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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Foremost I would like to


thanks “Mrs. Deepshikha”
for assigning an interesting
and important task. I like to
thanks to my subject teacher
“Mrs. Anju Mahela” to help
all the students and all
necessary support and
information .Also thanks to
my Friends who helped me in
completing the assignment.
Last but not least my
Parents without their
support and love; I can’t
able to correct my mistakes.
COMMUNICATION
INTRODUCTION
Communication constitutes a very important function of
management. It is said to be the number one problem of
management until communication take place. Without
communication we cannot live or work together in an organized
way. Effective communication is flash or lighting and even more
illuminating. It enables us to understand others and make ourselves
understood. It is an establish fact that managers spend 75 to 90 per
cent of their working time in communicating with others. We can
safely say that good managers are good communicators and poor
communicators.

MEANING AND DEFINITION


The word communication has been derived from the Latin
word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Thus, communication
means sharing of ideas in common. “When we communicate.”
Says Wibur Schramn, “we trying to establish a ‘commonness” with
someone. That is we are trying to share information, an idea or
attitude. The essence of communication is getting the receiver and
sender ‘turned’ together for a particular message.” According to
shorter Oxford English Dictionary, communication means “the
imparting, conveying or exchange of ideas, knowledge, etc,
whether by speech, writing or signs.” Communication takes place
when one person transfers information and understanding to
another person. It refers to exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions,
knowledge and information between two or more persons. There is
a communication when you talk or listen to someone. For instance,
a teacher while delivering his lecture communicates to his students.
But if he speaks or writes in a language which is not
understandable to his students, there is no communication. When
you read a book, its author communicates to you. But
communication does not mean merely written or oral messages. It
includes everything that may be used to convey meanings from one
person to another, e.g., movement of lips or the the wink of an eye
or the waves of hands may convey more meaning than even
written or spoken words. In fact, communication is the process of
conveying message from one person to another so that they are
understood. In business management, ideas, objectives,
observations, instructions, suggestions etc. have to be exchanged
among the managerial personnel and their subordinates operating
at different levels of the organisation for the purpose of planning
and executing the business policies.

The following standard definitions will further help to understand


the meaning and concept of communication in management.

1. Louis A. Allen defines communication as,


“Communication is the sum of the entire thing one person dose
when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. It
is a bridge of meaning. It involves a systematic and continuous
process of telling, listening and understanding.”

2. In the word of Keith Davis, “communication is the


process of passing information and understanding between one
people to another.”

3. Koontz and O’ Donnell is of the opinion


“communication is way that one organisation member shares
meaning and understanding with another.”

We can conclude from the above the definition that in business


communication does a merely sending or receiving message. It is
much more than that. It includes proper understanding of
message, it acceptance and action on it. In the border sense,
communication refers to the whole process of man’s life in
relation to the group and includes exchange of information, a
system of commutating, and the process by which meanings are
exchanged among human beings.
CHARACTERISTICS: NATURE OF
COMMUNICATION

From the analysis of above-mentioned definitions we get the


following essential features of communication:

1. It involves at least two people. Communication involves at


least two person, a sender and receiver. The sender is called
communicator and receiver of the message is known as
communicatee. A person who speaks writes or issues some
instructions is sender and the person for whom the
communication is meant or who receives the message is he
receiver or communicatee.

2. Message is must. A message is the subject matter of


communication, e.g., the contents of the letter or speech, order,
instructions or the suggestions. A communication must convey
some message. If there is no message there is no
communication.

3. Communication may be written, oral or gestural.


Communication is generally understood as spoken or written
words. But reality, it is more than that. It includes everything
that may be used to convey meanings from one person to
another, e.g., movement of lips, or wink of an eye or the wave
of hands may be covey more meaning than written or spoken
words.

4. Communication is a two way process. It involves both


information and understanding. Communication is not complete
unless the receiver has understood the message properly and his
reaction or response is known as sender. Understanding is the
end result of communication but it does not imply agreement.
5. Its primary purpose is to motivate a response.
The primary purpose of communication is to motivate response
or influence human behavior. There is no doubt that
motivatation comes from within but communicator can also
motivate people by good drafting of message proper timing of
communication, etc. to create understanding, communication
should be relevant to the situation. It must always be
remembered that communication is a means of motivating and
not an end itself.

