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CO2:

Usually, most of the CO2 absorbants are with -OH eg: NaOH or KOH
Sources of CO2 are usually those with the -CO3 eg: CaCO3, H2CO3
a non-chemical source: gas cylinder
the gas is supplied through a bubbler.
to measure CO2 concentration: use probe with meter
Temperature:

method of controlling: use an electronic water-bath (a beaker of boiling water)-depends


on the experiment
use an electronic thermostat
heat screen*/ heat filter
*for uniform distribution of heat.

incubator
digital/mercury thermometer
for food tests, such as Benedict's test, the temp must be above 80'C.

Time:
Always mention:
- the method of timing (stopwatch/ wall clock)
-precise time
-mention the time according to the need
(Teacher's advice: Don't be vague when mentioning the time period; be sensible,
realistic and precise! )
Sample Size:

the larger the sample size, the more reliable the results.
When making concentrations, the minimum number you should make is 3. Ideally, the
number of conc you're going to make must be 5.
mass must be the same when comparing two samples.
Measuring:

use mm calipers
a ruler- calibrated to cm or mm
measuring cylinders
syringe, pipette
weighing scale/ electronic balance
digital/mercury thermometer
MEASURING PLANT LENGTH1. use ruler
2. use a thread (remind me to explain what this means if i didn't by the end of this post
please)
MOVEMENT AND TIME
1. measure distance moved at a certain time (or)

2. measure time taken for certain distance moved


VOLUME OF CAPILLARY TUBING:
1. mention the diameter
2. and the surface area
RATE OF TRANSPIRATION=
DIAMETER (of capillary tubing)/ DISTANCE MOVED(by the droplet) orLENGTH
Reliability:

never use the same sample when you are going to repeat the experiment
always reset- whenever resetting the exp. always refresh the specimen with the same
mass and volume you were using in the first exp.
repeat and take average/ plot a graph
Accuracy:

use the right apparatus


gas syringe for measuring volume of gas
look at "Measuring" for more information ^^

Plants:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

always use same species


same developmental age
keep in mind the size of leaves, size of roots, and the number of roots (and leaves).
ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS:
light intensity
temperature
humidity
CO2 and O2 concentrations
wind
water
mineral content
same mass of germinating seeds
shoots of same size/length
when the plant is placed in water, the stem must be cut slanted under water to prevent
any air-locking
use of bung or air-tight screw to prevent evaporation of water
in some questions, you'll see a screw: it's there for resetting the apparatus
accuracy factor: measure properly and cut using a thread
to control the surrounding temperature, plant experiments must be done in a
thermostatically controlled room
When using a suspension, always use either same mass or same volume
in a question on dry mass (and you're dealing with seeds): the water is removed
(evaporated) by placing seeds in an incubator or oven but never use bunsen flames-it
damages the seed!

when cutting the leaf in discs for comparing the rate of photosynthesis (or cutting
anything, such as a potato):
1. the size and cross-section must always be the same
2. always cut the curved edges out and cut out a flatter surface from the center
DNA:

if the question is on electrophoresis, the distance is always taken


for accuracy: always cut out the same size of DNA fragments
restriction enzymes are used to cut at any specific place

Light:

Keep three things in mind:


1. keeping light constant
2. varying it
3. excluding it
in any experiment, you can only test for one factor at a time.
Varying Light:

same wattage of bulb & varying distances


same distance and varying bulb wattage
different number of lamps at same distance
a dark room with light of fixed illumination
lamp at same distance and use light filter with different thicknesses.
Measuring Light Intensity:

light meter
light-dependent resistor
photometer
camera meter
photodiode

Methods of Eliminating Light:

card board box, black paper, dark room, black bag


place in a cupboard
Enzymes:

temperature, pH, and substrate concentration


When varying the concentration of the enzyme, then the substrate concentration must be
kept constant

temp control: use water bath


pH control: use buffer solution
Exp on Effect of Chemicals on Enzyme Action:

must think whether the chemical is an inhibitor


when dealing with beads of enzyme: always use the same number/ same mass of beads
KEY: Remember the 4 factors affecting enzyme activity plus the effect of inhibitor
Indicator:

used to show the presence of a substrate


it always shows a change in it's original color to mark the end point of a reaction
the color change of the indicator will always be mentioned in the question only if it isn't
mentioned in our syllabus
For any exp: note color change at a fixed time (or)
note the time taken for the color change to take place
when repeating the experiment, always replace/refresh the indicator with the same
volume and concentration that was used in the previous exp
(Two of the points that i ddint know how to title )

the specimen is always wrapped to exclude a certain environmental factor when an


absorbent, such as CO2, is added
wrapping is also done to prevent evaporation
Humans:

measurement of height, sex, heart rate, disease


Reliability factors:
1. age group
2. gender
3. body mass/size
4. genetics/race
5. state of health
6. time of the day the test is being conducted
7. any tolerance or addiction
8. use of any stimulant or depressant
9. metabolism
Metabolic activity decreases with age!!!
Population:

1.
2.
3.
4.

sigmoid curve: drawing, labelling, and the reasons behind every phase
What decreases population?
destruction of habitat
disease
food availability
migration and emigration

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

increase in predators
increase in parasite
lesser nesting places
hibernation
accumalation of toxic waste
for plants: -> increased grazing -> environmental factors: natural disasters, soil erosion
-> deforestation: causes soil erosion
IMPORTANT LIMITING FACTORS!!!!
Food Availability and Disease!!!

Wind:

use a fan
for varying wind: vary the fan speed or the distance from the specimen
Organism Growth:

source: corn syrup, glucose, protein, low grade NH3


never write nutrient broth
mention 2 examples at least
same amount or conc of nutrient broth to the two sets of specimen
the nutrient supply must be kept constant
mention flow rate through fermenter
For batch culture: note the amount of time the organism is left in the fermenter
keep in mind the O2 supply, temperature, pH
sterility of the fermenter is very important [so that no other organism grows and acts as
a competitor]
sterility is important in both batch and continous culture- in fact, every time you set up a
batch culture, sterility must be mainatained
Planning Questions:

decide what the experiment is on (like diffusion, osmosis, photosynthesis)


use the same apparatus; describe what you're going to vary and what must be kept
constant- decide which is the dependant and independant variable (eg light intensity?
CO2 conc? or gas produced?)
how will you vary (count bubbles? use gas syringe?)---always ask yourself: is it a
comparison
units--same volume, same mass, same concentration
What are the constants? How will you keep them constant?
give brief discription of the steps; if time is required, BE SPECIFIC.
inference: in some exps you need a control, but don't write anything which isn't required
otherwise
precautions (FREE MARK!!!)

Reliability:
> give time for caliberation
(Calibration time is adjusting time)
>Repeat 3 times to be certain that the results are consistent-do not change the parameter
>large sample size
Why repeat?

increases the certainty that the results are consistent


so that anomalous results can be removed
permit variance from mean
to take an average
Accuracy:

means measuring in a reliable manner. Eg


weighing scale
thermometer
verneir caliper
measuring cylindrer
gas syringe
use of a buffer solution to maintain pH
using sol of known conc (by serial dilution)
comparing colors of sol by a colorimeter
larger number of known conc
washing syringes and pipettes
mixing and stirring for uniformity to prevent settling of suspension
in microscopy: eye-piece graticule
to measure the surface area, the specimen is placed on a grid, where the full squares, half
or more than half are taken into consideration
FILTERING AND CENTRIFUGING: the suspension spins and the more dense sinks at
the bottom
Control:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

in an exp with living organisms, the control must be a dead organism


whatever factor is being used in the question is emitted from the control
For counting chromosomes and making them visible, the growing regions of the plant
are cut
cut surface of the specimen
chromosomes are counted by placing cut surface under a high power light
microscope(with high magnification)
How to make chromosomes visible?
> add dye/stain them
> Examples of dyes:
1. methylene blue

2. aceto-carmine
3. aceto-orcein