Sie sind auf Seite 1von 46

Lived Experiences of People Drinking...

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In the mid-19th century, Louis Pasteur noted the connection between yeast
and the process of the fermentation in which the yeast act as a catalyst and
mediator through a series of a reaction that convert sugar into alcohol.
Moreover, most forms of fermented wine has an alcohol content between 10
and 14 percent. (Robinson, 2006)
In southern Nigeria, palm wine is referred to as burukutu. It is the whitish
sap collected in vessels attached to the base of the tree from where some leaves
have been removed. Fresh wine from these sources is sweet and contains little
alcohol but, with fermentation, the alcohol content increases in time. In general,
palm wine has an alcohol content of 3-6% (World Health Organization, 2014).
Since, palm wine in itself is a whitish liquid with a sweet taste, Filipino
wine makers since the 16th century Spanish colonization had tungog (also
known as red Lauan-tree tanbark from the Shorea genus) added to the
fermented palm wine to produce a bitter taste and a reddish hue. As a matter of
fact, some Filipinos who were laborers in the Galleon trade decided to stay at
Mexico,and refused to go back to their ships. There, these Filipinos brought with
them their knowledge in wine making and shared it with the Mexicans.
(Law, 2011)
The investigators chose to this as the locus of their study because they

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 2

want to discover the lived experiences of people who drink fermented palm wine
with red mangrove tanbark. By doing so, the researchers will be able to
provide better health teachings and an increased awareness regarding health
for people who drink palm wine with red mangrove tanbark.

Review of Related Literature

Red Mangrove Tanbark


The Red Mangrove Tanbark is the dried bark of a certain kind of
mangrove tree called marka tungog or tangal otherwise known as Rhizophora
mucronata. The bark of this tree is used in Visayas and Mindanao in flavouring
coconut wine. It is the agent responsible for its bitter taste and maroon color. In
addition, it also helps with the natural fermentation process. (Law, 2011)
There have been reports from the local folk that this substance contains
medicinal effects. According to Liu and Liu (2012), Red Mangrove Tanbarks
contain dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors. These chemicals inhibit the destruction
of incretins which would increase insulin secretion from the pancreas. Moreover,
a study conducted by Alikunhi, Kandasamy, Manoharan, Subraminian (2012),
revealed that the mode of action of Red Mangrove Tanbark is similar to the drug
Glibenclamide and that it contains an insulin-like protein.
Research on the hypoglycemic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of
Rhizophora mucronata on diabetic rats revealed that diabetic rats treated with
Rhizophora mucronata extracts and by the drug Glibenclamide have maintained

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 3

their body weight (in contrast to those who have not received the drugs which
had a decrease in body weight.) The study suggests that these data scientifically
proves the antidiabetic effects of the plant; and that its folkloric use was justified.
Gut perfusion studies on Long Evans rats also revealed the antidiabetic
effect of Rhizophora mucronata. According to Gurubeedan (2012) and Haque,
Ahmed, Shamema, Mahbudur, Raisuzzaman (2013), the mode of action of
Rhizophora mucronatas leaves results to hypoglycemic conditions.
Research on the methanolic leaf extract of Rhizophora mucronata on
Wister ratsrevealed an increase in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at high doses which suggests a potential for
hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, histopathological findings revealed that the
substance is neurotoxic at high doses. However, the substance neither altered
the body weight and behavioral parameters. Collectively, the data demonstrate
that consumption of the substance for various medicinal purpose is safe.
(Suganthy, 2014)
Research on crude extracts of Rhizophora mangle fruit were made which
revealed the cytotoxic and antibacterial effects of the plant. Its aqueous extract
showed cytotoxic activity against human fibrosarcoma cells and an antibacterial
effect against Staphylococcus aureus, a gram negative bacteria. (Hicks,
2011)
According to a study by Suganthy ,et.al (2014), Rhizophora lamarckii,
another sub species of red mangrove tanbarks contain cholinesterase inhibitors.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 4

The purpose of this study is to investigate cholinesterase inhibitory activity of


mangroves as an alternative medicine for Alzheimers disease. The inhibitory
effect of methanolic leaf extract was assessed under in vitro condition by
incubating various concentration of the extract with total cholinesterase and
butyryl cholinesterase and assessing their residual activities by Ellmans
colorimetric method. The results showed that nine of the plants screened (which
includes Rhizophora lamarckii) showed inhibitory activity and is comparable to
the standard drug Donepezil. In addition, phytochemical analysis showed the
presence of alkaloids in high concentration which might be correlated to its
cholinesterase inhibitory activity.
According to a study by Prabhu. (2014), the plant contains chemicals
that inhibit the metastasis of lung cancer. The studys results correlated with lung
histopathology analysis of Rhizophora apiculata extracted treated mice showing
in lung metastasis and tumor masses. Taken together, our findings support that
R. apiculata extract could be used as a potential anti-metastasis agent against
lung cancer.
Furthermore, the red mangrove species also contains biochemical that
help prevent the progression of HIV. According to a study by Premanthan.,et.al
(2011), antiviral activities against HIV were assessed by an in vitro cell culture
system. Rhizophora mucronata polyssacharide (RMP) protected MT-4 cells from
the HIV induced cytopathogenicity and blocked the expression of HIV antigens.
The results suggest that RMP inhibits the early steps of the virus life cycle

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 5

especially the viruss absorption to the cell.


