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Digital Circuits and Systems

Unit 3 Combinational Integrated Circuits

COMBINATIONAL ICs

• REPRESENTATION OF BINARY VARIABLES AT THE PHYSICAL LEVEL

• BASIC SWITCH. STRUCTURE OF GATES AND THEIR OPERATION

• REALIZATION OF GATES USING cmos CIRCUITS

• CHARACTERISTICS OF CIRCUITS: LOAD FACTORS AND FANOUT FACTORS, P AGATION DELAYS, TRANSITION TIMES, AND EFFECT OF LOAD

• THREE-STATE GATES (DRIVERS) AND BUSES

• NOISE AND NOISE MARGINS

• EVOLUTION OF ICs. VLSI CIRCUIT-LEVEL DESIGN STYLES

• PACKAGING LEVELS: CHIPS, BOARDS AND CABINETS.

REPRESENTATION OF BINARY VARIABLES

2

• REPRESENTATION OF 0 AND 1 BY ELECTRICAL SIGNALS

• VOLTAGES

• CURRENTS

• ELECTRICAL CHARGES

• REALIZATION OF CIRCUITS THAT OPERATE ON THESE SIGNALS TO IMPLEMENT DESIRED SWITCHING FUNCTIONS

TYPICAL VALUES FOR A 3.3V cmos TECHNOLOGY

VHmax 3.3V VLmax 0.8V VHmin 2.0V VLmin 0.0V

VOLTAGE REGIONS

voltage

V

Hmax

 V Hmin V Lmax V Lmin

V H region

Forbidden region

V L region

Figure 3.1: VOLTAGE REGIONS.

3

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE LOGIC

 x f z y

POSITIVE LOGIC VH ←→ 1 VL ←→ 0

NEGATIVE LOGIC VH ←→ 0 VL ←→ 1

 Input Positive Negative Output logic logic voltagesvoltagex y z x y z x y z VL VL VL 0 0 0 1 1 1 VL VH VL 0 1 0 1 0 1 VH VL VL 1 0 0 0 1 1 VH VH VH 1 1 1 0 0 0 f =and f =or

4

STRUCTURE AND OPERATION OF GATES

SWITCH AND mos TRANSISTORS

N-TYPE:

5

open (off) if VCA < VT n closed (on) if VCA > VT n VT n - THE THRESHOLD VOLTAGE FOR N-TYPE SWITCH

P-TYPE:

open (off) if VBC > Vdd - |VT p| closed (on) if VBC < Vdd - |VT p| VT p - THE THRESHOLD VOLTAGE FOR P-TYPE SWITCH

6

V

CA

n-type switch

Resistance between A and B

V very low: switch CLOSED (on)

Tn

Resistance between A and B very high: switch OPEN (off)

V Tp

V

BC

p-type switch Resistance between A and B

very low: switch CLOSED (on)

Resistance between A and B very high: switch OPEN (off)

+

V

CA

C

-

nS

A

NMOS transistor

C

gate

B

drain

source

A

B
V
+
B
BC
-
pS
C
(a)
A
logical
PMOS transistor
logical
symbol
symbol
B
B
B
source
C
gate
drain
C
C
A
(b)
A

A

Figure 3.3: a) N-TYPE AND P-TYPE CONTROLLED SWITCHES. b) nmos AND pmos TRANSISTORS.

THE INVERTERS

DIGITAL GATES Fundamental Parameters

Functionality

Reliability, Robustness

Area

Performance

Speed (delay)

Power Consumption

Energy

Noise in Digital Integrated Circuits

v(t)

i(t)

(a) Inductive coupling

(b) Capacitive coupling

V DD

(c) Power and ground noise

DC Operation:

Voltage Transfer Characteristic

V(y)

V OH

V OL

V(y)

V(x)
f
V(y)=V(x)
V
M

Switching Threshold

V OL

V
OH

V(x)

Nominal Voltage Levels

Mapping between analog and digital signals

"1"
"0"

V OH

V IH

Undefined

Region

V IL

V OL

V(y)

V

V

OH

OL

Slope = -1
Slope = -1
V(x)
V IL
V IH

Definition of Noise Margins

NM H
NM L

"1"

V OH

Noise Margin High

Noise Margin Low

V OL

"0"

V IH

Undefined

Region

V IL

Gate Output

Gate Input

Fan-in and Fan-out

(a) Fan-out N

N

M

(b) Fan-in M

The Ideal Gate

V out

g=

V in

R i =

R o = 0

VTC of Real Inverter

5.0
NM L
4.0
3.0
2.0
V M
NM H
1.0
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
V out (V)

V in (V)

