This paper presents the optimal power flow solutions under variable load conditions. In this article we present the recent trend towards non-deterministic (random) search techniques and hybrid methods for OPF and give the conclusions. These methods have become popular because they have a theoretical advantage over the deterministic methods with respect to handling of non convexity, dynamics, and discrete variables. Present commercial OPF programs can solve very large and complex power systems optimization problems in a relatively less time. In recent years many different solution methods have been suggested to solve OPF problems. The paper contributes a comprehensive discussion of specific optimization techniques that can be applied to OPF Solution methodology.

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This paper presents the optimal power flow solutions under variable load conditions. In this article we present the recent trend towards non-deterministic (random) search techniques and hybrid methods for OPF and give the conclusions. These methods have become popular because they have a theoretical advantage over the deterministic methods with respect to handling of non convexity, dynamics, and discrete variables. Present commercial OPF programs can solve very large and complex power systems optimization problems in a relatively less time. In recent years many different solution methods have been suggested to solve OPF problems. The paper contributes a comprehensive discussion of specific optimization techniques that can be applied to OPF Solution methodology.

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Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 3), January 2015, pp.84-88

RESEARCH ARTICLE

www.ijera.com

OPEN ACCESS

Asmita D. Chandekar1, Dutt Subroto2

P.G. Student, Dept. of Energy Management System, Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Research &

Technology, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India1.

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Energy Management System ,Rajiv Gandhi College of Engineering, Research &

Technology, Chandrapur, Maharashtra, India2

ABSTRACT: This paper presents the optimal power flow solutions under variable load conditions. In this

article we present the recent trend towards non-deterministic (random) search techniques and hybrid methods

for OPF and give the conclusions. These methods have become popular because they have a theoretical

advantage over the deterministic methods with respect to handling of non convexity, dynamics, and discrete

variables. Present commercial OPF programs can solve very large and complex power systems optimization

problems in a relatively less time. In recent years many different solution methods have been suggested to solve

OPF problems. The paper contributes a comprehensive discussion of specific optimization techniques that can

be applied to OPF Solution methodology.

KEYWORDS: Optimal Power Flow (OPF),Optimization techniques , KarushKuhnTucker (KKT).

I. INTRODUCTION

A progressive increase of the load and the

deregulation of the electric energy Systems have

added to the complexity of determining adequate

solutions for the electrical power system steady state

operation problem. Therefore the study of voltage

collapse and Optimal Power Flow Solutions acquires

a great significance and there is a need for

methodologies which are able to simultaneously

analyze these two aspects to indicate the behavior of

power systems, being operated near the maximum

loadability limit. Different methodologies were

proposed to calculate the maximum loadability limit

of power systems. The approach presented in [1]

proposes the determination of this limit through the

computation of the steady state multiple solutions. In

reference [2], sensitivity relationships between the

power system variables are used to calculate the

critical load. The Singular Value Decomposition of

the conventional NewtonRaphson Jacobian matrix

was also applied [3]. The parameterization of the

steady state power system equations was also used to

formulate the problem of maximum loadability [4],

[5]. These two last works applied the continuation

method to track the load flow solution for an

increasing system demand.

The OPF algorithms have been existing since

sixties and have been extensively used to asses the

economic aspect of power system operation. Some of

these algorithms apply parametric optimization

techniques, some use different versions of the

Continuation method [6][12]. Some of these

methodologies are based on the Newton OPF method

[13]. The adequate combination of the Continuation

methods with the optimization algorithms can

provide a high potential tool for power system

www.ijera.com

for the solution of the OPF problem .Recently, the

performance of Interior Point (IP) algorithms in

solving linear programming problems has led to

many applications of these algorithms to the

nonlinear OPF problem [15][18]. The efficiency of

finding the optimal solution and the effective way of

handling the inequality constraints have been claimed

as its main features. Some of these works proposed

the use of an OPF algorithm to compute the point of

maximum loadability of the power systems via

nonlinear versions of Interior Points methods [17],

[18]. The use of optimization algorithms for the

study of heavily loaded systems allows the

representation of all the operational limits and,

depending on the OPF formulation, the adoption of

an criterion to be optimized [14], [17], [18]. The not

well known steady state behavior of power systems

being optimally operated under heavy load can be, in

this way, better analyzed.

A research work on a methodology that

combines the Continuation method with a nonlinear

version of the Interior Point algorithm can be worked

upon where the first will provide a sequence of

estimates for the solution of the KarushKuhn

Tucker (KKT) conditions from a base case to the

point of maximum loadability. Each solution of this

sequence can be determined through the OPF

Interior Point algorithm. This combination may

allows the optimal tracking of the load growth, even

in the neighborhood of the feasibility limit, where the

Newtons solver is bound to diverge due to the illconditioning of the Jacobian of the KKT conditions

[14].

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 3), January 2015, pp.84-88

II. THE MAXIMUM LOADABILITY

PROBLEM

The Solving the maximum loadability problem

gives the maximum real and reactive power demand

that a power system is able to bear, while operating at

a stable point (i.e., one which does not change

considerably for small increments on the systems

parameters such as load or operational limits), that

respects a set of pre-defined operational limits. A

steady state formulation of this problem can be made

in terms of the load flow system of equations. The

parameterization of the bus loads gives a modified set

of power balance equations, in which the

load increase direction is explicitly represented:

(1)

Where is the load parameter g(x) is the set of

power flow equations and d is the pre-specified load

increase direction.

