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CRIME

Some Definitions

• Societies define crime as the breach of one or more rules or laws for which some
governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a punishment.
• A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing
norms – cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally.
• Crime is any act or failure to act that breaks the law of the land
http://www.rsc-ne-scotland.ac.uk/map2learn/mindmaps/Crime%20and
%20Deviance/Crime%20and%20Deviance-301.htm
• A violation of a law in which there is injury to the public or a member of the
public and a term in jail or prison, and/or a fine as possible penalties.
www.boonecountymo.org/pa/Glossary.asp
• An act committed or omitted in violation of a law forbidding or commanding it
and for which punishment is imposed upon conviction.
• A serious offense, especially one in violation of morality.
• An unjust, senseless, or disgraceful act or condition
• An act prohibited and punished by law
• A crime is a wrongdoing classified by the state or Congress as a felony or
misdemeanor.
• A crime is an offence against a public law. This word, in its most general sense,
includes all offences, but in its more limited sense is confined to felony.
http://www.lectlaw.com/def/c330.htm
• A normative definition analysis crime as abnormal behaviour which goes against
the existing norms, exclusively, cultural standards recommending how humans
ought to conduct yourself.
http://www.blurtit.com/q288238.html

Introduction to Crime
The word crime originates from the Latin crimen (genitive criminis), from the Latin root
cernō and Greek κρινω = "I judge". Originally it meant "charge (in law), guilt,
accusation".

When society deems informal relationships and sanctions insufficient to create and
maintain a desired social order, there may result more formalized systems of social
control imposed by a government, or more broadly, by a State. With the institutional and
legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel individuals to conform
to behavioural codes and punish those that do not.

Various mechanisms are employed to regulate behaviour, including rules codified into
laws, policing people to ensure they comply with those laws, and other policies and
practices designed to prevent crime. In addition are remedies and sanctions, and
collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Not all breaches of the law,
however, are considered crimes, for example, breaches of contract and other civil law
offences.

The label of "crime" and the accompanying social stigma are normally reserved for those
activities that are injurious to the general population or the State, including some that
cause serious loss or damage to individuals. The label is intended to assert an hegemony
of a dominant population, or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the identified
behavior and to justify a punishment imposed by the State, in the event that an accused
person is tried and convicted of a crime. Usually, the perpetrator of the crime is a natural
person, but in some jurisdictions and in some moral environments, legal persons are also
considered to have the capability of committing crimes

A normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms –
cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally. This approach
considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand
how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect the
current definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law enforcement, and penal
responses made by society.
These structural realities remain fluid and often contentious. For example, as cultures
change and the political environment shifts, behavior may be criminalised or
decriminalised, which will directly affect the statistical crime rates, determine the
allocation of resources for the enforcement of such laws, and influence the general public
opinion.

Similarly, changes in the way that crime data are collected and/or calculated may affect
the public perceptions of the extent of any given "crime problem". All such adjustments
to crime statistics, allied with the experience of people in their everyday lives, shape
attitudes on the extent to which law should be used to enforce any particular social norm.
There are many ways in which behaviour can be controlled without having to resort to
the criminal justice system.

Indeed, in those cases where there is no clear consensus on the given norm, the use of
criminal law by the group in power to prohibit the behaviour of another group may be
considered an improper limitation of the second group's freedom, and the ordinary
members of society may lose some of their respect for the law in general whether the
disputed law is actively enforced or not.

Legislatures pass laws (called mala prohibita) that define crimes which violate social
norms. These laws vary from time to time and from place to place: note variations in
gambling laws, for example. Other crimes, called mala in se, are nearly universally
outlawed, such as murder, theft and rape

Criminalization

• One can view criminalization as a procedure intended as a pre-emptive, harm-


reduction device, using the threat of punishment as a deterrent to those proposing
to engage in the behavior causing harm. The State becomes involved because they
usually believe costs of not criminalizing (i.e. allowing the harms to continue
unabated) outweigh the costs of criminalizing it (i.e. restricting individual liberty
in order to minimize harm to others).
• Criminalization may provide future harm-reduction even after a crime, assuming
those incarcerated for committing crimes are more likely to cause harm in the
future.
• Criminalization might be intended as a way to make potential criminals pay for
their crimes. In this case, criminalization is a way to set the price that one must
pay (to society) for certain actions that are considered detrimental to society as a
whole. In this sense criminalization can be viewed as nothing more than State-
sanctioned revenge.

