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Transient Stability Analysis

with PowerWorld Simulator


T12: Wind Turbine Modeling

2001 South First Street


Champaign, Illinois 61820
+1 (217) 384.6330

support@powerworld.com
http://www.powerworld.com

Need for Wind Turbine Models


Over the last decade
wind turbine capacity
has grown to the point
where they need to be
explicitly considered in
system-wide transient
stability studies

Growth in US Wind Capacity

http://www.awea.org/publications/reports/AWEA-Annual-Wind-Report-2009.pdf

T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Wind Turbine Modeling


A wind farm usually consists of many small turbines in a
collector system
Each turbines voltage is usually less than 1 kV (usually 600
V) with a step-up transformer (usually to 34.5 kV)
Usually, the wind farm is modeled in aggregate, but how
accurate such aggregate models are is an open question
PowerWorld Simulator provides support of each of the four
major types of wind turbine models used in transient
stability studies

Type 1: Induction generator with fixed rotor resistance


Type 2: Induction generators with variable rotor resistance
Type 3: Doubly-fed induction generators
Type 4: Full converter generators

New wind turbines are either Type 3 or Type 4


T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Wind Turbine Modeling:


Power Flow Solution
Wind turbines are represented as generators in
the power flow
Type 1 and 2 units operate at fixed real/reactive
power with the unit supplying real power and
consuming reactive power; usually there are
compensating capacitors
Type 3 and 4 are treated as regular PV buses

T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Wind Generator Models


Wind Turbines do not have an exciter, governor, or
stabilizer
However, modeling is very analogous

Wind Machine Model = Machine Model


Wind Electrical Model = Exciter
Wind Mechanical Model = Governor
Wind Pitch Control = Stabilizer
Wind Aerodynamic Model = Stabilizer

Simulator will show wind models listed as though they


are Exciters, Governors, and Stabilizers
Obviously you should not use a synchronous machine
exciter in combination with a wind machine model and wind
governor!
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Generic Wind Turbine Models


Type 1
Machine

Type 2

Type 3

Type 4

GE DYD

PSS/E DYR

GE DYD

PSS/E DYR

GE DYD

PSS/E DYR

GE DYD

PSS/E DYR

WT1G

WT1G1

WT2G

WT2G1

WT3G

WT3G1,
WT3G2

WT4G

WT4G1

WT2E

WT2E1

WT3E

WT3E1

WT4E

WT4E1

WT4T

Exciter
Governor

WT1T

WT12T1

WT1T

WT12T1

WT3T

WT3T1

Stabilizer

WT1P

W12A1

WT1P

WT12A1

WT3P

WT3P1

Old Type 1 models as induction machine


MOTOR1, GENIND
CIMTR1, CIMTR2, CIMTR3, CIMTR4

GE-specific Type 2 wind turbine model


GENWRI, EXWTG1, WNDTRB

GE-specific Type 3 wind turbine model


GEWTG, EXWTGE, WNDTGE
Detailed model for GE 1.5, 1.6 and 3.5 MW turbines
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Wind Turbine Voltage Control


Voltage control of wind turbines depends on the type
Type 1 squirrel cage induction machines- no direct
voltage control
Type 2- wound rotor induction machines with variable
external resistance, no direct voltage control, but
external resistance system usually modeled as an exciter
Type 3 and Type 4- have the ability to perform voltage
or reactive power control, similar to synchronous
machines. Common control modes are constant power
factor control, coordinated control across a wind farm to
maintain a constant interconnection point voltage, and
constant reactive power control
T12: Wind Turbine

Glover, Sarma, Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design


2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Wind Turbine Modeling


Types 1 and 2- Induction machine models, stator windings are
connected to the rest of the network, rotor currents are
induced by the relative motion between the rotating magnetic
field due to the stator currents and the rotor
Slip is the difference between the synchronous speed and the
rotor speed, defined using motor convention as
ns nr
S=
ns

Synchronous speed is ns an rotor speed is nr, per unit


Ra
+
Vt
T12: Wind Turbine

jXa

I
jXm

jX1
R1/S

Glover, Sarma, Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design


2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Equivalent
circuit for a
single cage
induction
machine