According to Ravikumar (2012), oxidative stress plays an important role in
many diseases including liver diseases. The production of oxidative stress can
be controlled by the antioxidant systems in living organisms. However, the over
production of oxidative stress can lead to damage in DNA, cell membrane,
protein and cellular membranes and consequently induces degeneration,
destruction and toxicity of various molecules and causes muscular dystrophy,
cancer, as well as liver diseases. Currently, many synthetic antioxidant drugs
(BHT, TBHQ) have been used in drug composition. However, these synthetic
drugs can cause many side effects and then lead to many potential health
problems. In this connection, herbal drugs have gained importance and
popularity in recent years because of their safety, efficacy and cost effectiveness.
Herbal based therapeutics for liver disorders have been practiced in India for a
long time and popularized globally by leading pharmaceutical companies. The
hepatoprotective activity of the R. mucronata stilt root extract was dose
dependent and showed a significant reduction in the level of SGOT, SGPT, ALP,
Bilirubin, Cholesterol, Sugar and Lactate dehydrogenase. Only mild fatty
changes were observed in the highest dose.

Fermented Palm Wine

Palm wine is an alcoholic beverage created from the sap of various


species of palm tree such as the palmyra, date palms and coconut palms. It is

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 6

also known as kallu (in South India), palm toddy, or simply toddy/tadi (in North
India). (Tharoor, 2011)
The drink is common in various parts of Asia and Africa, and goes by
various names, such as emu and ogoro in Nigeria; nsamba in the Democratic
Republic of Congo; nsafufuo in Ghana, kallu in South India; matango in
Cameroon; tuak in North Sumatra, Indonesia; mnazi in the Mijikenanda language
of Kenya; goribon (Rungus) in Sabah, Borneo; and tuba in the Philippines,
Borneo and Mexico. (Law, 2011)
In the Philippines, tuba refers both to the freshly harvested, sweetishcloudy white sap and the one with the red lauan-tree tan bark colorant. In Leyte,
the red tuba is aged with the tanbark for up to six months to two years, until it
gets dark red and tapping its glass container gives a sound that does not
suddenly stop. This type of tuba is called bahal (for tuba aged this way for up to
six months) and bahalina (for tuba aged this way for up to a year or more).
Unlike most wines, this wine is made to consume when it is fresh because
it rapidly turns sour. Coconut wine that is distilled for less than a year, in the
native tongue is called Bahal (immature coconut wine). When it is distilled for
one year or more, in the native tongue it is called Bahalina (mature coconut
wine). The longer it is grown old, the finer and mellower the taste is. A high pitch
echoing ring when you tap the glass is an indication that the coconut is now
mature or Bahalina. (Confirel, 2012)
Niog is the tagalog name for the coconut palm. Some tap the tree by

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 7

making an incision in the flowering stalk, under which a bamboo vessel, called a
bombon is hung to receive the sap. This liquid, known as tuba, is a favourite
beverage among the natives. As many as four stalks of the same trunk can be so
drained simultaneously without injury to the tree. In the bottom of the bombon is
placed about as much as a desert spoonful of pulverized Tongo bark
(Rhizophora
longissima) to give a stronger taste and bright color to the tuba. (Foreman, 1973)
If the tuba is allowed to ferment, it is not so palatable and becomes an
intoxicating drink. From the fermented juice the distilleries manufacture a
spirituous liquour, known locally as cocoa-wine.
A research on the microbiological and biochemical contents
of palm wine was conducted, and revealed that yeasts such as the lactic acid
and acetic acid bacteria are important in the fermentation of the palm wine and
influence the composition of the product. (Amoa-Awua, W.K., Sampson, E., TanoDebrah, K., 2007).
According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
(2014), drinking too much on a single occasion or over time can take a serious
toll on ones health. Alcohol interferes with the brains communication pathways,
and can affect the way the brain looks and works. These disruptions can change
mood and behavior, and make it harder to think clearly and move with
coordination. In addition, drinking a lot or over a long time can damage the heart;
causing problems which include: cardiomyopathy, arrhythmias, stroke and high
blood pressure. Furthermore, heavy drinkers takes a toll on the liver, and can

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 8

lead to a variety of problems and liver inflammations including: steatosis or fatty


liver, alcoholic hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcohol also causes damage to
the pancreas which causes it to produce toxic substances that can eventually
lead to pancreatitis; a dangerous inflammation and swelling of the blood vessels
in the pancreas that prevents proper digestion. It may also contribute to cancer
as too much of the drink may result to cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat,
liver, breast. Moreover, drinking too much can weaken ones immune system,
making ones body a much easier target for disease. Chronic drinkers are more
liable to contact diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis than people who do
not drink too much. Drinking a lot on a single occasion slows your bodys ability
to ward off infections even up to 24 hours after getting drunk. Research
demonstrates that low risk drinking levels for men are no more than 4 drinks on
any single day AND no more than 14 drinks per week. For women, low risk
drinking levels are no more than three drinks on any single dayAND no more
than seven drinks per week. To stay low-risk, you must keep within both the
single-day and weekly limits. Even within these limits, you can have problems if
you drink too quickly, have health conditions or over age 65. Older adults should
have no more than seven drinks per week.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 9

CHAPTER II

METHOD

Design

This study was patterned on Qualitative Phenomological Research


design, where lived experiences of certain people are described. In this study,
lived experiences of people who drink fermented palm wine with red mangrove
tanbark will be described.

Setting
The study was conducted in Saturn Street, Governmetnt Services
Insurance System (GSIS) Heights at Barangay 74-A, Matina, Davao City. The
village is composed of about 2,610 people with around 1,742 of them are working
age. The area can be accessed via public utility vehicle such as jeeps, taxis and
tricycles

Participants
The respondents of this study are males who have experienced drinking
fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark. Within the age range of 21 to
65. With at least 1 year of drinking fermented palm wine.the researchers

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 10

gathered the 10 respondents regardless of their health status, and as long as


they fit the criteria of age and years of drinking.

