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CHILD SEX RATIO IN INDIA

Dr C Chandramouli
Registrar General &
Census Commissioner, India

About Census of India


Census of India collects valuable data on various socio

economic, demographic
population.

and

economic

aspects

of

Census is the only source of information on key population

indicators up to the lowest administrative level.


Census thus reflects ground reality paving way for realistic

planning and policy implementation .


One of the basic data relates to sex disaggregated count of

male and female population. Size and distribution of


population by sex reflects balance or imbalance in a given
population .
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What is sex ratio?


Sex Ratio is a tool to determine gender equity of the

population.
Sex ratio, in India, is defined as the number of

females per 1000 males in the population.


Whereas, Internationally, Sex ratio is defined as

number of males per 100 females.

Trends in Sex Ratio


Historically sex ratio in India as remained favourable to

males
Sex ratio of total population has seen upward surge in

the last two consecutive censuses


In 2011 Census , Sex ratio in India increased to 940 from

934 recorded in the 2001 Census.

Trends in Sex Ratio


Increase is also noted in Twenty-nine States and

Union Territories.
Only three major States, Gujarat, Bihar and Jammu

& Kashmir have shown a decline in the Sex Ratio in


Census 2011
At all India Level, Sex Ratio has shown an increase in

both rural and urban areas:


Rural Areas - From 945 in 2001 to 947 in 2011
Urban Areas - From 900 in 2001 to 926 in 2011.
5

Trends of Sex Ratio in India :19012011*


980

972

970

964

960
Sex Ratio

955

950

950
945

946
941

940

940
934

930

933

930

927

920
910
900
1901

1911

1921

1931

1941

* : Provisional Population Census 2011

1951
1961
Census Years

1971

1981

1991

2001

2011

Sex Ratio is defined as the number of


females per thousand males

Child Sex Ratio


Child sex ratio is the number of girl

children per 1,000 boys children

For provisional population totals of

Census 2011, child sex ratio has been


compiled for the age-group 0-6 years
only.

This presentation is based on

provisional population data of 2011


Census on sex ratio in the age group 06 yrs.

Child Sex Ratio

Changes in Child Sex Ratio


index reflects underlying
socio-economic and cultural
patterns of the society,
especially its attitude towards
the girl child.

Trends in over all & Child Sex


Ratio (0-6 yrs): 1961-2011
Child Sex Ratio 0-6 and over all sex ratio India
1961-2011
990
980

Projected value of
Child Sex Ratio
for India worked
out on the basis of
Census 2001 was
889
9

sex ratio ranges

970

Sex ratio in
age Group
0-6

960
950

Over all sex


ratio

940
930

Projected
2011

920
910
900
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011

Child Sex Ratio in Age Group 0-6


2001

1
0

2011

Our Census, Our Future

State

11

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6 yrs)
2001

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6 yrs)
2011*

Change in
CSR (0-6 yrs)
2001 to 2011

India

927

914

-13

J&K

941

859

- 82

Himachal Pradesh

896

906

+10

Punjab

798

846

+48

Uttarakhand

908

886

-22

Haryana

819

830

+11

Delhi

868

866

-2

Rajasthan

909

883

-26

* : Provisional Population Totals-Census 2011

State

12

Child Sex
Ratio (0-6)
2001

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6)
2011*

Change in
CSR (0-6 yrs)
2001 to 2011

Uttar Pradesh

916

899

-17

Bihar

942

933

-9

Assam

965

957

-8

West Bengal

960

950

-10

Jharkhand

965

943

-22

Orissa

953

934

-19

Chhattisgarh

975

964

-9

Madhya Pradesh

932

912

-20

* : Provisional Population Totals-Census 2011

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6 yrs)
2001

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6 yrs)
2011

Change
CSR
(0-6 yrs)
2001 to 2011

Gujarat

883

886

+3

Maharashtra

913

883

-30

Andhra Pradesh

961

943

-18

Karnataka

946

943

-3

Kerala

960

959

-1

Tamil Nadu

942

946

+4

State

13

* : Provisional Population Totals-Census 2011

Child Sex Ratio (0-6)


Rural Urban Areas

14

15

Census

Total

Rural

Urban

1991

945

948

935

2001

927

933

906

2011

914

919

902

Child Sex Ratio has declined in both Rural and Urban areas

This decline in Rural India is more than three times as


compared to drop in Urban India in 2011 a matter of great
concern.

