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Paper on Dynamic non-linear electro-thermal simulation

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Journal

Microelectronics Journal 30 (1999) 11551162

www.elsevier.com/locate/mejo

converter

H. Laiz a, M. Klonz b,*

a

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesalle 100, 38114 Braunschweig, Germany

Abstract

This article describes the electro-thermal simulation of the acdc transfer differences at low frequencies of a thin-film thermal converter.

The dynamic non-linear model includes the temperature dependence of all the material parameters, and the radiation losses. It is used to

optimise the performance of the device at low frequencies, where temperature oscillations are present due to the lack of integration of the

oscillating Joule heat. The results of the simulation are compared with those of the measurements using a digital method. 1999 Elsevier

Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Electro-thermal simulation; Thin-film thermal converter; Low frequency acdc transfer

For an ideal thermal converter d is equal to zero.

1. Introduction

In metrology laboratories, achieving the highest accuracy

reference standards for the electrical units are reproduced

and maintained by means of two quantitative experiments,

the Josephson and the Quantum Hall effects [1]. These

experiments were, however, done using dc. To relate the

rms value of an ac signal to these dc units, a transfer method

has to be used. Nowadays the highest accuracy in such

transfers is achieved with thermal converters. In these

devices one or more thermocouples measure the temperature produced by the Joule heat in a resistor by a known dc

voltage (or current) and an unknown ac. Ideally the

temperature should be equal for the two signals of the

same rms value. Thus, the unknown rms ac value can be

related to the equivalent dc. The acdc voltage transfer

difference d of a thermal converter is defined as

Uiac Uidc

Uidc

Uoac Uodc ;

voltage, which when reversed produces the same mean

output voltage as Uiac. Uoac and Uodc are the output voltages

Braunschweig, Germany. Tel.: 49-531-592-2320; fax: 49-531-5922345.

E-mail addresses: Laiz@inti.gov.ar (H. Laiz), manfred.klonz@ptb.de

(M. Klonz)

Originally, a thermal converter consisted of a thin

resistive wire of a stable alloy, like Evanohm, with a thermocouple thermally attached to, but electrically insulated

from the resistor by a small glass bead, all inside an evacuated ampoule. The highest accuracy was obtained with

multijunction thermal converters (MJTC) in which up to

120 thermocouples were attached to a bifilar twisted wire.

These devices are difficult to fabricate and thus costly [2].

Modern technologies, like thin-film, photolithographic

techniques and micromechanics have provided the opportunity to redesign the thermal transfer devices. Thin-film

technology allows mass fabrication and thus a dramatic

reduction of the cost [3]. In the thin-film or planar multijunction thermal converter (PMJTC), the bifilar heater and

up to 100 thermocouples are sputtered on a Si3N4/SiO2/Si3N4

sandwich membrane, covering a window which is etched

into a silicon wafer (Fig. 1).

The hot junctions of the thermocouple array are located

along the heater and the cold junctions are arranged symmetrical on the silicon that acts as a heat sink. The thin

dielectric membrane and the thermocouple system offer

low thermal conductance, thus providing a high sensitivity

of the device.

In the audio frequency range, the acdc transfer difference is caused by the Thomson effect in the heater and

0026-2692/99/$ - see front matter 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S0026-269 2(99)00079-8

1156

temperature is constant along the heater leading to a reduction of the Thomson heat. Both connection pads of the

heater are placed at a short distance on the silicon frame

electrically insulated by the sandwich membrane, but thermally short-circuited by the high thermal conductance of the

silicon underneath, leading to a reduction of the temperature

difference due to the Peltier effect in the pads.

All types of the thermal converters show an increasing

acdc transfer differences at low frequencies. Some models

were proposed to study the relation between the acdc

transfer difference, lack of integration and non-linearities

like the temperature dependence of material parameters

and radiation losses in single junctions units [4,5]. We introduce in this article a model to study this problem in thin film

units.

