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Chemistry 101 Laboratory

Date________________________________________
Name_______________________________________
Experiment 4
Quantitative Analysis of A Hydrate

This experiment demonstrates the quantitative aspect of a chemical change. The substance to be
analyzed is a hydrate. A hydrated compound contains a fixed number of water molecules as part of the
crystal structure of the compound. The hydrates are not mixtures but chemical compounds; they follow the
law of definite proportions. The water molecules in a hydrate can be removed upon heating.
A.xH2O(s) A(s) + x H2O(g).
For example:

CuSO4.5H2O(s) CuSO4(s) + 5H2O(g)

In this experiment, you are going to heat a hydrate and measure the masses before and after
heating. Based on the measured masses, you can determine the number of water per formula unit of the
compound and the empirical formula of the hydrate.

EQUIPMENT
Metal crucible and lid, tongs, wire gauze, ring stand, iron ring, clay triangle, gas burner, and
balance.
PROCEDURE
1.
2.

Clean a metal crucible and lid with tap water.


Place the crucible and lid on a clay triangle, then heat them with a strong blue flame for 5 minutes
to drive off the moisture.
3. Turn off the flame and let the crucible cool down to room temperature.
4. Measure the mass of the crucible and lid by using the analytical balance (Make sure you obtain all
significant figures).
5. Obtain a simple of the unknown hydrate and place about a half of the sample in the crucible.
6. Measure the mass of the crucible, lid, and hydrate by using the same analytical balance (Make
sure you obtain all significant figures).
7. Heat the crucible gently for 10 minutes with the lid partially covering its top.
8. Adjust the flame to strong two-cone blue color and continue heating the crucible for another 15
minutes.
9. At the end of the heating period, completely cover the crucible with the lid. Turn off the flame and
let the crucible cool to room temperature.
10. Measure the mass of the crucible, lid, and residue by using the same analytical balance (Make
sure you obtain all significant figures).
11. Repeat the steps 1 to 10 for a second run using another half of the sample.

RESULTS
Run #1
1.

Unknown sample number

2.

Mass of the crucible, lid, and hydrate

3.

Mass of the crucible, lid, and residue (anhydrous product)

4.

Mass of the empty crucible and lid

5.

Mass of the hydrate (before heating)

6.

Mass of the water (lost in the heating)

7.

% water in the hydrate

8.

True % water in the hydrate (obtain from instructor)

9.

% error ( |measured% true%| / (true%) 100%

Run #2

The following is optional


10. Mass of the anhydrous product
11. Molar mass of the anhydrous product (obtain from instructor)
12. Moles of the anhydrous product
13. Moles of water = (mass of water in step 6) / (molar mass of water)
14. Find the smaller value in steps 12 and 13 and divide both values by the smaller one. Report your mole
ratio of anhydrous substance to water:
15. The empirical formula of the hydrate is

CALCULATIONS
Perform your calculations on the right hand side of your notebook.

CONCLUSIONS