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A piping system conveys fluid from one

location to another. Within a process

plant, the locations are typically one or
more equipment items (e.g., pumps,
pressure vessels, heat exchangers,
process heaters, etc.), or individual
process plants that are within the
boundary of a process facility.

A piping system consists of:

Pipe sections
Fittings (e.g., elbows, reducers, branch
connections, etc.)
Flanges, gaskets, and bolting
Pipe supports and restraints
Each individual component plus the overall
system must be designed for the specified design

Nominal pipe size (NPS) is a dimensionless designator of pipe size. It indicates standard
pipe size when followed by the specific size designation number without an inch symbol.
For example, NPS 2 indicates a pipe whose outside diameter is 2.375 in. The NPS 12 and
smaller pipe has outside diameter greater than the size designator (say, 2, 4, 6, . . .).
However, the outside diameter of NPS 14 and larger pipe is the same as the size
designator in inches.
For example, NPS 14 pipe has an outside diameter equal to 14 in. The inside diameter
will depend upon the pipe wall thickness specified by the schedule number
Diameter nominal (DN) is also a dimensionless designator of pipe size in the metric unit
system, developed by the International Standards Organization (ISO).


1000 P
SN =

SN = Schedule Number
P = Service Pressure (psi)
S = Allowable Fiber Stress (psi)

Std (Standard) ; S (STRONG ; XS (extra strong)

A106 Grade B Carbon Steel Pipes - Pressure and Temperature Ratings

Pressure (psig) and temperature (deg F) ratings of A106 Grade B carbon steel pipes temperatures ranging 100 oF - 750 oF

The accepted formula is Schedule Number = 1,000 x (P/S)

P = internal pressure, pounds-per-square-inch-gauge (psig),
S = allowable fiber stress (ultimate tensile strength of the steel in
Rearrange terms to solve for P, assuming schedule number and S
are known. Therefore P = Schedule number x S/1,000
Calculate internal pressure (P) based on Schedule 40 steel pipe,
and an allowable fiber stress (S) value of 60,000-psi (ultimate
tensile strength for A106 Grade B Carbon Steel Pipe).
Therefore, P = 40 x 60,000/1,000 = 2,400-psi.
This is reasonable, based on a current-day published value of
2,847-psi for 1-inch Schedule 40 steel pipe (with the range
temperature 1000F 7500F).

B31.1 - Power Piping

B31.2 - Fuel Gas Piping

B31.3 - Process Piping

B31.4 - Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other
B31.5 - Refrigeration Piping and Heat Transfer Components
B31.8 - Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems
B31.8S - Managing System Integrity of Gas Pipelines
B31.9 - Building Services Piping
B31.11 - Slurry Transportation Piping Systems
B31G - Manual for Determining Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines

Terminologi yang digunakan pada material yang

digunakan pada pipa maupun sistem perpipaan.


UTS : Ultimate Tensile Strength

YS : Yields Strength

A106 Grade B Carbon Steel Pipes

(Pressure-Temperature Rating)


STD (standard)
= schedule 40


XS (extra strong)
= schedule 80


Provides requirements for:

Fabrication Testing

Piping and piping components, all fluid services:

Raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals
Petroleum products
Gas, steam, air, and water
Fluidized solids
Cryogenic fluids
Interconnections within packaged equipment

Piping systems for internal gauge pressures at or above zero

but less than 15 psi, provided that the fluid is nonflammable,
nontoxic, and not damaging to human tissue, and its design
temperature is from -20F through 366F.
Power boilers that are designed in accordance with the ASME
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and external boiler
piping that must conform to ASME B31.1.
Tubes, tube headers, crossovers, and manifolds that are
located inside a fired heater enclosure.
Pressure vessels, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, and
other fluid-handling or processing equipment. This includes
both internal piping and connections for external piping.