2. Electro-thermal model

Modeling of a thermal converter provides a useful tool to

study its behavior and test potential changes in the design. In

the development of the PTB thin-film MJTC, the analog

models and the finite element method (FEM) have been

applied to optimize the converter geometry, with the aim

of improving its sensitivity and temperature profile to minimise the Thomson heat along the heater [6]. The CMOS

thermal converters were modelled by Jaeggi also using the

FEM [7]. In this model, Jaeggi included the Peltier effect

and anisotropic characteristics in the multilayer structures.

These models are, however, not capable of calculating the

acdc transfer difference of the device, because they cannot

two PMJTC, with the silicon obelisk underneath the heater (t 1.3 s) and

without obelisk (t 0.032 s).

the material parameters, which are crucial for the low

frequency performance.

Measurement of the ac quantities with the thermal

converters implies the transformation of the electrical

energy into thermal energy by means of the Joule heat PJ

dissipated in the heater resistor. The Joule heat flows

through the membrane with the thermal conductance G

(sum of the conduction and radiation losses) and a thermal

capacitance C, producing a temperature rise DT in the hot

junctions of the thermal element. By means of the Seebeck

effect a , this temperature rise is transformed into an output

voltage Uo. Thus, in steady state

Ui ! PJ

Ui2

PJ

! DT

! Uo aTDT:

RH T

GT

This can be depicted in a simple lumped temperaturedependent parameter model (Fig. 2).

The Joule heat oscillates with a frequency that is twice the

frequency of the input voltage. At frequencies well above

the inverse of the thermal time-constant of the converter, i.e.

the time needed by the output voltage to reach 0.63 of its

final value after a step input voltage is applied, the heat is

integrated and the temperature of the device, and thus, the

output voltage are constant, like in the dc.

On the contrary, if the period of the input voltage is large

in comparison to the thermal time-constant, the temperature

of the whole device follows the Joule heat and the output

voltage shows a double-frequency ripple on its dc voltage.

Due to the dependence of the electrical resistance, thermal conductance, and specific heat on temperature and the

high non-linear characteristic of radiation losses, an oscillation in the temperature will result in the mean value of the

heater temperature being different at ac and dc.

1157

Fig. 4. Geometry of the model. Due to its symmetry, only the solution in half the membrane is needed.

voltage by means of the Seebeck effect which in turn is

also temperature-dependant. Consequently, the mean output

voltage will, generally, differ when applying the dc and

low frequency ac inputs, leading to an acdc transfer

difference.

Due to this fact, the PMJTC shows increasing acdc

transfer differences to lower frequencies. The increase of

the time-constant by adding some thermal mass underneath

the heater (the so-called silicon obelisk) has improved the

performance of the device at low frequencies [8]. Fig. 3

shows the acdc transfer differences at low frequencies of

the two PMJTC with different thermal time-constants t . It

can be seen that increasing t shifts the high values of d to

lower frequencies.

As the main aim of this project is to improve the

performance of the device at low frequencies, we

have to find out the relation between the acdc transfer

differences at these frequencies and the temperature

dependence of the material parameters and heat transport mechanisms. To find out this relation, when the

temperature varies with the oscillating input power,

one has to consider the dynamic behavior of the device.

Hence, to determine the temperature distribution in the

PMJTC with time, the dynamic heat diffusion equation

has to be solved under the conditions imposed on its

boundaries

7k7T gx; y; z; t rc

2T

;

2t

medium in W m 1 K 1, gx; y; z; t the heat generation

rate per unit of volume in the medium in W m 3, r the

medium density in kg m 3 and c its specific heat

in J kg 1 K 1. The radiation losses from the surfaces

are evaluated according to the StefanBoltzmann law as

q 1m sAT14 Ta4 ;

different materials of the PMJTC, s the StefanBoltzmann constant, A the surface area, T1 the temperature of

the surface and Ta the external temperature. Simulations

were performed in vacuum and in air, where heat losses

by conduction in air are included as a boundary condition.

