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A small office building with the column loads shown below is founded 3 m deep into a

sand stratum with a unit weight of 18 kN/m3. The foundation is the mat shown below. All

the columns are 0.5 m x 0.5 m. The concrete strength is f ’c = 20.7 MN/m2 and the steel

yield strength is fy = 413.7 MN/m2. Determine their reinforcement requirements in the y-

direction only.

460

Solution:

Step 1: Find the soil pressures, the location of the soil reaction’s resultant and the

eccentricities in the x and y directions.

The service load = (400 × 2) + (500 × 2) + 450 + 350 + (1500 × 4) + (1200 × 2) = 11, 000 kN

The moments of inertia of the mat in the x and y-directions are,

xy 3 16.5 × 21.53

IX = = = 13, 670 m 4

12 12

x 3 y 16.53 x 21.5

IY = = = 8, 048 m 4

12 12

To find the eccentricity in x and y directions, take moments about the axes.

(11,000)x’ = (8 m)(500+1500+1500+500)

+(16 m)(450+1200+1200+350)

16.5

x’ = 7.56 m, which translated to the mat’s centroid gives ex = − 7.56 = 0.69 m

2

(11,000)y’ = (7 m)(1500+1500+1200) + (14 m)(1500+1500+1200) +

(21)(400+500+450)

21.5

y’ = 10.60 m, translated to the mat’s centroid gives ey = − 10.60 = −0.15 m

2

Let us factor the applied loads: 1.7(Service Loads) = 1.7(11,000 kN) = 18,700 kN

The two eccentricities ex and ey create moments about the centroid. The soil reaction is no

longer uniform, and varies linearly between the columns. These moments are:

The soil reaction pressure at any point under the mat is found from the relation:

461

R M yx Mx y 18, 700 12, 903( x) 2,805 ( y )

q= ± ± = ± ±

A Iy Ix 16.5 × 21.5 8, 048 13, 665

Therefore, q = 52.7 ± 1.6 x ± 0.21 y kN / m2

Step 3. Using the equation for q, prepare a table of its value at points A through J.

(kN/m2) (m) (m) (m) (m) (kN/m2)

B 52.7 0 0 10.5 2.21 54.91

C 52.7 8 12.8 10.5 2.21 67.71

D 52.7 8 -8.16 -10.5 -2.21 63.29

E 52.7 0 0 -10.5 -2.21 50.50

F 52.7 -8 -12.8 -10.5 -2.21 37.7

G 52.7 -4 -6.4 10.5 2.21 48.51

H 52.7 -4 -6.4 -10.5 -2.21 44.10

I 52.7 4 6.4 10.5 2.21 61.31

J 52.7 4 6.4 -10.5 -2.21 56.9

Step 4. Determine the effective depth d and the thickness T of the mat.

a) Check a critical edge column (for example, one of the 1.5 MN at the left edge):

φ (0.34) f 'c ( bo d ) = (0.85)(0.34) 20.7 × (1.5 + 2d )(d ) U = 2 MN

d2 + 0.75 d – 0.76 0

− b ± b − 4ac

2

−0.75 ± (0.75)2 − 4(1)(−0.76)

d= = = 0.57 m

2a 2(1)

b) Check the largest corner column (the 0.45 MN at top right corner):

d = 0.36 m (This does not control).

c) Check the most critical internal column (the 1.5 MN):

b0 = 4(0.5 + d) = 2 + 4d

462

0.85(0.34)( 20.7 )(2 + 4d )(d ) = 2 MN

5.26d 2 + 2.63d − 2 = 0

d = 0.415m

∴ use d = 23 inches or 585 mm

q A + qG 42.11 + 48.5 kN

q1 = = = 45.31 2

2 2 m

qH + qF 44.1 + 37.7 kN

q2 = = = 41 2

2 2 m

Strip GIJH (W = 8 m)

q1 = = 54.91 2

3 m

q2 = = 50.5 2

3 m

61.31 + 67.71 kN

q1 = = 64.51 2

2 m

63.29 + 56.9 kN

q2 = = 60.1 2

2 m

463

Strip GIJH.

Q1 = 1.7(500) = 850 kN

Q2 = 1.7(1500) = 2550 kN

Q3 = 1.7(1500) = 2550 kN

Q4 = 1.7(500) = 850 kN

427.52 kN/m 415.76 kN/m

433.4 kN/m

421.64 kN/m 409.9 kN/m

Step 6. Find the maximum positive moments for each span at midpoints a, b & c.

Ma = 0 M A = (850 × 3.5 m) −

( 439.3 + 433.4 ) (3.52 ) + M =0

A

2 2

∴ M A = −302.36 kN-m/m

Mb = 0

(

(439.3 + 415.76) 10.5

2

+ Mb = 0

)

2 2

∴ M b = 5718 kN-m/m

M d = (850 × 7 m) −

( )

(439.3 + 427.52) 7

2

+ Md = 0

2 2

∴ M d = 4668.5 kN-m/m

464

d = 23 inches = 685 mm , f `c = 3 ksi (20.7 MN / m 2 ), f y = 60 ksi (413.7 MN / m 2 )

As f y Mu

a= AS =

0.85 f `c b φ ⋅ f y (d − a 2 )

min = 200/60000 = 0.0033 As-min= 0.0033(23)(12) = 0.91 in2 < 1.68 in2 Good

Top 1.3 in2

Negative moment:

∴ Use #9 @ 9” top.

Use top and bottom reinforcing throughout the mat in the y-direction.

465

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