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HALLIBURTON

NEUTRON TOOLS
EPITHERMAL
THERMAL
PULSED

NEUTRON
TMD
TMD-L
PSGT
RMT
Spectral

Flow

CLASSIFICATIONS OF
NEUTRONS
HIGH

ENERGY

FAST
INTERMEDIATE
EPITHERMAL
THERMAL

NEUTRON CLASSIFICATIONS /
INTERACTIONS
Name
High
Energy

Energy
> 10 MeV

Fast

10 MeV1MeV

1MeVIntermediate 10 eV
Epithermal 10 eV0.1 eV
Thermal
0.025 eV

Ineractions
Inelastic/
Elastic
Absorption
Inelastic/
Elastic
Elastic
Elastic
Elastic/
Absorption

Comments
TMD, TMD-L, PSGT
14 MeV netrons

Source
Neutron
Generator

DSNT, DSEN, CNS,SWN


4.6 MeV neutrons

Chemical
Am-Be
Source

NEUTRON/GAMMA LIFE CYCLE


High Energy

Fast

INELASTIC/ELASTIC
ABSORPTION

IntermediateEpithermal

Thermal

TMDL,
RMT

ELASTIC

FM

S
C
TI AY
AS R
EL MA
IN AM
G

E
R
TU A
P
M
CA AM S
G AY
R

ELASTIC/
ABSORPT

PSGT,RMT
R C/O, R Ca/Si

DSEN

DSEN

time ACTIVATION GAMMA RAYS

DSN
T

DSNT

SpFl

Water
Flow

NEUTRON INTERACTIONS
WITH MATTER
INELASTIC
ELASTIC

SCATTERING

SCATTERING

THERMAL NEUTRON

ABSORPTION

INELASTIC SCATTERING
Target
Nucleus

Target Nucleus
returns to original state

Target Nucleus
in an exited state

Gamma
Rays

Fast
Neutron

INELASTIC
KE(before) GAMMA
= KE(recoil) +RAYS
KE(scattered)
KE BEFORE KE

AFTER

(RECOIL)

KE

AFTER

(SCATT)

ELASTIC SCATTERING
SCATTERED
Scattered Neutron
NEUTRON
INCIDENT
NEUTRON
Incident Neutron

= Scattering Angle

= SCATTERING ANGLE
= Recoil Angle
= RECOIL
ANGLE
RECOIL
Recoil Nucleus
NUCLEUS

= KE(recoil)
+ KE(scattered)
KE BEFORE = KE(before)
KE AFTER (RECOIL)
+ KE
AFTER (SCATT)

ELASTIC HEAD-ON COLLISION

( FE ) max loss

4M

2
1 M

M = Mass of struck nucleus in AMU


M = 1, for protons or neutrons
(FE)max loss = Maximum fractional energy
loss of neutron

MAXIMUM FRACTIONAL ENERGY LOSS


Element

Mass

Max. Energy Loss

Hydrogen

1 AMU

100%

Carbon

12 AMU

28%

Oxygen

16 AMU

22%

Aluminum

27 AMU

14%

Lead

207 AMU

2%

CROSS SECTION
The term "Cross Section" can
be thought of as a measure of
the probability that a nuclear
event will occur between a
particle and a target.
Cross section is usually
expressed in terms of the
effective area which a single
target presents to the incoming
particle

CROSS SECTIONS
SLOWING

SECTION

CAPTURE

DOWN CROSS

CROSS SECTION

Element
Symbol

Cross Section

Collisions to 0.025
eV

SLOWING
DOWN
AND
H
0.30
20.0
18
Be
0.01
6.1SECTIONS
87
CAPTURE
CROSS
Capture

Slowing

700.00

3.0

105

0.00

4.8

115

1.88

10.0

130

0.00

4.1

150

Na

0.51

3.5

215

Mg

0.40

3.6

227

Al

0.23

1.5

251

Si

0.13

1.7

261

0.53

1.5

297

Cl

31.60

10.0

329

2.20

1.5

362

Ca

0.43

9.5

371

Fe

2.50

11.0

514

Cd

2500.00

5.3

1028

NEUTRON MIGRATION PROFILE


SMALL
HYDROGEN
CON.
LOW POROSITY
HIGH COUNT
RATE

SOURCE

THERMAL
NEUTRON
DIFFUSION
PHASE

DETECT

LARGE
HYDROGEN
CON.
HIGH POROSITY
LOW
COUNT RATE

FAST
NEUTRON
MODERATION
PHASE

HYDROGEN EFFECT ON
NEUTRON TOOLS
In a formation with large
amount of hydrogen, source
neutrons will be slowed more
quickly than in formation with
little hydrogen.
HIGH HYDROGEN CONTENT = LOW COUNTS

Element
Symbol

Cross Section
Capture

Collisions to 0.025
eV

Slowing

0.30

20.0

18

Be

0.01

6.1

87

700.00

3.0

105

0.00

4.8

115

1.88

10.0

130

0.00

4.1

150

Na

0.51

3.5

215

Mg

0.40

3.6

227

Al

0.23

1.5

251

Si

0.13

1.7

261

0.53

1.5

297

Cl

31.60

10.0

329

2.20

1.5

362

Ca

0.43

9.5

371

Fe

2.50

11.0

514

Cd

2500.00

5.3

1028

TWO IMPORTANT
ELEMENTS FOR
NEUTRON THEORY
.
ANALYSIS
Two elements, hydrogen and
chlorine, dominate the response of
neutron tools. Hydrogen provides the
best material for slowing neutrons to
a thermal level. On the other hand
chlorine is a voracious devourer of
thermal neutron, absorbing them a
hundred times faster than most
other elements.

