Sie sind auf Seite 1von 54

~~

CIE 7 0 87

~~

~~

9006345 0003038 703

COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ECLAIRAGE


INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ILLUMINATION
INTERNATIONALE

BELEUCHTUNGSKOMMISSION

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

THE MEASUREMENT OF ABSOLUTE


LUMINOUS INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS

PUBLICATION CIE Ni) 70 (1987)


CENTRAL BUREAU OF THE CIE
A-I033 VIENNA. P. O BOX 159

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

AUSTRIA

Not for Resale

~~

C I E 70 87 I9006145 0003019 6 4 T

This Technical Report has been prepared by CIE Technical Committee 2.2
Detectoorc (now within CIE Division 2) and has been approved by the Council o f
the Commission Internationale de 1'Eclairage for study and application. The
document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field
o f light and lighting described, and is intended to be used by the CIE
membership and other interested parties. i t should be noted, however, that the
status of this document is advisory and not mandatory. The latest CIE
proceedings or Journal should be consulted regarding possible subsequent
amendments.
Ce rapport technique a t prpar par le Comit Technique CIE 2.2, Dtecteurs
(maintenant partie de la Division 2 de la CIE), et a t approuv, par le
Consei 1 de 1a Commi ssi on Internationale de 1 ' Ecl ai rage, pour tude et
application. Le document traite des connaissances courantes et de l'exprience
dans l e domaine spcifique indiqu de la lumire et de l'clairage, et i l est
tabli pour l'usage des membres de la CIE et autres groupements intresss. Il
faut cependant noter que ce document est indicatif et non obligatoire. Pour
connai tre d 'ventuels amendements, consulter les plus rcents comptesrendus ou
le Journal de la CIE.
Dieser Technische Bericht ist vom CIE-Technischen Komitee 2.2 Detektoren (z.Z.
i n der CIE Division 2) ausgearbeitet und vom Rat der Commission Internationale
de 1'Eclairage gebilligt worden. Das Dokument berichtet ber den derzeitigen
Stand von Wissen und Erfahrung in dem behandelten Gebiet von Licht und
Beleuchtung; es ist zur Verwendung durch CIE- Mitglieder und durch andere
Interessierte bestimmt. Es sollte jedoch beachtet werden, da6 das Dokument
eine Empfehlung und keine Vorschrift ist. Die neue- sten CIE-Tagungsberichte
oder das neueste CIE-Journal sollten im Hinblick auf mgliche sptere
nderungen zu Rate gezogen werden.
Any mention o f organisations or products does not imply endorsement by
the CIE. Whilst every care has been taken in the compilation of any
lists, up to the time of going to press, these may not be comprehensive.
Toute mention d'organisme ou de produit n'implique pas une prfrence de
la CIE. Malgr le soin apport 4 la compilation de tous ?es documents
jusqu' l a mise sous presse, ce travail ne saurait tre exhaustif.
Die Erwhnung von Organisationen oder Erzeugnissen bedeutet keine
Billigung durch die CIE. Obgleich groe Sorgfalt bei der Erstellung von
Verzeichnissen b i s zum Zeitpunkt der Druck1 egung angewendet wurde, i st
es mglich, da diese nicht vollstndig sind.

CIE 1987

II

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CIE 70 8 7

9006145 0003020 3 b L

The f o l l o w i n g members o f Committee TC-2.2

took p a r t i n t h e p r e p a r t i o n o f

the technical report:


Les membres s u i v a n t du c o m i t TC-2.2 o n t p a r t i c i p s a l a p r e p a r a t i o n du
r a p p o r t technique:
Die folgenden M i t a r b e i t e r d e s Komitees TC-2.2
haben s i c h an der
Ausarbeitung d e s Technischen B e r i c h t e s b e t e i l i g t :
Chairman:

H e n g s t b e r g e r , F*

South Africa

Cogno, J A
Farmer, A J D

Argentina
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
France
Finland
Germany, Dem. Rep.
Germany, Fed. Rep.
Great B r i t a i n
Hungary
Italy
Japan
Netherlands
Norway
Poland
Romania
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
USA

Reiter, H*
Pactiels, R
Andreytchine, R
Budde, W
Krt i l , J
Nielsen, O*
Janest, A
Timonen, T
Riemann, M
Geutler, G
Betts, D B
Schanda, J*
Artom, M
Nanjo, M
Balder, J J
Hisdal, B
Lipowski, M
Musa, G
Corrons, A*
Ottoson, A

Blaser, P*
Zalewcki, E F
Ignatiev, V G

U S S R

Subcommittee on "Measurement o f luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s " :

Chairman:
Krochmann, J

Germany, Fed. Rep.

Rotter, F
Vandermeersch, M G
Bastie, J

Austria
Belgium
France

III
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

____

CIE 70 87

Moore,

9006345 0003021 2 T B

Great B r i t a i n
Germany, Fed. Rep.
Germany, Fed. Rep.
Hungary
Italy
Netherlands
Nether l a n d s

3 R

Rattunde, R
Frste, D
Dezsi, G
Gentile, C
d e Groot, J J
De Veer, S M
and members o f TC-2.2

marked

E o i t o r i a l Committee:

Chairman:

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Krochmann, J

Germany, Fed. Rep.

Vandermeersch M G
Moore, J R
Vermeulen, J
Hengstberger, F

Belgium
Great Britain
Netherlands
South Africa

Final editing:
Billmeyer, F

USA

I V

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CONTENTS

Page

......................................................

...................................................
1.1.1 Luminous i n t e n s i t y .....................................
1.1.2 I l l u m i n a n c e ............................................
1.1.3 Luminance ..............................................
Luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n body .........................

1.1 Q u a n t i t i e s

1.2

........................
...........................................

1
1
7
2

1 . 3 Luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e

1 . 4 I s o c a n d e l a diagram

1.5 Measuring f i e l d and m e a s u r i n g - f i e l d a n g l e i n luminance mea-

....................................................
Terms for measuring i n s t r u m e n t s ..............................
1.6.1 Photometer .............................................
surements

1.6

2
3

1.6.2 Goniophotometer

........................................

1.6.3 Photometer head

........................................

........................................
1 . 7 P h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e ( o f a lamp or l u m i n a i r e ) ..................
1.8 S t r a y l i g h t ..................................................
1 . 9 L i m i t i n g p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e ...............................
2 . PRINCIPLES OF LUMINOUS INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS ....................
2.1 P h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e law .....................................
2 . 2 Luminance i n t e g r a t i o n ........................................
3 . TYPES OF PHOTOMETER HEADS ........................................
1.6.4 Acceptance a r e a

.....................
Photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n ....................
3 . 2 . 1 C o n s t r u c t i o n ...........................................
3.2.1.1 Photometer head w i t h l e n s ......................

4
4

4
4

6
6

3 . 1 Photometer head f o r measuring i l l u m i n a n c e

3.2

V
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

7
7

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1 TERMINOLOGY

~~~

CIE 70 87

3.2.1.2

9006345 0003023 070

Photometer head w i t h p a r a l l e l o r i e n t e d o p t i c s

..

.....................
8
3.2.2
I n f l u e n c e o f inhomogeneous i l l u m i n a t i o n .............. 11
3.2.3
I n f l u e n c e o f t h e m e a s u r i n g - f i e l d angle ............... 12
4 . MEASURINC PLANES .................................................
13
4 . 1 A-Planes ....................................................
13
3.2.1.3

Photometer head w i t h tubes

....................................................
14
4.3 C-Planes ....................................................
14
4.4
C o n i c a l s u r f a c e s ............................................
16
4.5
Symbols f o r plane angles ....................................
16
4.6
R e l a t i o n s h i p s ...............................................
17
5 . GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH FACILITY FOR TURNING THE LIGHT SOURCE ....... 18
4.2

B-Planes

...................................................
5.2 A p p l i c a t i o n .................................................
5.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i p l e s .....................................
5.4 A u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r s .........................................
6 . GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH MOVING PHOTOMETER HEAD ......................
6.1 P r i n c i p l e ...................................................
6.2 A p p l i c a t i o n .................................................
6.3
C o n s t r u c t i o n P r i n c i p l e s .....................................
7 . GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH R O T A T I N G MIRROR .............................
7 . 1 P r i n c i p l e ...................................................
7.2 A p p l i c a t i o n .................................................
7.3 C o n s t r u c t i o n p r i n c i p l e s .....................................
8 . ANGLE MEASUREMENT ................................................
5.1

Principle

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

...............................................
8.2
Requirements ................................................
9 . PHOTOELECTRONICS AND DATA PROCESSING .............................
8.1

Possibilities

VI

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

18
18
18
19
21

21

21
21

24

24
25
25
26

26

27

27

CIE 7 0 8 7 M 7006345 0003024 T O 7 M

10

. GENERAL

MEASURING C O N D I T I O N S

.....................................28

10.3

.......................................
Ageing .....................................................
Burning p o s i t i o n ...........................................

10.4

Ambient temperature

10.5

V i b r a t i o n and shock

10.1
10.2

28

Operating c o n d i t i o n s

29
29

........................................
........................................

29
30

.......................................
30
10.7 E l e c t r i c a l measurements ....................................
30
30
10.7.1 Measurement u n c e r t a i n t y .............................
10.7.2 Power t y p e and o p e r a t i n g mode .......................
31
10.7.3 W i r i n g ..............................................
31
10.7.4 E x e c u t i o n o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l measurements ............ 31
10.7.5 Measuring c i r c u i t ...................................
31
10.8
B a l l a s t s ...................................................
32
10.9 Supply v o l t a g e .............................................
32
10.10 E x e c u t i o n o f t h e measurements ..............................
32
11. CORRECTION OF MEASUREMENT RESULTS ................................
33
12 . PRESENTATION OF RESULTS ..........................................
33
1 3 . MECHANICAL ADJUSTMENT ............................................
34
10.6

Stabilization period

13.1 Goniophotorneter w i t h f a c i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g t h e l i g h t source

13.2 Goniophotorneter with moving photometer head

. 34

.................

........................
1 4 . CALIBRATION ......................................................
14.1 Luminous i n t e n s i t y s t a n d a r d .................................
13.3 Goniophotometer w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

15

................................
.......................................

35
35

35
36

14.2 C a l i b r a t e d i l l u m i n a n c e meter

36

14.3 R e l a t i v e measurements

36

. ERROR

...........................
......................................

SOURCES AND MEASUREMENT ACCURACY

1 5 . 1 Mechanical arrangement

V II
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

36

36

~~

CIE 70 87 I9006345 0003025 9 4 3

15.2 Angle measurements and a n g u l a r s t e p size

....................

37

15.3 I n f l u e n c e o f r o t a t i n g mirror o r photometer head f o r luminance

.................................................
S t r a y l i g h t .................................................
R e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y ..............................
integration

15.4

15.5

.............................
Data p r o c e s s i n g .............................................
L i m i t i n g photometric d i s t a n c e ...............................
O p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s ........................................

37
38

39

15.6 I l l u m i n a n c e and luminance meter

39

15.7

39

15.8
15.9

.......................................
16 . CHARACTERIZATION OF GONIOPHOTOMETERS .............................
1 6 . 1 Mechanical arrangements .....................................
16.2 Angle e n c o d i n g ..............................................
16.3 Photometer head .............................................
16.4 P h o t o e l e c t r o n i c s and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g ........................
17. LITERATURE .......................................................
15.10 Photometric s t a n d a r d

VI11

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

39
39
40

40

40
41
41

41

42

~~~

CIE 70 87 II 9006345 0003026 B A T

SUIMARY

T h i s t e c h n i c a l report c o n t a i n s t h e t e r m i n o l o g y r e q u i r e d f o r measurements o f
luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s .
I t a l s o summarizes t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f l u minous i n t e n s i t y measurements and t h e requirements f o r t h e p h o t o m e t e r h e a d s
The c o o r d i n a t e systems u s e d f o r t h e meaemployed f o r such measurements.
surement and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s are d e s cribed.
The t y p e s o f g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s , p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a n g l e e n c o d i n g ,
c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p h o t o - e l e c t r o n i c system and t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e d a t a i n measurements of luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s are
d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l . O t h e r s u b j e c t s c o v e r e d a r e t h e power s u p p l y , t h e meas u r i n g c o n d i t i o n s a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n , c o r r e c t i o n and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l u m i n o u s i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n measurements.
The v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s c o n t a i n
s u f f i c i e n t d a t a on t h e r e q u i r e d c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s .
The r e p o r t is b a s e d mainly on t h e T e c h n i c a l R e p o r t o f C I E T e c h n i c a l Committee TC-2.2 on "Methods of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e performance o f r a d i o m e t e r s a n d
p h o t o m e t e r s [l] as w e l l a s on C I E p u b l i c a t i o n s 24 [ 2 ] , 2 7 [ 3 ] and 43 [ 4 ] .
The t e r m i n o l o g y is l a r g e l y b a s e d on t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L i g h t i n g V o c a b u l a r y

LA MESURE DES DISTRIBUTIONS D'INTENSITE LUMINEUSE ABSOLUE

Ce r a p p o r t t e c h n i q u e c o n t i e n t l a t e r m i n o l o g i e n c e s s a i r e pour l a mesure d e s
d i s t r i b u t i o n s d ' i n t e n s i t lumineuse.
11 rsume a u s s i les p r i n c i p e s d e mes u r e de l ' i n t e n s i t l u m i n e u s e et les q u a l i t s r e q u i s e s p o u r l a tete photoLes systmes de c o o r d o n n e s
m t r i q u e u t i l i s e p o u r d e telles mesures.
u t i l i s s pour l a mesure e t l a r e p r g s e n t a t i o n d e s d i s t r i b u t i o n s d ' i n t e n s i t
lumineuse s o n t d c r i t s .
Les types de g o n i o p h o t o m t r e , l e s p o s s i b i l i t s d e
r e p r a g e a n g u l a i r e , l e s c a r a c t r i s t i q u e s ch system l e c t r o n i q u e e t c e l l e s
d e l ' a c q u i s i t i o n e t du t r a i t e m e n t d e s donnes d a n s les measures d e d i s t r i
b u t i o n d e l ' i n t e n s i t l u m i n e u s e s o n t d c r i t e s e n d t a i l . Les a u t r e s s u j e t s
t r a i t s s o n t l ' a l i m e n t a t i o n l e c t r i q u e , les c o n d i t i o n s de mesures e t l e u r
e x c u t i o n , l a c o r r e c t i o n e t l a r e p r s e n t a t i o n des mesures d e d i s t r i b u t i o n
Les d i f f r e n t e s s e c t i o n s c o n t i e n e n t d e s donnes
d' i n t e n s i t lumineuse.
s u f f i s a n t e s sur les c a r a c t r i s t i q u e s r e q u i s e s pour les g o n i o p h o t o m t r e s .