Type 1 Wind Model- WT1G Power


Speed Curve
Real Pow er
2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2

Values are
calculated
between
a Slip of -1 and 1

1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
Real Power

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-1.2
-1.4
-1.6
-1.8
-2
-2.2
-2.4
-2.6
-2.8
-0.95-0.9-0.85-0.8-0.75-0.7-0.65-0.6-0.55-0.5-0.45-0.4-0.35-0.3-0.25-0.2-0.15-0.1-0.05 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0.45 0.5 0.55 0.6 0.65 0.7 0.75 0.8 0.85 0.9 0.95 1
Slip
Real Pow er

Type 1 generators usually operate with a small negative slip since the
wind turbine causes the machine to spin slightly faster than
synchronous speed
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

Type 2 Wind Models


Type 2 models augment Type 1 by allowing for variable rotor
resistance control in the wound rotor induction generator
By using turbine speed and electrical power output as inputs to the
control system, the wind turbine can provide a more steady power
output during wind variation
Real Pow er

Real Pow er
0.9

1.6

0.8

1.4

0.7

1.2

0.6

external
resistance = 0.05

1
0.8
0.6

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.2

Real Power

Real Power

external resistance
= 0.99 pu

0.4

0.2
0
-0.2

0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2

-0.4

-0.3
-0.6

-0.4

-0.8

-0.5

-1

-0.6

-1.2

-0.7

-1.4

-0.8
-0.9

-1.6
-0.95
-0.9
-0.85
-0.8
-0.75
-0.7
-0.65
-0.6
-0.55
-0.5
-0.45
-0.4
-0.35
-0.3
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.0500.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.750.80.850.90.951
Slip

-0.95
-0.9
-0.85
-0.8
-0.75
-0.7
-0.65
-0.6
-0.55
-0.5
-0.45
-0.4
-0.35
-0.3
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.0500.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.40.450.50.550.60.650.70.750.80.850.90.951
Slip
Real Pow er

Real Pow er

T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

10

Type 3 Wind Models


Models Doubly-Fed Asynchronous Generators (DFAGs) or
Doubly-Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs)
In addition to the stator windings, rotor windings are connected
to the AC network through a converter
Allows separate control of both real and reactive power
Allows a much wider speed range
No electrical coupling with the turbine dynamics
The DFAG dynamics are well approximated as a voltage-source
converter (VSC)
Output from Eq
reactive power
control system

1
X eq

Iq
Ip

High/Low
Voltage
Management

Network

Isorc
jXeq

Type 3 DFAG Model, Voltage Source Converter (VSC)


T12: Wind Turbine

Glover, Sarma, Overbye, Power System Analysis and Design


2012 PowerWorld Corporation

11

Type 3 Wind Models


Physically, these models usually consist of a wound rotor
induction machine coupled with a voltage-source converter
AC excitation system
Electrical performance is dominated by the converter which
acts on a much faster time scale than transient stability level
dynamics
Machine model consists of a synthesized voltage behind a
reactance
Rotor dynamics are not important electrically

Modeling

Represents the generator by a machine model


Reactive power control by an exciter model
Mechanical control by a governor model
Blade pitch control by a stabilizer model

T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

12

Type 3 Wind Model Example


Generator 3 will be modeled using a GEWTG
machine, which models a 85 MW aggregation
of GE 1.5 MW DFIGs
Exciter model EXWTGE will be used to model
the reactive power control of the wind turbine
Governor model WNTDGE will be used to
model the inertia of the wind turbine and its
pitch control
Generators 1 and 2 remain unchanged
Open the case which has these settings,
wscc_9bus_Type3WTG.pwb
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

wscc_9bus_Type3WTG

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Type 3 Wind Model Example


90

Set up Plot Definitions as desired


Click Run transient Stability

85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50

1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0

Wind turbine MW
Mechanical input and
terminal output

45
40
35
30
25

Voltage recovery

20
15
10
5
0
0

Mech Input_Gen Bus1 #1

10

11

12

13

14

MW Terminal_Gen Bus1 #1

MW Terminal_Gen Bus 3 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus 2 #1

15

16

17

18

19

20

Mech Input_Gen Bus 3 #1


MW Terminal_Gen Bus 2 #1

2.5
2.4
2.3
2.2
2.1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Generator 3
EXWTGE states