6. Communication may be formal or informal.


Formal communication follows the formal channels provide in
the organisaton structure. For example, the Managing Director
communicates with the departmental heads, say Finance
Manager, finance manager communicates to deputy finance
manager, the deputy finance manager with accounts officer and
so on. In simple words, informal communication, there is no
direct communication between the managing Director and the
accounts clerks.

Informal communication flows from informal channels of


communication which are not provide in the organization
structure. These channels develop among members because of
personal contact through working with each other.

7. It flows up and down and also from side to


side. Communication flows downward from a superior to
subordinates and upward from subordinate to a superior. It also
flows two more person operating at the same level of authority
of ideas feelings, emotion and knowledge and information
between two or more persons.

8. It is an integral part of the process of


exchange. It refers to the ideas, feelings emotion and
knowledge and information between two or persons.
ELEMENT OF COMMINCATION

The basic elements of communication are:

1. Communicator- the sender, speaker, issuer or writer-who


intends to convey or transmit a message,.
2. Communicatee- the receiver for whom the
communication is meant. He receives the information,
order or message.
3. Message- the subject matter of communication i.e., the
content of letter, speech, order, information, idea, or
suggestion.
4. Communication Channel- the media by which the
information and understanding are passed from the
sender to the receiver. It serves as link between the
communicator and the communicatee, i.e., the levels of
organisation or relationships that exist between different
individuals or department of an organization.
5. Response or Feedback- the effect, reply or reaction, of
the information transmitted, on the communicatee i.e.,
successful, no communication or miscommunication.

Seder/communication
/information/idea

Feedback Encoding
follow-up message
selecting media

Receiver
Decoding Action

Element of communication
THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION

1. The communicator first of all formulates the clear idea


about facts, opinions or information he wants to
convey.

2. The idea translated by him into words (spoken or


written) symbols or some other form of message which
expects the receiver to understand. This process is
known as encoding of message.

3. The communicator selects a suitable media for the


transmission of the message, e.g., telephone,, telegraph
or television. The message is conveyed with the help of
media selected.

4. The message is then received by the communicatee. He


tries to understand it by decoding the message.

5. The communicatee acts upon the message as he


understood it.

6. Finally, the effectiveness of communication is


measured through feedback. If the communication
brings in desired changes in the action or behavior of
the receiver, it is said to be a successful
communication. In case, there is no change in action or
behavior, there is no change in communication, and if
it leads to undesirable changes it is a case of
miscommunication.
The process of communication is illustrated in figures below:

SENDER

IDEAS/ MESSAGE

ENCODING OF MESSAGE

CHANNEL,ORAL,WRITTEN,SY

K
FEEDBAC
MBOLS,ETC.
FEEDBAC
K

RECEIVER

DECODING OF
MESSAGE/LISTENING,
REAADING

MEANING/ACTION
NEED OR PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION

The main purpose of communication is to effect change


in someone i.e., to influence action or to secure inaction in
the overall interest of an enterprise. It enables us to
understand others and to make ourselves understood. Without
communication we cannot live or work together in an
organized way. It is a flux that binds people together in an
organization. The basic purpose of communication is to
facilitate and lubricate the organization. It helps management
of planning effectively and controlling efficiently. John G.
Clover has outlined the following important purposes of
communication.
1. To keep employee with informed
2. To provide employees with orders and instructions in
connection with their duties.
3. To solicit information from employees this may aid
management.
4. To make each employee interested in his respective job and
in the work of the company as a whole.
5. To express management’s interest in its personnel.
6. To reduce or prevent labour turnover.
7. To instill each employee with personal pride in being a
member, of the company.
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNCATION
Communication is one of the most important functions of
management. The success of an enterprise depends upon the
effectiveness of communication. It is said to be the nervous
system of enterprise. Nothing happens in management until
communication takes place. Every manager must communicate
in order to get things done through others. It has been
established that managers spend about 75 per cent to 85 per cent
of their working time in communicating with others.
Communication is indispensable for all managerial activities
such as organizing, planning, directing, motivation and
controlling. Its important has been highlighted by Alvin Dodd,
the then president of American Management Association, when
he remarked. “The no.1 management problem today is
communication.”
In the opinion of Chester Bernard, “The first executive
function is to develop and maintain a system of
communication.” further he has called communication as the
foundation of co-operative group activity. Norbert Wlener has
rightly said, that, “communication is the element the binds
organization.”
“Whether we are considering a church, a family, a scout
troop or a business enterprise the transfer of information from
one individual to another is absolutely essential. It is means by
which behavior is modified, change is effective, information is
made productive and goals are achieved” –Koontz and
O’Donnell.
According to O’Donnell, “the achievement of enterprise
goals is of paramount importance and the communication is one
of the important tools available to the manager in seeking to
attain them.”
In the words of George R. Terry, “it serves as a lubricant,
fostering for the smooth operations of management process.”
The importance of communication can be judged from the
following:-

1. BASIS OF DECISION:

Making and planning, communication is essential for decision. It


enables the management to secure information without which it
may not depend upon the quality of communication. Further, the
decision and plans of the management need to be communicated to
the subordinates. Without effective communication, it may not be
possible to issue instructions and orders. Effective communication
helps in proper implementations of plans and politics of the
management.

2. SMOOTH AND EFFICIENT WORKING OF AN


ORGANIZATION:

In the words of George R. Terry, “it serves as a lubricant, fostering


for a smooth operations of management process, “communication
makes possible the smooth and efficient working of an enterprise.
It is only through communication that the management changes
and regulates the actions of the subordinates are the desired
direction.

3. FACILITIES CO- ORDINATION:

Management is the art of getting things done through others and


this objective of management cannot be achieved unless there is
unity of purpose and harmony of effort. Communication through
exchange of ideas and information help to bring about unity of
action in the pursuit of common purpose. It binds the people
together and facilities co –ordination.
4. INCREASES MANAGERIAL EFFICIENCY:
Effective communication increases managerial efficiency. It is
rightly said that COMMUNICATION.”
In the opinion of the Chester Bernard, “the first executive
function is to develop and maintain a system of communication.”
nothing happens in management until communication takes place.
The efficiency of managerial communicates his ability to depend
upon with the members of his organization.

5. PROMOTES CO OPERATION AND INDUSTRIAL


PEACE :
Effective communication creates mutual understanding and trust
among the members of the organization. It promotes co operation
between employer and the employees. Without communication,
there can’t be sound industrial relations and industrial peace. It’s
only through communication that workers can not put their
grievances, problems and the suggestions of the management.

6. HELPS IN ESTABLISHING EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP :


Communication is the basis of effective leadership. There can not
be any relation ship action without effective communication
between the leader and the led. Communication is absolutely
necessary for maintain man relationship in leadership. It brings the
manager and the subordinates in close contact with each other and
helps in establishing the relationship.

7. MOTIVATION AND MORALE:


Communication is the morale by which the means of
behavior of the subordinates is modified and change its effective in
their action workers achieves the goals and the enterprises and
their morale is boosted. Although motivation comes from with in
yet the manager can also motivate people by effective
communication, e.g., proper drafting of message, proper timing of
communication and the way of communication.
8. INCRAESES MANAGERIAL CAPACITY:
Effective communication increases managerial capacity
too. A manager is a human being and having limitations as to time
and energy that he can devote to his activities. He has assign duties
and responsibilities to his subordinates. Through communication a
manager can effectively delegated his authority and responsibilities
to others and thus increases his managerial capacity.

9. EFFECTIVE CONTROL:
Managerial functions of control implies the measurement
of actual performance , comparing it with standard sets by plans
and taking corrective action of deviation , if any , to assures
attainment of enterprises objective according preconceived and
planned acts . Communication acts as a tool of effective control
the plan has to be communicated to the subordinates, the actual
performance has to be communicated and to the top management
and corrective action has to be taken or communicated so as to
achieve the desired goals. All this may not be possible without an
efficient system of communication.