Ce r a p p o r t s ' a p p u y e p r i n c i p a l e m e n t s u r l e r a p p o r t t e c h n i q u e du c o m i t techn i q u e 2.2 de l a C I E "Methods of c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f r a d i o meters and p h o t o m e t e r s " [i] a i n s i que s u r les p u b l i c a t i o n s CIE no 24 [Z],
27 [ 3 1 , e t 43 [4]. La t e r m i n o l o g i e est l a r g e m e n t emprunte au V o c a b u l a i r e
I n t e r n a t i o n a l de 1'E c l a i r a g e [ 51.

IX
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

PI

9006245 0003027 716 I

ZUCANENFASSUNG

D I E MESSUNG DER ABSOLUT EN L ICH T s T RK E VER TE IL UNG


D i e s e r Technische B e r i c h t enthalt zunchst d i e fr Lichtstarkemessungen
w i c h t i g e n egriffsbectimmungen.
Danach werden d i e P r i n z i p i e n der L i c h t strkemessung und 4ngaben ber d i e dementsprechend zu verwendenden Photometerkpfe zusammengestellt.
D i e f r d i e Messung und D a r s t e l l u n g d e r
L i c h t s t r k e v e r t e i l i J n g verwendeten Ebenensysteme werden angegeben.
esond i e M g l i c h k e i t e n der
ders werden d i e Arten von Goniophotometern,
Winkelerfassung,
Aussagen ber d i e P h o t o e l e k t r o n i k und d i e R e g i s t r i e r u n g
und Datenverarbeitung b e i der Messung der L i c h t s t r k e v e r t e i l u n g behandelt.
Auch Aussagen zur Spannungcversorgung,
ZU
den tkbedingungsn und z u r
Durchfhrung, K o r r e k t u r und D a r s t e l l u n g der L i c h t s tgrkemessungen werden
gemacht.
R e i den e i n z e l n e n K a p i t e l n werden ausreichende Angaben ber d i e
notwendige Kennzeichnung von Goniophotometern a u f g e f h r t .

Dieser e r i c h t s t t z t s i c h vor a l l e m a u f den Technischen B e r i c h t des CIE


Technischen Komi t e e s TC-2.2 "Me thocis o f c h a r a c t er i z i n g t h e p e r f ormance of
radiometers and photometers" [ 11 sowie auf d i e CIE-Publicationen No. 24
[21, Wo. 27 [ 3 ] , und No. 43 141. R e i den Begriffsbestimmungen s i n d d i e
ilngaben des I n t e r n a t i o n a l e n Wrterbuchs der L i c h t t e c h n i k [ 51 weitgehend
zugrunde gelegt.

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 8 7

900bL45 0003028 6 5 2

I. TERMINOLOGY

QUANTITIES r 5 l

1.1

1.1.1 LUMINOUS I N T E N S I T Y
The luminous i n t e n s i t y I (of a source i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n )
q u o t i e n t o f t h e luminous f l u x d@

l e a v i n g t h e source,

ment o f s o l i d angle c o n t a i n i n g t h e g i v e n d i r e c t i o n ,
angle Cn.

Symbol:

I,Iv

Unit

Candela (symbol:

1.1.2

propagated i n

is t h e
an ele-

by t h e element o f s o l i d

cd)

ILLUMINANCE

The i l l u m i n a n c e E a t a p o i n t of a s u r f a c e is t h e q u o t i e n t o f t h e
luminous f l u x d$ i n c i d e n t on an element o f t h e s u r f a c e dA c a n t a i n i n g t h e
p o i n t , by t h e area o f t h a t element.

Symbol:
Unit :

1.1.3

E,,
Lux (symbol:

1x1

LUMINANCE

The luminance L ( i n a g i v e n d i r e c t i o n , a t a p o i n t on t h e s u r f a c e of
a source or a receptor, or a t a p o i n t i n t h e path of a beam) is t h e quot i e n t o f t h e luminous f l u x ,

d*@; l e a v i n g , a r r i v i n g a t , or passing through

an element of s u r f a c e dA a t this p o i n t and propagated i n d i r e c t i o n s d e f i n e d


by an elementary cone d;l c o n t a i n i n g t h e g i v e n d i r e c t i o n , by t h e product of
t h e s o l i d angle of t h e cone and t h e area o f t h e o r t h o g o n a l p r o j e c t i o n of
t h e element o f s u r f a c e on a plane p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e g i v e n d i r e c t i o n .

L =
$2

the

Angle between
considered

Symbol:

L,L,
Candela per s q u a r e meter (symbol: cd*rn-2)

normal

COSE

Unit

the

d2 Q
dA

to

area

1
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

and

the

direction

1.2

SURFACE OF LUMINOUS INTENSITY D I S T R I B U T I O N


The surface o f

luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n is t h e surface formed

by t h e extremities o f a l l t h e r a d i u s v e c t o r s drawn from a common o r i g i n ,

t h e l e n g t h o f each r a d i u s v e c t o r b e i n g p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y of t h e s o u r c e i n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i r e c t i o n .

1.3

LUMINOUS INTENSITY D I S T R I B U T I O N CURVE

The IiJminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e ( f o r a lamp or l i g h t f i t t i n g ) i s t h e c u r v e , g e n e r a l l y p o l a r , which r e p r e s e n t s t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y i n a p l a n e p a s s i n g t h r o u g h t h e s o u r c e , as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e a n g l e measured from soine g i v e n d i r e c t i o n .

Note :
a ) When t h e
p l a n e is
b) When t h e
downward

1.4

s o u r c e h a s a symmetrical luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e
g e n e r a l l y a meridian plane.
r e f e r e n c e d i r e c t i o n is v e r t i c a l , a n g l e s a r e measured f r o m t h e

vertical.

ISOCANDELA DIAGRAM

The i s o c a n d e l a diagram is t h e a r r a y o f i s o c a n d e l a c u r v e s . These are


curves t r a c e d on an imaginary s p h e r e w i t h t h e s o u r c e a t its c e n t r e and
j o i n i n g a l l t h e p o i n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h o s e d i r e c t i o n s i n which t h e l u m i nous i n t e n s i t y is t h e same, or a plane p r o j e c t i o n o f t h i s curve.

MEASURING F I E L D AND MEASURING-FIELD ANGLE I N LUMINANCE MEASUREMENTS[ 61

1.5

The measuring f i e l d of a luminance meter is t h e t o t a l i t y of a l l p o i n t s


i n t h e external s p a c e t h a t r a d i a t e i n t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e area and a r e s e n s e d
by t h e d e t e c t o r and e v a l u a t e d by i t w i t h a d i r e c t i o n - d e p e n d e n t r e s p o n s i v i t y
o f a t l e a s t 10% of t h e maximum r e s p o n s i v i t y .
Note:
The measuring f i e l d is u s u a l l y c i r c u l a r .

a r e a l s o p o s s i h l e , however ( e . g . ,

O t h e r f i x e d or v a r i a b l e s h a p e s
trapezoidal, rectangular, quadratic)

The m e e s u r i n g - f i e l d e n g l e tr is t h e a n g l e under which t h e measuring f i e l d


a p p e a r s when viewed from t h e measuring p l a n e .

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

TERMS FOR MEASURING INSTRUMENTS

1.6

1.6.1

PHOTOMETER
A photometer i s an i n s t r u m e n t f o r t h e measurement o f p h o t o m e t r i c

quantities.

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Note:
P h o t o m e t r i c q u a n t i t i e s are q u a n t i t i e s t h a t c a n be d e r i v e d from
r a d i o m e t r i c q u a n t i t i e s by means o f c e r t a i n c o n v e n t i o n s ( l a w o f
a d d i t i v i t y , V ( X ) f u n c t i o n , d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e u n i t o f luminous i n t e n s i t y )

Dl
1.6.2

GONIOPHOTOMETER
A goniophotometer is a p h o t o m e t e r for t h e measurement o f t h e a n g u l a r

dependence o f a p h o t o m e t r i c q u a n t i t y .
Note:
A goniophotometer f o r t h e measurement of t h e s p a t i a l luminous i n t e n s i t y

distribution
photometer.

is

also

called

luminous

intensity

distribution

A goniophotometer f o r t h e measurement o f t h e s p a t i a l luminous i n t e n s i t y


d i s t r i b u t i o n u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e f o r t h e s u p p o r t and
p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e photometer head and one ( o r more) o f t e n moveable - photometer h e a d s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e necessary t r a n s d u c e r s
and r e a d o u t s as well as d e v i c e s f o r a c q u i r i n g and p r o c e s s i n g d a t a .

1.6.3

PHOTOMETER HEAD

A photometer head c o n s i s t s o f a l i g h t - s e n s i t i v e d e t e c t o r and f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s p e c t r a l e v a l u a t i o n (e.g., c o l o u r f i l t e r s ) or f o r t h e s p e c t r a l


dispersion (e.g., gratings) o f the light.
I t may a l s o c o n t a i n f a c i l i t i e s
f o r t h e d i r e c t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l i g h t , e . g . , d i f f u s i n g windows, l e n ses, apertures.
The l i g h t - s e n s i t i v e d e t e c t o r c o n v e r t s t h e i n c i d e n t l i g h t
i n t o an e l e c t r i c a l q u a n t i t y .
1.6.4

ACCEPTANCE AREA

T h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a i s t h e area o f t h e photometer head which is rec e i v i n g and d i r e c t i o n a l l y e v a l u a t i n g t h e i n c i d e n t l i g h t .

3
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

-~

CIE 70 8 7 I7006345 0003033 147

PHOTOMETRIC CENTRE (OF A LAMP OR L U M I N A I R E )

1.7

The p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e o f a lamp o r l u m i n a i r e is t h e r e f e r e n c e p o i n t

from which t h e p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e law is a p p l i c a b l e ( s e e section 2 . 1 ) .


F o r lamps t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e c e n t r e o f g r a v i t y o f
t h e light-emitting area.
F o r lamps w i t h r e f l e c t o r s t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e
i s s i t u a t e d a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e exit aperture.
F o r l u m i n a i r e s data a b o u t
t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e a r e c c n t a i n e d i n t h e T e c h n i c a l Report "Photometry of
Luminaires" [ 81.
Yote:
t h e measurement o f t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e photometric c e n t r e o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e s h o u l d l i e on t h e c r o s s p o i n t of t h e
a x e s o f th e goniophotometer.

For

1.8

STRAY L I GHT
-

S t r a y l i g h t is t h e p a r t o f t h e luminous f l u x i n c i d e n t on and e v a l u a t e d
by t h e photometer head t h a t does n o t r e a c h t h e measuring a r e a of t h e photom e t e r head i n a d i r e c t l i n e froin t h e l i g h t s o u r c e .
1.9

L L M I T I N G PHOTOMETRIC D I-S-T A N C E

The l i m i t i n g p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e is t h e a l l o w e d minimum d i s t a n c e between Light source and photometer head, For which t h e measuring e r r o r i s
smaller t h a n t h e p e r m i t t e d e r r o r .

2. PRINCIPLES OF LWINOUS INTENSITY MEASUREMENTS

Luminous i n t e n s i t i e s can be measured v i a a measurement of the i l l u m i n a n c e and c a l c u l a t i o n v i a t h e p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e law, or by i n t e g r a t i o n


of t h e luminance.
Both p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o l l o w from t h e b a s i c law of
photometry.

--PHOTOMETRIC

2.1

DISTANCE LAW

The p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e lavJ allows one t o d e t e r m i n e t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y according t o

I
I
E

r
E2

QO

r2 / ( c o s 2

80)

(4)

Luminous i n t e n s i t y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e s
I l l u m i n a n c e on t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a
D i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and a c c e p t a n c e a r e a
Angle o f i n c i d e n c e , measured r e l a t i v e t o t h e normal t o t h e acceptance a r e a
Isr (unit s o l i d angle)

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 7 0 87

OObLLt5 0003032 O 3

T h e q u a n t i t y 80 i s u s e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e f o u r t h e d i t i o n of t h e C I E
vocabulary ( i n p r e p a r a t i o n ) , which p e r m i t s its o p t i o n a l u s e .
There i s no
complete agreement on t h e need t o use 8 0 , which may e q u a l l y well be o m i t t e d
or r e p l a c e d by t h e number 1.

The Equation (4) only a p p l i e s f o r d i s t a n c e s r t h a t exceed t h e l i m i t i n g


photometric d i s t a n c e .
measuring e r r o r depends on:

t h e l a r g e s t dimension of t h e l i g h t s o u r c e
t h e s p a t i a l and d i r e c t i o n a l luminance d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e
t h e s p a t i a l and d i r e c t i o n a l r e s p o n s i v i t y of t h e a c c e p t a n c e area of the
photometer head.

Yote 1:
F o r a c i r c u l a r e m i t t i n g a r e a w i t h c o n s t a n t luminance ( l a m b e r t i a n r a d i a t o r ) and a c i r c u l a r r e c e i v i n g a r e a t h e l i m i t i n g p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e r
is t a k e n a s 10 times (5 times) t h e d i a m e t e r o f ' t h e l a r g e r o f t h e two
a r e a s . I n t h i s case t h e e r r o r o f I i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e a x i s o f t h e
d i s k i n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e law is
less than 0,5 X (1 X).

Note 2:
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

For narrow luminous

intensity distributions the limiting photometric


d i s t a n c e is g r e a t e r t h a n f o r a Lambertian r a d i a t o r [ 9,101.