Measure
This study made use of an interview as a data gathering instrument.
Initially, the respondents will be asked about what they have experienced after
drinking fermented wine with red mangrove tanbark. The researchers conducted
an In- depth interview which involve not only asking questions, but systematically
record and document the responses to probe for better meaning and
Understanding about the respondents experiences. The researchers used 1 tape
recorder on the other hand 1 will
act as a documenter and another member as the interviewer
Procedure
The study started with the conceptualization of a topic, the researchers
then wrote a letter to the Dean of Nursing Department., Jeannie Ho Bibera,
RN, MSN to ask permission to conduct the study. They have written a letter
addressed to Hon. Angela Librado, Barangay Captain of 74-A, Matina, to ask
permission to conduct the study at the said setting. Another letter of consent will
be given to president of the GKK and to the owner of the Escuadras bakery with
which the plan to gather the information. After being granted permission, the
researchers found for 10 participants and present
them with the informed consent and explain how the study will be
conducted and assure them that confidentiality will be observed. Then after the

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 11

respondents have agreed to participate, the researchers have instructed the


respondents to gather at Escuadras bakery inside GSIS heights Subdivision,
Matina. The respondents have provided with snacks and was asked to
wait at the bleachers. The respondents was then interviewed one using a survey
tool a few meters away from the rest of the group to ensure that the researchers
will have an accurate depiction of the respondents non-verbal cues.
Furthermore, they will also be informed that one researcher will signal them if it
is their turn to be interviewed. The same process will be applied until all
respondents have been interviewed. One researcher will be assigned to ask the
general question, another researcher will ask the probing questions, one will
observe the nonverbal cues, one researcher will document the responses in a
notebook and record the respondents verbalizations with a voice recorder. After
the interviews, the token will be given and the researchers will then have their
closing remarks and prayer
Data Analysis
The study made use of Giorgis Descriptive Phenomological Method. The
phenomenological psychological attitude is to be assumed while analyzing the
data in order to ensure that "the results reflect a careful description of precisely
the features of the experienced phenomenon as they present themselves to the
consciousness of the researcher" (Giorgi, 2009)

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 12

CHAPTER III

RESULTS

Included in this chapter are the findings of the study

Fermented wine with red mangrove tanbark can provide more energy
When the respondents were asked about their experiences of drinking
fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark, 5 out of the 10 respondents
stated that the drink provided them with more energy, as one of the respondents
statedMao man gud na siya ang naga hatag ug kusog sa amoa (It is the one
that provides us energy). Furthermore, another respondent also stated Oo,
malakas ang katawan mo, basta tamang tama lang ang imnon. (Yes, it
strengthens your body, so long as you drink moderately). However, he also
stated pero kana pud ang maka hangak sa amoa. (But it also causes us to
have difficulty in breathing) Moreover, One respondent said Parang nanghina
kasi pag nakainom ako ng gabi tanghalian na ako magigising mga 8. Pag
makagising ng 6 medyo masakit pa sa ulo. (It seems I was weaker because
when I drink at night, I woke up late at 8 am. If I woke up at 6 am, my head still
hurts).

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 13

Experienced difficulty of breathing


When the respondents were asked about their experiences of drinking fermented
palm wine with red mangrove tanbark, 5 out of the 10 respondents stated that
they felt difficulty in breathing after drinking , one of the respondents stated
Mahirap mag hinga, tapos parang may laging nakabara sa lalamunan mo. (It is
difficult to breathe, and it feels like theres an obstruction in your throat). Another
also stated Basta ma sobra ang inom, hangak ka. (When you drink too much,
youll have difficulty in breathing).
Relaxing effect after drinking
When asked about how their bodies felt after drinking a substantial amount of the
wine, 4 out of the 10 respondents stated that they felt more relaxed and slept
better, one of the respndents stated Masarap ang tulog, makapawala ng stress
(sleep is nice and it is very relaxing). Another stated Unang una, makatulong
makaalis ng kapaguran namin ang tuba. Mapagod ka pero mawala ang pagod
mo kasi makatulog ka mawala ang pagod mo, di mo na maramdaman. (First of
all, it helps remove fatigue. You get tired but it quickly wears off because you get
to sleep and you feel rested. You dont get to feel it anymore).However, 2
respondents said that they were having difficulty in sleeping, one of them stated
Murag dili ka katulog kay imong tiyan puno kaayo.
Punga. (Its like you cant sleep because your stomach is so full; you cant
breathe properly).
On the other hand, the researchers delved into how their body feels after

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 14

drinking fermented palm wine. A respondent then stated Kinaumagahan pag ligo
mo, preskong presko ang katawan mo. (The next day, when you take a bath,
your body feels so fresh). Moreover, another stated Lami ang kaon and
makarelax siya. (It is so appealing to eat a lot, and it makes you relaxed). In
addition, a respondent stated Ang makuha mo sa tuba parang ano yan eh para
din yang vitamins sa iyong katawan, kasi may makuha ang iyong katawan na
parang protina na lumalakas ang lukso ng dugo at pag nakainom ka malakas
ang rotation. (What you get from tuba is some sort of substance, can be a
vitamin or protein, that improves ones blood circulation.).