Normal operating conditions
Design conditions
Design pressure and temperature
Identify connected equipment and
associated design conditions
Consider contingent conditions
Consider flow direction
Verify conditions with process engineer


= Axial or Longitudinal Stress

= Circumferential (Hoop) Stress
= Radial Stress
= Wall Thickness
= Internal Pressure

The stress in circumferential direction at a point in the tube or

cylinder wall can be expressed as:
c = [(pi ri2 - po ro2) / (ro2 - ri2)] - [ri2 ro2 (po - pi) / r2 (ro2 - ri2)]
c = stress in circumferential direction (MPa, psi)
pi = internal pressure in the tube or cylinder (MPa, psi)
po = external pressure in the tube or cylinder (MPa, psi)
ri = internal radius of tube or cylinder (mm, in)
ro = external radius of tube or cylinder (mm, in)
r = radius to point in tube or cylinder wall (mm, in)
maximum stress when r = ri (inside pipe or cylinder)
t = wall tube thickness = r0 - ri

c < Maximum Allowable Stress of Pipe Materials

Function of :
Material properties
Safety factors

Established to avoid:
General collapse or excessive distortion
from sustained loads
Localized fatigue failure from thermal
expansion load
Collapse or distortion from occasional loads

A piping system must be modified to add a new, spare

heat exchanger. You have been assigned the responsibility
to determine the required wall thickness for the pipe
from the heat exchanger to several pumps.
The piping system will have a design temperature of
The design pressure is 1,380 psig.
The pipe outside diameter is 14 in.
The material is ASTM A335, Gr. P11 (1 Cr Mo),
Seamless Ferritic Alloy-Steel Pipe for High-Temperature
Corrosion allowance is 0.0625 in.

Required Wall Thickness for Internal Pressure of Straight Pipe

(ASME B31.3)

t = Required thickness for internal pressure, in.

P = Internal design pressure, psig
S = Allowable stress in tension (Table A-1), psi
E = Longitudinal-joint quality factor (Table A-1B)
Y = Wall thickness correction factor (Table 304.1.1)

Corrosion allowance (CA) is an additional thickness that is added to account for

wall thinning and wear that can occur in service. The corrosion allowance is
based on experience and data for the particular pipe material and fluid service.
tm = Total minimum required wall thickness, in
Mill tolerance accounts for the difference between the actual manufactured pipe
wall thickness and the nominal wall thickness specified in the relevant pipe
dimensional standard. The typical pipe mill tolerance is 12.5%. This means that
the as-supplied pipe wall thickness can be up to 12.5% thinner than the nominal
thickness and still meet its specification requirements. Use the following
equation to determine the minimum required nominal thickness to order.
tnom = Minimum required nominal pipe
wall thickness, in.

Source : ASME B31.3 (Table A-1) Basic Allowable Stress in Tension for Metal

Source : ASME B31.3 (Table A-1B) Basic Quality Factor for Longitudinal Weld Joint

The following equation applies:

Based on the given information:

Design pressure (P) = 1,380 psig.
Pipe Outside Dia. (D) = 14 in.

For the A335, Gr. P 11 material:

S = 16,150 psi. [Table A-1 of ASME B31.3 at 650F]
E = 1.0 [Table A-1B of ASME B31.3]
Y = 0.4 [Table 304.1.1 of ASME B31.3], since the
material is ferritic and the temperature is below

In this case, a 0.0625 in. corrosion allowance has been specified.

tm = t + c = 0.577 + 0.0625
tm = 0.6395 in.

Pipe flanges that are made to standards called out

by ASME B16.5 or ASME B16.47 are typically made
from forged materials and have machined surfaces.
ASME B16.5 refers to nominal pipe sizes (NPS) from
" to 24 and ASME B16.47 covers NPSs from 26"
to 60".
Each specification further delineates flanges into
pressure classes: 150, 300, 400, 600, 900, 1500 and
2500 for ASME B16.5; and ASME B16.47 delineates
its flanges into pressure classes 75, 150, 300, 400,
600, 900. Flange strength increases with class

Materials for flanges are usually under ASME

SA-105 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings
for Piping Applications),
SA-266 (Specification for Carbon Steel Forgings
for Pressure Vessel Components),
SA-182 (Specification for Forged or Rolled
Alloy-Steel Pipe Flanges, Forged Fittings, and
Valves and Parts for High-Temperature

New piping system to be installed at existing plant.

Determine required flange class.
Pipe Material
: 1 Cr - Mo
Design Temperature
: 700F
Design Pressure
: 500 psig

Determine Material Group Number (Table 1)

Group Number = 1.9
Find allowable design pressure at intersection of design
temperature and Group No. Check Class 150. (Table 2)
Allowable pressure = 110 psig < design pressure
Move to next higher class and repeat steps
For Class 300, allowable pressure = 570 psig
Required flange Class: 300