States control the process of criminalization because:

• Even if victims recognize their own role as victims, they may not have the
resources to investigate and seek legal redress for the injuries suffered: the
enforcers formally appointed by the State have the expertise and the resources.
• The victims may only want compensation for the injuries suffered, while being
indifferent to a possible desire for deterrence (see Polinsky & Shavell (1997) on
the fundamental divergence between the private and the social motivation for
using the legal system).
• Fear of retaliation may deter victims or witnesses of crimes from taking any
action. Even in policed societies, fear may inhibit reporting or co-operation in a
trial.
• Victims alone may lack the economies of scale which might allow them to
administer a penal system, let alone collect any fines levied by a court (see
Polinsky (1980) on the enforcement of fines). Garoupa & Klerman (2002) warn
that a rent-seeking government has as its primary motivation to maximize revenue
and so, if offenders have sufficient wealth, a rent-seeking government will act
more aggressively than a social-welfare-maximizing government in enforcing
laws against minor crimes (usually with a fixed penalty such as parking and
routine traffic violations), but more laxly in enforcing laws against major crimes.
• As a result of the crime, victims may die or become incapacitated.
Crimes defined by treaty as crimes against international law include:

• crimes against peace


• waging a war of aggression
• crimes of apartheid
• piracy
• genocide
• war crimes
• the slave trade

From the point of view of State-centric law, extraordinary procedures (usually


international courts) may prosecute such crimes. Note the role of the International
Criminal Court at The Hague in the Netherlands.

Crime in Pakistan

Crime in Pakistan is present in various forms. Organised crime include drug trafficking,
Petty crime like theft is common, money laundering, forged Indian currency printing,
extortion, murder for hire and fraud. Other criminal operations engage in human
trafficking, corruption, black marketeering, political violence, terrorism, abduction etc.

Hijacking is a term used for forcible and illegal ceizure of any vehicle while in transit in
order to commit robbery, extort money, kidnap passengers, or carry out crimes. The term
was originally used in Engand and the U.S. Such an offence on land is knowm as
highway robbery. In air, highjacking, also called skyjacking or airpriacy, is defined as the
forcible commanding of an aircraft while in flight.

Kidnappng is amongst the most loathsome of crimes because the victims are held under
suspendid sentence of death, sometimes for months or years, at the whim of the
kidnapper, either to extort money for himself or to impose a political aim on the oublic
which he cannot accomplish by legitimate means.
Pakistan falls under the Golden Crescent which is one of the two major illicit opium
producing centres in Asia. Opium poppy cultivation in Pakistan is estimated to be 800
hectares in 2005 yielding a potential production of 4 metric tons of heroin. Opium is
cultivated primarily in the North-West Frontier Province and Pakistan-Afghanistan
Sborder. Until the late 1970s, opium production levels were relatively static; it increased
after 1979. Since the beginning of the 1980s, drug trafficking is flourishing in Pakistan.
Pakistan is a key transit point for Afghan drugs, including heroin, opium, morphine, and
hashish, bound for Western countries, the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Africa.

Pakistan Society of Criminology

The above situation can only be addressed through genuine criminological research in
Pakistan and to undertake this research a few police officers, academics and researchers
have now joined hands to establish Pakistan society of criminology (PSC) with a vision
of promoting criminology, the scientific study of crimes and criminal processes and
responses to crimes, and with a commitment to produce indigenous criminological
literature which is culturally-acceptable and which is used by all practitioners, decision-
makers, academics and researchers. Without good research, it is near to impossible to
have good policy options, and the choices for peace and tranquility need proper
understanding, realization and research into the problems, crimes and deviant behaviour
of our society and our region.