CHARACTERISTIC LENGTHS
* Slowing DownLength
Length (L
speaking) the
* Thermalizing
(Lse) :: (crudely
(crudely
* Thermal Diffusion Length (Lt ) : (crudely speaking)
average distance
traveled
by a fast
neutron in
going
speaking)
the
average
distance
travelled
by
a
*
Total
Migration
Length
(M):
(crudely
the average distance the neutron travels from the
from the
source
energy
at 4.6MeV
tovalue
the energy
level
neutron
in
going
from
an
energy
of
1.46
point
it first reaches
the thermal
level
at 0.025 eV to
speaking)
the
square
of
the
three
of
1.46eV.
L
is
mainly
a
function
of
hydrogen
s
eV
to
0.025
eV.
its capture still at the thermal level (0.025 eV). Lt is a
characteristic
lengths squared:
concentration.
function, not only of the hydrogen content, but of the
2
concentration
of (L
elements
with)2high capture cross
M 2 = (Ls )2 +
)
+
(L
e
t
section, (e.g. chlorine).

This length can be considered (crudely


again) the total average distance the
neutron travels from source to capture.

CHARACTERISTIC LENGTHS

Porosity
%

Slowing Down
Length L s
(cm)

3
11
23
34
50
100

21.0
15.4
12.3
10.8
9.6
7.8

Thermal Diffusion
Length ( L t ) (cm)
Fresh Water
Salt Water

9.8
8.0
6.3
5.4
4.4
2.8

8.6
5.6
3.7
2.9
2.1
1.2

Total
Migration
Length M
(cm) Salt
Water
23.9
17.6
13.9
12.2
10.6
8.3

HYDROGEN INDEX
H.I. =

grams Hydrogen / cc in formation


grams Hydrogen / cc in fresh water at STP

It is more correct to refer to the Neutron derived


porosity as a Hydrogen Index, since the porosity is
indirectly measured through the evaluation of
hydrogen content.

NEUTRON TOOLS RESPONSE


COMPARISON
EPITHERMAL
TOOLS
THERMAL
TOOLS

Hydrogen
DSEN
Index
Hydrogen
Index +
DSNT
Capture Cross
(thermal)

EPITHERMAL TOOL

THERMAL TOOL

DUAL SPACED NEUTRON TOOL

BOWSPRING

SOURCE

LONG SPACED
DETECTOR
SHORT SPACED
DETECTOR

NEUTRON SOURCE
The chemical source used by
Halliburton is AmBe. The nuclear
reaction involves the americium
producing alpha particles that
combine with beryllium in the
reaction below:
241
237
4
95 Am 93Np 2 He (60 KeV )
4
9
12
1
2 He 4 Be 6 C 0 n (5.71MeV )

THERMAL DETECTOR

ANODE

CATHODE

He GAS

1
3
3
0 n 2 He 1H

1
1H

(0.765 MeV)

EPITHERMAL DETECTOR
ANODE

CADMIUM

He GAS

CATHODE

DUAL DETECTOR TOOL


RESPONSE TO CHANGES IN
CEMENT THICKNESS

Reading at A with 0" cement


= 20
Cement Thickness 0 , ratio A 20
2 .0
Reading at A with 1"cement
B 10
= 5.9Thickness 1 , ratio A 5.9
Cement

1.97
Reading at A with 2"
B cement
3
Cement
Thickness 2 , ratio A 1.75
= 1.75
B

0 .9

1.95

BOREHOLE COMPENSATION
By using a ratio of the reading
at the two detectors, we can
reduce the effects of the
borehole,casing, and cement.

THE DSNT RATIO TO POROSITY


TRANSFORM
2

(R) a 0 a1R a 2R ... a i R

i 0

a i constant
R normalized ratio
R (Gain) (raw ratio)
" Gain"is computed from shop
calibrations

VERTICAL RESOLUTION
24 INCHES

DEPTH OF INVESTIGATION
8 TO 12 INCHES

STANDARD TOOL
WATER TANK
LOGGING TOOL

FORMATION
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
ON THE NEUTRON
POROSITY
LITHOLOGY EFFECT
SHALE EFFECT
GAS

EFFECT

LITHOLOGY EFFECT
Different formation types have different
abilities to slow down and capture
neutrons. This makes our neutron porosity
lithology dependent.

NEUTRON SLOWING DOWN


LENGTHS
Mineral

Composition

Ls (cm)
4.6MeV to 1.46 ev

Porosity Compared
to O% Porosity
Limestone

Dolomite

CaMg(CO3)2

20.2

0.9

Calcite

CaCO3

23.3

0.0

Quartz

SiO2

28.7

-1.0

Anhydrite

CaSO4

30.1

-1.0

Halite

NaCl

36.8

-1.0

Gypsum

CaSO42H2O

53

SHALE EFFECT

The neutron tool, responding to the


total amount of hydrogen in the
form of water, will consider the
volume occupied by both bound and
free water as porosity in shales.
Since the bound water is
structurally and chemically bonded
to the shale, the neutron porosity
reads too high.
Shales can also have unusually large
thermal neutron capture cross
sections ( e.g. Boron). This makes
thermal neutron tools read even
higher for the porosity.

NEUTRON SHALE
CORRECTION

neutron corr neutron Vsh neutron shale


Here neutron-shale is the neutron porosity in a nearby
shale

GAS EFFECT
Because of the low amount of hydrogen in
gas, the neutron tool sees gas as fresh
water occupying a smaller volume than
the actual volume present. The porosity
therefore reads too low.
Also the excavation effect - which states
simply that gas in the rock will cause less
rock material to be present to slow down,
scatter, or absorb the neutrons - will cause
the porosity to appear even lower.

NEUTRON
ENVIRONMENTAL
CORRECTIONS

NLS CORR NLS tmc bh salt


mw bh temp bh press
tso tform salt Lithology Effects