Note 3:
When c a l c u l a t i n g t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n (4) it
s h o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d , i f n e c e s s a r y by means of measurements a t
d i f f e r e n t d i s t a n c e s , whether t h e l i m i t i n g p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e is
exceeded.
For goniophotometers w i t h s t a t i o n a r y photometer heads f o r
which t h e measuring d i s t a n c e i s smaller t h a n t h e l i m i t i n g p h o t o m e t r i c
d i s t a n c e , t h e measuring d i s t a n c e can b e extended by t h e u s e of a
s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e d e f l e c t i n g mirror.
The p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e l i g h t by
t h e d e f l e c t i n g m i r r o r a s well as t h e s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e of t h e
d e f l e c t i n g m i r r o r must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t .
Note 4:
When t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y i s d e r i v e d a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n (4) i t is
i m p o r t a n t t o l i m i t t h e i n c i d e n c e of s t r a y l i g h t on t h e photometer head
by means o f b a f f l e s between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e photometer head.

5
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

411 p a r t s o f t h e background o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e t h a t a r e v i s i b l e f r o m
t h e measuring a r e a of t h e photometer h e a d s h o u l d b e a s black a s p o s s i b l e
(113. 4s large a d i s t a n c e a s p o s s i b l e s h o u l d be k e p t between t h e l i g h t
s o u r c e and t h e background ( F i g . I.).

BAFFLES
/
/
\

BLACK

LIGHT
SOURCE
Fig. 1

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BACKGROUND

Reduction o f s t r a y l i g h t i n luminous i n t e n s i t y measurements

LUMINANCE I N T E G R A T I O N

2.2

Luminous i n t e n s i t y c a n be determined by means o f luminance i n t e g r a -

tion :
cos 1

Al
dA l
Lk1)
1

(5)

emitting area
element o f t h e e m i t t i n g a r e a
luminance o f t h e a r e a element dA, i n t h e d i r e c t i o n i n which
t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y i s t o be determined
e m i t t i n g a n g l e o f t h e a r e a element dA, between its a r e a normal
and t h e d i r e c t i o n f o r which t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y i s t o be
determined.

3, TYPES OF PHOTOMETER HEADS


Depending on t h e t h e o r e t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p used f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f
t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y ( e q u a t i o n ( 4 ) o r ( 5 ) ) , t h e r e a r e two t y p e s o f photometer h e a d s i n use in goniophotometers.

3.1

PHOTOMETER HEAD FOR MEASURING

ILLUMINANCE

For t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n
( 4 ) a photometer head f o r t h e measurement o f illuminance m u s t be employed.
Such a photometer head m u s t comply with t h e f o l l o w i n g r e q u i r e m e n t s [ 1,6] :
6

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

good f i t of t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y t o t h e V h ) f u n c t i o n
(error fi 1
linearity (error f 3 )
l o w f a t i g u e ( e r r o r f5 1
independence from t h e ambient t e m p e r a t u r e ( t e m p e r a t u r e c o e f f i c i e n t a )
a s small a s o l i d a n g l e a s p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a of t h e photometer head a s seen froin t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e .

The terminology f o r t h e errors f i t o f 5 and a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of i l l u m i n a n c e


meters have been compiled by t h e C I E [ 6 ]

PHOTOMETER HEAD FOR LUMINANCE INTEGRATION

3.2
3.2.1

CDNSTRUCTION
Photometer head w i t h lens [U]

3.2.1.1
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n by means o f a l e n s


c o n s i s t s o f a l e n s w i t h a d i a m e t e r l a r g e r t h a n t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and a det e c t o r ( i n c l u d i n g f i l t e r f o r V ( h ) c o r r e c t i o n ) t h a t is p o s i t i o n e d behind a
diaphragm a t t h e f o c a l p o i n t o f t h e l e n s ( a l s o c a l l e d t h e f i e l d s t o p )
( F i g . 2 ) . The measuring f i e l d a n g l e a of such a photometer head is
a

= 2

f o c a l l e n g t h of l e n s
d i a m e t e r of m e a s u r i n g - f i e l d

UGHT
%URCE

arc tan (a/f)

(61

stop

~ - - - ----- - - - --

ACCEPTANCE AREA
OR APERTURE
(DIAMETER a )

-,--,

F i g . 2:

r L

Photometer head w i t h lens f o r luminous i n t e n s i t y measurements by


means o f luminance i n t e g r a t i o n

The l a r g e s t diameter D o f a l i g h t s o u r c e t h a t can be measured w i t h a photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n by means o f a l e n s is given by


D
D

d
r

a/f

l a r g e s t p e r m i s s i b l e e x t e n t of t h e l i g h t source
diameter of t h e l e n s
distance between l e n s and l i g h t s o u r c e

7
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

(71

CIE 70 8 7

9006345 0003035 8 9 2 I

can be made a t an a r b i t r a r y d i s t a n c e r between l i g h t


s o u r c e and l e n s as long as t h e c o n d i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o e q u a t i o n ( 7 ) and
conditions regarding t h e limiting photometric distance ( l i m i t i n g t h e r a t i o
?/r t o a maximum v a l u e ) are s a t i s f i e d (see a l s o 3 . 2 . 3 ) .
The neasurements

Photometer head w i t h p a r a l l e l o r i e n t e d o p t i c s

3.2.1.2

I n s t e a d o f a s i n g l e l e n s i t is a l s o p o s s i b l e to use s e v e r a l lens e s t h a t are p o s i t i o n e d immediately n e x t t o each o t h e r .


By means of s u c h
EI^ arrangement i t is p o s s i b l e t o measure l i g h t s o u r c e s with l a r g e r e m i t t i n g
areas.

A photometer head w i t h p a r a l l e l o r i e n t e d lenses can a l s o be c o n s t r u c t e d


i n such a way t h a t t h e lenses are merely p o s i t i o n e d next t o each o t h e r
i n a s i n g i e l i n e . T h i s row of l e n s e s can be moved or t i l t e d i n a p l a n e

iiormal t o t h e measuring d i r e c t i o n , and t h e luminance i n t e g r a t i o n (summat i o n ) p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e row of lenses must be performed n u m e r i c a l l y

3.2.1.3

Photometer head w i t h t u b e s [14,151

A photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n can also be c o n s t r u c t e d by means of p a r a l l e l t u b e s followed by a l i g h t c o l l e c t i n g d e v i c e and a


p h o t o - e l e c t r i c d e t e c t o r (with V ( h ) response).
Figure 3 shows such an arrangement, i n which t h e l i g h t - c o l l e c t i n g d e v i c e is r e a l i z e d by means of a
s p h e r i c a l d e v i c e l o c a t e d behind t h e t u b e s and w i t h an e f f e c t similar t o an
i n t e g r a t i n g s p h e r e . The d e t e c t o r can be l o c a t e d a t t h e s i d e of t h e s p h e r i A s p a t i a l l y c o n s t a n t e v a l u a t i o n of the luminance can be
c a l device.
a c h i e v e d by means of a p e r t u r e s i n f r o n t o f t h e d e t e c t o r .

Il

II I

lili I I Il!
I
I

PHOTOMULTIPUER
CAP OFTHE SPHERE
Jig. 3 :

Photometer head w i t h t u b e s f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n


8

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

[131.

CIE 7 0 87

900b145 O003036 7 2 9 I

The r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y o f such a photometer head is d e t e r m i n e d


d e c i s i v e l y by t h e s p e c t r a l r e f l e c t a n c e o f t h e i n t e r i o r p a i n t of t h e spherical c o l l e c t i n g device.
P o l l u t i o n o f t h e p a i n t - even if i t is
n o n - s e l e c t i v e - c a n l e a d t o a change i n t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y
and i n the a b s o l u t e r e s p o n s i v i t y o f t h e d e v i c e a s a whole.
Note:
A test o f t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y of t h e whole measuring head

is n o t p o s s i b l e i n p r a c t i c e .
Figure 4 shows a n o t h e r arrangement o f t h e photometer head with p a r a l l e l
o r i e n t e d t u b e s , f o r which a h i g h u n i f o r m i t y o f t h e s p a t i a l r e s p o n s i v i t y c a n
be a c h i e v e d and which h a s a s t a b l e and measurable s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y

[ 161
TUBES

'DETECTOR
F i g 4: Photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n
The d i s t a n c e between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a o f t h e photo-

meter head can i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t o f t h e measurement.

I n order completely t o c o v e r t h e e m i t t i n g a r e a o f a l i g h t s o u r c e , t h e
smallest d i s t a n c e rmin between the a c c e p t a n c e a r e a and t h e l i g h t source
s h o u l d comply with ( F i g . 5 )
min
where

R
d
f

d i s t a n c e between a d j a c e n t tubes i n tube p l a t e


tube diameter
thickness o f t u b e plate
9

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

HOUSING

CIE 7 0 157

9006345 0003037 665

For mechanical r e a s o n s , r,,-,in must a l s o exceed h a l f o f t h e l a r g e s t e x t e n t


c9) of t h e Light s o u r c e . Thus a c o n s e r v a t i v e l i m i t f o r t h e l a r g e s t diinens i o n (Dma,!
o f t h e l a r g e s t l i g h t source t h a t may be measured w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t would be set by r e q u i r i n g the sum of rmin and Dmax/2 t o e q u a l
t h e f i x e d r a d i u s o f r o t a t i o n ( r ) o f t h e goniophotometer. From t h i s condit i o n ilmax
can be s p e c i f i e d a s

Dmax

rinin
P

l a r g e s t extent o f t h e l a r g e s t permissible l i g h t source


according t o equation (8)
g i v e n r a d i u s o f r o t a t i o n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r goniophotometer

LIGHT EMITTING AREA

HORIZONTAL
PROJECTION
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

TUBE-PUE

VERTICAL
PR03ECTION

O
F i g . 5:

Dimensions f o r photometer head f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n w i t h


tube p l a t e

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 87 M 7006345 0003038 5 T L I

T h e minimum diameter 6 o f t h e acceptance area of t h e photometer head should

be

I t should be a s c e r t a i n e d whether t h e r e s u l t i s independent o f t h e d i s t a n c e


between l i g h t source and acceptance area.

3.2.2

INFLUENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS

ILLUMINATION [ 2,3,15]

A s p a t i a l l y inhomogeneous luminance o f t h e l i g h t source can cause measuring


e r r o r s , i f t h e r e s p o n s i v i t y o f t h e photometer head i s n o t u n i f o r m over t h e
acceptance area.

The measuring e r r o r w i l l depend on t h e luminance d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l i g h t


source, t h e s i z e o f t h e source and t h e magnitude and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f
responsivity differences

over t h e acceptance area.

I f a c a l i b r a t i o n i s performed, t h e measuring e r r o r w i l l depend on t h e r e l a tive p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e c a l i b r a t i o n source and t h e source t o be measured as


well as on t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e sources r e l a t i v e t o t h e acceptance area.

I f p o s s i b l e t h e c a l i b r a t i o n source and t h e source t o be measured s h o u l d be


p l a c e d i n t h e same p o s i t i o n .
t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f p o s s i b l e measuring e r r o r s t h e
r e s p o n s i v i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n over t h e acceptance area should be determined.

To p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r

This may be done by b r i n g i n g t h e photometer head t o a h o r i z o n t a l p o s i t i o n


with t h e normal t o t h e acceptance area p o i n t i n g upwards and moving a l i g h t
source i n a h o r i z o n t a l p l a n e a t a d i s t a n c e g r e a t e r than t h e m i n i m u m d i s tance rmin (see e q u a t i o n 8) i n such a way t h a t i t covers s u c c e s s i v e l y t h e
whole area above t h e photometer head.
T h e l i g h t source s h o u l d have an a p p r o x i m a t e l y constant luminous i n t e n s i t y
d i s t r i b u t i o n i n d i r e c t i o n s c l o s e t o t h e normal and i t s e m i t t i n g area s h o u l d
n o t exceed 1/10 o f t h e acceptance area or 10 cm2 (whichever i s s m a l l e r ) .
A

100 W f r o s t e d incandescent lamp may be used.


The readings o f t h e photometer f o r t h e v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s o f t h e lamp may be

used t o c a l c u l a t e t h e e r r o r f g by inhomegeneous i l l u m i n a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o
t h e intended use o f t h e photometer.

A worst-case e r r o r is o b t a i n e d i f f g i s determined as t h e l a r g e s t percentage d i f f e r e n c e between readings.

11
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 87

minimum r e a d i n g
maximum r e a d i n g

Yvax

If

9 0 0 b L 4 5 0003039 438 H

photometer is t o be used f o r t h e measurement o f compact l i g h t


sources, fg s h o u l d he determiiie a s t h e l s r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e of
,s:i t h e mean o f t h e r e a d i n g s t a k e n a l o n g t h e c i r c u m f e r e n c e of any c i r c l e
coritained w i t h i n t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a and c e n t r e d on t h e midpoint of' t h e
8 i - w and ( b ) t h e midpoint reading
the

d po i n t r e a d i n g

YO

nii

Au

a n g u l a r step size of r e a d i n g s i n d e g r e e s
maximum o f t h e mean r e a d i n g a l o n g a c i r c l e
minimum o f t h e mean r e a d i n g along a c i r c l e

(1 Y,),,,

!I

Y,),i,

I f t h e photometer i s t o be u s e d f o r t h e measurement o f Linear L i g h t


s o u r c e s , f g s h o u l d be determined a s the l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e o f
t h e mean r e a d i n g a l o n g any d i a m e t e r s o f t h e circles and t h e mean r e a d i n g
a l o n g t h e c i r c l e diameter parallel t o t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s o f t h e photometsr.