Major Aims and Objectives of Pakistan Society of Criminology

The aims and objectives of the Society are to create a multi-disciplinary forum to serve
the nation through earnest efforts of dissemination of criminological knowledge and field
experiences and on the basis of such scholarly and scientific discourses and exchange of
knowledge, suggest to the relevant Government organization and legislators the
corrective and preventive measures to curb crime and delinquency. The knowledge
workers of the Society will honestly assess the criminal tendency in different socio-
economic groups of the community and determine value-free, nonpartisan and workable
intervention tools, methods and techniques. The Society has a high expectation of support
from all law enforcement people and academics, thus bringing practitioners and
researchers to a consensus and mutual understanding on certain vital issues. The gap
between theory and practice has to be addressed in particular.

The importance criminological research in Pakistan can be juged from the list of the
board of advisors of Pakistan society of Criminology which includes world famous
criminologists from across the globe
Country Description:

Pakistan is a parliamentary federal


republic in South Asia, with a population of nearly 170 million people. Following
successful elections in February 2008, Pakistan has a coalition government led by Prime
Minister Yousef Gilani. Pakistan is a developing country, with some tourist facilities in
major cities but limited in outlying areas. The infrastructure of areas of Kashmir and the
Northwest Frontier Province was devastated as a result of the October 8, 2005 earthquake
and is not yet recovered. Read the Department of State Background Notes on Pakistan
for additional information.

Safety and Security

A number of extremist groups within Pakistan continue to target American and other
Western interests and high-level Pakistani government officials. Terrorists and their
sympathizers have demonstrated willingness and capability to attack targets where
Americans are known to congregate or visit. Terrorist actions may include, but are not
limited to, suicide operations, bombing -- including vehicle-borne explosives and
improvised explosive devices -- assassinations, carjacking, assault or kidnapping. U.S.
Government personnel are not permitted to stay at or frequent major hotels in Islamabad,
Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar. Government personnel have also been advised to restrict
the number and frequency of trips to public markets, and to avoid public restaurants in
Islamabad, Karachi, and Peshawar.

On November 12, 2008, an American government contractor and his driver in Peshawar
were shot and killed in their car. In September 2008, over fifty people, including three
Americans, were killed and hundreds were injured when a suicide bomber set off a truck
filled with explosives outside a major international hotel in Islamabad. In August 2008
gunmen stopped and shot at the vehicle of an American diplomat in Peshawar. In March
2008, a restaurant frequented by westerners in Islamabad was bombed, killing one patron
and seriously injuring several others, including four American diplomats. On March 2,
2006, an American diplomat, his locally employed driver, and three others were killed
when a suicide bomber detonated a car packed with explosives in front of the U.S.
Consulate General in Karachi. Fifty-two others were wounded in the attack.

Sectarian and extremist violence has resulted in fatal bomb attacks in Islamabad,
Rawalpindi, Karachi, Peshawar, Quetta, Lahore, and other Pakistani cities since 2006.
Since 2007, over 1,000 bombings have killed more than 1,000 people throughout
Pakistan and injured many more. Rallies, demonstrations, and processions occur from
time to time throughout Pakistan on very short notice and have often taken on an anti-
American or anti-Western character. Because of the possibility of violence, Americans
are urged to avoid all public places of worship and areas where Westerners are known to
congregate.

During the Islamic (Shi’a) religious observance of Moharram, rivalries and hostilities
often increase.

In 2007 and 2008, several American citizens throughout Pakistan were kidnapped for
ransom or for personal reasons. Kidnappings for ransom are particularly common in
some parts of Pakistan, such as the Northwest Frontier Province and Sindh Province.

It is best to avoid public transportation. For security reasons, U.S. Mission personnel are
prohibited from using taxis or buses.

Women are advised to dress conservatively, with arms and legs covered, and avoid
walking around alone. It is unwise for anyone to travel on the streets late at night.
Visitors to Pakistan should attempt to maintain a low profile, blend in, be aware of their
surroundings, and seek security with their family or sponsoring organization.

Northern Areas – While we continue to discourage non-essential travel to Pakistan,


we advise Americans wishing to trek in Gilgit, Hunza or Chitral to use only licensed
guides and tourist agencies. While overall crime is low, there have been occasional
assaults on foreign visitors.