Experienced feeling of headaches after a while


When asked if they felt any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented
palm wine, 3 out of the 10 respondents stated they felt headaches as one of
them then stated Labad sa ulo. Kanang lami kaayo itulog kay kapoy. (My head
hurts so much that I would prefer to sleep because it is so tiring.) In addtition,
respondent 4 stated Sabay. Hilo pati relax kasi hindi momaramdaman ang
pagod pagkatapos ng trabaho. (Both, dizzy and relaxed at the same time
because you dont get to feel the fatigue after work.)
Experienced Loose Bowel Movement
When asked if they felt any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented
palm wine, 2 out of the 10 respondents said that they felt an increase in the
number of times they defecated, as one of the respondents stated Natatamaan
ako ng LBM kapag uminom ako ng tuba. (I had LBM whenever I drink fermented

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 15

palm wine). Respondent 7 further stated pag naka sanggab unya naulanan ang
sudlanan sa tuba, pait daw siya ug mag resulta pud sa diarrhea. Sakit sa tiyan.
Dali lang ka mahubog. (Whenever the container of the wine gets contaminated
with rain water during the collection process, it causes it to have a bitter taste and
it also results to diarrhea. Your stomach hurts. You get drunk fast.) In addition, he
stated Murag mag cause jud siya ug kalibang nimo. LBM jud. (It seems it really
does result to excessive defecation. Definitely LBM.)
Experienced a change in body temperature
When asked if they felt any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented
palm wine, 2 out of the 10 respondents said that they felt an increase in their
temperature one of them stated Init ko, kanang mahubog. (I feel hot, it is like I
am drunk). Another stated parang umiiba ang balat mo, parang namamaga.
Yung namumula ka na talaga yung maramdaman mo na talaga na meron ng
ibang bagay na pumasok sa iyong katawan. (Its like yourskin changes, its sorta
like getting inflamed. And you get to be really red and you feel that you have
something else inside your body.)
Experience chest tightness
When asked if they felt any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented
palm wine, 1 out of the 10 respondents said that he felt his chest tightening, one
stated Guot sa dughan. Murag mu pitik ang kasing kasing. (Your chest feels
tight. Its feel like your heart palpitates.)

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 16

Experienced digestive problems


When asked if they felt any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented
palm wine, 1 out of the 10 respondents said they had unusual experiences in
their stomach after drinking, one of them stated Minsan pag masobrahan sakit
sa kuto-kuto. (Sometimes when you get to drink too much, you get to have pain
just below the xiphoid process.). He also stated Ang ma feel lang nako pag
daghan ko mainom kay ang akong tiyan gahi kaayo, puno kaayo. Butod kaayo.
(What I can feel when I drink a lot of fermented wine is that my tummy feels so
hard. It feels so full. Its so bloated.) .

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 17

CHAPTER IV

DISCUSSION

Included in this chapter are the themes created based on the findings of
of the study.

Theme # 1: Drinking fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark


provides more energy.
It is revealed in the interview that more energy is felt by those drinking
fermented palm wine with red mangrove tankbark. According to Longo et.al
(2013), when alcohol is metabolized in the liver, it produces a by product called
acetate, which is a chemical that our tissues can readily utilize for energy. In
addition, according to Alikunhi (2012), red mangrove tanbark and alcohol both
have insulin like properties which result to increased uptake of glucose by the
body's tissues. This results to an increase in energy levels but results to low
circulating blood glucose levels.

Theme # 2: Drinking fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark


causes difficulty in breathing.
However, it is also revealed that drinking it causes difficulty in breathing.
According to DeBruyne (2008), alcohol alters the structure of cell membranes,

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 18

increasing their permeability, and interferes with the actions of cell membrane
proteins. Under certain conditions, alcohol exposure can induce cell death. A
metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde, causes numerous adverse effects; it binds
to proteins and interferes with their functions, prevents formation of microtubules
within cells, alters immune function, inhibits DNA repair, and causes oxidative
damage. As such, the medullary cortex, the body's respiratory control center,
shall absorb the increased levels of acetaldehyde in the cerebral circulation. This
results to the disruption of cellular function which affects respiration, which may
lead to difficulty in breathing. In addition, alcohol is a CNS depressant which
results to depression of all brain activities. This includes the depression of
medullary function which controls respiration and cardiac function.

Theme # 3: Drinking fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark


causes headaches.
Another finding revealed by the internview is that drinking the substance
causes headaches.According to the National Headache Foundation (2014), the
ethanol component of alcoholic beverages may cause the body to lose fluid.
Dehydration, a change in the balance of body water and essential nutrients,
results. This affects the fluids surrounding the brain and decreases the blood
pressure and blood flow to the brain. In addition, alcohol-containing drinks can
decrease blood pressure in the brain by widening the blood vessels that supply
the brain. These changes can produce pain and sensitivity, resulting in a
headache.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 19

Theme # 4: Drinking fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark


causes one to fall asleep.
Furthermore, the interview further revealed that it can be used as a stress
reliever as it can promote sleep. According to Longo et.al (2013) the most
prominent actions of alcohol is boosting Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA)
activity, especially in GABA receptors. Enhancement of this complex, chloride,
channel system contrtibutes to anti convulsant, sleep inducing, anti anxiety, and
muscle relaxation effects of all GABA boosting drugs. Moreover according to
DeBruyne (2008) alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant; it can
cause sedation, slow reaction times, and relieve anxiety. In excess it impairs
judgement, reduces inhibitions and impairs speech and motor function.
Extremely high blood alcohol levels can lead to coma, respiratory depression and
death.