10. JOB SATISFACTION.


Effective communication creates job satisfaction among
employees as it increases mutual trust and confidence
between management and the employees. The gap between
management and the employee is reduced through the
efficient means of communication and sense of
belongingness is created among employees. The work with
zeal and enthusiasm.

11. DEMOCRATIC MANAGEMENT.


Communication is also essential for democratic
management. It helps to achieve workers participation in
management by involving workers in the process of
decision-making. In the absence of an efficient system of
communication, there cannot be any delegation and
decentralization of authority.

12. INCREASE THE PRODUCTIVITY OF


COMMUNCATION:
Productivity of communication saves time and effort. It
increases productivity and reduce cost. Large-scale production
involves a large number of people in the organization. Without
communication, it may be not be possible to work together in a
group and achieve the benefits of large-scale production.

13. PUBLIC RELATIONS.


In the present business world, every business enterprise has to
create and maintain a good corporate image in the society. It is
only through communication that management can present a good
corporate image to the outside world. Effective communication
helps management in maintaining good relations with workers,
customers, suppliers, shareholders, government and community at
large.

METHODS (CHANNELS) OR TYPE OF


COMMUNICATION.

Communication may be classified into several categories on the


following basis:

1. On the basis of organizational structure or relationship:


a) Formal communication ;
b) Informal communication or grapevine.

2. on the basis of flow or direction;


a) Downward communication;
b) Upward communication;
c) Horizontal or sideward communication;
d) Diagonal communication.

3. on the basis of method or media used or expression;


a) Written communication;
b) Oral communication;
c) Gestural or non-verbal communication.

(C) On the basis of relationship or


organizational structure
1. Formal communication. formal communication is that
which takes place through the formal channels of the
organization structure deliberately and consciously establish by
the management. It implies the flow of the information along
the line of authority formally established in the enterprise.
Members of enterprise are expected to communicate with one
and another strictly as per channels laid down in the structure.
For example, when the chief executive issues decisions and
instructions to the subordinates, there is a formal
communication flows upward when the subordinate reports to
the superior. Such communications are generally in writing and
may take any of the following forms:

i). Policy manuals;


ii). Procedural and rule books;
iii). Memoranda papers and orders;
iv). Official meeting;
v).Interview etc.
These categories of communication are illustrated in the following
chart:

CLASSIFACTION OF COMMUNICATION

ON THE BASIS OF RELATIONSHIP ON THE BASIS OF MEDIA

FORMAL INFORMAL WRITTEN ORAL


GESTURAL

ON THE BASIS OF DIRECTION OR FLOW

DOWNWARD UPWARD ORIZONAL DIAGONAL

The main advantage of the formal communication is that it


helps in the fixation of responsibility and maintaining relationship
in the organization. However, it has contained limitations also.
Formal channels of communication is, generally, time consuming,
cumber-some and leads to a good deal of distortion. Formal
channels of communication obstruct free and uninterrupted flow of
information and are not suitable for upward communication as
subordinates will try to present ‘rosy’ information so as to
favorably impress the superiors.
2. Informal communication or grapevine. Communication
arising out of all those channels of communication that fall
outside formal grapevine. It is built around the social
relationship of member of organization. Informal
communication does not follow lines of authority as is the case
of formal communication. it arises due to the personal needs of
the members of an organization and exists in every
organization. Such communication is usually oral and may be
conveyed even by simple glance, gesture, smile or silence.
Informal communication is implicit, spontaneous
multidimensional and varied. It operates with much greater
speed than formal communication. it oftenly works in clusters
of people, i.e. when one person has some information of interest
he passes it on to his informal group and some members of the
group may pass it on to another informal group and so on. It is
why some writers prefer to call it an ‘organization’, ‘bush
telegraph’ or ‘jungle telegraph’.
An organization can make effective use of informal
channel of communication to strengthen the formal channel of
communication. It is serve a very useful purpose in conveying
certain information which cannot be transmitted through the
official channels. It saistisfies the desires of the people, an
opportunity to express fear, doubts and grievances. Informal
communication also helps to improve managerial decisions as
more person are involved in the process of decision- making.
In spite of many advantages, informal communication
has certain weaknesses. Informal communication consists of
facts, half truths, rumors and distorted information. The
informal channels of communication may carry completely
inaccurate information which may harm rather than helps an
organization. Moreover, it is not possible to fix the
responsibility for the origin or flow of information. Howere, for
the efficient working of an any organization both formal and
informal communication are required.
(B). On the basis of flow or direction
i). Downward communication. Communication
between a superior subordinate is known as vertical
communication. Vertical communication may be downward
vertical communication which flow fro a superior to
subordinate. It follows the line of authority from the top to
the bottom of the organization hierarchy. Downward
communication is must in any organization. It is needed:
i). To get things done;
ii). To prepare for changes;
iii). To discourage lack of understanding and suspicion;
and
iv). To let the members of the organization develop
feeling of pried of being well- informed about all
organization matters.
The important examples of downward communication
are:
i). Notice;
ii). Circulars;
iii). Instructions;
iv). Orders;
v).Letters;
vi). Memos;
vii). Bulletins;
viii). Handbooks;
ix). Annual reports;
x).Loudspeaker announcements ; and
xi). Group meeting, etc.

ii). Upward communication. Upward communication


means the flow of information from the lower levels of the
organization to the higher levels of authority; it passes from
subordinate to superior as that from worker to foemen to
manager, from manger to general manager and general
manager to the chief executive or the board of directors. It
includes opinions, ideas, suggestions, complaints, grievances,
appeals, reports, etc.
Upward communication is very important as it serves as
the feedback on the effectiveness of downward communication.
Management is able to know how well its policies, plans
objectives are followed by those working at lower levels of the
organization. It keeps management informed about the progress
of the work and difficulties faced in performance, on the basis
of upward communication, the management revises its plan and
polices and makes further planning.
Upward communication is needed:
i). To create receptiveness of communication ;
ii). To create a sense of belongingness through active
participation ;
iii). To evaluate the effectiveness of communication ;
iv). To increase morale of employees ;
v). To make improvements in managerial decisions ;
vi). To co-ordinate efforts ; and
vii). To know ideas of each individual in the organization;

The important examples of upward communication are;


i). Report ;
ii). Meetings ;
iii). Interviews ;
iv). Conferences ;
v). Letters ;
vi). Complaints ;
vii). Suggestions ;
viii). Surveys ;
ix). Union publication ;

3. Horizontal, lateral or sideward communication. The


transmission of information and understanding between
people on the same level of organization hierarchy is called
the horizontal communication. This type of communication is
known as lateral or sideward or crosswise communication.
Usually, it pertains to inter departmental communication, i.e.,
the communication between two departmental managers
working at the same level of organization or among
subordinates working under one boss. It enables the
managers working at the same level to and promotes mutual
understanding. It unable the managers working at the same
level to exchange information and co-ordinate their activities
without referring all matters to the higher level of
management. As shown in the diagram of flows of
communication supervisor A will often is in communication
with superior B for co-ordination and integration of various
activities. Such communication is essential in all
organizations.
The horizontal communication is generally of an
informal nature. Whenever a departmental head requires
some information from another departmental head, he tends
to contact him directly. However, this type of communication
can be oral or written.
4. Diagonal communication. The transfer of information
between people who are neither in the same department nor
on the same level of organization hierarchy is called diagonal
communication. For example when the assistant marketing
manager communities with the accounts clerk directly, it is
the case of diagonal communication. This of communication
increases the organizational efficiency by spending up
information and cutting across departmental barriers.