1.9

V (pu)_Bus Bus1

V (pu)_Bus Bus 2

V (pu)_Bus Bus 3

1.8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 4

V (pu)_Bus Bus 7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 5

V (pu)_Bus Bus 8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 6

1.7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 9

1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0.9
0

T12: Wind Turbine

States of Exciter\EField_Gen Bus1 #1


States of Exciter\VR_Gen Bus1 #1

10

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

States of Exciter\Sensed Vt_Gen Bus1 #1


States of Exciter\VF_Gen Bus1 #1

wscc_9bus_Type3WTG

14

Type 3 Wind Model Example


During the fault the wind turbine terminal bus voltage will be quite
low. This will cause the turbines Low Voltage Power Logic (LVPL) to
reduce the real power current to zero.
This will cause the wind turbine pitch
control system to begin to pitch the blades
Pitch
to reduce the mechanical power into the
rotor. This pitch control occurs slowly.
3

2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2

1.8

0.158

1.6

0.156

1.4

0.154

1.2

0.152

0.15

0.8

0.148

0.6

0.146

0.4

0.144

0.2

0.142

0.14

0.138
0.136

Generator 1
Turbine Power

0.13
0.128
0.126
0.124
0.122
0.12
0

T12: Wind Turbine

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

States of Governor\Turbine Pow er, Gen '1' '1'

17

0.134
0.132

18

19

20

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

States of Governor\Pitch_Gen '3' '1'


States of Governor\Pitch Control_Gen '3' '1'
States of Governor\Pitch Compensation_Gen '3' '1'
States of Governor\Mech Speed_Gen '3' '1'

Once the fault is cleared, this current


is ramped back up, subject to a rate
limit.

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

wscc_9bus_Type3WTG

15

Example: Impact of a Complex Load


The way load dynamics are modeled often has a significant impact
on the results of transient stability studies
So far, we have mostly been looking at generator models, but many
load models are also available in Simulator
The default (global) models are specified on the Options, Power
System Model page as constant impedance loads
Used when no other model is specified
Discussed in the Transient Stability Basics section

Simulator makes it very easy to add complex load models


More detailed models are added by selecting Stability Case Info
from the ribbon, then Case Information, Load Characteristics Models.
Models can be specified for the entire case (system), or individual
areas, zones, owners, buses or loads.
To insert a load model, right-click and select Insert
to display the Load Characteristic Information dialog.
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

16

Complex Load Example


Add a CLOD model to the system
Go to the Load Characteristic page
in Model Explorer
Right-click and choose insert to
open the Load Characteristic
information dialog

In the dialog, click System in the


Element Type box to apply the
load model to all buses in the
system
Click Insert to select the model
type. Use CLOD (see [1]), which
models the load as a combination of
large and small induction motors,
constant power and discharge
lighting loads

Applies at the system level

Insert a CLOD model

[1] J.A. Diaz de Leon II, B. Kehrli, The Modeling Requirements for Short-Term Voltage Stability Studies, Power Systems
Conference and Exposition (PSCE), Atlanta, GA, October, 2006, pp. 582-588.

T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

17

Complex Load Example


The case with these settings is wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD
Run the simulation
Compare the plots obtained with and without the CLOD load
model
Plots after inserting system-level CLOD model
0.151
0.151
0.15
0.15
0.149
0.149
0.148
0.148
0.147
0.147
0.146
0.146
0.145
0.145
0.144
0.144
0.143
0.143
0.142
0.142
0.141
0.141
0.14
0.14
0.139

1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
0.8
0.75
0.7
0.65
0.6
0.55
0.5
0.45
0.4
0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0
0

T12: Wind Turbine

10

11

12

13

14

15

States of Governor\Turbine Pow er_Gen '1' '1'

16

17

18

19

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

20

V (pu)_Bus '1'

V (pu)_Bus '2'

V (pu)_Bus '3'

V (pu)_Bus '4'

V (pu)_Bus '5'

V (pu)_Bus '6'

V (pu)_Bus '7'

V (pu)_Bus '8'

V (pu)_Bus '9'

2012 PowerWorld Corporation


wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD

18

Complex Load Example


On the Simulation page, increase the time
for when the line is opened from 1.12
seconds to 1.155 seconds
Open the Events tab on the Results page
The Transient Contingency events are
there, but there are also under voltage
load trip events present