Theme # 5: Drinking fermented palm wine does cause behavioral changes


but not to the point of violence
Moreover, the interview revealed that this drink does cause behavioral
changes, but not to the point of violence. According to Longo et.al (2013),
behavioral, psychomotor, and cognitive changes are seen at levels as low as
0.02- 0.03 g/dl (I.e, after 1-2 drinks). For every 115ml of non fortified wine
consumed, the individual obtains a blood level of ethanol at 0.02 g/dL. Therefore
115ml consumption of fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark should
already cause behavioral changes in an average individual. However, according
Agoncillo (1990), drinking tuba did not much affect the brains of the drinker for as

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 20

Father Francisco-Colin; the Jesuit Chronicler said: But rarely do they become
furious or wild, rather, after drinking, they preserve their proper respect and
circumspection. They only become more gay and talkative and say some
amusing things. But it is known that none of them after leaving the banquet, even
at a late hour of the night, fail to reach their home. This is probably because of
the anticholinesterase property of the red mangrove tanbark. According to
Suganthy et. Al (2013), red mangrove tanbark contains an anticholisterase agent;
cholinesterase is an enzyme that destroys the neurotransmitter citicholine. As
such, when the cholinesterase is inhibited, citicholine is increased. This results to
an improvement in the communication between neurons, which may result to an
increase in the level of consciousness. Now related this with the fact that ethanol
decreases one's level consciousness, the improved neurocogntion provided by
the red mangrove tanbark may cancel out the effect of ethanol.
One notable reason why the drinkers choose to drink fermented wine was
because of its ability to detoxify their bodies. According to Ravikumar (2012), red
mangrove tanbark has hepatoprotective properties. This may explain why we
never hear people report of having liver failure from drinking too much fermented
palm wine. In addition, According to Prabhu ,et.al (2014), red mangrove tanbark
prevents the metastasis of lung cancer. This may explain why its folkloric use is
tied to preventing dust from accumulating within the body.
Therefore based n the findings the investigators recommend to the alcohol
drinkers, tricycle drivers and the community to limit the amount of alcohol intake
or if possible abstaining oneself from alcohol, so as to prevent accidents from

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 21

happening at work, in the road or at home. For the community, the people who
are very fond of spending their free time drinking alcohol, to take in moderation or
to spend it in other activities. For the government officials, the nursing
practitioners and students., they should do their part to educate the people
towards the effect of alcohol in their health. For the future researchers we
recommend that this research will be a stepping stone for future researches
about the fermented wine and the ref mangrove tanbark.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 22

REFERENCES:

White, L., Duncan, G., Baumle, W. (2013). Medical-Surgical Nursing An


Integrated Approach. Delmar Cengage Learning.Singapore

DeBruyne, L.K, Pinna, K., Whitney, E. (2008). Nutrition and Diet Therapy
Principles and Practice. Wadswoorth/Thomson Learning 10 Davis Drive.
Belmont

Ignatavicius, D., Workman, M.L. (2013). Medical-Surgical Nursing PatientCentered Collaborative Care (7th Edition). St. Louis, Missouri.

Black, J., Hawks, J. (2012). Medical-Surgical Nursing Clinical Management for


Positive Outcomes. Elsevier

Gurudeeban, S., Satyavani, K., Balasubramanian, T. (2012). Antidiabetic Effect


of a Black Mangrove Species Aegiceras cornilatum in alloxan-induced
diabetic rats. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Nabeel, M.A., Kathiseran, K., Manivannan, S. (2010). Antidiabetic activity of the


mangrove species Ceriops Decandra in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Retrieved on March 17, 2014 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Mangrove Watch, a new monitoring program that partners mangrove scientists

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 23

and community participants. (2013) Retrived on March 17, 2014 at


http://www.mangrovewatch.org.au

Govindasamy, C., Kannan, R. (2012). Pharmacognosy of mangrove plants in the


system of unani medicine. Retrieved on March 17, 2014 at
http://www.apjtcm.com

Suganthy, N., Karthikeyan, K., Archunan, G., Karutha Pandian, S., Pandima
Devi, K. (2014). Safety and Toxicological evaluation of Rhizophora
mucronata (a mangrove from Vellar estuary, India): assessment of
mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and in vivo acute toxicity. Retrieved om April 25,
2014 from http://link.springer.com

Alikunhi, N., Kandasamy, K., Manoharan, C., Subramanian, M. (2012). Insulinlike antigen of mangrove leaves and its anti-diabetic activity in alloxan induced
diabetic rats. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Haque, M., Ahmed, A., Shamema, N., Mahbudur, R., Raisuzzaman, S. (2013).
Revelation of Mechanism of Action of Rhizophora Mucronata Poir. Bark
extract for its Antidiabetic Activity by Gut Perfusion and Six Segment Method
in Long Evans Rats. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from
http://www.researchgate.net

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 24

Rizzo, A. (2010). Vatican: Scientists shouldnt play God. Retrieved on April 24,
2014 from http://www.nbcnews.com

Matteuci, E., Giampetro, O. (2009). Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (CD26): Knowing the


function before inhibiting the enzyme. Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Liu. L., Liu, J., Wong, WT., Tian, XY., Lau, CW., Wang, YX, Xu, G., Pu, Y., Zhu,
Z., Xu, A., Lam, KS., Ng, CF., Yao, X., Huang, Y. (2012). Dipeptidyl
peptidase 4 inhibitor sitagliptin protects endothelial function in hypertension
through a glucagon-like-peptide-1-dependent mechanism. Retrieved on April
25, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov

Coconut-Archipelago Gold (2014). Lambanog Philippine Coconut Wine.


Retrieved on Apirl 25, 2014 from lambanog.org/coconut-wine-making/
URMC Health Encyclopedia (2014). Two-Hour Postprandial Glucose.
Retrieved on April 25, 2014 from http://www.urmc.rochester.edu

Virginia, M. (2014). What are normal blood glucose levels? Retrieved on April 26,
2014 from https://www.virginiamason.org/

Drucker DJ, Nauck MA (November 2006). "The incretin system: glucagon-like


peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors in type 2
diabetes". Lancet368 (9548): 1696705

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 25

Amori RE, Lau J, Pittas AG (July 2007). "Efficacy and safety of incretin therapy in
type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis". JAMA298 (2): 194
206.