2.1. Heat generation

In Eq. (3), gx; y; z; t denotes the Joule heat generation

rate per unit of volume in the heater. Due to its particular

bifilar geometry, the electric current density j is not

uniformly distributed. Furthermore, the dependence of the

electrical resistivity r e with the temperature and the

1158

the knowledge of the electric field distribution in order to

calculate the generated Joule heat. Consequently, the Joule

heat per unit of volume in (x,y,z) should be calculated as

Tx; 0; z; t Ta

10

Tx; y5 ; z; t Ta

PJ x; y; z

E

;

re x; y; z; T

the gradient of the electric potential V, which in turn is the

solution of the Laplace equation under appropriate boundary conditions, i.e.

1

7V 0:

6

7

re x; y; z; T

Tx5 ; y; z; t Ta

(b) Neumanns bcs or bcs of the second kind: The plane of

symmetry is

2Tx; y; z

0

2x

x 0:

11

surface of the membrane

PMJTK for a particular time instant t involves the iterative

solution of Eqs. (3) and (6). Afterwards, the output voltage

can be calculated with the Seebeck coefficient a (T) of each

thermocouple for its particular temperature.

2Tx; y; z

hTx; y; z; t Ta

2z

potential relationship between the input Ui and output Uo

voltages of the type

Uo kUin ;

is between 1.97 and 2.

When we differentiate Eq. (7), and divide it by Uo

dUo

dU

n i

Uo

Ui

difference for small D Uodc Uoac as

Uodc Uoac

nUodc

Uiac Uidc :

the influence of the non-linear material parameters and the

radiation losses in the acdc transfer difference. Consequently, no thermoelectric effects, such as Thomson and

Peltier effects, were included in the model. This means

that the output voltage will be the same with the dc inputs

of both polarities. Thus, to calculate d with Eq. (9), we need

the solution of the thermoelectrically coupled problem with

the ac and dc excitations as electrical boundary conditions in

order to calculate Uoac and Uodc.

2.3. Boundary conditions

Due to the particular symmetry of the device we can solve

the coupled problem only in half of the membrane.

Hence, we have as thermal boundary conditions (see Fig.

4):

(a) Dirichlets bc or bc of the first kind: The external

z 0:

12

2Tx; y; z

hTx; y; z; t Ta

2z

13

z z3 on the thermopile;

where the heat transfer coefficient h accounts for the

conduction through air. No convection exists due to the

small distances between the PMJTC and its cover and

between the PMJTC and its carrier [9]. When we study

the thermal converter in vacuum, h is taken as zero.

The electrical boundary conditions differ when we deal

with the dc or ac input voltages.

2.3.1. Solution with dc input voltage

In this case, the boundary conditions of the first kind for

the electric field problem are (see Fig. 4)

input terminal of the heater

Ux; 0; z Udc =2;

x1 x x2 ;

14

0 y y5

15

(6)) and thermal (Eq. (3)) field problems, that is the derivative regarding time is taken as zero. Then, Uo is determined

from the temperature distribution by means of the Seebeck

coefficient aT.

2.3.2. Solution with ac input voltage

In this case the boundary conditions of the first kind for

the electric field problem must be time-dependent. A discretization of the sinusoidal input voltage is performed and a

solution for the coupled electrical and thermal problem is

found in each time step. If the input voltage ui is sinusoidal:

p

16

ui 2U sinvt

1159

Initial bc

Fig. 5. Electric potential distribution (a), Joule heat (b), and temperature

distribution (c). Due to its symmetry, only the solution in half the

membrane is needed.

p

Uik 2U sinkvDt;

17

where Dt is the chosen time step. Consequently the boundary conditions of the first kind for the electrical problem for

the time instant tk kDt, will be

input terminal of the heater

Ux; 0; z Uik =2;

x1 x x2 ;

plane of symmetry

U0; y; z 0;

18

0 y y5 :

19

steady-state solution is performed for the electric field, and

consequently for the Joule heat, in each step. This means

that no capacitive or inductive effects are included, which is

most reasonable when we limit our study to the highest

frequency of 20 Hz. For the solution of the thermal problem,

a transient solution is performed for each step, this means

the time diffusion term in Eq. (3) is included. The thermal

boundary conditions remain constant for all the time steps,

but the internal heat generation of the time step k is the Joule

heat calculated in the same step and the initial temperature

distribution of the time step k is the temperature distribution

20

first step of this iterative process provides a solution for Eq.