I f t h e p h o t o m e t e r i s to be used f o r b o t h compact and Linear l i g h t sources


t h e l a r g e r o f t h e above e r r o r s s h o u l d be s t a t e d .
Readings s h o u l d be taken a t t h e m a l l e s t p o s s i b l e i n c r e m e n t s i n circle diameters and a n g u l a r d i s t a n c e between d i a m e t e r s . in t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of fg
p e r c e n t a g e d i f f e r e n c e s f o r i n c r e m e n t s o f circle d i a m e t e r s o f 20 cm and inc r e m e n t s o f a n g u l a r d i s t a n c e of 5 o s h o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d .
3 +Z. 3

INFI-IJENCE OF THE MEASURING-FIELD ANGLE

When t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y is determined by an i l l u m i n a n c e measurem e n t t h e limiting photometric d i s t a n c e r d e t e r m i n e s a maximum v a l u e f o r t h e


r a t i o D/r (D b e i n g t h e l a r g e s t e x t e n t o f t h e l i g h t source). T h i s l i m i t i n g
r a t i o m i x t a l s o be taken i n t o a c c o u n t i f t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y is d e t e r m i n e d v i a a h m i n a n c e measiiretnent.
F o r a photometer head w i t h l e n s t h i s
means

-<

t4easuring-field

angle according t o equation ( 6 )

12

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 87

9006145 0003040 1 5 T I

For a photometer head w i t h t u b e s i t r e q u i r e s


2 D/r

d/f

d , f see F i g . 5

4. MEASURING PLANE [ 2,3,4,17]


I n g e n e r a l the luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f l i g h t sources ( l a m p s
o r l u m i n a i r e s ) i s measured i n a number o f p l a n e s . The number o f luminous
i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n c u r v e s and t h e s e l e c t i o n o f measuring p l a n e s depend
on t h e k i n d o f l i g h t source a n d i t s u s e as well a s OR t h e t y p e o f goniophotometer. From t h e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e measuring p l a n e s t h r e e s y s t e m s o f
p l a n e s have proven s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l .
A-PLANES ( S e e F i g . 6)

4.1

The t o t a l i t y o f A-planes is t h e group o f p l a n e s f o r which t h e l i n e of


i n t e r s e c t i o n goes through t h e photometric c e n t r e p a r a l l e l t o t h e emitting
area and p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e assumed a x i s o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e .

Note:
The system o f A-planes i s c o u p l e d r i g i d l y t o t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and f o l lows i t s t i l t i f t h e l i g h t source is t i l t e d .

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

LINE OF INTERSECTION

Fig. 6:

A-planes
73

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE i 0 87
B-PLBNEC

4.2

9006345 0003041 096

(See F i g . 71

The t o t a l i t y of B-planes is t h e group o f p l a n e s f o r which the l i n e o f


i n t e r s e c t i o n goes t h r o u g h t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e and is parallel t o t h e
assumed a x i s o f t h e l i g h t source and i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e l i n e o f
i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e A-planes.
Note :
The system of B-planes is coupled r i g i d l y t o t h e l i g h t source and f o l lows its t i l t i f t h e light source is t i l t e d .

LINE OF INTERSECTION AND


'AXIS OF LIGHT SOURCE

Fig. 7:
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.3

C-PLANES

6-planes

(See Fig. 8 )

The t o t a l i t y of C-planes is t h e group o f p l a n e s Por which t h e l i n e o f

i n t e r s e c t i o n is t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e through t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e .
Wote :
The system o f C-planes is g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d r i g i d l y i n space and does
n o t follow 8 t i l t i n t h e l i g h t s o u r c e .
The l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of Cp l a n e s is o n l y p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e l i n e s o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e A- and
8-planes f o r zero t i l t (6 = O) o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e .

I n some c a s e 5 t h e t o t a l i t y o f C-planes is also referred t o a s t h e group of


pLanes whose l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n is t h e l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of A o - and
Bo-planes ( s e e F i g . 9 ) . I n t h a t cace t h e system o f C-planes is a l s o r i g i d l y c o u p l e d t o the l i g h t source (as is t h e case f o r t h e A- and - p l a n e s ) .
14

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 87

900bL45 00030Y2 T22 I

AXIS

OF LIGHT

SOURCE

270

(PERPENDICULAR TO
MEASURING PLANES)

F i g . 8:

C-planes (6 t i l t a n g l e o f l u m i n a i r e )

LINE OF INTERSE:CTION
(OF A,- ANO Bo PL AN)

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

AXIS OF LIGHT SOURCE


F i g . 9:

C-planes w i t h r i g i d c o u p l i n g t o t h e l i g h t s o u r c e

i5

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE i 0 8 7
4.4

9006145 0003043 969 M

CONICAL SURFACE5 ( F i g . 1 0 )

For some goniophotometers it is c o n v e n i e n t t o m a s u r e t h e luminous i n t e n s t y d i s t r i b u t i o n curves a t c o n s t a n t p o l a r a n g l e s and t o d e s c r i b e t h e


r e s u l t s as c u r v e s on c o n i c a l s u r f a c e s . The a x i s o f t h e cone c o r r e s p o n d s t o
t h e l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e C-planes.

LIGHT SOURCE
LUMINOUS INTENSITY
DISTRIBUTION
J

/-

F i g . 10: Conical surfaces

4.5

SYMBOLS FOR PLANE ANGLES

The t i l t a n g l e s o f planes a r e d e s i g n a t e d by an i n d e x , The t i l t a n g l e s


of the A- and -planes a r e taken from -180 o t h r o u g h O o t o 180 O , t h o s e o f
t h e C-planes f r o m O o t o 360 o ( s e m i p l a n e s ) .
The opening a n g l e o f t h e
c o n i c a l surfaces is m?aSiJred r e l a t i v e to t h e l i n e o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e
C-planes.
The f o l l o w i n g symbols a r e iised ( f o r a n g l e symbols see F i g s . 6-10):

t h e a n g l e s i n t h e A-plane have t h e symbol a and a r a measured from t h e


line p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e l i n e of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e A- p l a n e s

t h e a n g l e s i n t h e B-planes

t h e a n g l e s i n t h e C-plane have t h e symbol y and a r e measured from t h e


line o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e C-planes i n t h e downward d i r e c t i o n

t h e a n g l e s on t h e c o n i c a l s u r f a c e s have t h e symbol C and a r e measured


f r o m t h e Co-plane.

The

have t h e symbol and are measured from the


line p e r p e n d i c u l a r t a t h e line of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e B-planes

t i l t a n g l e s o f t h e p l a n e s a r e added as i n d i c e s t o t h e r e l e v a n t p l a n e s .
Ib

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

-CI

CIE 70 87

4.6

~~~~~~

7 0 0 6 3 4 5 0003044 B T 5

RELATIONSHIPS

A c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n i n e a c h system o f p l a n e s is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t d o
angles:

an a n g l e i n one p l a n e or c o n i c a l s u r f a c e

and a n g l e f o r t h e t i l t o f t h e p l a n e o r c o n i c a l s u r f a c e .

T a b l e 1 shows t h e a n g l e symbols commonly u s e d i n t h e v a r i o u s systems o f


planes.

TABLE 1
Angle symbols
Angle i n t h e plane

T i l t angle o f plane

A-p 1a n e s

B-planes

C -p 1a n e s

Conical surfaces

System

The c o n v e r s i o n e q u a t i o n s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2 h o l d f o r t h e a n g l e s i n T a b l e 1.

TABLE 2
C o n v e r s i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r systems o f p l a n e s
Direction

T i l t a n g l e of p l a n e ]

A,a

C,Y
A,a

t a n A = tan /cos B
t a n C = s i n B/tg 3
t a n A = c o s C.tg Y

17
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

Angle i n t h e p l a n e

sin

= sin A

cos y

= cos A

sin a Is i n
c o s Y = COS
sin a = s i n
s i n i3 = c o s

B
C
C

. cos a
. cos a
. cos
. B
. sin Y
. sin y
COS

CIE 7 0 8 7

9006345 0003045 733

5. GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH FACILITY FOR TURNING THE LIGHT %URCE

[2,4,18]

PRINCIPLE

5.1

I n t h e s e goniophotorneters t h e l i g h t source is t u r n e d around a v e r t i c a l


a s well a s a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s .
T h e photometer head is f i x e d , Accurate results f o r t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h t h i s t y p e o f goniophotometer were o n l y o b t a i n e d f o r l i g h t s o u r c e s i n which t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y
d i s t r i b u t i o n is independent o f o r i e n t a t i o n and t e m p e r a t u r e .
Note 1 :

For measurements o f t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f l u o r e s c e n t


l a m p s and l u m i n a i r e s w i t h f l u o r e s c e n t lamps t h i s t y p e o f goniophotometer
c a n be used p r o v i d e d t h a t f o r p o s i t i o n s o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e d i f f e r i n g
froin t h e normal b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n t.he luminous i n t e n s i t y i n each d i r e c t i o n is h e l d c o n s t a n t by means o f an a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r or t h a t t h e ap2 r o p r i a t e c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r s are a p p l i e d ( s e e s e c t i o n 5 . 4 ) .
Yote 2:
The o p t i c a l d i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and photometer head c a n be inc r e a s e d by t h e u s e o f a d e f l e c t i o n mirror mounted at t h e f a r wall o f t h e
S e l e c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n and p o l a r i z a t i o n by t h e m i r r o r
measuring room,
m u s t be t a k e n i n t o account.

5.2

APPLICATION

Goniophotometers with a f a c i l i t y for t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t s o u r c e s h o u l d


o n l y be used t o measure i n c a n d e s c e n t lamps arid f l u o r e s c e n t lamps o r lumin a i r e s f i t t e d w i t h t h e s e lamps. These goniophotometers a r e t h e most advant a g e o u s t y p e r e g a r d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and p r i c e .
They a r e u s u a l l y used f o r
t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o t o m e t r i c
The use of an a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r ( s e c t i o n 5.4) is u s u a l l y
d i s t a n c e law.
required
.

5.3

CONSTRUCTION

PRINCIPLES

There are t h r e e t y p e s o f g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s with f a c i l i t i e s f o r t u r n i n g


t h e l i g h t source:
Type

Fixed h o r i z o n t a l axis and a moveable a x i s p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e


f i x e d h o r i z o n t a l a x i s ( F i g . i l ) [ i 9 ] . Measurements are made i n
t h e A- or B-planes, when the l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d around t h e
h o r i z o n t a l axis and t h e second a x i s is i n a f i x e d p o s i t i o n .
18

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

~~~

CIE 7 0 7 111 9006345 O003046 678 111

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

F i g . 11: Goniophotometer with f a c i l i t y f o r t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t source, t y p e


1.

Type 2

F i x e d v e r t i c a l a x i s , moveable h o r i z o n t a l a x i s ( F i g . 1 2 ) .
ments are made i n the A- o r B-planes.

Meacure-

.
o
PHOTOMETER

F i g . 12: Goniophotometer w i t h f a c i l i t y f o r t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , t y p e
2.

5.4

A U X I L I A R Y DETECTORS

[2,3]

L i g h t sources f o r which t h e ( a b s o l u t e ) luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n


changes with a change i n b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n b u t n o t t h e r e l a t i v e luminous
i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n (e.g.,
f l u o r e s c e n t lamps or l u m i n a i r e s w i t h
f l u o r e s c e n t l a m p s ) can be measured w i t h a goniophotometer i n which t h e
l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d i f t h e measurements a r e c o r r e c t e d by means of an
a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r . For p r e c i s i o n measurements t h i s method i s n o t recommended.
4n i l l u m i n a n c e meter w i t h a s e p a r a t e photometer head can be u s e d
as r e f e r e n c e d e t e c t o r . The a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r must be f i x e d t o t h e l i g h t
s o u r c e , s o t h a t it f o l l o w s its movements.
I t s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y be i l i u -

19

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

C I E 70 87
?yDe 3 :

9006345 O003047 504

F i x e d v e r t i c a l axis, m c v e a b l e h o r i z a r i t a l a x i s >:Fig. 13,,

MeasureType 3 is

:nentc a r e made in t h e C-planes sr c o n i c a l surFaces.


e q u i v a l r n t Is0 t y p e 2 if t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t d r n e d by ?U d e g r e e s .
A

ba

PHOTOMETER HEAD

-=O

Fig.

13: Goniophotometer w i t h f a c i l i t y f o r t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , t y p e
3.

ininated by a l l parts of t h e e m i t t i n g area and s h o u l d n o t mask t h e i l l u m i n a t i o n by t h e l i g h t s o u r c e on t h e photometer head used f o r measuring t h e l u minous i n t e n s i t y .
The o n l y s t r i n g e n t r e q u i r e m e n t s on t h e auxiliary d e t e c t o r a r e f o r small faThe r e s t o f the p a r a m e t e r s c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the
t i g u e and d r i f t parameters.
p r o p e r t i e s of i l l u m i n a n c e meters a r e o f l e s s importance.

For t h e measurement of t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n one has t o obt a i n t h e r e a d i n g on t h e a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r i n t h e norinal b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n


of t h e l i g h t s o u r c e . On t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t s o u r c e around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s
t h e r e a d i n g on t h e a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r can be m a i n t a i n e d a t a c o n s t a n t level
v i a a corresponding adjustment of t h e supply voltage.
A second p o s s i b i l i t y c o n s i s t s i n keeping t h e supply voltage of t h e l i g h t
s o u r c e c o n s t a n t and c o r r e c t i n g t h e measured luminous i n t e n s i t y i n each
d i r e c t i o n by means o f a c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r .

T
K

I,,,,

Luminous i n t e n s i t y of l i g h t source
Correction factor
i4easured ( i n a c c u r a t e ) l u m i n o u s i n t e n s i t y

The c o r r e c t i o n F a c t o r K f o l l o w s f r o m t h e measured r e a d i n g s on t h e a u x i l i a r y
d e t e c t o r as

20

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

Eo
Eo

Reading on t h e a u x i l i a r y d e t e c t o r f o r t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d burning p o s i t i o n ( a f t e r burn-in)


Reading on t h e a u x i l i a r y
d e t e c t o r f o r t h e l i g h t source i n t h e
p o s i t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e a n g l e 8 .

6. GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH MOVING PHOTOMETER HEAD [ 2,4,18]

PRINCIPLE

6.1

I n these g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d around a v e r t i c a l
a x i s and t h e photometer nead moves around t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i n a v e r t i c a l
plane
I n s t e a d of a moving photometer head one c a n a l s o use a number o f f i x e d phot o m e t e r heads t h a t are p o s i t i o n e d i n a v e r t i c a l p l a n e , c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o the
movement o f a photometer head. The p o s s i b i l i t y a l s o e x i s t s t o r e p l a c e t h e
p r o c e s s o f t u r n i n g t h e lamp by a n arrangement o f photometer heads i n a
number o f v e r t i c a l p l a n e s .
Note:
The u s e o f f i x e d photometer heads i n one o r more v e r t i c a l p l a n e s req u i r e s a number o f photometer h e a d s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e d e s i r e d a n g u l a r
s t e p s . A l l photometer h e a d s have t o be c a l i b r a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , which is
i n p r a c t i c e q u i t e a d i s a d v a n t a g e . I n t u r n i t is p o s s i b l e t o u s e a simp l e r mechanical c o n s t r u c t i o n and t h e measuring time is s i g n i f i c a n t l y reduced.
6.2

APPLICATION

S i n c e t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i s t u r n e d o n l y about t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s i n these
photometers and can t h e r e f o r e be measured i n i t s normal b u r n i n g , p o s i t i o n it
is p o s s i b l e t o measure a l l k i n d s o f lamps and l u m i n a i r e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e m .
The p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a n a c c u r a t e measurement is a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e
d i s t a n c e between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e photorneter head;
t h i s distance
depends o f c o u r s e on t h e photometer head used.
I f a photometer head f o r
i l l u m i n a n c e measurements is u s e d i t is g e n e r a l l y n e c e s s a r y t o use a room o f
r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t d e p t h and h e i g h t .
6.3

CONSTRUCTION PRINCIPLES

For goniophotometers w i t h a moving photorneter head t h e r e a r e b a s i c a l l y


three types

21
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~~~~

~~
~~

CIE 70 87
Tjpe 1:

9006345 0003049 387 I

The l i g h t s o u r c e is t t r r n e d at the p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e
h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l axes around a v e r t i c a l a x i s . The p h o t a meter head 1s t u r n e d around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s (Fig" 14). 4fternat i v e l y t h e photometer head can be moved on a c i r c l e i n t h e
v e r t i c a l p l a n e a r o u n d t h e l i g h t s o u r c e w i t h o u t any mechanical
coupling with the l i g h t s o u r c e ( F i g . 7 5 ) .

6..
PHOTOMETER HEAD

Fig. 14: Goniophotometer w i t h moving photometer head, t y p e 1.

The photo-

meter head is t u r n e d around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s .

LIGHT SOURCE
.-.-.-.-.-.--

I
l

/A

PHOTOME; ER HEAD

T i o . 15

Goniophotometer w i t h moving photometer h e a d , t y p e 1.

The photo-

meter head moves on a c i r c l e around t h e measuring o b j e c t w i t h o u t


d i r e c t mechanical c o u p l i n g .

22

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CIE 7 0 87

Type 2 :

OObL45 0003050 O T 7

L i g h t source and photometer head a r e at t h e o p p o s i t e ends o f a


beam, which is t u r n e d around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s through t h e
centre o f t h e beam f201. The photometer head is r i g i d l y f i x e d
t o t h e beam, w h i l e t h e h o r i z o n t a l s p i n d l e s u p p o r t i n g t h e l u m i n a i r e e n s u r e s t h a t t h e l u m i n a i r e hangs down l i k e a plumb bob
a s t h e beam r o t a t e s .
T h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d i n t h e pres c r i b e d b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n around a v e r t i c a l a x i s and t h e photometric c e n t r e of t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s i n a C-plane ( F i g . 1 6 ) .
I t must be mentioned t h a t
many t y p e s of lamps have a temperature-dependent l i g h t output.
T h e r e f o r e a i r v e l o c i t y because of lamp movement must be
k e p t low.
R o t a t i n g t h e lamps c a n a l s o g i v e r i s e t o changes
because of c e n t r i f u g a l movement o f , f o r instance, l i q u i d
metal.
The r e q u i r e d room d e p t h i s only h a l f t h a t of t y p e 1.
The use o f t h i s t y p e is o n l y meaningful i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a
photometer head f o r il1uminance.measurements.

Type 3 :

T h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d around a v e r t i c a l a x i s i n a f i x e d p o s i tion.
The p h o t o m e t e r head is moved along s t r a i g h t l i n e s i n Cp l a n e s ( h o r i z o n t a l l y and v e r t i c a l l y ) w i t h o u t mechanical c o u p l i n g
t o t h e l i g h t source ( F i g . 1 7 ) . The moving p h o t o m e t e r head c a n be
a l i g n e d w i t h its o p t i c a l a x i s on t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e of t h e
l i g h t source.
If t h e r e s p o n s i v i t y of the photometer head a s a
f u n c t i o n o f t h e a n g l e o f i n c i d e n c e i s t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t numeric a l l y i t c a n a l s o s t a y i n a f i x e d s p a t i a l o r i e n t a t i o n ( o p t i c a l axi s o f photometer head v e r t i c a l or h o r i z o n t a l ) . The i n f l u e n c e o f
t h e change i n d i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and photometer head
must be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t n u m e r i c a l l y .

23
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

F i g . 16: Goniophotometer w i t h moving photometer head, t y p e 2. Movement o f


photometer head a n d l i g h t s o u r c e on a c i r c l e i n a v e r t i c a l p l a n e .

.~

CIE i 0 8 7

9006L45 0003051 T35 H

@ LIGHT SOURCE

DIRECTIONS OF
MOTION

I
I

'ig.

17: Goniophotometer w i t h moving photometer head, t y p e 3 .


photometer head on a h o r i z o n t a l oc v e r t i c a l l i n e .

Movement o f

For goniophotometers of t y p e s 1 and 3 i t is p o s s i b l e t o use a number o f


f i x e d photometer heads - e a c h c a l i b r a t e d separately - i n s t e a d o f t h e moving
one.

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Their number depenas on t h e r e q u i r e d a n g u l a r r e s o l u t ion and t h u s s i g n i f i cantly on t h e k i n d o f l i g h t s o u r c e .


The measuring time o f such a goniophotometer can b e v e r y s h o r t . C a l i b r a t i o n and a g e i n g problems may be cons i d e r a b l e w i t h t h e s e multi-photometer head systems.
Goniophotometers of
t h e f i r s t t y p e can be f i t t e d w i t h e i t h e r a photometer head f o r t h e measurement o f i l l u m i n a n c e or w i t h a photometer head f o r t h e measurement o f luminance.
Goniophotometers of t h e second and t h i r d t y p e are used e x c l u s i v e l y
w i t h photometer heads f o r t h e measurement o f i l l u m i n a n c e .

For goniophotometers with moving photometer head measurements a r e made i n


C-planes or on c o n i c a l s u r f a c e s .

7. GONIOPHOTOMETERS WITH ROTATING MIRROR


7.1

PRINCIPLE

I n t h e s e g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d around a v e r t i c a l
a x i s and a m i r r o r arrangement around a h o r i z o n t a l a x i s .
The p o s i t i o n of
t h e photometer head i s f i x e d .
24

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 8 7 I9006345 0003052 9 7 3 I

No te :

The o p t c a l d i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and photometer head can b e i n c r e a s e d by t h e cise of a d e f l e c t i n g m i r r o r t h a t i s p o s i t i o n e d a t t h e f a r

end o f .he measuring room. S e l e c t i v e r e f l e c t i o n and p o l a r i z a t i o n


t o the mirror m u s t be taken i n t o account.
7.2

due

APPLICATION

S i n c e t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is t u r n e d only around a v e r t i c a l a x i s i n these


goniophotometers and can t h e r e f o r e be measured i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d b u r n i n g
p o s i t i o n , a l l k i n d s o f lamps and l u m i n a i r e s c o n t a i n i n g t h e m can be measured.
T h e p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r an a c c u r a t e measurement i s a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e d i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and photometer head, which depends on t h e k i n d
o f photometer head used.

7.3

CONSTRUCTION

PRINCIPLES

Goniophotometers w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r are today u s u a l l y b u i l t with a


s i n g l e m i r r o r f o r easier a l i g n m e n t .
Goniophotometers w i t h s e v e r a l m i r r o r s
are, however, a l s o known [ 211.
F i g u r e s 18 and 19 show t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n
p r i n c i p l e o f a goniophotometer w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r . No d i r e c t l i g h t from
t h e l i g h t s o u r c e must reach t h e p h o t o m e t r i c head.
The mirror must be
s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e s o as not t o cause v i g n e t t i n g i n t h e beam p a t h .

-HOLDER FOR LIGHT SOURCE

PHWOME:TER HEAD

----e-

l
BAFFLES

F i g . 18: Goniophotometer w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r !mircor on o p t i c a l axis:

25
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

~~
~~

CIE 70 8 7

7006145 0003053 A08 I

B a f f l e s must be p l a c e d between mirror and photometer h e a d s o t h a t no d i r e c t


light from t h e light s o u r c e and, p r e f e r a b l y , a l s o RO light r e f l e c t e d f r o m

the f l o o r , t h e c e i l i n g o r t h e w a l l s can r e a c h t h e photometer


Measurements are made i n C-planes or on c o n i c a l s u r f a c e s .

head.

OPTICAL A X I S

---

PHOTOMETER HEAD

MIRROR
F i g 19:

Goniophotorneter w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r (lamp on o p t i c a l a x i s ) .

The measurement o f t h e error caused by t h e t u r n i n g mirror s h o u l d be p e r formed a c c o r d i n g t o s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . 2 .

8. ANGLE MEASUREMENT
8.1

POSSI6ILITIES

For the measurement o f luminous i n t e n s i t y i n a d e f i n e d d i r e c t i o n two


a n g l e s must be d e t e r m i n e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r system o f p l a n e s
used.
The p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i n t h e goniophotometer w i l l
u s u a l l y b e done by hand o r by motor.
If by motor, i t c a n be c o n t r o l l e d by
hand o r automatically.
I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e an e l e c t r i c r o t a t i o n measuring
I n a l l cases an a n g l e measuring d e v i c e can be used.
d e v i c e is r e q u i r e d .
P o s s i b l e methods are:
-

a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e goniophotometer by hand, r e a d i n g O F t h e a n g l e s from


a n g l e scales

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

adjustment o f t h e goniophotorneter by hand or by motor, a n g l e encoding by


means o f a p o t e n t i o m e t e r , i n which t h e v o l t a g e produced is a measure o f
t h e a n g u l a r posit i o n

use o f s t e p p i n g motors f o r \orhich t h e number o f p u l s e s is a measure of


t h e a n g u l a r position

26

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~~

CIE 70 87

9006145 0003054 744 0

u s e o f a n g l e encoders ( p u l s e g e n e r a t o r s ) i n which t h e number o f p u l s e s


is c o u n t e d . An a d d i t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n of tlie z e r o p o s i t i o n hac t o br:
p e r f orme

use of a b s o l u t e a n g l e e n c o d e r s , which do n o t r e q u i r e a z e r a a d j u s t n e n t ,
A p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n r e m a i n s encoded e v e n i f t h e power s u p p l y i s
s w i t c h e d o f f . Any p a r t i c u l a r reference a n g l e can be d e f i n e d E S t h e zero
p o s i t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c measurements, w i t h no l o s s o f t h e a b s o l u t e z e r o
p o s i t i o n , which is c o n t i n u a l l y a c c e s s i b l e .
The c u r r e n t p o s i t i o n u s u a l l y i s i n d i c a t e d d i g i t a l l y .
8.2

REQUIREMENTS

A s u f f i c i e n t l y a c c u r a t e p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e m u s t be poss i b l e . F o r measuring a r r a n g e m e n t s w i t h v a r i a b l e a n g u l a r s t e p s it is recommended t o choose an a n g u l a r r e s o l u t i o n of 0 , l O . A r e s o l u t i o n o f 0,Ol o is


possible.

t4easures s h o u l d be t a k e n t o e n s u r e t h a t t h e i n d i c a t e d p o s i t i o n is i d e n t i c a l
t o t h e actual p o s i t i o n of t h e l i g h t source and is n o t r e n d e r e d i n a c c u r a t e
by t h e mechanical i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e goniophotometer.
T h i s means t h a t a
heavy c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e m e c h a n i c a l parts o f t h e goniophotometer is necess a r y , which can i n f l u e n c e t h e p r i c e of t h i s equipment i n an i m p o r t a n t manner.

With t h e p h o t o e l e c t r o n i c s one i n c l u d e s t h e e l e c t r o n i c s f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and processing o f t h e s i g n a l from t h e photometer head (ctsually an


o p e r a t i o n a l a m p l i f i e r with f e e d b a c k ) w i t h a d d i t i o n a l c i r c u i t s f o r t h e d i g i t a l o r a n a l o g d i s p l a y of t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y as well a s s u i t a b l e
f o r c o n n e c t i o n t o a computer o r XY-recorder.
Where
outputs, e.g.,
a p p l i c a b l e , t h e power s u p p l y f o r a t h e r m o s t a t t e d photometer head is a l s o
part o f t h e photoelectronics.
C i r c u i t s f o r a u t o - r a n g i n g are a l s o a u s e f u l
f e a tU r e .
o p e r a t e d lamps, e s p e c i a l l y d i s c h a r g e l a m p s , will have a certainrnodulation o f t h e l i g h t o u t p u t a t a f r e q u e n c y of 2 times t h e suppl:-(
f r e q u e n c y . T h e measuring r e s u l t s s h o u l d be u n a f f e c t e d by t h i s modulation,
by means o f a s u f f i c i e n t l y l o n g time c o n s t a n t i n t h e e l e c t r o n i c s or by tirrie
i n t e g r a t i o n . However, t h i s s h o u l d nut i n f l u e n c e t h e measuring r e s u l t s as &
f u n c t i o n of t h e goniophotorneter s p e e d by measuring "on t h e f l y . "

AC

F o r OC powered lamps t h e t o t a l measuring time c a n t h e r e f o r e a s ~ a l l y Li.:


s h o r t e r than f o r AC powered ones.

27
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

9. PHOTOELECTRONICS AND DATA PROCESSING

~~

CIE 7 0 87

700bL45 0003055 680

The p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e photometer head i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e p h o t o e l e c t r o -

: l i e s h a v e t o conform t o t h e same s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a s r e q u i r e d f o r i l l u m i n a n c e
qr I m i n a n c e meters 161.
T h e a c q u i s i t i o n of the measured v a l u e s (sets of one luminous i n t e n s i t y r e a -

jiq3, two a n g u l a r p o s i t i o n s and, where a p p l i c a b l e , a r e a d i n g from an auxi !iary


d e t e c t o r ) c a n be performed:

khrough manual r e g i s t r a t i o n

of

t h e d e s i r e d q u a n t i t i e s d i s p l a y e d i n an

a n a l o g or d i g i t a l f o r m

by p r i n t i n g t h e s e t of measured values on a s u i t a b l e p r i n t e r

.-

by d i r e c t p l o t t i n g of t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n on an XY-re-

c o r d e r i n p o l a r or c a r t e s i a n c o o r d i n a t e s

by s t o r a g e i n t h e memory o f a s u i t a b l e computer.

