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The Impact of Solar Power and Other

Variable Distributed Renewable


Generation on the Distribution Grid
Jenna Van Vliet, Hydro Ottawa
Frank Chan, CEATI International
Robyn Pascal, CEATI International

Project Scope
Introduction
Literature Search
Simulation Software Requirements
Data Collection and Analysis
System Description
System Impact Studies
Conclusions
Future Work

Introduction
Penetration of PV generation in distribution and
transmission systems has increased dramatically
in recent years.
Small numbers of PV generation offer few or
no problems, but as the percentage of PV
generation grows, a number of issues begin to
appear.
Large penetrations of PV generators might have
negative impacts on the system they are connected
to.
Engineering analysis requires detailed simulation
models.

Pertinent Standards
IEEE Std. 1547-2003: Standard for Interconnecting
Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems
IEEE Std. 1547.1-2005: Test Procedures for Interconnection Equipment
IEEE Std. 1547.2-2008: Application Guide for IEEE Std 1547
IEEE Std. 1547.3-2007: Monitoring, Information Exchange, and Control
IEEE Std. 1547.4-2011: Design, Operation, and Integration Island
Systems
Under Development:
IEEE Std. 1547.5: Power Sources Greater than 10MVA (Transmission
Grid)
IEEE Std. 1547.6-2011: Secondary Networks
IEEE Std. 1547.7: Distribution Impact Studies for Distributed Resource
Interconnection
IEEE Std. 1547.8: Implementation Strategies for Expanded Use of
IEEE Standard 1547
4

Other Applicable Standards


Flicker
IEEE Std. 1453-2004
IEC Std. 61000-3-3, -3-5, -3-7, and -4-15

Voltage Regulation Requirements


ANSI C84.1
CAN3-C235

Harmonics
IEEE Std. 519-1992

Islanding
UL 1741
IEC 62116
5

Previous Work
Study
Summary
Ropp (2008) Reviews potential problems and utility concerns arising from high penetration levels of
photovoltaic in distribution systems
J. W. Smith Identifies limitations in the industry practice of integrating PV facility into the
distribution grid, and further proffers an approach to improve PV interconnection
(2011)
studies
Investigates impact of high PV penetration level on an existing network as a case study

Report IEA- Investigates voltage rises due to PV penetration and possible mitigation measures (Ota
City demonstration project - Japan)
PVPS T1006-2009 Investigates reasons for power imbalances between phases of a solar settlement (PV
settlement of Schlierber - Germany).

F. Katiraei Documents and reviews the results from several field experiments, measurements, and
system studies performed at International Energy Agency Photovoltaic Power Systems
(2007)

projects in some IEA participating countries


Covers power quality effects, voltage issues of high PV penetration and planning/design
requirements to mitigate these effects

J. Widen
(2009)

Discusses limiting factors of distributed PV systems in Swedish energy system, using a


simulation approach.
6

IEA Report published in 2007


Penetration levels less than 7%
Reviewed field experience in
Japan (Gunma)
Germany (Schlierberg)
Australia (Olymp. Village)
Netherlands (Nieuwland)
Greek Islands
Reference:
F. Katiraei, K. Mauch, L. Dignard-Bailey,
Integration of Photovoltaic Power Systems in
High-Penetration Clusters for Distribution
Networks and Mini-Grids, International Journal
of Distributed Energy Resources, Vol. 3, No. 3,
July September 2007

EPRIs Work
Lots of case studies for lots of feeders
Relatively low PV penetration levels
Did not investigate imbalance in great detail

Reference:
J. Smith,
PV Modeling for Distribution System Impact Assessment Using the OpenDSS,
Utility/Lab Workshop on PV Technology and Systems,
November 8-9, 2010

NRELs (National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Work

Three criteria dictating


penetration limits
Fault current sensitivity
Reverse power
Voltage/overload restrictions
DER Penetration Limits Application

Our questions
Is it really that simple?
How about imbalance?
Reference:
NREL, Southern California Edison High-Penetration Photovoltaic Project Year 1,
Technical Report, N REL/TP-5500-50875, June 2011

Effects of PV on Utility Operation


Potential issues and concerns associated with
increased PV generation in power systems. Effects on:
Overcurrent protection coordination
Voltage regulation
Reliability
Power losses
Detection of unintentional islanding
Overvoltage during islanding
Voltage change during DG tripping
10

11

What are the issues?