Pandey, A., Gupta, P., Lal, V. (2014). Hypoglycemic effect of Rhizophora


mucronata in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Retrieved on July 13, 2014
from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Toft-Nielsen M, Madsbad S, Holst J (2001). "Determinants of the effectiveness of


glucagon-like peptide-1 in type 2 diabetes". J Clin Endocrinol Metab86 (8):
385360

Meier J, Weyhe D, Michaely M, Senkal M, Zumtobel V, Nauck M, Holst J,


Schmidt W, Gallwitz B (2004). "Intravenous glucagon-like peptide 1
normalizes blood glucose after major surgery in patients with type 2
diabetes". Crit Care Med32 (3): 84851.

Nannipieri M, Guarino D, Camastra S, Moriconi D, Bellini R, Anselmino M,


Ferrannini E (November 2013). "Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve
Gastrectomy: Mechanisms of Diabetes Remission and Role of Gut
Hormones". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 98 (11): 43919.
Mabilleau G, Mieczkowska A, Irwin N, Flatt PR, Chappard D (2013). "Optimal
bone mechanical and material properties require a functional GLP-1 receptor". J
Endocrinol219 (1): 5968. doi:10.1530/JOE-13-0146. PMID 23911987.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 26

Meier JJ, Nauck MA (2005). "Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) in biology and


pathology". Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.21 (2): 91117. doi:10.1002/dmrr.538.
PMID 15759282.

Efendic S, Portwood N (2004). "Overview of incretin hormones". Horm. Metab.


Res.36 (1112): 7426

Walter F. Boron, Emile L. (2009). Medical physiology : a cellular and molecular


approach (2nd ed., International ed. ed.). Philadelphia, PA:
Saunders/Elsevier.

Gaudin-Audrain C, Irwin N, Mansur S, Flatt PR, Thorens B, Basle M, Chappard


D, Mabilleau G (2013). "Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
receptor deficiency leads to modifications of trabecular bone volume and
quality in mice". Bone53 (1): 22130

Mieczkowska A, Irwin N, Flatt PR, Chappard D, Mabilleau G (2013). "Glucosedependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor deletion leads to reduced
bone strength and quality". Bone56 (2): 33742.

Skrha J, Hilgertov J, Jarolmkov M, Kuneov M, Hill M (2010). "Meal test for


glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in obese and type 2 diabetic
patients". Physiol Res59 (5): 74955.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 27

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 28

APPENDIX A
LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE DEAN OF NURSING
September, 2014
Jeannie H. Bibera, RN, MSN
Dean of Nursing
San Pedro College
Davao City
Dear Mrs. Bibera:

Greetings of Peace!
We, the group 4 of BSN-4C, would like to conduct the study entitled
LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE WHO DRINK FERMENTED PALM WINE
WITH RED MANGROVE TANBARK.
The respondents if this study are the residents of Davao City particularly
those who live in Barangay 74-A, Matina. This is in line with our requirements in
Nursing Research 2, thesis writing.
In view of this, we would like to ask permission from your office to conduct
the said study.
We hope for your approval of this request.
Thank you and more power to your office!
Respectfully Yours,

Sorilla, Rachelle Joy

Guerrero, Roman III

Dumanhug, John Michael

Lao, Joshua Rey

Formacion, Jaypee Wendyl

Saavedra, Glovarn

Noted by:
Mrs. Ninfa Galendez, RN, MAN
RN, MS

Approved by:
Mrs, Jeannie H. Bibera

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 29

APPENDIX B
LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE BARANGAY CAPTAIN

September, 2014
Hon. Angela Librado
Barangay Captain
Matina Crossing 74-A
Davao City

Dear Hon. Librado:

Greetings of Peace and Joy!


We, the students of BSN-4C of San Pedro College are currently having our
thesis entitled LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE WHO DRINK FERMENTED
PALM WINE WITH RED MANGROVE TANBARK. In line with this, we are asking
for your permission to allow us to conduct the said study. We will invite 10 cycle
rickshaw (also known as trisikad) drivers as our participants.
We are hoping for your favourable consideration. God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

Sorilla, Rachelle Joy

Guerrero, Roman III

Dumanhug, John Michael

Lao, Joshua Rey

Formacion, Jaypee Wendyl

Saavedra, Glovarn

Noted By:
Mrs. Ninfa Galendez, RN, MAN
Research Mentor

Approved By:
Hon. Angela Librado
Barangay Captain

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 30

APPENDIX C
LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE PUROK LEADER
September, 2014
Mr. Jerry Lee
Purok Leader
Matina Crossing 74-A
Davao City, 8000

Dear Mr. Jerry Lee:


Greetings of Peace and Joy!
We, the students of BSN-4C of San Pedro College are currently having our
thesis entitled LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE WHO DRINK FERMENTED
PALM WINE WITH RED MANGROVE TANBARK. In line with this, we are asking
for your permission to allow us to conduct the said study. We plan to implement
the study this September 19, 2014 (Friday) at around 11:00 am at Escuadras
Bakery. We will invite 10 cycle rickshaw (also known as trisikad) drivers as our
participants.
We are hoping for your favourable consideration. God Bless!
Respectfully Yours,