I f a completely a u t o m a t i c measurement and a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i s r e q u i r e d , t h e computer t o be u s e d f o r t h e n e c e s s a r y


c a l c u l a t i o n s and t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e measured v a l u e s s h o u l d be chosen on
t h e b a s i s of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r t h e l i g h t source. T h i s i n c l u d e s
g r i n t i n g of t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t h e form o f t a b l e s and
g r a p h s r-51.
I n a d d i t i o n : f o r lamps, t h e p r i n t i n g o f t h e luminous f l u x
velue and of t h e luminous e f f i c a c y ;
f o r l u m i n a i r e s , the t o t a l luminous
clux of t h e luminaire, t h e l i g h t o u t p u t r a t i o of t h e l i m i n a i r e , d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e mean luminance ( F o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e g l a r e l i m i t a t i o n ) ;
f o r f l o o d l i g h t s , t h e h o r i z o n t a l and vertical one-tenth-peak
divergence
( s p r e a d ) o f t h e u t i l i z e d f l u x , t h e u t i l i z a t i o n f a c t o r , etc.

10.

GENERAL MEASURING CONDITIONS

lQ.1 OPERATING CONDITIONS


4 1 1 lamps s h o u l d be o p e r a t e d and measured, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e a g r e e d ,
i c c o r d i n g t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s s p e c i f i e d i n t h e a p p l i c a b l e I E C recommendations
and n a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . I t is essential t o s t a t e whether t h e measurements
a r e made a t nominal v o l t a g e , c u r r e n t o r power.
This ensures t h a t the
r e s u l t s can be compared w i t h v a l u e s measured a t o t h e r l a b o r a t o r i e s w i t h i n
t h e u n a v o i d a b l e measuring u n c e r t a i n t y .
T h e v a l u e s o f t h e q u a n t i t i e s t o be f i x e d s h o u l d be i n f l u e n c e d as l i t t l e a s
p o s s i b l e by t h e measuring and o p e r a t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Unavoidable i n f l u e n c e s
s h o u l d Se taken i n t o a c c o u n t i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e measurements.

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

28

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

C a l i b r a t i o n should be performed w i t h means


calibrated directly w
recognized standards.

indirectly

i n

(lamps, measuring equipment)

comparison

with

internationally

10.2 A G E I N G
The o p e r a t i n g parameters o f lamps change o v e r t h e i r l i f e t i m e t o varyi n g degrees.
Changes a r e e s p e c i a l l y pronounced over the f i r s t p a r t o f
their lifetime.
I n o r d e r t o achieve a s u f f i c i e n t degree o f r e p e a t a b i l i t y

o f measurements i t i s t h e r e f o r e necessary t o age t h e lamps.


The d u r a t i o n o f ageing i s s p e c i f i e d For t h e d i f f e r e n t types o f lamps i n t h e
a p p l i c a b l e I E C recommendations and n a t i o n a l standards.

10.3

BURNING P O S I T I O N

The o p e r a t i n g p o s i t i o n o f l i g h t sources must comply w i t h the a p p l i c able IEC recommendations and n a t i o n a l standards o r w i t h t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s
o f t h e manufacturer and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n .
The b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n must be
s t a t e d i n the measuring r e p o r t .

10.4 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE


The l i g h t sources s h o u l d be operated d u r i n g the measurement i n a
d r a u g h t - f r e e room i n such a way t h a t t h e convection f l o w o f t h e s u r r o u n d i n g
a i r i s n o t impaired.

Photometric measurements a r e u s u a l l y performed a t an

ambient temperature o f 25 O C .
F o r l i g h t s o u r c e s w i t h a s t r o n g l y temperat u r e dependent luminous f l u x t h e temperature t o l e r a n c e s h o u l d b e f 1 O C ,

I f measurements a r e made a t a
f o r o t h e r l i g h t sources i t s h o u l d be f 3 O C .
d i f f e r e n t ambient temperature t h i s temperature has t o be s t a t e d .
The luminous f l u x o f some s p e c i a l lamps i s measured a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e manufacturer i f t h e lamp i s operated w i t h i n a d e f i n e d and
prescribed substitute luminaire.
The temperature should be measured w i t h a thermometer w i t h a r e s o l u t i o n o f

The d i s t a n c e between t h e temperature sensor and the p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e o f


t h e l i g h t source t o be measured s h o u l d exceed h a l f t h e l a r g e s t h o r i z o n t a l
e x t e n t o f t h e l i g h t soiirce by C;,5 in i n t h e case O F a goniophotorneter.
The
temperature sensor m i s t b e s h i e l d e d f r o m d i r e c t i r r a d i a t i o n by t h e l i g h t

s o u r c e t o be measured.
29

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a t least 0,I ' C .


The temperature measurements s h o u l d be done a t a repres e n t a t i v e spot and a t about t h e same h e i g h t as t h e l i g h t source.

10.5 VIBRATION A N D CHOCK

When s w i t c h e d on, most lamps s h o u l d n o t be s u b j e c t e d t o a c c e l e r a t i o n s


exceeding 10 m/s2 (4-3000 Hz) o r p o s i t i o n a l c h a n g e s exceeding 30 mm (up t o
4 k ) . However, i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e a s i n g l e s e t o f l i m i t i n g v a l u e s
f a r a l l t y p e s of lamps a n d l u m i n a i r e s .

10.6 C T A B I L I Z A T I O N PERIOD

I t is t h e purpose

t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n p e r i o d t o achieve a s t a b l e
s t a t e of a l l p a r a m e t e r s i m p o r t a n t For t h e measurement.
During t h e
s t a b i l i z a t i o n t h e same o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s s h o u l d apply a s d u r i n g t h e
f o l l o w i n g measurement.
Special a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o avoid changes
i n t h e b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n and t h e s p e c i f i e d o p e r a t i n g p a r a m e t e r s ( e . g . ,
nominal v o l t a g e , power and c u r r e n t ) .
The r e q u i r e d s t a b i l i z a t i o n p e r i o d
It
depends on t h e type OF l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .
s h o u l d be checked by c o n t i n u o u s m o n i t o r i n g o f the r e a d i n g s . A l i g h t s o u r c e
c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a s s t a b i l i z e d i f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e a d i n g s no longer
show a t r e n d i n one d i r e c t i o n .

Note:

of

l i g h t s o u r c e s remain s t a b l e f o r some time and then


c h a n g i n g a g a i n u n t i l a new s t a b l e s i t u a t i o n is reached.

Some

start

10.7 ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

10.7.1 MEASIJREMENT UNCERTAINTY


D i f f e r i n g r e s u l t s of p h o t o m e t r i c measurements a r e o f t e n caused by
errors i n t h e measurement or t h e a d j u s t m e n t o f e l e c t r i c a l p a r a m e t e r s .
For
current and v o l t a g e (DC a n d A C ) t h e u n c e r t a i n t y f o r i n c a n d e s c e n t lamp measurements s h o u l d n o t exceed 0,l oh, w h i l e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e f o r AC
current and v o l t a g e i n t h e c a s e of d i s c h a r g e lamps is 0,2 %.
hlote:
For i n c a n d e s c e n t lamps an e r r o r i n t h e v o l t a g e of 1 % c a u s e s a d e v i a t i o n
i n t h e luminous f l u x of about 4 /A.
T h e same e r r o r i n c u r r e n t c a u s e s a n
8 % e r r o r i n luminous f l u x .

There s h o u l d be agreement a s t o which o f t h e p a r a m e t e r s t o be measured


( v o l t a g e , current, power) s h o u l d b e k e p t c o n s t a n t and what o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s one s h o u l d p o s s i b l y meet.
30

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

CIE 70 87

10.7.2

~~

9006345 0003058 39T I

POWER TYPE AND OPERATING MODE

With DC one can u s u a l l y measure m o r e accurately than w i t h AC, s i n c e


f o r AC the l i g h t source as well a s the e l e c t r i c a l measuring i n s t r u m e n t s a r e
s u b j e c t t o a g r e a t e r number of i n f l u e n c i n g q u a n t i t i e s (e.g.,
frequency,
wave form, phase l a g ) .
Because o f t h e sometimes s t r o n g dependence o f t h e
photometric q u a n t i t i e s on t h e e l e c t r i c a l ones one should use s u p p l i e s t h a t
a r e as s t a b l e as p o s s i b l e .

10.7.3

WIRING

Wires, b a l l a s t s and e l e c t r i c a l measuring instruments should be p o s i t i o n e d and, i f necessary, screened i n such a way t h a t an i n f l u e n c e o f exI f i t i s r e q u i r e d f o r some photometric measuret e r n a l f i e l d s i s avoided.
ments t o determine t h e lamp v o l t a g e or power, t h e use o f a measuring lamp
h o l d e r i s recommended.
Not e :

A measuring lamp h o l d e r has four c o n t a c t s , two for t h e c u r r e n t supply


(IL)
and two separate ones f o r t h e measurement o f t h e lamp v o l t a g e
(UL) d i r e c t l y a t t h e lamp socket.
A f o u r e l e c t r o d e lamp h o l d e r
reduces t h e v o l t a g e measuring
e r r o r t o zero, because no measurable
c u r r e n t f l o w s through t h e measuring c o n t a c t s , when u s i n g a h i g h
impedance d i g i t a l v o l t m e t e r .

10.7.4 EXECUTION OF THE ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS

[ 221

When measuring with c u r r e n t , v o l t o r power meters, t h e v o l t m e t e r or


t h e v o l t a g e p a t h o f t h e power meter s h o u l d be connected between l i g h t
The measuring c u r r e n t (power)
source and c u r r e n t meter ( o r c u r r e n t p a t h ) .
o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s themselves must be t a k e n i n t o account (see a l s o i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e a p p l i c a b l e IEC recommendations).
The c a p a c i t y o f t h e
c i r c u i t may i n f l u e n c e t h e r e s u l t s , e s p e c i a l l y i f h i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s occur
as f o r i n s t a n c e i n low pressure sodium vapour lamps.
Grounding e r r o r s can
also s u b s t a n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e measuring r e s u l t s .
F o r accurate AC measurements on discharge lamps, i n s t r u m e n t s should
t h e " t r u e rins" t y p e t o cope w i t h harmonics.
When measuring h i g h

be o f
frequency operated discharge
r e q u i r e d [ 231

113.7.5

lamps s p e c i a l

methods

and

instruments

are

MEASURING CIRCUIT
I n t h e case o f discharge lamps I E C recommendations s p e c i f y t h e

c u i t s f o r t h e l i g h t sources t o be measured.

31
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

cir-

1O . 8 BALLASTS

Measurements on d i s c h a r g e lamps a r e u s u a l l y made w i t h r e f e r e n c e b a l lasts.


I f o t h e r b a l l a s t s a r e used ( e . g . , f o r measurements on l u m i n a i r e s ) ,
t h e b a l l a s t used s h o u l d be n o t e d i n t h e measuring p r o t o c o l .
10.9 SUPPLY VOLTAGE
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Measureinents on i n c a n d e s c e n t lamps s h o u l d p r e f e r a b l y b e performed w i t h


a DC s u p p l y because o f t h e h i g h e r accuracy o f t h e e l e c t r i c a l measurements.
Measurements on d i s c h a r g e lamps g e n e r a l l y have t o be performed w i t h an AC
supply
The s u p p l y v o l t a g e d u r i n g a g e i n g s h o u l d b e s t a b l e t o w i t h i n 0,5 %,d u r i n g
t h e actual measurement t o w i t h i n 0 , l % and f o r c a l i b r a t i o n s with i n c a n d e s cent lamps as s t a n d a r d s t o w i t h i n 0,OZ X.
The f r e q u e n c y s h o u l d d i f f e r at most by 0 , i 5 from t h e o n e for which t h e
b a l l a s t is d e s i g n e d .
The t o t a l harmonic c o n t e n t o f t h e AC s u p p l y v o l t a g e s h o u l d n o t exceed 3 %.
For t h e o p e r a t i o n of h i g h p r e s s u r e l a m p s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f reactive
power t h e power s u p p l y s h o u l d b e chosen i n s u c h a way t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d rea c t i v e power can be met.
The t o t a l harmonic content is d e f i n e d as t h e root-mean-square
(r.m.s.)
summation of t h e i n d i v i d u a l harmonic components, u s i n g t h e fundamental as
100 ?i.
Note:

This implies t h a t t h e source o f supply should have a s u f f i c i e n t l y


low impedance compared w i t h t h e b a l l a s t impedance and care s h o u l d b e
t a k e n t h a t t h i s a p p l i e s under a l l c o n d i t i o n s o f measurement.

10.10

EXECUTION OF THE MEASUREMENTS

For t h e measurement t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e
s h o u l d be p o s i t i o n e d a t t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s o f r o t a t i o n .
The result o f t h e measurement s h o u l d not b e i n f l u e n c e d by t h e movement o f
t h e l i g h t source.
Note:
For measurements on f l u o r e s c e n t lamps t h e v e l o c i t y o f r o t a t i o n s h o u l d

not e x c e e d 3 r e v o l u t i o n s p e r m i n u t e , t o a v o i d i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r e s u l t
t h r o u g h t h e d r a u g h t caused by t h e r o t a t i o n .
32

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

~~

CIE 70 87 U 9006345 0003060 T 4 8

S t r a y l i g h t on t h e photometer head s h o u l d be reduced by t h e u s e o f b a f f l e s , which s h o u l d not c a u s e v i g n e t t i n g i n t h e beam p a t h .


B e f o r e s t a r t i n g t h e measurements t h e l i g h t s o u r c e s h o u l d b e burned i n
l o n g enough t o a t t a i n t h e r m a l e q u i l i b r i u m .
A l l e l e c t r i c a l and photometric i n s t r u m e n t s s h o u l d b e s w i t c h e d on l o n g enough b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f
t h e measurements f o r t h e i r warm-up p e r i o d t o be exceeded a t t h e s t a r t of
t h e measurement [ 6 1 .