(C) On The Basis of Media or Expression


The term communication media refers to the medium
used in the transmission of message and mutual
understanding. Word, pictures and actions are the media
used for exchanging information and understanding
between different persons. The most important medium
through which communication takes place is the words.
Pictures in the form of charts, models or blue prints and
gestures such as smile, silence twinkling of eyes, etc. are
used to make the communication effective. The
communication, purpose, audience, qualities of the
communicator and the situation must be considered in
selecting the media of communication. The various media
of communication have been studied as under:
1) Written communication
2) Oral communication
3) Gestural or Non- verbal communication.
1. Written Communication. Communication through words
may be in the written or oral. Written communication implies
transmission of message in black and white. It includes
diagrams, pictures, graphs, etc. reports, policies rules,
procedures, instructions, agreements, etc. have to be
transmitted in writing for efficient running of the
organization. Written communication ensures that everyone
concerned has the same information. It provides as
permanent record of communication for future reference.
Written instruction is essential when the action called for is
vital and complicated. To be effective, written
communication should be clear, concise, correct and
complete. It may take the following forms:
 Circulars;
 Memoranda;
 Magazines;
 Rule and procedure books;
 Instructions;

Merits or Advantage of Written Communication

i). It ensures transmission of information in uniform


manner, i.e. everyone concerned has the same
information.
ii). It provides a permanent record of communication for
future reference.
iii). It is an idea way of transmitting lengthy message.
iv). It ensures little risk of unauthorized alteration in the
massage.
v). It tends to be complete, clear, precise and correct.
vi). It can be quoted as a legal evidence in case of any
disputes,
Demerits or Disadvantage of Written Communication.
i). It is expensive
ii). It time consuming.
iii). It becomes difficult to maintain secrecy about a written
communication.
iv). It is very formal and lack of personal touch.
v). It encourages red-tapism and involves so many formalities.
vi). It may be interpreted in a different manner by different
people.

2) Oral Communication. Oral or a verbal


communication implies the conveying of message through
spoken words. It is face to face communication between
individuals and includes communication through telephone,
intercom and public speech, etc. in every organization, a
greater deal of information is exchanged orally and it is
generally preferred to written communication. “the human
voice can impart the message with meaning and shading
which even long pages of written words simply cannot
conveyed.” the important feature of oral communication is
that real meaning conveyed by manner or tone of the voice
or the facial expressions of communicator and
communicatee. It may take the following forms depending
upon the need and situation:
).i Face to face talks.
).ii Telephonic conversation.
).iii Interviews.
).iv Meetings.
).vLectures.
).vi Conferences.
).vii Symposiums.
).viii Radio talks, TV. and cinema shows.
Merits or Advantage of Oral Communication.
i). It is less expensive.
ii). It is quicker and saves in time.
iii). It is more effective than written communication.
iv). It establish a personal touch and leads greater
understanding.
v). Misunderstanding removed then and there.
vi). Immediate reaction.

Demerits or disadvantage of oral communication.


i). It reliable.
ii). It is influenced by self-interest and attitude of the people.
iii). Oral communication has the tendency of being distorted.
iv). It provides no records for future reference.
v). It is not suitable for lengthy message.
vi). It is does not provide sufficient time for thinking before
conveying the message.

3) Gestural or non- verbal communication.


Communication does not mean merely written or oral
message. It includes everything that may be used to convey
meaning from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips
or the wink of an eyes or the way of the hands or finger.
Expression through body parts is known as gestural or non-
verbal communication.
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Communication is the nervous system of an organisation. It is said
to be a no.1 problem of today. “It serves as the lubricant, fostering
for the smooth operations in many process.” Thus, it is very
essential for the management to maintain an efficient flow of
communication in all directions. But in practice all messages are
not effectively transmitted received. Several obstructions,
blockades, hurdles, stoppages or bottlenecks. Called barriers in
communication distort the message and make communication
ineffective. These communication barriers lead to
misunderstanding and conflict between men living in the same
communicaty, working on the same job and even persons living in
different parts of the world who even do not know each other. A
large number of managerial problems are the result of inefficient or
faulty communication. Significant improvement in managerial
efficiency can be made if communication barriers are toned down
or minimized. Some of the important barriers to communication
have been discussed below:

 Physical barriers. A communication is two way process,


distance between the sender and the receiver of message is an
important barrier to communication. Noise and
environmental factors also block communication.