Northwest Frontier Province - The U.S. Consulate in Peshawar has temporarily


relocated some personnel to Islamabad while the Consulate reevaluates necessary
security measures to operate under the heightened threat conditions. The Federally
Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) along the Afghan border, and certain areas within the
Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), are designated as tribal areas and are not subject to
normal government jurisdiction. The Government of Pakistan requires all citizens of
countries other than Pakistan and Afghanistan to obtain permission from the Home and
Tribal Affairs Department prior to visiting these locations. The permit may stipulate that
an armed escort must accompany the visitor. Even in the settled areas of the NWFP there
is occasional ethnic, sectarian, and political violence. There have been dozens of
bombings in Peshawar of varying sophistication since September 2006. Members of the
Taliban and Al-Qaida are known to be in the FATA, and may also be in the settled areas.
Due to security concerns the U.S. Government currently allows only essential travel
within the FATA by American officials.

Kashmir - While direct military hostilities between India and Pakistan across the Line
of Control (LOC) are infrequent, militant groups engaged in a long-running insurgency
on the Indian side of the LOC are reported to have bases and supporters operating from
the Pakistani side. Most of these groups are anti-American, and some have attacked
Americans and other Westerners. The Government of Pakistan restricts access to many
parts of this region and requires that visitors obtain a permit from the Ministry of Interior
before traveling.

Punjab Province - Violence has increased in Punjab Province. Since September


2007, several suicide operations have taken place, including attacks in Rawalpindi and
Lahore. As a precaution against these possible dangers, U.S. citizens are cautioned to
avoid public transportation and crowded areas. The Wagah border crossing into India
near Lahore remains open daily (from 9:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.) for travel to and from India
if the passport holder has a valid visa for both countries. Visitors are advised to confirm
the current status of the border crossing prior to commencing travel.

Sindh Province - In Karachi and Hyderabad, there has been recurring violence
characterized by bombings, violent demonstrations and shootings. An October 2007
suicide attack on former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto killed more than 130 and injured
approximately 375 people in Karachi. In the aftermath of her December 2007 death,
rioting in Karachi led to multiple deaths and injuries, as well as widespread property
damage. In May 2008, clashing groups of lawyers burned buildings and vehicles in
several areas of the city, resulting in at least 11 fatalities. Americans and other
westerners continue to be a particular target of hostility and occasional anti-Western mob
violence. The Consulate General in particular has been the target of several major
terrorist attacks or plots in recent years, including the deadly March 2006 suicide attack
described above. Non-essential travel to these cities is strongly discouraged. In rural
Sindh Province, the security situation is hazardous, especially for those engaged in
overland travel. The Government of Pakistan recommends that travelers limit their
movements in Sindh Province.

Balochistan Province - The Province of Balochistan, which borders both Iran and
Afghanistan, is notorious for narcotics and other forms of cross-border smuggling.
Members of the Taliban and Al-Qaida are also believed to be present there. Tribal unrest
sometimes turns violent. Because provincial police presence is limited, travelers wishing
to visit the interior of Balochistan should consult with the province’s Home Secretary.
Advance permission from provincial authorities is required for travel into many areas.
Local authorities have detained travelers who lacked proper permission. Quetta, the
provincial capital, has experienced an increase in bombings, occasional gun battles in the
streets, and the imposition of curfews. Terrorist attacks against Pakistani government
installations and infrastructure have been reported throughout 2005 and 2006.

For the latest security information, Americans traveling abroad should regularly monitor
the Department of State, Bureau of Consular Affairs’ web site at http://travel.state.gov,
where the current Travel Warnings, including the Travel Warning for Pakistan, Travel
Alerts, as well as the Worldwide Caution, can be found.

Up-to-date information on safety and security can also be obtained by calling 1-888-407-
4747 toll free in the U.S. and Canada, or for callers outside the U.S. and Canada, a
regular toll line at 1-202-501-4444. These numbers are available from 8:00 a.m. to 8:00
p.m. Eastern Time, Monday through Friday (except U.S. federal holidays).

The Department of State urges American citizens to take responsibility for their own
personal security while traveling overseas. For general information about appropriate
measures travelers can take to protect themselves in an overseas environment.

Crimes against Women


Crimes against women such as harrassment and attacks on modesty are covered by the
Pakistan Penal Code (PPC). They can be reported to a thana and a case can be filed
against the person responsible.