Category

Issue

Overcurrent protection get confused -> false trips, no trips


Line regulators get confused -> high/low voltage on DG side
Capacitor switching, LTC operation, and line VR operation
caused by cloud shading.
Voltage Fluctuation
Flicker caused by step voltage change during switching.
Capacitor switching transients (synchronous closing, preinsertion impedance, point-on-wave)
Low/medium PV penetration -> PV offsets load thereby
decreasing section loading
Modification of Feeder
Section Loading
High PV penetration -> PV may exceed base load, capacity
sufficient to distribute surplus power?
Increase in Power Losses PV changes loading (see row above). Impact on losses
Fault Current
PV increases fault current. Impact on relay protection.
Utility system reclosing into live island may damage
Unintentional Islanding
switchgear and loads.
Ground Fault Overvoltage Single-phase fault -> TOVs on unfaulted phase.
Harmonics
Harmonics caused by PV inverter
Effect of fast transients caused by cloud shading and system
Dynamics
disturbances. Dynamic interaction of transients with other
conventional and non-conventional control devices.
Imbalance caused by uneven distribution of PV causing
Feeder Imbalance
Neutral-to-Earth voltages, Overloaded Neutrals
Reverse Power Flow

OpenDSS PSCAD

EMTPRV

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
12

13

Load Profiles

Residential and Commercial Load Profiles


from
Manitoba Hydro
Southern California Edison
Hydro One

14

Manitoba Hydro: Residential

15

Manitoba Hydro: Commercial

16

Manitoba Hydro: Summary


Residential
Unit Size

Min Load
(kW)

Under 1000
1000-1500
1500-2000
2000-2500
Over 2500

0.5
3.2
2.4
2.1
3.4

Max Load
(kW)
15.1
10.9
17.4
29.2
38.2

Max. Down- Max. Up-Ramp


Ramp (kW/h)
(kW/h)
-6.8
-4.9
-7.6
-10.2
-22.4

8.4
3.7
6.2
14.9
27.2

Consumption
(MWh)
38.4
52.4
67.4
77.3
94.6

Commercial
Type
Drive-Through
Restaurants
Shopping Mall
Generic Grocery
Grocery Store
Superstore

Min Load
(kW)

Max Load
(kW)

64.6
48.6
1,658.3
207.0
495.4
1,748.9

523.0
197.7
7,392.6
459.2
1,092.8
4,071.4

Max. DownRamp (kW/h)


-162.5
-44.2
-1,724.1
-81.5
-209.8
-787.5

Max. Up-Ramp
(kW/h)
186.8
51.2
1,457.0
106.7
169.8
629.9

Consumption
(MWh)
1,753.1
776.7
32,832.3
2,957.9
6,502.6
24,779.1

17

Generation Profiles

PV Generation Profiles from


Manitoba Hydro (Winnipeg)
Southern California Edison (Long Beach)
Hydro One (Toronto)
BC Hydro (Vancouver)

18

PV Variation (Months)
Manitoba Hydro

BC Hydro

Hydro One

Southern California Edison

19

PV Variation (Hours and Seconds)

20

Net Zero Scenario

Annual consumption matches annual local PV


generation
Building does not need outside power IF perfect
storage available

21

Financial Net Zero Scenario

Annual consumption cost matches annual cost of


the electricity generated by a solar PV system
Building does not need outside power IF perfect
storage available