 Personal barriers. Personal factors like different in


judgment, social value, inferiority complex, bias, attitude,
pressure of time, inability to communicate, etc. widen the
psychological distance between the communicator and the
communcatee. Credibility gap, i.e., inconsistency between
what one says and one dose. Also acts as barriers to
communication.

 Semantic or language barriers. Semantic is science of


meaning. The same words and symbols carry different
meanings to different people. Difficulties in communication
arise when the sender and the receiver of message use the
words or symbols in different senses. The meaning intended
by the sender may be quiet different from the meaning
followed by the receiver. People interpret the message in
term of their own behavior and experience. Sometimes, the
language used by the sender may not all be followed by the
receiver.

 Status barriers. Status or position in the hierarchy of an


organisation is one of the fundamental barriers that obstruct
free flow of information to his subordinates so as to maintain
status differences. Subordinates, usually, tend to convey only
those things which the superior would appreciate. This
creates distortion in upward communication. Such selective
communication is also known as filtering. Sometimes, “the
superior feels that he cannot fully admit to his subordinates
those problems, conditions or result which may also affect
adversely on his ability and judgment. To do so would
undermine his position as a superior being in the formal
organisation.” The cause’s distortion in downward
communication. A subordinate may also feel reluctant to
report his shortcomings or may not seek clarification on
instructions which are subject to different interpretations for
fear of loss of prestige in the eyes of superior.

 Organization structure barriers. Effective


communication largely depends upon sound organisation
structure. If the structure is complex involving sevral layers
of management, the cuts off a bit of information. In the words
of W.C. Bennis,” communication gets distorted particularly
as it goes up the hierarchy.” Moreover, information traveling
through formal structure introduces rigidity and causes –
delay because of long lines of communication, similarly,.
Lack of instruction for further conveying information to
subordinates heavy pressure of work at certain level of
authority also act as barriers to effective communication.
 Barriers due to inadequate attention. Inadequate attention
to the message makes communication less effective and the
message is likely to be misunderstood. In attention may arise
because of over business of the communcatee or because of
the message being contrary to his expectation and briefs. The
simple failure to read notices. Minutes and reports is also a
common feature. Whatever is the reason, communication
remains only a one way process and there is no
understanding of the message, if the receiver pays little
attention to the message. In the words of Joseph Dooher,
“listening is the most neglected skill of communication.” half
listening is like racing your engine with gear in neutral. You
use gasoline but you get nowhere.

 Premature Evaluation. Some people have the tendency to


form a judgment before listening to the entire message. This
is known as premature evaluation. As discussed in the
previous point, “half-listening is like racing your engine with
the gear in neutral. You use gasoline but you get nowhere.”
premature evolution distorts understandings and acts as a
barrier to effective communication.

 Emotion Attitude. Barriers may also arise due to emotional


attitude because when emotion is strong, it is difficult to
know the frame of mind of other person or group. Emotional
attitude of both, the communicator as well as the
communcatee, obstruct free flow of transmission and
understanding of messages.

 Resistance to change. It is a general tendency of human


beings to stick to old and customary patterns of life. They
may resist change to maintain status quo. Thus, when new
idea is being communicated to introduce a change, it is likely
to be overlooked or even opposed. This resistance to change
creates an important obstacle to effective communication.
 Barriers due to Lack of mutual trust. Communication
means sharing of ideas in common. “when we communicate,
we are trying to establish a commonness.” Thus, one will
freely transfer information and understanding with another
only when there is mutual trust between the two. When there
is a lack of mutual trust between the communicator and the
communicatee, the message is not followed. Credibility gap,
i.e., inconsistency in saying and doing, also causes lack of
mutual trust which acts as a basis obstacle to effective
communication.

 Other Barriers. There may be many other barriers, such as


unqualified assumptions, lack of ability to communicate,
mirage of too much knowledge or closed minds,
communication overload, shortage of time, etc., which cause
distortion or obstruction in the free flow of communication
and thus makes it ineffective. Failure to retain or store
information for future use becomes a barrier to
communication when the information is needed in future.