Crimes against women cover a vast range of issues and include harrassment on the
streets, domestic violence, outraging a woman’s modesty, kidnap, rape and customary so-
called ‘honour killings’. Apart from rape by the husband, all the above forms of violence
against women are recognised by the law as a crime and carry penalties ranging from
imprisonment of up to one year to the death penalty. However, there are certain
customary practices, such as swara (when a woman is given to an opposing family as
compensation in the settlement of a feud) which necessarily involve mental and physical
violence against women which are not clearly regarded by the law as a crime.

Any act which is recognised as a crime can be reported to the thana and a case registered
against those responsible. If a woman is beaten by male relatives, anyone can file a
report. If police refuse to register a case, a writ petition can be filed in the High Court

Crime Punishment
Insulting the modesty of a woman:any sound,
imprisonment of up to 1 year
gesture, or exhibition of any object intending to
and/or fine
insult the modesty of a woman (S.509 PPC)
Assault or use of criminal force against
imprisonment of up to 2 years
women:assaults, using force intending to outrage
and/or fine
modesty of woman (S.354 PPC)
If woman during assault is stripped naked in public: death penalty or life
(S.354A PPC) imprisonment
Kidnapping, abduction or inducing a woman to
life imprisonment
compel her for marriage (S.1 1 Zina rdinance)
Selling or buying a person for the purpose of
life imprisonment
prostitution, etc (S.13, 14 Zina Ordinance)
Cohabitation with a woman by a man by inducing
rigorous imprisonment of up to
the belief that she is lawfully married to him (S.15
25 years and fine
Zina Ordinance)
Enticing/taking away or detaining a woman with imprisonment of up to 7 years
criminal intent (S.16 Zina Ordinance) and up to 30 stripes with fine
Offences against the human body:inflicting an punishment ranges from death
injury is a crime even if by a relative (S.299-338 penalty to the payment of small
PPC as amended by Qisas & Diyat Ordinance’ amounts of compensation to the
1991) victim
Hadd: (confession or 4 Muslim,
adult, male eyewitnesses to the
act of penetration) formarried:
public stoning to death for
unmarried: public whipping of
100 stripes, and what other
Rape, including incest [S.6 The Offence of Zina
punishment (including death
(Enforcement of Hudood) Ordinance, 1979]
sentence) court deems fit

Tazir: (where proof for hadd


punishment not available)up to
10 years rigorous imprisonment
plus fine

Crime is a Serious Concern for Foreigners

Crime is a serious concern for foreigners throughout Pakistan. Carjacking, armed


robberies, house invasions, and other violent crimes occur in many major urban areas.
Petty crime, especially theft of personal property, is common. American travelers to
Pakistan are strongly advised to avoid traveling by taxi and other forms of public
transportation, and have members of their host organizations or families meet them at the
airport.
In many countries around the world, counterfeit and pirated goods are widely available.
Transactions involving such products may be illegal under local law. In addition,
bringing them back to the United States may result in forfeitures and/or fines.

Information for Victims of Crime: The loss or theft abroad of a U.S. passport
should be reported immediately to the local police and the nearest U.S. Embassy or
Consulate. If you are the victim of a crime while overseas, in addition to reporting to
local police, please contact the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate for assistance. The
Embassy/Consulate staff can, for example, assist you to find appropriate medical care,
contact family members or friends and explain how funds could be transferred. Although
the investigation and prosecution of the crime is solely the responsibility of local
authorities, consular officers can help you to understand the local criminal justice process
and to find an attorney if needed.

The local equivalent to the “911” emergency line in Pakistan is: 15

Medical Facilities and Health Information: Adequate basic non-emergency


medical care is available in major Pakistani cities, but is limited in rural areas. Facilities
in the cities vary in level and range of services, resources, and cleanliness, and
Americans may find them below U.S. standards; facilities in rural areas are consistently
below U.S. standards. Medical facilities require prepayment and do not accept credit
cards.

Water is not potable anywhere in Pakistan and sanitation in many restaurants is


inadequate. Stomach illnesses are common.