T12: Wind Turbine

1.1
1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

V (pu)_Bus Bus1

V (pu)_Bus Bus 4

V (pu)_Bus Bus 2

V (pu)_Bus Bus 5

V (pu)_Bus Bus 6

V (pu)_Bus Bus 7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 9

18

19

20

V (pu)_Bus Bus 3

2012 PowerWorld Corporation


wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD

19

Complex Load Example


In the PowerWorld CLOD model, under-voltage motor tripping may be
set by the following parameters
Vi = voltage at which trip will occur (default = 0.75 pu)
Ti (cycles) = length of time voltage needs to be below Vi before trip will occur

160

160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20

cleared at 1.155 seconds Generator


Pmech

Mechanical Power (MW)

Mechanical Power (MW)

In the example, under voltage trips occurred at bus 5 and bus 8 when
the fault clearing time was increased to 1.155
Verify that increasing the clearing time further to 1.2 causes additional
under-voltage trips of loads at buses 6, and an over-frequency trip of
Generator 2
cleared at 1.2 seconds

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Mech Input_Gen Bus 2 #1

T12: Wind Turbine

Mech Input_Gen Bus 3 #1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

Time (Seconds)

Time (Seconds)
Mech Input_Gen Bus1 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus 2 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus 3 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus1 #1

2012 PowerWorld Corporation


wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD

20

Complex Load Example


Plots when fault is cleared at 1.2
seconds

Large and Small Induction Motor Loads


experience under voltage trips at buses 5,6,
and 8 at about 2 seconds after the line opens

3
2.8

Generator
exciter states

2.6
2.4
2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2

Generator 2 opens due to over


frequency at 4.2 seconds after the line
recloses

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1.2

States of Exciter\EField_Gen Bus1 #1


States of Exciter\VR_Gen Bus1 #1

States of Exciter\Sensed Vt_Gen Bus1 #1


States of Exciter\VF_Gen Bus1 #1

1.1
1
0.9
0.8

Voltages

0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

T12: Wind Turbine

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

V (pu)_Bus Bus1

V (pu)_Bus Bus 2

V (pu)_Bus Bus 3

V (pu)_Bus Bus 4

V (pu)_Bus Bus 7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 5

V (pu)_Bus Bus 8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 6

19

20

V (pu)_Bus Bus 9

2012 PowerWorld Corporation


wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD

21

Complex Load Example


CLOD model under-voltage tripping can be turned off by setting its
parameter Vi to zero
Re-open the CLOD dialog, and set Vi to zero
Run the simulation, clearing
the fault at 1.2 seconds
Compare the plots
1.1

1.2

1.1
0.9

0.8

Set to zero to turn off


under-voltage tripping

0.9
0.8

0.6

0.7

0.5

0.6
0.5

0.4

0.4
0.3

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.1

0.1
0

0
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

V (pu)_Bus Bus1

V (pu)_Bus Bus 4

V (pu)_Bus Bus 2

V (pu)_Bus Bus 5

V (pu)_Bus Bus 3

V (pu)_Bus Bus 7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 9

V (pu)_Bus Bus 6

Voltages with undervoltage tripping turned


OFF
T12: Wind Turbine

19

20

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

V (pu)_Bus Bus1

V (pu)_Bus Bus 4

V (pu)_Bus Bus 2

V (pu)_Bus Bus 5

V (pu)_Bus Bus 3

V (pu)_Bus Bus 7

V (pu)_Bus Bus 8

V (pu)_Bus Bus 9

V (pu)_Bus Bus 6

Voltages with undervoltage tripping turned


ON (default)

19

160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
20 80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
-10

Mechanical Power (MW)

0.7

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Time (Seconds)

Mech Input_Gen Bus 2 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus1 #1

Mech Input_Gen Bus 3 #1

2012 PowerWorld Corporation


wscc_9bus_Type3WTG_CLOD

22

Type 4 Wind Models


Completely asynchronous by design, called a full converter
model
The wind turbines output is completely decoupled from the
network using an AC-DC-AC converter
This decoupling allows considerable freedom in selecting
what type of electric machine is used
Machine could be a conventional synchronous generator,
permanent magnet synchronous generator, or squirrel cage
induction machine
No electrical coupling with the turbine dynamics

Represented as a VSC, like Type 3, but with Ip and Iq as direct


control variables and without effective reactance
Modeled
Machine/Exciter combination WT4G1/WT4E1 (PSSE)
Machine/Exciter/Governor WT4G, WT4E, and WT4T (PSLF)
T12: Wind Turbine

2012 PowerWorld Corporation

23