(6). From this, in the second step, the electric field intensity

E is derived and the Joule heat distribution PJ is calculated

using Eq. (5). In the third step Eq. (3) is solved to obtain the

temperature distribution with PJ as the internal heat generation. Fig. 5 depicts the solutions of the three steps. Due to

the temperature dependence of r e (Eq. (6), first step), and of

c, k and the heat transfer coefficient in air h, and the nonlinear characteristic of the radiation lasses (Eq. (3), third

step), the three steps should be iterated until an equilibrium

solution is reached.

As previously shown, the PMJTC under study consists of

a heater and a multilevel thermopile deposited on a dielectric sandwich membrane. We modelled the entire threedimensional structure, but to keep the number of elements

within reasonable limits, the thermopile and the membrane

were modelled as two separate homogeneous layers with an

equivalent thermal conductivity tensor, i.e. direction dependent [7]. Although, due to its small thickness, no significant

temperature variations are expected in the z-directions [6],

the membrane and the thermopile are kept as separate layers

because this simplifies the analysis of the influence of the

material and dimensional changes in the design.

The NewtonRaphson procedure is used to solve the nonlinear set of equations. Convergence is obtained when the

size of the Euclidean norm of the residual is less than 10 3

times a reference value. Each time step usually requires

between two and four iterations to converge. The convergence criterion is based on the electrical current and the heat

flow for the electrical and thermal problems, respectively.

Simulations were carried out with different number of steps

per period. A good compromise between the accuracy and

the speed was found with 20 steps. An increment does not

produce a significant change in the results, but it increases

the time required for a solution.

In Fig. 6(a) the simulated output voltage with an input

frequency of 0.1 Hz and with dc is plotted as a function of

time for a PMJTC with a thermal time-constant t of about

0.2 s. The mean value of the last cycle of the ac voltage is

also plotted. In Fig. 6(b) the same results are plotted with an

input frequency of 10 Hz, in which the effect of the thermal

integration can be observed. With ac input voltages the time

index k is incremented up to the mean value of the output

voltage Uo, for cycle n equals its mean value for cycle n 1.

3. Parameter adjustment and comparison of results with

measurements

As the thermal and electrical parameters of the different

PMJTCs can differ due to tolerance and fabrication procedures, an adjustment of the parameters for a particular

1160

temperature rise DT of the hot junctions at different ambient temperatures.

is not followed by a proportional change in the output

voltage. As the output voltage is proportional to the input

power, the power coefficient of the sensitivity can be defined

as

wSUo

Fig. 6. Output voltage with the dc and ac input voltages (t 0.2 s). (a) f

0.1 Hz (b) f 10 Hz. The difference D between the output voltage with the

dc and the mean output voltage of the last cycle in the ac is used to calculate

the acdc transfer difference (see Eq. (9)).

1 dS

:

S dUo

23

conductivities and the emissivity coefficients, we performed

steady-state simulations for the sensitivities for different

ambient temperatures and input voltages in vacuum. They

were adjusted in order to match the simulated and measured

the results of the simulations with those of the measurements. The sensitivity and the time-constant are used for

the adjusting procedure.

The sensitivity of the device S is defined as the ratio of the

output voltage Uo and its input power PJ.

S

Uo

:

PJ

21

[4]

bS

1 dS

:

S dT

22

the output voltage on the ambient temperature. This condition improves both the settling time and the standard

deviation during measurement. It leads to the corresponding

improvement of the standard measurement uncertainty. A

superimposed to the dc output voltage Uodc at different frequencies f.

1161

differences d at frequencies f. (a) PMJTC with t 27 ms (without Si

obelisk in air) (b) PMJTC with t 7.5 s (with Si obelisk in vacuum).

Fig. 10. Influence of the radiation losses on d at low frequencies in air and

in vacuum.

of this simulation with measurements are presented for a

PMJTC with a heater resistor of 184 V and a thermal

time-constant of about 7.5 s (in vacuum). These simulations

were performed using dc, this means, with steady-state solutions in which the right term of Eq. (3) is zero. Afterwards,

the heat transfer coefficient in air was adjusted in order to

match the simulated and measured vacuum factor and its

power dependence.