Sorilla, Rachelle Joy

Guerrero, Roman III

Dumanhug, John Michael

Lao, Joshua Rey

Formacion, Jaypee Wendyl

Saavedra, Glovarn

Noted by:
Mrs. Ninfa Galendez, RN, MAN
Research Mentor

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 31

APPENDIX D
LETTER OF REQUEST TO THE OWNER OF THE VENUE FOR DATA
GATHERING
September, 2014
Ms. Escuadra
Owner of Escuadras Bakery
Saturn St. GSIS Heights
Matina, Davao City

Dear Ms. Escuadra:


Greetings of Peace and Joy!
We, the students of BSN-4C of San Pedro College are currently having our
thesis entitled LIVED EXPERIENCES OF PEOPLE WHO DRINK FERMENTED
PALM WINE WITH RED MANGROVE TANBARK. In line with this, we are asking
for your permission to allow us to conduct the said study in your bakery. We plan
to implement the study this September 19, 2014 (Friday) at around 11:00 am. We
will invite 10 cycle rickshaw (also known as trisikad) drivers as our participants.
We are hoping for your favourable consideration. God Bless!

Respectfully Yours,

Sorilla, Rachelle Joy

Guerrero, Roman III

Dumanhug, John Michael

Lao, Joshua Rey

Formacion, Jaypee Wendyl

Saavedra, Glovarn

Noted By:
Mrs. Ninfa Galendez, RN, MAN
Research Mentor

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 32

APPENDIX E
INFORMED CONSENT
We, the nursing students of BSN 4C Group 4 of San Pedro College, are
conducting a research study in Lived Experiences of People Who Drink Fermented Palm
Wine with Red Mangrove Tanbark. Our study involves the interview of the respondents
in an effort to determine the perceived effects of the Red Mangrove Tanbark to their
health. We are to record the observations and responses that we are able to gather.
Rest assured, no harm will be done and that all actions will be geared towards
the benefit of society. With the desire to gain more knowledge, this research will be of
significant help not only for the health care providers, but also for the lay people. All
information you supply and we acquired during the study will only be disclosed as a
whole, and only with the permission of our superiors. Your personal information (e.g.
name, age) will not be disclosed upon publishing the results of the study.
Your participation with the study is completely voluntary and you may choose to
cancel your permission to disclose information about you and the perceived effects of
the drink on your health at any time.
Respectfully Yours,
Sorilla, Rachelle Joy

Guerrero, Roman III

Dumanhug, John Michael

Lao, Joshua Rey

Formacion, Jaypee Wendyl

Saavedra, Glovarn

Noted By:
Mrs. Ninfa Galendez, RN, MAN
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Participants Consent:
I have read the information presented in the information letter about a research study
being conducted by the BSN 4C Group 4 students of San Pedro College to me. I have
had the opportunity to ask any question related to this research study, received
satisfactory answers to my questions, and any details I wanted. With full knowledge of all
foregoing, I agree, of my own free will, to such study and give my consent.
Name of the Respondent: _________________________________________________
Signature: _____________________________________________________________
Date: _________________________________________________________________

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 33

APPENDIX F
SURVEY TOOL

1. What are your experiences in drinking fermented palm wine with red
mangrove tanbark?
2. What was in the wine that made you want to drink it more?
3. How often do you drink the wine?
4. How does your body feel after drinking a substantial amount of the wine?
5. How well do you relate with others after drinking the wine?
6. How well do you perform at work after drinking fermented wine?
7. Did you feel any abnormalities associated with drinking fermented palm
wine?
8. How well do you relate with your family after drinking the wine?

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 34

APPENDIX G

RAW DATA

Verbalization
Respondent 1: Mas
magising mi tapos gwapo
na ang usapan

Respondent 3:Mudaan
lang man, mechanizing
kadali

Respondent 6: Mao man


gud ang naga hatag ug
kusog sa amoa

Respondent 8: ok ra ma
puyo lang ko, mag-init lang
kung kadugayan

Respondent 10: Oo,


malakas ang katawan mo,
basta tamang tama lang
ang imnon

Theme

Summary

Fermented wine with


red mangrove tanbark
can provide more
energy

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 35

Respondent 4: Mahirap
mag hinga, tapos parang
may laging nakabara sa
lalamunan mo

Respondent 5: Basta ma
sobra ang inom, hangak
ka

Respondent 6: pag
masobrahan sakit sa
kasing-kasing. Sakit pud
sa ulo pagkabuntag.
Kapoy kaayo ang lawas.

Respondent 9:Lain lang


paminsan kay mabug-at
ang paghinga

Respondent 10: nung b


ata pa mi kay lisod pa kay
muhangak

Experienced difficulty
in breathing

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 36

Respondent 3: Masarap
ang tulog, makapawala
ng stress

Respondent 4: Sabay
Hilo pati relax

Respondent 5:
makatulong makaalis ng
kapaguran naming ang
tuba

Respondent 9:okay
lang muinom ko murelax
ko

Relaxing Effect after


drinking

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 37

Respondent 4: Labad
sa ulo kanang lami
kaayo itulog kay kapoy

Experience feeling of
headaches after a while

Experienced a change
in body temperature

Respondent 5:Sabay,
Hilo pati relax kasi hindi
mo maramdaman ang
pagod pagkatapos ng
trabahao

Respondent 6: pud sa
ulo pagkabuntag

Respondent 2:
Natatamaan ao ng LBM
kapag uminom ako ng
tuba

Respondent 7:mag
resulta pud sa diarrhea.
Sakit sa tiyan
Respondent 8: Init ko,
kanang manhood

Respondent 10: parang


umiiba ang balat mo,
parang namamaga.
Yung namumula ka na
talaga yung
mararamdaman mo na
talaga