In the rural areas Child Sex Ratio is higher as compared


to urban areas in 26 States/UTs in 2011 Census
In urban areas of 9 States/UTs CSR is higher when
compared to their rural areas
These are:
Highly urbanized NCT Delhi, Chandigarh,
Puducherry
Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil
Nadu
Mizoram & Manipur.
16

Rural areas:

In 25 States/UTs, the Child Sex Ratio (0-6yrs) has


declined in 2011 Census over 2001Census
In 9 States/Uts Child Sex Ratio has improved in 2011
Census
No change in one State (Gujarat )

17

Urban areas:
Trend is slightly better in Urban Areas as compared to
Rural Areas

In 21 States/UTs, CSR (0-6yrs) has declined


In 13 States/UTs this has improved
In one State (Kerala) there is no change

18

Child Sex Ratio (0-6) Rural


2001

2011
Jammu & Kashmir

Jam m u & Kas hm ir

Him ac hal
P rades h

Himac hal
Prades h

Punjab Chandigar h

Chandigarh

Punjab

Uttar ak hand

Uttarakhand

Har yana
NCT of Delhi

Haryana

Rajasthan

Assam

Uttar Pradesh

Rajas than

Nagaland

Nagaland

Meghalaya

Bihar

Manipur

W est
Bengal

Manipur

Mizor am

Tripura

Jhark hand
Madhya Prades h

Gujarat

Chhattisgarh
Dam an & Diu

Assam

Uttar Pradesh

Tripura

Jharkhand
Madhya Pradesh

Arunachal
Prades h

Sikk im

Meghalaya

Bihar

Gujarat

NC T of D elhi

Arunachal
Pr adesh

Sikkim

Mizoram

W est
Bengal

Chhattis garh

Oriss a

Dam an & Diu

Dadra & Nagar Haveli

Oriss a

Dadra & Nagar H aveli

Mahar as htra

Maharas htra

Andhr a Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

Goa
Goa

Karnataka

N D

(I

A R

B
C O
N I

)
I A

Kerala

Tam il Nadu

S
K D
A (I N

P - Puducherry

N .A. - N atio nal Averag e

L A
I S

I S

P - Puducherry

N
M A

P
Tamil Nadu
Kerala

D A
A N

19

Karnataka

D
A N

SEX RATIO IN AGE GROUP 0-6


900 AND BELOW
901 - 925
926 - 950
951 - 975
976 AND ABOVE

D S

Child Sex Ratio (0-6) Urban


2001

2011
Ja m m u & K as h m ir

Jam m u & Kas h m ir

Hi ma c h a l
P r ad es h

Hima c h al
Pr ad es h

Ch a n d ig a rh

P un j a b

Cha nd iga rh

P un ja b

Uttar a kh a n d

Utta ra kh an d

Ha r ya n a

Ha r ya na
NC T o f D e lh i

Raja s th a n

NC T o f D elhi

A ru n a ch a l
P r a d es h

S ikk im

A ssam

Utta r P ra d e sh

Raja s tha n

Nag a la n d

A ssam

Utta r Pra de sh

Me g h a la ya

B ih a r

Jh a rk h an d
Mad hya P r a de s h

G u ja r at

Manip ur

Mi zo ra m

Trip ura

Jh ark hand

W e st
B en g a l

Mad hya Pr ades h

Gu jar at

Ch h a ttis g ar h
Da m a n & Di u

Na gala nd

Meg ha la ya

Bih ar

Ma n ip u r
Tr ip u ra

A runa ch al
Pr ad es h

Sikk im

Mizoram

W e st
Benga l

Chh attis gar h


Dam an & Diu

O ri ss a

Da d r a & Na g a r H a ve l i

Ori ss a

Da dr a & Nag ar H aveli


Mah ar as h tra

Mah ar as htra

A nd h r a P ra d e sh

Andh ra Prad esh


P

Goa
K ar n a ta ka

P
Go a
Karn ataka

N
M A
DA
A N

N
M A
DA
A N

SEX RATIO IN AGE GROUP 0-6


900 AND BELOW
901 - 925
926 - 950
951 - 975
976 AND ABOVE
L

N
D

(I N

C O
N I

)
I A

C O
N I

)
I A

K erala

Tam il Nad u

(I N

B A

B A

N .A. - N atio nal Averag e

P - Pu du ch er ry

N .A. - N atio nal Averag e

D S

DS

N
L A
I S

P - P u d u ch er ry

N
L A
I S

20

K er ala

P
Ta m il Nad u

Child Sex Ratio


District Level Trends

21

Decline in the lowest


range is due to
increase in the child
sex ratio in Punjab
Increase in 900-949 is
primarily due to
decline in the next
higher range
categories

Ranges of
CSR (0-6
years)

2001

2011

Total

640

640

> 800

18

800-849

36

52

850-899

71

135

900-949

224

266

950-999

279

178

12

1000+
22

Census Year

Child Sex Ratio (0-6) - District


2001

2011

FEMALES PER 1000 MALES


IN AGE GROUP 0-6
800 AND BELOW
801 - 850
851 - 900
901 - 950
951 - 1000
1001 AND ABOVE
Data Not Available

23

24

District

State/UT

CSR (0-6)

Lahul & Spiti

Himachal Pradesh

1013

Tawang

Arunachal Pradesh

1005

Dakshin Dantewada

Chhattisgarh

1005

Kamrup Metropolitan

Assam

994

Bastar

Chhattisgarh

991

Nabarangpur

Orissa

988

Kolasib

Mizoram

987

Nawada

Bihar

985

East Siang

Arunachal

984

Aizawl

Mizoram

984

25

District

State/UT

CSR (0-6)