Afterwards the heat capacity rc of the device was

adjusted so as to approximate the amount of the ac superimposed on the dc output voltage for a particular frequency.

Fig. 8 depicts the measured and calculated percentages of

the ac ripple.

Using these adjusted parameters for a particular PMJTC,

acdc transfer differences for different types of the thermal

converters, in order to test the accuracy of the model. In Fig.

9 the results for the two PMJTC with different timeconstants t are presented.

frequencies

The developed model is used to investigate the causes and

to search a minimization of d at low frequencies. A good

example for the usefulness of this method is to study the

influence of the radiation losses. The calculations performed

with the model show that in air for a PMJTC with Si obelisk

1162

radiation losses represent 3.9% of the total thermal conductance and, consequently, 96.1% corresponds to the conduction through air and the layer materials. In vacuum, the

participation of radiation losses increases to 21.2 and

78.8% corresponds to the conduction through the layer

materials. Moreover, their influence is even greater in the

temperature coefficient b S and power coefficient q SUo of the

device. In air the absolute value of b S is reduced by 16.6%

when radiation is avoided, and in vacuum it can even change

sign. The highly non-linear characteristic of the radiation

losses explains the fact that, although they represent about

4% of the heat flow in air, they have a considerable influence on the b S and q SUo.

Fig. 10 depicts the calculated d at low frequencies with

and without radiation losses for a PMJTC with Si obelisk in

air and in vacuum. In air d decreases about 400 10 6 at

0.01 Hz. The effect is still clearer in vacuum. d is reduced to

very low values and can even reverse the sign, when radiation losses are eliminated. Therefore, an attempt is made to

reduce the radiation losses by means of the deposition of a

reflecting aluminum thin film over the silicon obelisk.

5. Conclusions

We made a dynamic non-linear thermo-electrical model

for a planar MJTC to simulate its inputoutput relation. The

model has the accuracy necessary for the calculation of the

acdc transfer differences of thin-film thermal converters at

low frequencies. It is used to investigate the causes and

search for a reduction of d at low frequencies. This reduction can be achieved by increasing the thermal timeconstant or by compensation of the power dependence of

reduction of radiation losses,

use of thermo-electric materials with appropriate

temperature coefficient of the Seebeck effect,

depositing an extra layer with appropriate temperature

coefficient of the thermal conductivity.

References

[1] T.J. Quinn, Base units of the systeme international dunites, their accuracy, dissemination and international traceability, Metrologia 31

(1995) 515527.

[2] B.D. Inglis, Standards for ACDC transfer, Metrologia 29 (1991) 191

199.

[3] M. Klonz, T. Weimann, Accurate thin-film multijunction thermal

converter on a silicon chip, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 38 (1989)

335337.

[4] T. Takeishi, Characteristics of vacuo-thermo junctions at ultra-low

frequency, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 34 (1) (1985) 3441.

[5] F.L. Hermach, Thermal converters as acdc transfer standards for

current and voltage measurements at audio frequencies, J. Res. NBS

48 (1952) 121138.

[6] U. Dillner, E. Kessler, M. Klonz, C. Thomes, Micro-machined planar

acdc multijunction thermal converter: aspects of design and layer

materials, in: H. Reichl, A. Heuberger (Eds.), MICRO SYSTEM Technologies 1994, VDE-Verlag GmbH, Berlin, 1994, pp. 773782.

[7] D. Jaeggi, Thermal converters by CMOS technology, PhD Thesis,

Physical Electronics Laboratory, ETH Zurich.

[8] M. Klonz, T. Weimann, Increasing the time-constant of a thin film

multijunction thermal converter for low frequency application, IEEE

Trans. Instrum. Meas. 40 (2) (1991) 350351.

[9] T. Elbel, Miniaturised thermoelectric radiation sensors covering a wide

range with respect to sensitivity or time constant, Sensor Actuators A

2527 (1991) 653656.

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