Delay Definitions

V in

V out

50%

t

t pHL

t pLH

90%
t

50%

10%

t f

t r

Power Dissipation

CMOS INVERTER

The CMOS Inverter:

V in

A First Glance

V DD

V out
C L

Switch Model of CMOS Transistor

|V GS |

|V GS | < |V T |

R on

|V GS | > |V T |

V DD

V out
R on

V in = V DD

V DD
R
on

V out

V M =

V in = 0

V OH = V DD

V OL = 0

f(R

onn , R onp

)

CMOS Inverter: Transient Response

V DD

t pHL = f(R on .C L ) = 0.69 R on C L

R on

V in = V DD

V out

C L

ln(0.5)
V out
V DD
t
R on C L

1

0.5

0.36

CMOS Properties

Full rail-to-rail swing

Symmetrical VTC

Propagation delay function of load capacitance and resistance of transistors

No static power dissipation

Direct path current during switching

The Miller Effect

V

C
gd 1
V
out
V
in
M1

V

V
V
in

V
out
V
2C gd 1
M1

“A capacitor experiencing identical but opposite voltage swings at both its terminals can be replaced by a capacitor to ground, whose value is two times the original value.”

Where Does Power Go in CMOS?

• Dynamic Power Consumption

Charging and Discharging Capacitors

• Short Circuit Currents

Short Circuit Path between Supply Rails during Switching

• Leakage

Leaking diodes and transistors

Dynamic Power Dissipation

Vdd

Vin

Vout
C L

Energy/transition = C L * V dd

2

Power = Energy/transition * f = C L * V dd 2 * f

Not a function of transistor sizes! Need to reduce C L , V dd , and f to reduce power.

Static Logic Gates

Complex Logic CMOS functions

One extremely powerful aspect of CMOS is the ability to create single gate circuits that can implement functions consisting of several basic logic operations.

This makes digital CMOS design quite different from classical logic design techniques.

A static logic gate is one that has a well defined output once the inputs are stabilized and the switching transients have decayed away.

Static CMOS logic gates are relatively easy to design and use.

Complex Logic functions

Complex logic gates provide functions that consist of several primitive NOT, AND, or OR operations.

This is an example of a canonical AOI (and-or-invert) equation1 which falls into the category of a complex logic operation.

Complex logic gates are constructed using the CMOS inverter as a basis.

nFET and pFET are placed to act as pass transistors.

The input voltage controls the conduction modes of both transistors.

When input = 0V, the pFET conducts the power supply voltage to the output. When input is Vdd, the nFET is ON, and transmits the ground (0v) to the output.

Construction of Complex Logic Gates

In order to construct a complex logic gate, let us replace the single inverter nFET by an array of nFETs that are connected to operate as a large switch.

Similarly, we will substitute an array of pFETs for the single pFET used in the inverter, and view the pFET array as a “giant” switch.

In order to insure proper electrical operation, however, we must exercise care so that operation of the nFET array complements the operation of the pFET array.

This means that if one array is a closed switch, the other must be open.

Construction of Complex Logic Gates

The general structure of a complex logic gate can be created by the following steps.

Ø Provide a complementary pair (an nFET and a pFET with a common gate) for each input;

Ø Replace the single nFET with an array of nFETs that connects the output to ground;

Ø Replace the single pFET with an array of pFETs that connects the output to Vdd

Ø Design the nFET and pFET switching network so that only one network acts as a closed switch for any given input combination.

For multiple inputs, the nFET and pFET arrays are viewed as large “composite” switches, with each array containing m MOSFETs.

For a given input combination, only one composite switch can be closed. If the pFET switching array is closed, then the output voltage is Vdd.

Conversely, if the nFET array is closed, then the output is a logic 0

for proper operation, the arrays must be designed so that the two cases where either (i) both switching arrays are closed, or, (ii) both switching arrays are open, cannot occur, since both situations give an undefined output.

CMOS NAND Gate

The NAND2 operation is described by

To construct a CMOS circuit that provides this function we will use two complementary pairs, one for each of the inputs A and B, and create the nFET and pFET arrays according to the needed outputs.

Circuit of CMOS NAND2 Gate

Logical operation

Denoting the inputs by simply A and B results in the circuit shown in Figure. The output is viewed as the OR operation between the pFET switches and the nFET switches such that.