11. CORRECTION OF HEASUREMENT RESULTS

I f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is o p e r a t e d d u r i n g t h e measurement w i t h a v o l t a g e
d i f f e r i n g from t h e nominal v o l t a g e , i f t h e a m b i e n t t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r s from
t h e s p e c i f i e d one, or i f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e is measured i n a p o s i t i o n d i f f e r i n g from t h e p r e s c r i b e d one, t h e r e s u l t s s h o u l d be c o r r e c t e d i f p o s s i b l e .
A c o r r e c t i o n of t h e r e s u l t s due t o a v o l t a g e d i f f e r i n g from t h e nominal o n e
is p o s s i b l e i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e luminous f l u x o f t h e lamp a n d
R e s u l t s o b t a i n e d w i t h a d i f f e r e n t ambient ternperat h e v o l t a g e is known.
F o r lamps w i t h a t e m p e r a t u r e
t u r e can be c o r r e c t e d t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t .
dependent luminous f l u x , r e s u l t s c a n be c o r r e c t e d For a d i f f e r e n t ambient
t e m p e r a t u r e i f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between luminous f l u x and ambient temperature is known. I n t h e c a s e of l u m i n a i r e s t h e t e m p e r a t u r e d i f f e r e n t i a l between l u m i n a i r e and ambient must be known a s w e l l .
A c o r r e c t i o n due t o a d i f f e r e n t b u r n i n g p o s i t i o n is p o s s i b l e f o r i n c a n d e s c e n t and f l u o r e s c e n t lamps by means of a d d i t i o n a l measurements w i t h an auxi l i a r y d e t e c t o r ( s e e s e c t i o n 5.4).

12. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

The results s h o u l d be p r e s e n t e d i n a s u i t a b l y chosen system of p l a n e s


I t is a l s o a d v i s e i n c a r t e s i a n o r p o l a r c o o r d i n a t e s a n d i n t a b u l a r form.
a b l e t o c o n v e r t t h e r e s u l t s t o t h o s e f o r t h e nominal luminous f l u x ( i f
The nominal luminous f l u x
known) of t h e lamp used i n t h e measurement.
s h o u l d be s t a t e d .
For measurements on l u m i n a i r e s which can be p r o v i d e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t l a n p s
of t h e same geometry ( d i m e n s i o n s and p o s i t i o n o f t h e e m i t t i n g a r e a ) , i t is
recommended t o r e f e r t h e l u m i n o u s i n t e n s i t y t o a luminous f l u x o f t h e l a q s
t o be f i t t e d i n t h e l u m i n a i r e o f 1000 l m [ 2 , 3 , 4 1 .

33
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

CIE 70 87

7006345 00030bL 784 I

13- MECHANICAL ADJUSTMENT


1 3 . 1 GONIOPHOTOMETER N I T H F A C I L I T Y FOR TURNING THE LIGHT SOURCE
F o i g o n i o p h o t o m e t w s o f t h i s t y p e t h e axes o f r o t a t i o n must be perpen-

d i c u l a r and must have a p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n . I t must be e n s u r e d t h a t t h e


h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l a x e s r e a l l y correspond t o t h e d i r e c t i o n s i n question.
T h i s requirement s h o u l d b e checked w i t h a high p r e c i s i o n l e v e l w i t h
an u n c e r t a i n t y o f n o t more t h a n 0,Ol O .

A t t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s a m i r r o r with a good o p t i c a l s u r f a c e F i n i s h and 5 rnm d i a m e t e r is put i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i n


t h e p l a n e t h r o u g h t h e l i g h t c e n t r e o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , which h a s a normal
i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e o p t i c a l a x i s o f t h e goniophotorneter ( l i n e between
t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s and t h e centre o f t h e measuring area
o f t h e photometer h e a d ) .
The p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s and t h e c e n t r e o f t h e measuring a r e a
A stable
a r e t h e n a d j u s t e d t o t h e same h e i g h t by means of a h o s e l e v e l .
laser is p o s i t i o n e d i n such a way t h a t t h e c e n t r e o f its e m i t t i n g a r e a c o r responds t o t h e c e n t r e o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e area o f t h e (removed) photometer
head.
I t s beam is d i r e c t e d a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e o p t i c a l m i r r o r on t h e
turning device for t h e l i g h t source.
The t u r n i n g d e v i c e f o r t h e l i g h t s o u r c e i s a d j u s t e d i n such a
laser beam is r e f l e c t e d back e x a c t l y o n t o i t s e l f . T h i s c a n be
a w h i t e , d i f f u s e l y r e f l e c t i n g a r e a around t h e l a s e r e m i t t i n g
v i s i b l e p o s i t i o n on i t o f t h e r e f l e c t e d laser beam.
Then t h e
a s follows:

way that t h e
checked w i t h
a r e a and t h e
p r o c e d u r e is

Goniophotometer t y p e s 1 and 2
I f t h e m i r r o r is t u r n e d around t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s ( i t is now a l s o v e r t i c a l For t y p e 2 g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s ) t h e r e f l e c t e d laser beam s h o u l d h i t t h e
w a l l s o f t h e photometer room on a h o r i z o n t a l l i n e . If t h e beam h i t s t h e
wall t o t h e s i d e o f t h e p o i n t of i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e axes of t h e t u r n i n g
d e v i c e f o r t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e c e n t r e of t h e emitt i n g a r e a o f t h e l a s e r ( t o b e checked with hose l e v e l ) when t h e v e r t i c a l
a x i s is t u r n e d by about 45 o i n e i t h e r d i r e c t i o n , t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s i s
set correctly.

When r o t a t i n g t h e
d i r e c t i o n around
on t h e f l o o r or
through t h e point

device for t u r n i n g t h e l i g h t source by 45 o i n e i t h e r


t h e h o r i z o n t a l axis t h e r e f l e c t e d l a s e r beam i n c i d e n t
the c e i l i n g should coincide with t h e v e r t i c a l l i n e
of i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e a x e s .

34

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

CIE 70 87 I90061Y5 0003062 810

Goniophotometer t y p e 3
For t h i s t y p e o f goniophotometer t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s is
checked i n t h e same way as f o r t y p e s 1 and 2 . T h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e h o r i -

z o n t a l a x i s is checked by t u r n i n g t h e m i r r o r around t h e h o r i z o n t a l
axis.
I n t h a t case t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e r e f l e c t e d l a s e r beam i n t h e
p l a n e o f t h e measuring area o f t h e photometer head s h o u l d n o t change.

13.2 GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH MOVING PHOTOMETER HEAD


I n o r d e r t o check t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e v e r t i c a l axis o f t h e t u r n i n g
d e v i c e for t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , t h e p h o t o m e t e r head i s moved t o t h e l o w e s t
A l a s e r is mounted i n p l a c e o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e , w i t h
p o s i t i o n (y = O ) .
i t s beam d i r e c t e d a t t h e c e n t r e o f t h e ( c o v e r e d ) a c c e p t a n c e area o f t h e
photometer head. I f t h e laser i s t u r n e d around t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e beam i n t h e p l a n e o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e area s h o u l d n o t change.

For c h e c k i n g t h e p o s i t i o n of t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s a t h i c k
a weight a t t h e bottom is f i x e d t o t h e v e r t i c a l a x i s . I f
t h e place o f t h e photometer head and i t s beam h i t s t h e
h o r i z o n t a l a x i s is l o c a t e d where t h e beam remains at t h e
s t r i n g when t h e h o r i z o n t a l a x i s is t u r n e d .

white s t r i n g with
a laser i s p u t i n
s t r i n g , then t h e
same s p o t on t h e

1 3 . 3 GONIOPHOTOMETER WITH ROTATING MIRROR

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

In o r d e r t o c h e c k t h e a d j u s t m e n t of t h e goniophotometer w i t h a r o t a t i n g m i r r o r a measuring s h a f t is i n s e r t e d i n t h e r e c e p t a c l e f o r t h e l i g h t
s o u r c e , which c o n t a i n s t h e vertical a x i s and which has a d i a m e t e r o f a few
millimeters at t h e point
o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e axes ( l o c a t i o n o f t h e
photometric c e n t r e ) .
The p o s i t i o n of t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e is marked on
i t . The photometer head is r e p l a c e d by a l a s e r , w i t h its beam a f t e r ref l e c t i o n from t h e m i r r o r b e i n g d i r e c t e d a t t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e f o r any
mirror position.
By means o f a n a p e r t u r e p l a c e d n e a r t h e mirror t h e
d i a m e t e r of t h e l a s e r beam s h o u l d b e r e s t r i c t e d t o less t h a n 10 mm.
When
t u r n i n g t h e m i r r o r t h e l a s e r beam s h o u l d h i t t h e p h o t o m e t r i c c e n t r e
independent o f t h e mirror position.

14. CALIBRATION

Goniophotometers c a n be c a l i b r a t e d by means o f a luminous i n t e n s i t y


s t a n d a r d lamp.
A l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h e i l l u m i n a n c e meter (luminance i n t e g r a t o r ) i s c a l i b r a t e d and t h e d i s t a n c e between t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f
t h e axes and t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a is measured.
For g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s w i t h
r o t a t i n g mirror t h e f i r s t method i n c l u d e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m i r r o r .
35
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~-

CIE 70 8 7

9006L45 0003063 757

14.1 LUMINOUS INTENSITY STANDARD

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The luminous i n t e n s i t y s t a n d a r d lamp is mounted w i t h i t s p h o t o m e t r i c


centre a t t h e point o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e axes i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d burning
p o s i t i o n i n such a way t h a t t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y i s measured i n t h e
d i r e c t i o n f o r which t h e lamp is c a l i b r a t e d .
From t h i s f o l l o w s t h e

r e l a t i o n s h i p between luminous i n t e n s i t y and r e a d i n g .


14.2 CALIBRATED ILLUMINANCE METER

The i l l u m i n a n c e meter is c a l i b r a t e d on a p h o t o m e t r i c bench and t h e


d i s t a n c e between t h e p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n of t h e a x e s and t h e measuring
a r e a i s measured. From these d a t a it i s p o s s i b l e t o c a l c u l a t e t h e luminous
i n t e n s i t y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e law. For a photometer head
w i t h luminance i n t e g r a t i o n no d i s t a n c e measurement is r e q u i r e d i f i t h a s
been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e r e a d i n g is independent o f t h e d i s t a n c e .
14.3 RELATIVE MEASUREMENTS
For t h e measurement o f t h e r e l a t i v e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n
The l i n e a r i t y o f t h e photo[2,3,4]
no s p e c i a l c a l i b r a t i o n is r e q u i r e d ,
meter must be i n s u r e d .

15. ERROR SOURCES AND MEASUREMENT ACCURACY

15.1 MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENT


The f o l l o w i n g mechanical d e f e c t s can c a u s e measuring e r r o r s :

i n s u f f i c i e n t mechanical s t a b i l i t y

h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l a x i s do n o t i n t e r s e c t

t h e two axes are n o t p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o each o t h e r

w i t h g o n i o p h o t o m e t e r s w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r , t h e o p t i c a l a x i s o f mirror
and t h e r o t a t i n g axis o f t u r n t a b l e do n o t c o i n c i d e

v i b r a t i o n o f moveable p a r t s d u r i n g r o t a t i o n

wrong p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e photometer head

uneven r o t a t i o n due t o v i b r a t i o n s o r l a c k o f b a l a n c i n g .

