
• Left front wheel omega (left front wheel rotational speed)
• Right front wheel omega
Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 7
Creating the Control System Utility

• Left rear omega


• Right rear omega

Note: Control system inputs and outputs must be selected for them to appear in the subroutine's
parameter list.

To specify control system inputs:


1. Select the Input tab.
2. Select Master Cylinder Pressure.
3. Select the Add  button to add the input to the Selected List.
4. To select the four wheel omega inputs at once, hold down the left mouse button, and then highlight
Wheel Omega FL through Wheel Omega RR.
5. Select Add  to add these four to the Selected List.
You have now selected the five subroutine inputs. Note that variable IDs and scale factors are
present for each input. For these standard inputs, the necessary Adams/Solver VARIABLES are
contained in the standard Adams/Chassis templates, and will be automatically added to your
model when you include this control system. The scale factors are also the default for the standard
list, and are associated with the default units for each input. If the source code is expecting a
different unit than shown, you may have to modify the scale factor for one of the default inputs.
For user factors, you must supply the variable ID and scale factor. You must then customize
Adams/Chassis such that an Adams/Solver variable with your specified ID is included in your
model.

Specifying Control System Outputs


The four output parameters for this tutorial are:
• Left front brake-line pressure
• Right front brake-line pressure
• Left rear line pressure
• Right rear line pressure

To specify the control system outputs:


1. Select the Output tab.
2. Holding down the left mouse button, highlight Brake Line Pressure FL through Brake Line
Pressure RR to select the four brake-line pressure outputs at once.
3. Select Add  to move these four to the Selected List.
8 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Creating the Control System Utility

The four outputs of the controller have now been selected. As with the inputs, the standard outputs
have default units and scale factors. You may have to modify the scale factor or add a user output
for different control systems. For user outputs, you must supply the variable ID, and customize
Adams/Chassis such that the variable is included in your model.

Specifying Control System Libraries and Saving System Data


In this section, you specify abs.f as your control system library and save it. The file abs.f is the only
source file you need.

To specify a control system library and save it:


1. Copy example abs.f.
2. To find the top directory, enter From the shell: achassis_top.
3. Copy <top dir>/examples/f/abs.f to your working directory.
4. Select the Control Libraries tab.
5. Select the Find tool.
6. Select abs.f.
7. Select Open.
8. Select Add  to move abs.f to the Control Library List.

Note: For information on the format of control system libraries, see the Adams/Chassis online
help.

Your control system specification is now complete. You’ll now save it.

To save the control system:


1. In the lower right corner, select Save as.
2. Select the f_car database in the upper left corner. Then double-click the Controls.tbl folder.
3. Enter abs_example.xml.
4. Select Save.
5. Select to update reference in system file.
6. Select Save as and enter f_car_abs.xml.
Integrating Control Systems in Your Model 9
Building and Running the Model with Control System Included

Building and Running the Model with Control System


Included
You will now begin the process of integrating the control system into your model and performing an
open-loop braking event.

To integrate the control system:


1. In the Test mode, select f_car_abs as your system file.
2. In the bookshelf, expand Full Vehicle, expand Braking Analyses, and then double-click Open
Loop Braking to add an additional event.
3. Make sure your event parameters are the same as in the original model.

Note: Ensure that the pedal force is 200.

4. Select Build and Run Selected Event.


Adams/Chassis displays a message stating that the control system abs_example has been
included in the model. During the build process, Adams/Chassis will compile and link abs.f to
create a control library ABS_example.{so, sl, dll}. This library should reside in the working
directory.

Note: In order for Adams/Chassis to compile and link the native ADAMS library, it must have
access to both the FORTRAN and C compilers. If the compile or link process fails, it may
be due to the fact that Adams/Chassis was launched from a command shell without the
proper compiler settings (on Windows, executing the batch file "ifortvars.bat" located in
the FORTRAN installation directory will set up the correct environment for the compilers).
For more information, refer to the hardware and software specifications included with your
installation instructions, and on the MSC Adams Product Support Page.

http://www.mscsoftware.com/products/adams_support.cfm
10 Getting Started Using Adams/Chassis
Analyzing Effect of the Control System

Analyzing Effect of the Control System


To see the effects of the ABS control system:
1. Select the Review mode.
2. Activate the plots for the original and control-system analyses.
3. Select Execute Selected Plots.
You can now compare the plots to see the effect of the ABS system; the rear wheels do not lock
with the ABS system activated.