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MIN 313

Handout 5: Crushers

Crushers are the first mechanical stage in the

comminution process, as shown in the flow sheet.
Crushing is generally performed in a two or three stage
process. Stage one generally will crush from 1.5 m down to
10 to 20 cm. Stage two will generally crush down to 0.5 to 2
Crushing is done in open circuit or closed. Both have
their applications. When done in open circuit, the product
goes to the next stage in comminution (typically a rod mill).
Since the product is not screened, the next stage needs to
be able to accommodate size fluctuations.

Open Circuit

Crushing is done in closed circuit, when crusher

flexibility is desired. Here, the product is screened
with the undersize moving to the next stage, but the
oversize being sent back to the crusher.

The presence of a screen allows the crusher to be used on any size

setting at a given time, with the screen (one or multiple) making the
final product selection.
In open circuit, the crusher can only
operate on the size the next stage can
accommodate. When the material is
Closed Circuit sticky, the crusher can be opened up to
avoid choking, without hurting
downstream processes.

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson
MIN 313

Primary crushers:
Reduces Run of Mine ore down to a size that is suitable for transport. Large, heavy duty machines.
Two types of primary crushers are available: Jaw Crushers and Gyratory Crushers. Gyratory
crushers can produce 600 to 6000tph, depending on size. Whereas, jaw crushers top out around 750

Jaw Crushers
i) Blake Crusher: Fixed feed size, variable
product size. Arrested crushing
ii) Dodge : Fixed product size, variable feed.
Chokes easily in real world app. Mostly
used in labs.
i) Universal: Combo

Double Toggle Blake Crusher

As a general rule, the largest run of mine ore should be 80% of the width of the crusher’s gape.

W gape = Eq. 1

Where (F) is the largest expected feed size.

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson
MIN 313
Single Toggle Jaw Crushers (STJC): Movement of
swing jaw is elliptical, which helps in pushing the
material out. Therefore, these are of higher capacity
than double toggle jaw crushers (DTJC). However,
the same movement causes more wear and tear on
the jaw and on the drive shaft to which the toggle is

DTJC are used on tough, hard and abrasive material

Construction of Jaw Crushers

Hard liners are used on cast steel jaws to minimize
wear on the jaws themselves. Liners also reduce
energy consumption. Rugged construction overall.
Sometimes, liner surfaces have patterns to improve
crushing (for example, ridges reduce fines), though
that usually reduces throughput. The jaws can also
be slightly curved to minimize choking and wear.
In such design, the lower half of the fixed jaw is convex, while the corresponding side of the movable
jaw is concave. The throw dimension depends on the material being crushed, with it being high for
plastic material and low when the material is brittle. Wide throw also reduces choking, produces
more fines and increase wear.

Gyratory Crushers

• Consists of long spindle with a head (the

actual grinder) that is suspended from
the top and sits on a eccentric base
• Gyratory movement of eccentric.
Spindle can turn on its axis.
• Effectively, an infinite number of jaw
• Arrested choker
• Crushes the entire cycle, unlike the jaw
crusher. Therefore, higher capacity.

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson
MIN 313

The choice between Gyratory crushers and jaw

crushers is dictated by:
ƒ Largest feed size
ƒ Production requirements
ƒ Economics of operation

Features of Gyratory:
1. High capacity per investment dollar.
2. Handles thin, slab-like material better than a jaw crusher.
3. Feeding is simpler.
4. Foundation costs are lower than for jaw crusher
6. Easier installation than JC since more compact design and crushing stresses more even.

Features of Jaw Crusher:

1. Large receiving opening per investment dollar.
2. Shape of opening favors large block shaped feed better than a gyratory.
3. Handles dirty or sticky feed better, without buildup.
4. Maintenance is easier.
5. Can be easily split into sections, which makes it easier to carry it underground.

Secondary Crushing:

Feed size will normally be less than 15 cm.

Secondary crushing is usually conducted with
cone crushers. Impact (or Hammer) crushers
and roll crushers are still sometimes used.

Cone Crushers

Cone crushers are just a variation of the

gyratory crusher, with some differences:
- A major difference between the two is
the shape of the head crushing head Gyratory Cone crusher
and the outer shell.
- Supported at the bottom.
- Difference arising from crushing smaller particles. These include higher throw and speed.
Therefore, crushing is more hammer like.
- Liners on head and shell parallel at discharge
end for better size control
- Shell can “lift” when hard tramp material enters
the crusher. This allows the tramp to pass Shell liner
through without hurting the crusher.

Head liner

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson
MIN 313
Gyradisc crushers are a variant of cone crushers. For these, the head liners have a very shallow
angle (less than the angle of repose of the material being crusher). The head is also considerably
shorter. Crushing is by particle-particle interaction. The product size is very fine (<1 cm). Used
mostly in gravel industry.

Roll Crusher
Roll crushers use two large drums mounted on springs, rotating toward each other to crush material.
Their great disadvantage is that in order to get a reasonable reduction ratio, very large drums must be
used. For example, rolls of diameter 1.4 m needs to be used for particles only 2.6 cm size, if a 6:1
reduction ratio is desired.

Figure 1 indicates the particle size, which may be

passed through a rolls crusher. The spacing between
rolls must be large enough to allow friction between
the rolls and the rock to pull the rock through as it is
crushed. This is why rolls crushers are somewhat
limited by available reduction ratios.

where :

μ = tan : θ = “nip angle”.
2 Fig 1. Rolls crusher fundamentals

The nip angle should not exceed 25 degrees. Otherwise, the feed will just ride on the top and
choke the rolls.

Impact Crushers

The impact crusher crushes feed by impact rather than

by pressure. A rotating drum with large hammers is
encased in a large, lined drum. Crushed material falls
through perforations at the bottom of the crusher.
Those particles that are not small enough to pass will
continue to cycle through the crusher until it is small

Large impact crushers will reduce 1.5 m top size to 20

cm at about 1500 tph.

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson
MIN 313
Factors affecting secondary crusher selection include:

ƒ Capacity
ƒ Feed size
o For a cone crusher, opening should not exceed 3 X feed size. So, if the feed size into
the secondary cone crusher is 10 inches, the opening to the crusher should not exceed
30 inches.

ƒ Product size
o What is your desired reduction

Optimizing Crushers

Technology has allowed better instrumentation and process control to improve crusher efficiencies.
Now a days instruments not only detect equipment health, but also monitor operating conditions such
as choking, feed rates and feed particle size distributions.

Based on book by BA Wills. Authors of handout: Rajive Ganguli and Michael Anderson