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 38

Respondent 6:Guot sa
dughan. Murag mu pitik
ang kasing kasing

Experienced chest
tightness

Respondent 1:Minsan
pag masobrahan sakit
sa kuto-kuto

Experienced digestive
problems

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 39

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Jaypee Wendyl S. Formacion


Age: 19 years old
Address: Piapi Boulevard Davao City
Birth date: March 23, 1995
Birthplace: City Of Koronadal South Cotabato
Parents: Marichu S. Formacion
Zaldy P. Formacion
Siblings: Jereme S. Formacion
Kenneth S. Formacion
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Koronadal Central Elementary School 1
High school: Koronadal National Comprehensive High School
College: San Pedro College
Motto: I didn't choose to be a Gamer, The Gaming Life Chose Me

CURRICULUM VITAE

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 40

Name: Joshua Rey A. Lao


Age: 20
Address: Cabaguio Avenue Davao City
Birth date: September 7, 1994
Birthplace: Davao City
Parents: Evelyn Abasolo - Lao
Reynaldo Lao
Siblings: Jonathan Rey Lao
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Stella Maris Academy of Davao
High school: Stella Maris Academy of Davao
College: San Pedro College of Davao
Motto: Due Tomorrow. Do Tomorrow

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 41

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Rachelle Joy A. Sorilla


Age: 22
Address: #8 Libenly Compound, Kawayan Drive, Matina, Davao City
Birth date: October 14, 1992
Birthplace: General Santos City
Parents: Romulo E. Sorilla
Hazel A. Sorilla
Siblings: Richie A. Sorilla
Richard A. Sorilla
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Assumption College of Davao
High school: Assumption College of Davao
College: San Pedro College
Motto: Obstacles are what you see when you take your eye off the goal.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 42

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: John Michael L. Dumanhug


Age: 20 years old
Address: 168 Zinnia Drive Ladislawa village, Buhangin Davao City
Birth date: June 9, 1994
Birthplace: Davao City
Parents: Ananias Dumanhug, jr.
Evelyn Lao Dumanhug
Siblings: Ana Karmina Dumanhug; Rachelle Corpus; Kristine Corpus
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Ateneo De Davao University
High school: Ateneo De Davao University HS
College: San Pedro College
Motto:

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 43

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Roman D. Guerrero III


Age: 21
Address: 81 Saturn St. GSIS. Hgts. Matina, Davao City
Birth date: October 8, 1993
Birthplace: Davao City
Parents: Consuelo D. Guerrero, Roman H.Guerrero Jr.
Siblings: Czarina May D. Guerrero , James Ryan D. Guerrero
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Ateneo de Davao University
High school: Ateneo de Davao University
College:

2010 to 1st sem San Pedro College (BS Nursing); 2010 2nd sem

to 2011 1st sem Ateneo de Davao Univesity (BS Computer Engineering); 2011
2nd sem up to present San Pedro College (BS Nursing)
Motto: Non scholar sed vitae decimus - You study not for school but you study
for life.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 44

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name: Glovarn B. Saavedra


Age: 20
Address: Jasper St., Sto Nino Village, Matina, Davao City
Birth date: May 05, 1994
Birthplace: Saint Louis Hospital, Tacurong City
Parents: Barney Saavedra
Gloria Saavedra
Siblings: Rianey Saavedra
Shea Saavedra
Educational Attainment
Elementary: Koronadal Chinese School
High school: Sultan Kudarat State University
College: San Pedro College
Motto: Keep Calm and Sleep.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 45

ABSTRACT

This study sought to determined the lived experiences of people drinking


fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark. The researchers aim to
determine how the body reacts to it. This study made use of the qualitative
Phenomenological research design, where the 10 respondents are male cycle
rickshaw drivers (also known as tricycle or trisikad drivers) who drink
fermented palm wine with red mangrove tanbark within the age range of 21 to 65
And who have been drinking for at least 1 year regardless of health status. A one
on one in-depth interview was done for data gathering while Giorgis method was
used in the analysis of the findings. The themes were created based on the
findings of the study. The first theme revealed that drinking fermented palm wine
with red mangrove tanbark increased the drinkers energy level. Meanwhile, the
second theme is the drink can cause Difficulty of breathing. Furthermore, the
third theme is it could cause headaches. Moreover, the fourth theme is it can
promote sleep. And the fifth and final theme is it can cause behavioral and
cognitive changes but not to the point of violence.

Lived Experiences of People Drinking... 46

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
As with any major thesis, an endavor like this would have been impossible
without the support of many individuals. The researchers would like to extend t
heir gratitude to the following:
Mrs. Ninfa L. Galendez, RN, MAN, their mentor, for her unending support
and patience in entertaining their questions and for guiding them throughout the
whole duration of the thesis writing;
Mrs. Bevan Balbuena, RN, MN and Mrs. Loyolda T. Lazarraga, RN, MaN,
their panelist, for giving them suggestions that helped them improve the content
of their study;
Mrs. Jeannie H. Bibera RN, MSN, the Dean of the Nursing Department,
Hon. Angela Librado, the barangay Captain of Matina Crossing 74-A and Mr.
Jerry Lee, The Purok leader of the barangay, for their support and permission to
conduct the study at GSIS Heights Subdivision, Matina;
Mr. Celeste T. Tagalog, the representative of the local tricycle drivers in the
area, who helped them organize the representatives;
Mrs. Mary Lariaso, Head Librarian of San Pedro College, for helping them
gain access to the library of Davao Medical School Foundation;
To the parents, for their unconditional love and support
And most importantly, to God for the wisdom, perseverance, grace, mercy,
and love that he has bestowed upon them.

THE INVESTIGATORS