22

Shingles Scenario

Thin-film photovoltaic shingles produce between


50 and 200 watts
A roof of an average household is assumed to fit
about 3 kW

23

24

Feeder Systems

Initial simulation on IEEE 34-bus test feeder


More detailed simulation on modified EPRI
Test circuit
System Voltage: 12.47 kV
Number of Customers: 1379
Service XFMR kVA: 16310
Total feeder kVAr: 1950
Primary circuit miles: 30.5
25

Feeder Systems (continued)

26

Load Distribution
Customer load profiles were integrated into the test feeder
by substituting the original loads
To provide reasonable comparison between the three
resulting systems, the total loading of the phases was kept
constant
Number of customers connected to a specific service
transformer resulted from the respective customers
maximum annual demand

27

Load Distribution Hydro One


Load profiles Distribution

Phase
A
B
C

Average Load (kW)


Eastern Connection
13.76
10.90
12.98

Central Connection Western Connection


10.88
10.95
12.61
13.61
10.96
10.86
28

Net Zero Hydro One


Scaling factors

Phase
A
B
C

Average PVNetZero (kW)


Eastern Connection
53.03
41.97
52.43

Central Connection Western Connection


41.54
41.87
49.13
52.18
44.41
44.35
29

Financial Net Zero Hydro One


Scaling factors

Phase
A
B
C

Average PVFinancial (kW)


Eastern Connection
5.01
3.94
5.00

Central Connection Western Connection


3.93
3.96
4.65
4.93
4.22
4.13
30

Shingles Manitoba Hydro


Scaling factors

Average kW per customer


Phase
A
B
C

Average PVShingles (kW)


Eastern Connection
1.94
0.85
3.01

Central Connection Western Connection


1.48
1.50
0.99
1.07
2.61
2.58
31

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Cases - Daily
Case

Phase with PV

Case #

DescriptionScenario

Season

PV Profile

A, B, C

100% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

100% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

A, B, C

Shingles (MH & SCE)

Spring

Financial Net Zero (HO)

Spring

A, B, C

25% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

A, B, C

50% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

A, B, C

75% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

A, B

100% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

A, C

100% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

B, C

100% Consumption Net Zero

Spring

10

A, B, C

100% Consumption Net Zero

Fall

11
12

A, B, C
A, B, C

100% Consumption Net Zero


100% Consumption Net Zero

Summer
Winter

Note: for Fall, Summer & Winter the day with the biggest generation-consumption
ratio was used

33

Cases Daily (continued)


Seasonal simulation cases
Location

Spring

Summer

Fall

Winter

Manitoba Hydro

Mar. 15

Jun. 7

Sep. 14

Feb. 5

SCE

Apr. 4

Jul. 4

Sep. 19

Feb. 13

Hydro One

May 1

Jun. 4

Sep. 28

Feb. 19

Used parameters Installed PV Capacity in kW


Location
Manitoba Hydro

NetZero (kW)
A
B
C
5,874 4,885 6,622

Financial (kW)
A
B
C
----

Shingles (kW)
A
B
C
321
201
545

SCE

6,072 7,061 4,695

--

--

--

2,727

248

3,276

Hydro One

8,920 9,882 9,354

843

934

888

--

--

--

34

Case 1: Hydro One - Primary


Snapshot during hour with highest solar activity

35

Case 1: Hydro One - Primary

36

Case 1: Hydro One - Primary


Voltage (p.u.) Eastern Connection
Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.036
1.037
1.034

No PV
Min
1.029
1.029
1.021

Diff
0.008
0.008
0.013

Max
1.044
1.043
1.039

With PV
Min
1.023
1.017
1.015

Diff
0.020
0.026
0.023

Max
1.046
1.040
1.019

With PV
Min
1.023
1.017
1.007

Diff
0.023
0.023
0.012

With PV
Min
1.023
1.017
1.015

Diff
0.02
0.026
0.023

Voltage (p.u.) Central Connection


Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.036
1.037
1.034

No PV
Min
1.031
1.027
1.029

Diff
0.005
0.010
0.005

Voltage (p.u.) Western Connection


Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.036
1.037
1.034

No PV
Min
1.029
1.029
1.021

Diff
0.008
0.008
0.013

Max
1.044
1.043
1.039

37

Case 1: Hydro One Secondary


Snapshot during hour with highest solar activity

38

Case 1: Hydro One Secondary

39

Case 1: Hydro One Secondary


Voltage (p.u.) Eastern Connection
Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.032
1.032
1.024