Effective emergency response to personal injury and illness is virtually non-existent in


Pakistan. Ambulances are few and are not necessarily staffed by medical personnel.
Any emergency case should be transported immediately to a recommended emergency
receiving room. Many American-brand medications are not widely available, but generic
brands from well-known pharmaceuticals usually are. The quality of the locally-
produced medications is uneven.
The U.S. Department of State is unaware of any HIV/AIDS entry restrictions for visitors
to or foreign residents of Pakistan.

Medical Insurance: The Department of State strongly urges Americans to consult


with their medical insurance company prior to traveling abroad to confirm whether their
policy applies overseas and whether it will cover emergency expenses such as a medical
evacuation. As noted above, emergency medical care in Pakistan is very limited.
Medical evacuations from Pakistan may cost in excess of $45,000 for uninsured travelers
requiring emergency assistance.

Traffic Safety and Road Conditions: While in a foreign country, U.S. citizens
may encounter road conditions that differ significantly from those in the United States.
The information below concerning Pakistan is provided for general reference only, and
may not be totally accurate in a particular location or circumstance.

Traffic in Pakistan moves on the left, opposite of U.S. traffic. In addition to this source
of potential confusion, travel by road in Pakistan has a variety of other risks. Roads are
crowded, drivers are often aggressive and poorly trained, and many vehicles, particularly
large trucks and buses, are badly maintained. Donkeys, cattle, horse carts, and even the
occasional camel can pose roadside hazards in some areas. Roads, including most major
highways, also suffer from poor maintenance and often have numerous potholes, sharp
drop-offs and barriers that are not sign-posted. Drivers should exercise extreme caution
when traveling at night by road, as many vehicles do not have proper illumination or
dimmers nor are most roads properly illuminated or signed. Driving without experienced
local drivers or guides is not recommended.

It is best to avoid public transportation. For security reasons, U.S. Mission personnel are
prohibited from using taxis or buses.

Aviation Safety Oversight: The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has
assessed the Government of Pakistan’s Civil Aviation Authority as being in compliance
with International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) aviation safety standards for
oversight of Pakistan’s air carrier operations.
Criminal Penalties: While in a foreign country, a U.S. citizen is subject to that
country’s laws and regulations, which sometimes differ significantly from those in the
United States and may not afford the protections available to the individual under U.S.
law. Penalties for breaking the law can be more severe than in the United States for
similar offenses. Persons violating Pakistani laws, even unknowingly, may be expelled,
arrested or imprisoned. Penalties for possession, use, or trafficking in illegal drugs in
Pakistan are severe, and convicted offenders can expect long jail sentences and heavy
fines. Engaging in sexual conduct with children or using or disseminating child
pornography in a foreign country is a crime, prosecutable in the United States.

Registration / Embassy Location: Americans living or traveling in Pakistan are


encouraged to register with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate through the State
Department’s travel registration website so that they can obtain updated information on
travel and security within Pakistan. Americans without Internet access may register
directly with the nearest U.S. Embassy or Consulate. By registering, American citizens
make it easier for the Embassy or Consulate to contact them in case of emergency.

Statistical Information

Here are 4 pictures showing what has happened to reported crime rates and the number of
police stations in Pakistan between 1997 and 2006. The red line in each shows the year
that Musharraf came to power. All crime as well as murder, attempted murder and
kidnapping declined till 2001. Since then, they all started rising and increased particularly
fast after 2003. The picture on the bottom right shows the increase in police stations in the
four main provinces—Punjab, NWFP, Sindh and Balochistan; the number is normalized
to 100 for each province in 1999. There is little or no increase in the first three, but in
Balochistan the total number of police stations increased by 62 percent…
The pictures are all sourced from data presented in the Pakistan Statistical Yearbook,
2006,

References

http://www.tourism.gov.pk/

http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/oversight/iasa./www.nha.gov.pk/
http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_992.html/

http://shanta.wor.janmedia.com/reported-crimes-pakistan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime_in_Pakistan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crime

Kidnap, Hijack and Extortion


By; Richard Clutterbuck (foreward by Sir Rober Mark)
Published in 1987

Highjacking A War By Other Means


1st edition
By; Nishat Kumar

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime

http://www.cybercrime.gov/18usc2320.htm.