Jhajjar

Haryana

774

Mahendragarh

Haryana

778

Rewari

Haryana

784

Samba

Jammu & Kashmir

787

Sonipat

Haryana

790

Jammu

Jammu & Kashmir

795

Bid

Maharashtra

801

Ambala

Haryana

807

Rohtak

Haryana

807

Pithoragarh

Uttarakhand

812

26

Total number of districts

640

Decline

461

The child sex ratio


declined in 461 districts
which is about three fourth
of total districts in the
country

More than 100 points

50 to 99 points

31

20 to 49 points

178

1 to 19 points

245

In 38 districts decline has


been more than 50 points

No Change

20

On positive side in 51
districts increase has been
20 or points

Up to 10 points

74

11 to 20 points

34

21 to 30 points

17

31to 49 points

19

50+

15

Increase

159

Decline in Child Sex Ratio (0-6 Years) 2001-11

DECLINE (in 461 Districts)


19 AND BELOW (245)
20 - 49 (178)
50 - 99 (31)
100 AND ABOVE
(7)

27

Sex Ratio at Birth


(Annual Health Survey)

28

About AHS
Annual Health Survey
(AHS) is a sample
survey initiated to
provide information
on health indicators
at the district level in
EAG States and Assam
(9 States)

29

Uttarakhand

Rajasthan

Uttar Pradesh
Bihar

Madhya Pradesh

Jharkhand

Chhattisgarh
Orissa

ASSAM

One of the key determinants affecting Child


Sex Ratio is Sex Ratio at Birth
The information on Sex Ratio at Birth is
available in AHS at District level for EAG States
Facilitates comparison with Census 2011
results and to an extent explains the reason
behind the declining trend

30

SRB AHS States


960

940
920
900

880
860
840

820

31

SRB denotes no. of female


Live Births per 1000 male
Live Births

Uttarakhand records the


lowest SRB while
Chhattisgarh, the highest
Across all 9 AHS States, SRB
in rural areas is significantly
higher than that of urban
areas. In UP, rural SRB is 911
compared to 873 in urban

Total
no. of
districts

Districts with
minimum SRB

Districts with
maximum SRB

Range

UTTARAKHAND

13

Pithoragarh (764)

Nainital (918)

154

RAJASTHAN

32

Sawai Madhopur (782)

Bhilwara (968)

186

UTTAR PRADESH

70

Mathura (790)

Moradabad (1030)

240

BIHAR

37

Sitamarhi (869)

Buxar (989)

120

ASSAM

23

Hailakandi (810)

Lakhimpur (984)

174

JHARKHAND

18

Purbi Singhbum (884)

Giridih (985)

101

ORISSA

30

Nayagarh (832)

Nabrangapur (951)

119

CHHATTISGARH

16

Koriya (876)

Kawardha (1008)

132

MADHYA PRADESH

45

Gwalior (807)

Dindori (1006)

199

State

32

SRB across 284 districts ranges between 764 (Pithoragarh, Uttarakhand) &
1030 (Moradabad, UP)
SRB in rural areas of districts is generally higher than in urban areas

Frequency Range
State
751 - 800 801 - 850

851 - 900

901 - 950

951 - 1000 1001 - 1050

UTTARAKHAND

RAJASTHAN

14

UTTAR PRADESH

11

22

22

11

11

17

14

10

17

15

17

29

92

112

41

BIHAR
ASSAM

JHARKHAND
ORISSA

CHHATTISGARH
MADHYA PRADESH

Total

44% of districts have SRB less than 900


33

State

Child Sex
Ratio
(0-6 yrs)
2011

Sex Ratio at
Birth (AHS)

Uttarakhand

886

866

Rajasthan

883

878

Uttar Pradesh

899

904

Bihar

933

919

Assam

957

925

Jharkhand

943

923

Orissa

934

905

Chhattisgarh

964

951

Madhya Pradesh

912

904

34

Low Sex Ratio at


Birth explains
Low Child Sex
Ratio (0-6)

In Conclusion
Increase in over all Sex Ratio in Census 2011 indicates
improved visibility of women in the country

Paradoxically, the Child Sex Ratio (0-6) continues to


decline in the successive censuses
In Census 2011 Child Sex Ratio in 27 States /Uts has
declined. Decline is also noted in 461 districts
The disturbing feature in census 2011 has been the
spread of declining trend in new areas
Importantly there has been reversal of trend in 8 States/
UTs where Child Sex Ratio have actually improved in
Census 2011. This includes States like Punjab and
Haryana where decline in CSR in 2001 assumed alarming
level.
35

In Conclusion
Census 2011 shows that though there are decline in both
rural and urban areas of the country, the pace of decline
is three times higher in the rural areas, a paradigm shift
to note
As per the report on Population Projection (2001-2026),
the Child Sex Ratio in Census 2011 in India was estimated
at 889. The results as per Census 2011 (Provisional) has
shown a 25 points increase (to 914).
The decline in Child Sex Ratio has been arrested due to
the concerted efforts and advocacies by all the
stakeholders

Similar efforts in other States are required to reverse the


declining trend in Child Sex Ratio.
36

For more information please visit:

www.censusindia.gov.in

Thank you.
37