In subject to this case, the calculation of the

maximum loadability of power systems will consists

of solving (1) to find the complex bus voltages

corresponding to the maximum value of .For an

optimally operated system the maximum loadability

problem is to find the maximum value of for which

problem p()

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method). However, it can be shown that near the

feasibility limit the Jacobian of the KKT conditions

of P()is ill-conditioned [14] which may causes an

additional difficulty in the tracking of the solution of

P()up to the maximum value of . Thus the analysis

of the OPF behavior near the maximum loadability

limit must be done with algorithms which can

diminish the problem of ill conditioning observed

near such limit. This is the main motivation of the

research.

The application of the Interior Point algorithms

to solve problem P() consists basically of: a)

converting the inequality constraints in equality

constraints, through nonnegative slack variables; and

b) adding a logarithmic barrier function to the

objective function, to preserve the non negativity

condition of the slack variables. The modified

parameterized

optimization problem PM() is:

(6)

Min f(x)

subject to

(2)

g(x, ) = 0

h(x, ) + s = 0

subject to

g(x, ) = 0

h(x, ) = 0

(3)

(4)

where

P(), is composed of the active power generations,

bus voltage magnitudes and angles, transformer tap

settings and phase shifter angles. The objective

function, f(x) , can represent the power generation

cost, the transmission losses, the voltage deviation

from a pre-specified voltage level or any combination

of these three indices. The set of inequality

constraints, h(x, ), which comprises the upper and

lower limits of the decision variables and functional

inequalities such as the limits on the generated

reactive power and line flows, can also be dependent

on the bus loads:

h(x, ) = h(x) + d1

(5)

direction.

The solution P() can be tracked for increasing

until the maximum loadability limit is reached. The

difficulties to solve this nonlinear optimization

problem are well known, and presently most of the

algorithms which were successful in its resolution are

based on the solution of the its pure or modified KKT

www.ijera.com

(7)

(8)

s > 0 is the vector of slack variables

p

is the number of inequality

constraints

The interior point OPF model (6)(8) is, a

parameterized model with two distinct parameters

and . The proposed methodology will consists of

changing each of these parameters at a time: in the

predictor step, will be increased so that a new load

level is considered; in the corrector step, will be

decreased so that, at the end of the correctors

iterations, the original OPF problem is solved. We

are analyzing the behavior of the OPF solutions for

increasing , while the optimal solution will be

tracked for varying . Nevertheless, Interior Point

methods can also be interpreted as a special class of

parametric optimization methods [19].

An additional information regarding the behavior

of the system near the collapse point is provided by

the paramererized optimization model. The optimal

operating point and the operational limit have been

85 | P a g e

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 3), January 2015, pp.84-88

well considered . This limit plays an important role in

deciding the maximum variation in voltage and the

sensitivities that can be calculated with the

parameterized model. When limits are considered,

the optimal solution trajectories varies continuously

with only in those intervals where no new limit

becomes active and a break-point appears upon

the activation of a new inequality constraint. As a

consequence, indices based on the tangent vector and

also some sensitivities which are a by product of the

approach, are valid only for small intervals of

variation of where no new limit is reached.

www.ijera.com

The results have been obtained keeping in mind

the three categories

i)

Optimal power flow behavior near the

loadability limit;

ii)

Efficiency Analysis of the

proposed

methodology and

iii)

Analysis of the critical bus indices and the

sensitivity of the maximum load with

respect to reactive power injections.

1.06

CPF Curve

Prediction-Correction Curve

1.05

1.04

1.03

1.02

1.01

1

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Figure 1 CPF and Prediction Curve for three bus with load at 5 p.u.

Vm at bus 4 w.r.t. load (p.u.) at 5

1.06

1.04

1.02

CPF Curve

Prediction-Correction Curve

1

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Figure 2 CPF and Prediction Curve for four bus with load at 5 p.u.

www.ijera.com

86 | P a g e

ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 1( Part 3), January 2015, pp.84-88

www.ijera.com

1.4

CPF Curve

Prediction-Correction Curve

1.2

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Figure 3 CPF and Prediction Curve for five bus with load at 5 p.u.

Vm at bus 6 w.r.t. load (p.u.) at 5

1.2

CPF Curve

Prediction-Correction Curve

1.1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Figure 4 CPF and Prediction Curve for six bus with load at 5 p.u.

no of bus = 6

loadvarloc =

6

For a specific range of the load parameter a

parameterized OPF algorithm is worked upon which

tracks the system load variation and this algorithm

uses continuation method on a primaldual interior

point method.

Some insight on the behavior of power systems

being optimally operated near a feasibility limit is

being provided implying parameterization to allow

the resolution of the OPF problem for critical loading

conditions.

Critical variables and operational indices have

been worked upon to provide the Sensitivity details

of the system.

www.ijera.com

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