No PV
Min
1.018
1.018
1.007

Diff
0.014
0.013
0.016

Max
1.075
1.078
1.080

With PV
Min
1.035
1.028
1.033

Diff
0.039
0.050
0.046

Max
1.069
1.112
1.052

With PV
Min
1.036
1.028
1.014

Diff
0.033
0.084
0.038

With PV
Min
1.036
1.028
1.019

Diff
0.047
0.053
0.041

Voltage (p.u.) Central Connection


Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.032
1.032
1.028

No PV
Min
1.023
1.009
1.017

Diff
0.010
0.023
0.011

Voltage (p.u.) Western Connection


Phase
A
B
C

Max
1.032
1.032
1.028

No PV
Min
1.020
1.017
1.014

Diff
0.012
0.015
0.014

Max
1.083
1.081
1.061

40

Cases - Annually
PV penetration Net Zero
Simulation duration 8760 hours
The obtained results provide an estimate over the
number of times the feeder voltage cycles above
1.05 pu and below 0.95 pu

41

Annually: Hydro One - Primary

42

Annually: Hydro One - Secondary

43

Annually: Hydro One


Primary
Connection

Cycles above 1.05

Cycles below 0.95

Eastern

# of Buses (All
Phases)
246

17

Central

126

Western

267

269

Cycles above 1.05

Cycles below 0.95

Eastern

# of Buses (All
Phases)
177

10466

Central

203

23692

Western

281

25930

Secondary
Connection

44

Cases Unsymmetrical Penetration


Simplified system

Adjusted parameters:
Transformer connection (i.e. D-Y, D-D, Y-D, and Y-Y)
Line length (i.e. 5 km, 10 km, and 20 km)
Load imbalance severity (i.e. Imbalance Load Factor: 2, 4 and 8)
45

Unsymmetrical Penetration
Line Length Imbalance
Scenario
(km)
Factor
1
10
2
2
1
4
3
1
2
4
5
2
5
10
2
6
20
2
7
5
-2
8
10
-2
9
20
-2
10
1
2
11
1
4
12
1
8
13
1
-2
14
1
-4
15
1
-8

Phase A
Phase B Phase C
Load (kW) Load (kW) Load (kW)
Impact Evaluated
341.6
170.8
170.8
683.2
170.8
170.8 Transformer Connection
341.6
170.8
170.8
341.6
170.8
170.8
Line length for positive
341.6
170.8
170.8
imbalance loading factor
341.6
170.8
170.8
-341.6
170.8
170.8
Line length for negative
-341.6
170.8
170.8
imbalance loading factor
-341.6
170.8
170.8
341.6
170.8
170.8 Load imbalance severity
683.2
170.8
170.8 for positive imbalance
1,366.4
170.8
170.8 loading factor
-341.6
170.8
170.8 Load imbalance severity
-683.2
170.8
170.8 for negative imbalance
-1,366.4
170.8
170.8 loading factor
46

Transformer Connection

47

Line Length
Positive imbalance factor

Negative imbalance factor

48

Load Imbalance Severity


Positive imbalance factor

Negative imbalance factor

49

Cases Secondary Network


1. No PV
2. With PV no mitigations
3. With PV System meets IEEE Std. 1547 (tripping if phase voltage
deviates from permitted range)
4. With PV System meets IEEE Std. 1547 (controlled dump loads to
consume excessive power from PV)
Load1
Z1