36

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~~

CIE 70 8 7

~~

~~~

9006345 O003064 6 9 3 S

15.2 ANGLE MEASUREMENTS AND ANGULAR STEP S I Z E


The accuracy o f luminous i n t e n s i t y measurements depends t o a l a r g e ext e n t on t h e measurement u n c e r t a i n t y f o r angle measurements and t h e angular
step s i z e .
The measurement u n c e r t a i n t y depends e s s e n t i a l l y on t h e k i n d o f
angle encoder used,

I n f o r m a t i o n about t h i s aspect should be o b t a i n e d f r o m

t h e manufacturers.
For a known luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n t h e measurement u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y caused by t h i s aspect can be
calculated.

Ift h e goniophotometer i s n o t stopped a t each angular p o s i t i o n (angles x , y )


t o perform a measurement, each measured v a l u e w i l l be t h e mean over an
angular i n t e r v a l t h a t depends on t h e measuring t i m e and t h e speed o f r o t a t i o n of t h e moveable p a r t s .
u n c e r t a i n t y are:

F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e r e s u l t i n g measurement

mechanical u n c e r t a i n t i e s w i t h angle measurements


angular u n c e r t a i n t i e s d u r i n g t h e i n t e g r a t i o n time, e s p e c i a l l y f o r AC powered l i g h t sources

t h e time i n t e r v a l r e q u i r e d f o r one sample

t h e t i m e i n t e r v a l between two successive angle steps.

75.3

INFLUENCE

OF

ROTATING

MIRROR

OR

PHOTDMETER

HEAD

FOR

LUMINANCE

INTEGRATION
The m i r r o r used i n goniophotometers w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r s d e v i a t e s i n
its p r o p e r t i e s from an i d e a l m i r r o r . Measuring e r r o r s caused by t h e m i r r o r
can have t h e f o l l o w i n g causes:

d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r surface From a p l a n e and t h e change o f t h i s dev i a t i o n during r o t a t i o n

l o c a l changes o f t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f t h e m i r r o r

l i g h t s c a t t e r i n g on t h e m i r r o r surface due t o d i f f u s e r e f l e c t i o n , damaged m i r r o r s u r f a c e or dust

p o l a r i z a t i o n o f t h e l i g h t t o be measured a t t h e m i r r o r s u r f a c e

wavelength dependence o f t h e r e f l e c t a n c e o f t h e m i r r o r s u r f a c e

i n s u f f i c i e n t plane p a r a l l e l i t y of
mirrors ( l e n s e f f e c t s ) .

t h e s u b s t r a t e g l a s s for r e a r c o a t e d

37
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

CIE ? O ? I700bL45 00030b5 5 2 T I


4 p o l a r i z a t i o n e r r o r caused by t h e mirror [ 2 4 ] c a n sometimes be e l i m i n a t e d
by means o f an a n a l y s e r p l a c e d i n f r o n t of t h e photometer head, which moves
w i t h t h e mirror.
The e r r o r caused by t h e l i g h t s c a t t e r e d from a c l e a n rot a t i n g m i r r o r is d i f f i c u l t t o e l i m i n a t e .
However, f o r a l a r g e measuring
d i s t a n c e and a good mirror i t is u s u a l l y n e g l i g i b l e .
The e r r o r due t o t h e d e v i a t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r s u r f a c e from a p l a n e ( s u r f a c e

roughness) c a n n o t be e l i m i n a t e d .
lection o f t h e m i r r o r .

I t can be made n e g l i g i b l e by c a r e f u l se-

I t is p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e t h e error caused by t h e selective s p e c t r a l ref l e c t i o n o f t h e m i r r o r s u r f a c e by f i t t i n g t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e o f


t h e photometer head p l u s t h e m i r r o r t o t h e V ( X > f u n c t i o n .
F o r photometer heads with l u m i n a n c e i n t e g r a t i o n , e r r o r s . can b e caused by:

non-constant s p a t i a l r e s p o n s e

i n s u f f i c i e n t s i z e o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e area

i n s u f Ficient d i s t a n c e between l i g h t s o u r c e and a c c e p t a n c e a r e a , c a u s i n g


some p a r t s o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e t o b e missed

t o o l a r g e a measuring-field a n g l e , causing t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e l i m i t i n g
p h o t o m e t r i c d i s t a n c e t o be v i o l a t e d .

15.4 STRAY L I G H T

Stray l i g h t c a n i n v a l i d a t e t h e r e s u l t o f measurements o f luminous


intensity distributions.
T h e r e f o r e i t is recommended t o use b a f f l e s between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a of t h e photometer head t h a t
limit t h e i n c i d e n c e o f stray l i g h t b u t do not cause v i g n e t t i n g i n t h e beam
path.
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

I t is p o s s i b l e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s t r a y l i g h t by p l a c i n g a
s c r e e n o f t h e smallest p o s s i b l e d i m e n s i o n , t h a t e l i m i n a t e s t h e d i r e c t
i n c i d e n c e o f l i g h t from t h e l i g h t s o u r c e on t h e a c c e p t a n c e a r e a , a p p r o x i The
m a t e l y halfway between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e photometer head.
measurement o f t h e l u m i n o u s i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n s h o u l d be r e p e a t e d w i t h
t h i s screen i n p l a c e . The measured s i g n a l is t h e n due t o t h e i n c i d e n c e of
s t r a y l i g h t and t h i s amount s h o u l d be s u b t r a c t e d from t h e measurement made
w i t h o u t t h e screen. (See also [ 251 ).

38

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

C I E 7 0 87 W 9006345 00030bb Ybb

15.5 RELATIVE SPECTRAL

RESPONCIVITY

The r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s i v i t y o f t h e photometer head u s e d s h o u l d


be f i t t e d very a c c u r a t e l y t o t h e s p e c t r a l luminous e f f i c i e n c y V ( X ) o f t h e
human eye f o r p h o t o p i c v i s i o n 1,6,7].
I f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e t o be measured
h a s t h e same s p e c t r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n as t h e c a l i b r a t i o n s t a n d a r d t h e q u a l i t y
o f t h e V ( X ) f i t is n o t i m p o r t a n t .
T h i s c a n b e t h e case, f o r example, i n
r e l a t i v e measurements. For a goniophotometer with r o t a t i n g m i r r o r t h e V ( X )
f i t o f t h e photometer head should be made i n c o n j u n c t i o n with t h e mirror.
For photometer h e a d s f o r luminance i n t e g r a t i o n one s h o u l d pay a t t e n t i o n t o
t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e may change due t o d i r t (even
The meacurei f i t is n o n - s e l e c t i v e ) i f a c a v i t y is used f o r i n t e g r a t i o n .
ment of t h e r e l a t i v e s p e c t r a l r e s p o n s e for t h e s e photometer heads i s always
p o s s i b l e for t h e d e t e c t o r used but n o t g e n e r a l l y f o r t h e complete photometer head.

15.6 ILLUMINANCE AND LUMINANCE METER

The photometer head w i t h t h e a t t a c h e d p h o t o e l e c t r o n i c s d e t e r m i n e s


t h e measurement accuracy t o a l a r g e e x t e n t .
S p e c i f i c a t i o n s and e r r o r
limits for t h e measurement a c c u r a c y have been corrpiled i n C I E p u b l i c a t i o n s

CWI.
15.7 DATA PROCESSING

For t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and p r o c e s s i n g o f t h e measurement d a t a t h e errors


w i t h t h e d i g i t a l s i g n a l s w i l l u s u a l l y be n e g l i g i b l e .
If t h e d a t a are acq u i r e d i n an a n a l o g way e r r o r s due t o t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used s h o u l d be t a k e n
i n t o account.
15.8 LIMITING PHOTOMETRIC DISTANCE
Errors depending on t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n can b e c a u s e d
by t o o small a d i s t a n c e between t h e l i g h t s o u r c e and t h e photometer head.
Examples o f e r r o r c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e [9,10].
15.9 OPERATING CONDITIONS

Errors can be c a u s e d by o p e r a t i n g c o n d i t i o n s d e v i a t i n g f r o m p r e s c r i b e d
c o n d i t i o n s . They a r e :

p o s i t i o n i n g o f t h e p h o t o m e t r i c centre i n a p o s i t i o n d e v i a t i n g f r o m t h e
p o i n t o f i n t e r s e c t i o n o f t h e two axes

39
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

C I E 70 87

9006345 0003067 3T2

d e v i a t i o n of t h e o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e l i g h t s o u r c e from t h e p r e s c r i b e d
burning p o s i t i o n . T h i s i n f l u e n c e can b e c o r r e c t e d f o r only very inaccur a t e l y i n t h e c a s e o f goniophotometers w i t h a d e v i c e for t u r n i n g t h e
l i g h t source
s t a r t of t h e measurements b e f o r e t h e end of t h e burn-in
warm-up p e r i o d

period or t h e

i n a c c u r a t e a d j u s t m e n t and measurement o f t h e o p e r a t i n g v o l t a g e o f the


1i ght source
d e v i a t i o n o f t h e mains f r e q u e n c y from t h e p r e s c r i b e d f r e q u e n c y
varying c o n t a c t r e s i s t a n c e o f t h e s l i p r i n g s
--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

n o n - p e r m i s s i b l e harmonics c o n t e n t of t h e s u p p l y v o l t a g e
d e v i a t i o n o f t h e ambient t e m p e r a t u r e from t h e p r e s c r i b e d value
t e m p o r a l i n s t a b i l i t y o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e t o be measured
d r a u g h t by means of v e n t i l a t i o n equipment o r t o o f a s t movement o f t h e
l i g h t source
s c r e e n i n g o f p a r t s o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e by mechanical
goniophotometer o r by b a f f l e s i n t h e l i g h t path.

15.10

parts of the

PHOTOMETRIC STANDARD

The p h o t o m e t r i c d a t a o f t h e s t a n d a r d used i n t h e c a l i b r a t i o n are


s u b j e c t t o a measurement u n c e r t a i n t y .
The v a l u e o f t h e u n c e r t a i n t y o f t h e
s t a n d a r d s h o u l d b e t a k e n f r o m t h e c a l i b r a t i o n c e r t i f i c a t e and s h o u l d be
s t a t e d when g i v i n g error limits f o r t h e measurements.
Additional errors
a r e p o s s i b l e through t h e i n a c c u r a t e s e t t i n g o f t h e electrical o p e r a t i n g
c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e photometric s t a n d a r d d u r i n g c a l i b r a t i o n .

16. CHARACTERIZATION O f GONIOPHOTOHETERS

16.1 MECHANICAL ARRANGEMENTS

I n o r d e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e mechanical d e t a i l s of a goniophotometer
t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d :

t y p e o f goniophotometer

40

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

g e o m e t r i c a l dimensions

p e r m i s s i b l e t o t a l weight o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e

p e r m i s s i b l e maximum d i m e n s i o n s o f t h e l i g h t s o u r c e

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

a n g u l a r i n t e r v a l o v e r which t h e luminous i n t e n s i t y can be measured without s c r e e n i n g by p a r t s o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t


measuring d i s t a n c e between l i g h t source and photometer head.

F o r goniophotometers w i t h r o t a t i n g m i r r o r s :

d a t a on t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e m i r r o r .

16.2 ANGLE ENCODING

I n o r d e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e i n s t r u m e n t s used f o r a n g l e encoding t h e
f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n is r e q u i r e d :

t y p e of a n g l e e n c o d i n g

resolution

t y p e o f z e r o encoding

p o s s i b l e d e v i a t i o n s between t h e measured and t h e true a n g l e s .

1 6 . 3 PHOTOMETER HEAD
The p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e photometer head s h o u l d be stated i n a c c o r d a n c e
w i t h t h e relevant C I E recommendations -[61. For photometer heads w i t h l u m i nance i n t e g r a t i o n t h e d a t a a c c o r d i n g t o s e c t i o n 3 . 2 s h o u l d be added.

16.4 PHOTOELECTRONICS AND DATA PROCESSING


I n o r d e r t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p h o t o e l e c t r o n i c s and d a t a p r o c e s s i n g t h e
information i n accordance with t h e relevant C I p u b l i c a t i o n s [ I , 6 ] should
be s u p p l i e d . I n a d d i t i o n t h e f o l l o w i n g s h o u l d be s t a t e d :

t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t e r v a l for t h e illuminance integration.

41
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

1)

Methods o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e performance
radiometers and photometers
P u b l i c a t i o n C I E No. 53 (TC-2.2) 1982

2)

Photometry o f indoor t y p e l u m i n a i r e s with t u b u l a r


f l u o r escent lamps
P u b l i c a t i o n C I E No. 24 (TC-2.4)
1973

3)

Photometry of Luminaires f o r S t r e e t L i g h t i n g
P u b l i c a t i o n CIE No. 27 (IC-2.4)
1973

4)

Photometry of f l o o d l i g h t s
P u b l i c a t i o n s C I E No. 43 (TC-2.4) 1979

5)

I n t e r n a t i o n a l l i g h t i n g vocabulary, 3 r d ed,
P u b l i c a t i o n CIE No. 17 (E-1.1) 1970

6)

Methods o f c h a r a c t e r i z i n g i l l u m i n a n c e meters and


1uminance met ers
P u b l i c a t i o n CIE (TC-2.2) t o be p u b l i s h e d

7)

The b a s i s o f p h y s i c a l photometry
P u b l i c a t i o n CIE No. 18.2 (TC-1.2) 1983

8)

Photometry o f l u m i n a i r e s
P u b l i c a t i o n C I E ( D i v i s i o n 11) t o be p u b l i s h e d
II

9)

H.J.

Hentschel

Uber den E i n f l u 3 der L i c h t s t r k e v e r t e i l u n g a u f d i e


photometrische Grenzentfernung
L i c h t t e c h n i k 12 (1960) p. 673-674

IO) Y.

11) T.E.

Ctolzenberg

D i e Kennzeichnung und Messung d e r L i c h t s t a r k e v e r t e i l u n g von Leuchten f r L e u c h t s t o f f l a m p e n


Tagungsbericht Fachtagung LiTG, SLG, LTAG Salzburg, Ed. 1, p. 238-256

Wightman

Low-reflectance b a c k i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r use i n o p t i -

F. Grum

12) J Johnson

c a l r a d i a t i o n measurement
Color Res. and Appl. 6 (1981) p. 139-142
Zero-length s e a r c h l i g h t photometry system
I l l u m i n a t i n g E n g i n e e r i n g 57 (1962) p. 187-194

42

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

of

CIE 70 8 7

1 3 ) F . Languasca
M. Pasta
P. Soardo

9006345 0003070 797

Photometry o f
photometer

luminaires at

IEN:

A new gonio-

P u b l i c a t i o n C I E No. 50 (1980) p. 180-183

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

14) E. Frederiksen

U n i d i r e c t i o n a l - s e n s i t i v e photometer
L i g h t and L i g h t i n g 60 (1967) p. 46-48

1 5 ) E . Frederiksen

The c o l l i m a t e d l i g h t photometer
Report No. 28, L y s t e k n i s k Laboratorium, Kopenhagen
1981

16) J. Krochmann

A p p a r e i l s modernes de photometrie e t de c o l o r i met r i e


LUX (1979) 102, p. 109-118

17)

Lichtmessung, Messungen an Leuchten


D I N 5032 T e i l 4

18

J. Krochmann

Goniophotometry, methods and performance


Proceedings of t h e symposium on " L i g h t and Radiat i o n Measurement '!I", p. 20-38
Hungarian E l e c t r . Assoc. Budapest 1981

19) L.C. Snyder


P.E. Westlake

An automated high-speed photometer


Journ. I E S 6 (1977) N r . 2, p. 105-109

20) L.A.G. Monard


F. Hengstberger
T . Appenroth
M.E. Thain
C.J. Kok
R . Turner

Luminous f l u x measurements a t t h e NPRL by means


o f a new goniophotometer.
Proc, 10th IMEKO Symp. Photon-Detectors,
Berlin,
1982 p. 205-214
IMEKO S e c r e t a r i a t H 1374 Budapest PO8 457

21) Y. Kurioka

L i g h t d i s t r i b u t i o n photometry i n Japan.
App. O p t i c s 10 (1971) No. 12, p. 2600-2606.

22) C . Morren

Msures l e c t r i q u e s s u r l e s lampes a dcharge


Courant)
(Puissance - Tension
Revue E (Belgium) V o l 4 Nr. 8 (1964) p. 311-327

23) U. Mathis

Anwendung von e l e k t r o n i s c h e n
V o r s c h a l t g e r t e n fr Leuchtstofflampen

Tagunqsbericht LTAG Fachtagung


Graz, 1983

43
Copyright International Commission on Illumination
Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale

~~

~~

~~

CIE 70 87

9006345 0003071 823

Polarisation e r r o r s in distribution measurements


o f luminaires
Journal o f the II1.Eng.Inst. o f Japan, 56 (1972)
p . 537-545

25) D. Frste
C. Sauter
H. Martin

Elimination des Fremdlichtes bei der


tichtstrombestimmung m i t dem Goniophotometer
Licht-Forschung 2 (1980), p. 27-29

--```,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

24) M. Nonaka

44

Copyright International Commission on Illumination


Provided by IHS under license with CIE
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

Not for Resale