By Demorgan’s law

Output charge time

The worst-case initial condition on the output voltage is that Vout = 0V which implies that both input voltages are initially at high.

If either A or B (or both) switch to logic 0 values, Cout charges through the appropriate pFET transistors.

Figure (a) shows the case where a single pFET MpA is switched into conduction.

In this case, the MOSFET current charges the output capacitance as seen using the equivalent RC network shown in Figure (b).

The inverter analysis may thus be applied to estimate

Where

resistance.

is the time constant with as the equivalent pFET

In the opposite case where pFET MpB is switched into conduction (implying that the nFET MnB is in cutoff), the parasitic capacitance CX between the nFETs will also charge. This increases the value of since charge is diverted away from the output node.

The best case (shortest) charge time occurs if both pFETs are conducting. If both transistor have the same aspect ratio, then the total charging current is double that passing through a single transistor.

This is equivalent to having one-half of a single FET resistance so that the effective pFET resistance is given by

in the time constant.

Output discharge delay time

To calculate the discharge delay time we assume an initial output voltage VDD of this implies that at least one of the inputs is at a logic 0 value.

Discharging occurs when both A and B increase to logic 1 voltages.

MOSFETs MnA and MnB are both active and provide a conducting path between and ground as shown in Figure (a).

The situation can be modeled using the equivalent circuit in Figure (b).

The time constant in elmore form can be written as

where RnA and RnB are the equivalent MOSFET resistances, and CX represents the internal node capacitance between the two transistors. This can be used to estimate the high-to-low time by noting that the use of the Elmore time constant implies that we are modelling the output voltage as an exponential of the form

The time required to achieve a particular value of Vout is computed from

Since tHL is defined as the time required for the voltage to fall from the 90% voltage to the 10% voltage we have

CMOS NOR Gate

The NOR2 operation is described by

Circuit of CMOS NOR2 Gate

Logical operation

Denoting the inputs by simply A and B results in the circuit shown in Figure. The output is viewed as the OR operation between the pFET switches and the nFET switches such that.

By Demorgan’s law

Output Discharge Time

The high-to-low time is computed by noting that Cout discharges through the nFET MnA or MnB.

Since these are in parallel, the worst-case discharge time occurs when only a single nFET is conducting as shown in Figure a.

This situation is equivalent to the discharge in a simple inverter circuit, so that

where

Output Charge Delay Time

With both A and B at logic 0 levels, pFETs MpA and MpB provide a conducting path between the output and the power supply as in Figure (a).

Constructing the RC model in Figure (b) gives a time constant for the discharge event as

Comparison of NAND and NOR gate

Both NAND and NOR gates are easy to implement in CMOS logic.

However, for equal numbers of inputs and device sizes, NAND gates have better transient response than NOR gates, making them more popular in high-performance design.

We can understand this with help of delay times:

The series-connected transistors are the limiting factor.

In a NAND gate, the discharge delay time is determined by a chain of n-channel MOSFETs.

A NOR gate, on the other hand, has a charging time which is due to charging through a chain of p-channel transistors.

Since, in general, the resistance of a MOSFET has the functional dependence

And

Applying this to the case of series-connected MOSFETs shows that the nFET chain always discharges faster than the pFET chain can charge.

Thus, for equal area designs, NAND gates are preferable to NOR gates.

Complex Logic Gates

Complex logic functions can be implemented by designing the nFET and pFET switching arrays such that only one composite switch is closed for a given set of inputs.

If the nFET switch is closed while the pFET switch is open, then the output is a logic 0. Conversely, a closed pFET switch and an open nFET switch results in a logic 1 output.

The arrays must be designed to avoid two situations:

(1) both switches are open at the same time, since this gives an undetermined value;

(2) both are closed at the same time, since the voltage will not be a well-defined logic voltage.

we have labelled the nFET switching block by f¯, the pFET block by f, and the output is also given as f.

This notation is defined to mean that if the output f is a logical 1, the nFET block is OPEN and the pFET block is CLOSED.

Conversely, if the nFET block is CLOSED while the pFET block is OPEN, the output is at a value of f=0 , With regards to the individual blocks themselves, the outcome is TRUE (a logic 1)

Examples of Complex Logic Gates

Consider the function

Either A.B=1 OR C=1 will connect the output to ground by turning on an nFET conduction path.

C=0 AND (A=0 OR B=0), then the pFETs provide a conduction path between the power supply and the output, giving a logic 1 output voltage

Exclusive OR and equivalence (XNOR) Gates

XOR CMOS implementation

XNOR CMOS Implementation