PV1

V1
Load2

Z2

PV2

V2
Load3

Z3

V3

PV3
50

Secondary Network
1. No PV

51

Cases Secondary Network


2. With PV no mitigations

52

Cases Secondary Network


3. With PV System meets IEEE Std. 1547 (tripping if phase voltage
deviates from permitted range)

53

Cases Secondary Network


4. With PV System meets IEEE Std. 1547 (controlled dump loads to
consume excessive power from PV)

54

Project No. T114700-5097


Solar Power Variability Impacts on the
Distribution System

55

Solar Power Variability Impacts

Project Summary
Objectives: Provide a technically sound method of aggregating
PV impacts on distribution feeder voltage control. Develop
quantitative measures of the voltage control impacts from a
variable DG source
Builds on the UWIG DG Evaluation Toolbox
Completed Tasks
Literature Search
Flicker Meter Implementation in OpenDSS
Feeder Model Reduction CYME OpenDSS
Tasks to Do
New Screener and PV Profile Aggregation Using Wavelets
on Web Server

56

Source: LBLN-2855E

Literature Search
Little Available on Solar Variability
Background from Wind Variability

Existing Solar Results


Focus on Ramp Rates for Transmission
Variability Can be Comparable to Wind
Small Separation More Correlation
Small Time Windows Less Correlation

Selected Laves Wavelet Method for Use


on Distribution Systems

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60

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Conclusion
No grid today is ready for 100% penetration of PV
Significant impact of the conductor type on coupling effects during
imbalanced phase loading
Imbalance can be much greater than expected both from coupling
impacts and changes in actual load at the location of the installation
Use of three-phase voltage regulators that do not allow for
controlling the voltage on each phase individually, and three-phase
tap changers will be an issue in installation of distributed generation
Tap changers and other voltage regulating equipment will need more
frequent maintenance
65

Conclusion
Voltage rises are not uniform and in many cases the voltage at the
substation maybe well within limits while at other locations along the
feeder, voltage limits may be violated during PV peak production.
Power quality issues start at low penetration levels and are greatly
influenced by the quality and size of the inverters used to tie the
system to the grid
With tight clustering and a poorly designed (from an acceptance of
distributed generation point of view) circuit can see impacts at less
than 1 percent penetration.

66

Recommendations

Suggestions for amendments to current interconnection standards:


Randomization for the wait period for restart of a unit when it has
been disconnected
Sensing significant voltage drop that would indicate that the area has
been disconnected from the main grid
Allowing for remote disconnect and connect
Allowing operating parameters to be programmed into the unit
Providing a direct DC tap off the unit to power local DC based
equipment
Setting up inverters to create VARs on demand
Limiting the size of inverters
Providing telemetry capability for the unit
Providing diagnostics of the units health
67

Mitigation Options
Options for mitigation in todays regulatory and standards
environment can provide the ability to safety increased the level of
distributed generation installed:
Disconnect the DG and pay the owner for the lost potential
generation
Placement of voltage regulators
Use of phase balancing equipment

68

Potential Future Phases


Future phases of this project will:
1. extend simulation runs described in the current report to include
more realistic PV scenarios, which would:

account for high-resolution temporal variation and spatial variation of PV,


use large variety of measured load curves rather than few aggregated
averaged ones,
estimate additional distribution equipment maintenance requirements
due to high PV penetration,
investigate harmonics and other PQ problems due to increased power
electronics deployment,
look at the detailed impacts of PV on equipment installed in the grid, and
investigate detailed needs for new equipment to be installed to support
grid operations.
69

Potential Future Phases


Future phases of this project will:
2. study small wind as renewable energy source on distribution
grid,

completion of the modeling both circuit and substation


review of literature on small wind
look at the impacts of small wind installations on the model circuit
provide a report focused on small wind that covers the following

3. combine the PV and small wind models for various scenarios of


Distributed Energy Resources (DER) penetration, and
4. extend DER scenarios to include storage and electric vehicle
models

Review of the impacts of storage on the distribution grid and substations


Matrix of storage uses and characteristics of storage for each use
70

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